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Lesson Plan Title: Photo Analysis- Examining the Oka Crisis

Date: November 28, 2017

Subject: ELA 10B Grade: 10

Topic: Photo Analysis and Discussions on Social Justice Issues; Focus on the Oka Crisis

Essential Question:

- What social justice issues exist in our society; do we think that our society is one that
demonstrates equality or social injustice?

- Why is photo analysis important in today’s society? How do biases and stereotypes con-
tribute to the way the media portrays information?

Estimated duration of lesson: 65 minutes

Materials: Photos of Oka Crisis presented on projector, 9-question handout for individual re-
flection; news clip reporting on the Oka Crisis

Stage 1- Desired Results – you may use student friendly language

What do they need to understand, know, and/or able to do?
Students should be able to critically analyze photos in order to gain reflective abilities when
viewing photos in the media. After analyzing photos of the Oka Crisis they will not only understand
the events and implications that compromise this Crisis, but will be able to transfer their skills in
critical reflection to analyze media in their everyday lives. At the very least students will gain a
basic understanding of society’s biases towards FNIM issues and people groups and will have
gained practice in analyzing the provided photos.

Broad Areas of Learning:

This lesson will incorporate tenets from all three of the broad areas of learning. The application
of photo analysis to the information in today's media will encourage students to perpetuate habits
of critical reflection, and will thus contribute to the goal of Building Lifelong Learners. A Sense of
Self and Community will be integral throughout the lesson and beyond as students will be required
to reflect on pertinent social issues in today's society. Building Engaged Citizens will be the main
focus of the present lesson as it focuses on creating socially responsible citizens.

Cross-Curricular Competencies:
Developing Thinking- Students will develop knowledge about the historical events surrounding the
Oka Crisis and will examine the relationship between these historical events and today’s social
inequalities. The lesson will have students focus on applying a critical lens to different media
including photographs, interview transcripts, and news clips.

Developing Literacies- Students will be exposed to several prevalent inequalities that were
present in the historical events of the Oka Crisis and that are still present today. This will
contribute to their understanding of social injustices that are directly related to the social circles
of the students. This will contribute to the students’ social identity as they interact with society
and the world around them.

Developing Social Responsibility- Students will be challenged to identify their own beliefs and
biases as they relate to social injustices in Saskatoon and our broader world. The lesson will focus
on the social action taken in FNIM rights and respect and will be required to reflect on news clips
and photographs that portray social tension and unrest.

CR B10.1
(Saskatchewan Curriculum, 2011)
• View, listen to, read, comprehend, and respond to a variety of contemporary and traditional
texts including First Nations and Métis resources that present different viewpoints and
perspectives on issues and reflect diverse personal identities, worldviews, and backgrounds
(e.g., appearance, culture, socio-economic status, ability, age, gender, language).
• Respond personally and critically to individuals, events, and ideas presented in a variety of First
Nations, Métis, Canadian, and international texts.

PGP Goals:
- 1.2 ethical behaviour and the ability to work in a collaborative manner for the good of all
- 1.3 a commitment to social justice and the capacity to nurture an inclusive and equitable
environment for the empowerment of all learners; and
- 2.1 knowledge of Canadian History, especially in reference to Saskatchewan and Western
- 2.3 knowledge of First Nations, Metis and Inuit Culture and History (e.g., Treaties, Residential
School, Scrip, and Worldview);
- 2.4 ability to use technologies readily, strategically and appropriately
Stage 2- Assessment

Assessment FOR Learning (formative) Assess the students during the learning to help determine
next steps.

Assessment throughout the lesson will take place via class discussions. Students will be expected
to contribute to the large class discussion regarding social injustice in our city, and will also take
part in a think-pair-share activity to think of specific examples of both social equality and

Assessment OF Learning (summative) Assess the students after learning to evaluate what they
have learned.

The individual assignment given at the end of the lesson will require students to utilize the skills
in photo analysis and critical reflection that were practiced as a class throughout the lesson. The
9-question, open-ended assignment will be handed in at the end of class in order for their skills in
analysis to be assessed.
Stage 3- Learning Plan

Motivational/Anticipatory Set (introducing topic while engaging the students)

The introduction to this lesson will begin with a brief class discussion about whether or not we
think our society demonstrates equal or unequal social treatment to all people. Students with
differing opinions will be asked to justify their belief that Saskatoon is either a socially just or
unjust society. I anticipate that differences in student background and experience will contribute
to differing opinions on Saskatoon’s social standing.

Main Procedures/Strategies:

- The lesson will begin with a review of what concepts and definitions about equality have already
been discussed in class.

- Immediately following this brief review of concepts, students will perform a 5 minute quick-
write about an instance in which they have experienced, noticed, or heard about any sort of
unfair treatment or social injustice. After this quick-write students will be given the opportunity
to share their experiences with the class if they so desire.

- We will then transition to a class brainstorm to create a mind map on the whiteboard. We will
create a working class definition of what social justice and equality mean to us. Once this
definition is cohesive enough to accurately represent the definition of social justice the students
will think-pair-share. They will be asked to think of a specific example in their school or
Saskatoon as a whole in which they can identify one example of equality and one example of
social inequality.

- We will the move into a photo analysis of photographs taken from the standoff during the Oka
Crisis of 1990. A very brief explanation of the events of this Crisis will be given verbally by
myself to give the students some context for the photos without giving too much information
and affecting their opinions on the Crisis.

- We will analyze the first 2 photographs as a class as I demonstrate the main points of analysis
that should be focused on. Stereotypes, validity in sources, themes and imagery, and social
implications will be discussed as we analyze each photo.

- Once students have a comprehensive grasp of the first 2 photographs and are familiar in the
focus of our analyses I will have a third image on the screen for them to analyze individually. I
will provide 9 open-ended questions for them to answer so that they can still demonstrate what
they have learned but are not overwhelmed by the openness of the assignment.

- Students will be given roughly 10 minutes to complete and hand-in their analyses to be graded.

* A copy of the three photographs from the Oka Crisis that were analyzed in class are attached at
the bottom of this lesson plan.

Several students in the period 2 section of this course are extremely insightful and will most likely
bring well-defended opinions to the table. In order to adapt my original version of this lesson, I
have included more opportunities for these students to debate/discuss their thoughts in group
discussion. There are also several distractible students in this course who are difficult to engage.
Having a mixture of group discussion, differentiation in presentation through use of images and
news clip, and by mixing up the manner in which the students will work throughout the period I
hope to keep these distractible students moving and engaged.

The period 4 section of this class has a large group of students who are re-taking this course. After
discussing the topic of a photo analysis lesson with my partner teacher, I opted to discuss the Oka
Crisis to present new information to these repeating students.

The vast array of instructional and presentation methods throughout this lesson (including class
discussions, mind-maps, group work, partner work, individual reflection, and the presentation of
both auditory and visual information will allow the information to be relatable and interesting to a
number of students.

Closing of lesson:
After the 2 group analyses of photographs students will be required to put our analytic tools into
practice as they will be assigned a small assignment that requires critical analysis of a third
photograph. After a 10 minute block to work on these questions we will watch a news clip about
the Oka Crisis and discuss what biases or stereotypes were presented by the media clip. In my
final remarks I will challenge students to view media sources in their everyday life with the same
lens of analysis. The reality that social injustices are still present today will be emphasized once

Personal Reflection:

Overall the lesson was well-received by the grade 10 students and participation in class discussions
and photo analyses were actually higher than anticipated. It was helpful to be able to teach the
same lesson to two different grade 10 classes in the same day so I could adjust a few things in deliv-
ering the lesson the second time around.

The variety of instructional methods and differentiation in medium of material helped to keep the
students engaged. The class was able to reflect individually, discuss ideas with a partner, and con-
tribute both to class discussions and a class brainstorm. Both photographs and a news clip video were
used in the lesson which allowed students with differing learning styles/preferences to be engaged.

In hindsight I would begin the lesson with a more striking motivational set or hook at the beginning of
the lesson, as the academic definitions and discussions occupied the beginning portion of the class
period, and the interaction with visual materials occupied the second half of the lesson. While show-
ing the news clip at the end of the lesson helped to bring all of the practiced skills and concepts to-
gether, perhaps showing a clip at the beginning of the lesson would help engage the students more
actively from the get-go. Despite this reflection I did not find the students particularly disengaged in
any particular section of the lesson.

M. Wilkinson ’16 *Adapted from Understanding by Design (McTighe and Wiggins, 1998)