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We have obtained the Sponsorship on Industrial Project in the SHARADA
MOTORS by Manager Mr.Dikshit Sir. Sharada Motors is the Manufacturer of suspension,
Exhaust System, Automotive Seat Timsand assembly of front and rear axle for cars. Last
year company turnover was 1156 Cr.
Company has Two Plants in Nashik, Plant 1 and Plant 2.We got project at the
plant1 of company at Satpur. In Plant 1 Assembly, Welding Work and Inspections of
product is done. There are many Machines, Cranes and Conveyors used in this plant.
Machines like CNC, Welding Robots are used for production. Hydraulic Cranes are used for
better Material handling andconveyors are used on assembly line. Welding robots also used
for welding purpose of product.
In plant 1 of Sharda Motors already have three automatic welding robots in
working condition. But these 3 robots can not complete company requirement of products in
given time. More time was wasted for welding purpose of product. Hence management team
of company decided to increase quantity of automatic welding robots in plant. Therefore
they bought 3 new automatic welding robots PANASONIC TM 1400 in disassembles
condition. In plant 1 some space is useless. Company worker used this space to put material
trolly and other useless material.
Plant 1 manager Mr. Dikshit sir gave us a chance or task to prepare a layout for
these three new automatic welding robots. Mr. Dikshit sir told us to use our theoretical as
well as practical knowledge and gave us a layout for new robots. Mr. Dikshit told Mr.
Abhijit to help our work.
We all are met Mr. Abhijit sir and discussed with him about our project details
.Mr. Abhijit sir gave us some requirements to make a better layout. Then we meet the other
working condition welding robot operator and try to get his requirements for layout. Then
we Study the working robots already exist in company. How it works? What is it cycle time
for 1 product? How they are give input to welding robot and how get output of final product.
We discus other workers work in plant to know about his working style, his safety
precautions take for working on automatic machines, his cloths and other important factors
related to automatic machines.
Then we study our space availability. We measured the available space by
using meter tap. The available space is 17m long and 7.6m width. Then we take the robots
dimensions. Two robots having same dimensions, but 1 robot having different dimensions.
We study the all over dimensions of space available and robots, trolleys of input and output,
worker and other parts of robot and make some possibility or primary layouts of new robots.

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Sharda Motor is the market leader in manufacturing of Exhaust System,

Catalytic Converter, Independent Front Suspension, Seat Frames, Seat Covers (Two
Wheelers & Four Wheelers), Soft Top Canopies, and Pressed part - Room Air Conditioners
body etc.
Sharda Motor believes that our responsibility is to satisfy all our customers and
those who use our products and services by meeting their needs promptly and accurately by
maintaining the highest quality standards. There must be equal opportunity for development,
advancement and growth.
Sharda Motor has state of the art manufacturing facilities with continuous
focus on new product, innovation and technology upgradation, Research and development.

2.1 Plant 1:-

Fig. no. 2.1 Sharda Motor’s

This Unit has been set up with clear objective of catering to the growing
demands of automobile giant M/s. Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. We manufacture Independent
Front Suspension Systems and Exhaust for Tata Motors and Mahindra & Mahindra
The Unit is ISO 9002 & TS-16949 certified and planned to achieve 100 ppm
certification by end of financial year 2005-2006. Ours is a well equipped unit with latest
machinery and modern processing techniques such as CNC 3- axis pipe bending, PLC
controlled ROLL 'N' Spot, PLC controlled SPM for Welding, PLC controlled flange-up,

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Baffle plate and bottle pipe insertion, Stuffing with PLC Control, Seam welding and
Covering press for Catalytic Converter.

We have tremendous capacity for production of Exhaust Systems ,

Suspension systems & Catalytic Converter systems and our future plans include increasing
manufacturing volume of Exhaust Systems, assemble and supply entire Suspension Systems
for SUV "Scorpio" (M & M) and Develop and supply Exhaust System for Bolero Soft Top,
Bolero Long and Marshal BS II vehicles (M & M).

Fig. no.2.2 Sharda Motors Products

Fig no. 2.3 assemble product

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2.2 Company Problem:-

Company had problems regarding the production. They hadto be dependent

on man power for the welding purpose. Due this production was slower and less
satisfactory. More time was required for welding.

2.3 Solutions On Problem:-

For solution of this problem we discussed abut following problems
 Increasing no. of workers
 Improving the available robots
 Buy new and advanced robots

2.4 Final Solution Of Problem:-

After discussing about different possibilities we decided to buy new welding
robots. As new robots are more advanced there was less involvement for worker in
production. Due to those robots production rate also increased.

2.5 Our Project Objective:-

 We had to prepare a layout for the new bought robots
 Good space utilization
 Good material handling for worker
 Free movement for worker
 Worker safety

2.6 Company Requirements For Layout:-

 Good space utilization
 Material handling
 Worker safety

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3.1 Principles of layout

1) The principle of integration :-

According to this principle is the best layout is one that integrates men,
material, machines, services in such a way that the best compromise is obtained.

2) The principle of Minimum Movement :-

This principle is concerned with the minimum travel of men and material.
The facilities should be arranged such that thee total distances traveled by the men
and materials should be minimum and as far as possible straight line movement
should be preferred.

3) The principle of flow :-

A good layout is one that makes the materials move only in the forward
direction, towards the stage of completion without any backtracking.

4) The principle of cubic space :-

This principle makes effective usecof available space,both vertical and

5) The principle of compactness:-

The layout should be as compact as possible. More floor area should be

6) The principle of flexibility :-

A good layout is one that can be rearranged without much cost and time.
Future requirements should be taken into account while designing the present layout.

7) The principle of satisfaction and safety :-

The good layout is one that makes the plant safer foe the workmen. Also it
should safeguards the plant and machinery against fire, accidents without providing
too many doors, cages etc.

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8) The principle of minimum handling :-
All movement and handling should be kept at optimum level.

9) Visibility and accessibility :-

The principle insists on making men, machines and material easily observable
at all times, as well as it insists on making all servicing and maintenance point easily

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A good plant layout is desinged to achieve the following objectives :-

1. Economic handling of matrials and finished goods.

2. Better supervision for faster and good quality production.

3. Better utilisationof available space

4. Flexibility in change of plant design and workspace expansion.

5. Unidirectional flow of production operation.

6. Effective utilisation of men, machine and availablespace.

7. Minimization of material handling and manufacturing cycle time.

8. Flexibility for changes in manufacturing operations and for future expansion.

9. Provide workmen safety, convenience and comfort.

10. Better working condition like light, ventilation, noise control, smoke control etc.

11. Reduce material handling cost.

12. Reduce hazards to personnel.

13. Provide enough Production Capacity.

14. Increase employee moral.

15. Improve productivity.

16. Allow high machine utilization.

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Plant layout is often a compromise between a number of

factors such as:

 The need to keep distances for transfer of materials between

plant/storage units to a minimum to reduce costs and risks.
 The geographical limitations of the site.
 Interaction with existing or planned facilities on site such as
existing roadways, drainage and utilities routings.
 Interaction with other plants on site.
 The need for plant operability and maintainability.
 The need to locate hazardous materials facilities as far as
possible from site boundaries and people living in the local
 The need to prevent confinement where release of
flammable substances may occur.
 The need to provide access for emergency services.
 The need to provide emergency escape routes for on-site
 The need to provide acceptable working conditions for

The most important factors of plant layout as far as safety

aspects are concerned are those to:

 Prevent, limit and/or mitigate escalation of adjacent events

 Ensure safety within on-site occupied buildings.
 Control access of unauthorized personnel.

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1.Economics Of Handling:-
Layout should be cost effective. There should not be much time consumed
for movement of product or material.

2. Effective Use Of Available Area:-

In designing of layout less space should be occupied by the machines. Layout
should be compact. More space should be available for use of operator

3. Minimization Of Product Delay:-

There should be reduced idle time during production. Product should be ready
before sending to next machine for other operation.

4. Improved Quality Control:-

Quality control produces best results. It satisfies the customers. Better quality
of product gives recognition to the manufacturer.

5. Minimum Equipment investment:-

Due to better layout less equipments are used. This reduces the cost.
manufacturing cost reduces.Less area required for placing of equipments

6. Better Production Control:-

Good layout gives better control over production time, production process,
Access to available floor area.

7.Improve Employee Moral:-

Good layout provides better cleanliness. Due to good surrounding Employee

moral stays high. This helps in production.

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Plant layout is a mechanism which involves knowledge of the space requirements for
the facilities and also involves their proper arrangement so that continuous and steady
movement of the production cycle takes place.
Moore, a very well known name in the business world, explained plant layout as,”
The plan of or the act of planning, an optimum arrangement of facilities, including
personnel, operating equipment, storage space, materials handling equipment and all other
supporting services along with the design of the best structure to accommodate these
The problems related to plant layout are generally observed because of the various
developments that occur. These developments generally include adoption of the new
standards of safety, changes in the design of the product, decision to set up a new plant,
introducing a new product, withdrawing the various obsolete facilities etc.

7.1 The basic principles of plant layout are as follows:

The total movement of material should be minimum. For this, one has to consider
the movement distances between different work areas as well as the number of times such
movements occur per unit period of time.
The arrangement of the work area should have as much congruence as possible
with the flow of materials within the plant (form the stage of raw materials to the stage of
finished goods.The stages at which value is added to the product and the sequence of the
work areas should correspond with each other, as much as possible.In effect, there should be
no back-tracking and very little interruption in the flow of the product from the raw materials
stage to the finished product..The layout should ensure adequate safety and satisfactory
working conditions for the employees.
A good layout should take into consideration all the three dimensions of space
available. In addition to the floor space, the vertical space available should also be taken into
account while designing the work areas.The layout should be adaptable or flexible enough to
allow for probable changes in the future as all systems should anticipate changes in the
A good layout has to satisfy, therefore, the availability of space, the size and work
area requirements of machinery and other utilities, the flow direction, type and number of
movements of the materials, the men working in the plant, and also the future anticipated

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The basic flow pattern types that are employed in designing the layouts are I-Flow, L-Flow,
U-Flow, O-Flow, S-Flow.

The specialties of different flows are :

I – Type Separate Receiving and shipping area
L – Type Adopted, when straight line flow could not be accommodated.
U – Type Popular, combination of Receiving and Shipping at one end
O – Type Adopted when it is required to terminal the flow nearer to the origin
S – Type When the production line in long and Zig Zaging on the production floor is

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1. Process layout :-
These layouts are also called the functional layouts and are very suitable in the
conditions, when the products being prepared are non – standard or involve wide variations
in times of processing of the individual operations.
Such layouts are able to make better utilization of the equipment that is
available, with greater flexibility in allocation of work to the equipment and also to the
workers. Imbalance caused in one section is not allowed to affect the working of the other

2. Product layout:-
These layouts are also known as the line layouts or the layout by sequence. In
such layouts, the manufacturing cycle is small with minimum material handling. The space
required is small and quality control is easy to exercise.

3. Project layout:-
Such layouts are also referred to as the fixed position layouts. In these
layouts, the components, heavy materials, sub assemblies – all remain fixed at one place and
the job is completed by movement of machines, men and tools to the location of the

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The stage of production process which includes a repetititve assembly of highly

standardized products. When a production operation uses a product layout, production work
can be layout in a linear line with subdivided labor and technology in a smooth line.
Product layout is one of the three basic production and manufacturing plant layouts.
In this design, the layout of equipment and processes in the workstations are distributed
around the needs of the end product. Each station is given a small task to complete in a
certain sequence. When this task is completed, the work piece is passed on to the next
workstation in the sequence for further assembly.
In a manufacturing assembly line set up, the work pieces in this design travel past the
individual workstations on a conveyor. As the individual workstations are passed, the worker
at the station completes a small task, such as adding a sticker or tightening a bolt. As these
jobs are completed in turn, the completed product begins to form
The design used in product layout differs from process layout and fixed-position
layout in that the assembly line is arranged in a logical order of assembly. In some cases, this
simple manufacturing layout is realized as a single manufacturing line with various
workstations. The product layout design may be further broken down into smaller module
lines which use several processes to complete one group task. For example, an auto
manufacturer may have an assembly line module in which the car body is cleaned, primed,
and painted in a single area of the plant, rather than being moved to three different

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The overall layout design procedure has four phases.

They are :

Phase I : Location
Phase II : General Overall Layout
Phase III : Detailed layout
Phase IV : Implementation

10.1 The systematic procedure involves the following steps:

a. Data input and activities

b. Preparation of flow of materials

c. Activity (Precedence – Succeedence ) relationship

d. Plan of material handling

e. Relationship diagram preparation using steps : a to d

f. Calculation of space requirements

g. Identification of availability of space

h. Space Relationship Diagram preparation, using steps: e. f and g.

j. Modifying consideration

k. Practical Limitations

l. Develop Layout alternative, using steps: h, i and j

m. Evaluation of alternative

n. Selection of the best layout

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Fig. no. 11.1 Company plant layout

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We make some possibilities of layout according company requirements and other

factors consideration for a make good and comfort layout for 3 automatic welding robots
placed in sharda motors Pvt.Ltd.

Fig. no. 12.1 Layout 1


 More space was available to worker for his working.

 Reduced lead time of final product.
 Increase rate of production.
 Freely and easy movement of work piece.
 Increase worker safety and satisfaction.


 Small difficulty in material flow.

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Fig. no 12.2 Layout 2

 Good space saving.
 Comfort material handling

 Difficulty in supervision.
 Working space is less.

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Fig. no. 12.3 Layout 3

 Better working space.
 Better flexibility.

 Difficulty in supervision.
 Unuse space is more.

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Fig. no. 12.4 Layout 4

 More working space.

 Unused space is more.
 Difficulty in material handling.

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Fig. no. 12.5 Layout 5

 More space saving.
 Well raw material handling.

 Less flexibility.
 Accident chances is more.

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Fig. no. 12.6 Layout 6

 Good space for working.

 Space utilization is less.
 Supervision is difficult.
 Unused space is more.

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Fig. no. 12.7 Layout 7

 More space available.
 Good supervision.

 Some space get unused.
 Worker Safety is less.
 Flexibility is less.

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Fig. no. 12.8 Layout 8

 Worker safety is more.
 Good Space saving.

 Less flexibility.
 Accident chances is more.
 Complicated material handling.

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12.1 Marking Chart For Possibility Layouts:-

12.1.1 Parameters Considers:-

1. Space Saving

2.Material Handling

3.Distance Travel by The Material


5.Worker Safty

6.Superviser Inspection To Worker

7.Unuse Space

8.Accident Chances

12.1.2 Marks Chart :-

Table no. 12.1 Marks chart for layouts

Layouts 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

1 9 7 6 6 5 5 7 8
2 8 8 7 5 7 4 8 7
3 8 8 8 5 8 6 5 7
4 9 6 5 7 6 5 7 8
5 9 7 7 8 5 4 6 6
6 10 8 8 6 6 8 7 5
7 9 5 8 6 7 7 4 5
8 8 4 5 4 6 5 6 7

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Fig no.13.1 Panasonic TM 1400


Structure 6 Axis

Max. Payload 4kg

Repeatability +/- 0,08 mm

RT 225°/s
UA 225°/s
FA 225°/s
Axis Speed
RW 425°/s
BW 425°/s
TW 629º/s

Axis motion system Servomotor

Maximum reachable working Area 1413 mm

Minimum reachable working Area 404 mm

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For better materil handling need good material handling devices. Sharda motors
use trolleys for material handling ,but new robot workpiece is change in its dimensions.
Hence we need design new trolleys for new robots raw material and finish products.

Fig. no. 14.1 Trolley for finish product

Material handling (MH) involves “short-distance movement that usually takes

place within the confines of a building such as a plant or a warehouse and between a
building and a transportation agency.”1 It can be used to create “time and place utility”
through the handling, storage, and control of material, as distinct from manufacturing

Fig. no 13.3 Trolley Design

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Fig. no. 13.2 Trolley for raw material


Fig. no 15.1 Final layout drawing

This is the final layout for automatic welding robots. it is selected by the
company management. its the more space utilizing, give more working space for worker and
more worker safety.In this layout material handling Is very good and easy. Inpection and
supervision on working is simple. Chances of accidents is reduces by using pneumatic
operating doors for robots cells.

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15.1 After placing the robots with cell :-

Fig no. 15.2 Robot cell at company

This is the photo of automatic welding robot Panasonic TM1400 placed at the
company on the basis of selected layout

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 More space was available to worker for his working.

 Reduced lead time of final product.
 Increase rate of production.
 Freely and easy movement of work piece.
 More working space was available.
 Use of useless space.
 Increase worker safety and satisfaction.

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17.1 Difficulties In Projects

 Difficulty in measurement:-
Company use given space for put raw material and trolley hence we .
 Difficulty to getting company requirements:-
We want communicates with the worker for desccus the problems facing
on working condition.but they are besy in its work.
 Layout generation:-
For drawing the possibility layouts more time is required.
 Required more numbers of possibility layout making:-
We found Many Drawbacks in layouts. So it is very difficult to reducing
the drawback and make new layout.
 Lack of information:-
Less knowledge about layout preparation.
 Material handling:-
The finish products of new layout is change in its dimensions hence we
facing the material handling problem.

17.2 Solutions On Difficulties

 We takes measurements of robot cell in disassembly condition.

 We aks worker and get appointment for some time.
 We used new method for prepare a layout.
 Creats more possibilities of layout.
 We used reffreance books, websites, pdfs to getting information.
 We suggest new design for material handling trolley to the company for better
material handling.

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Company Requirements:-
company required good space utilization, no waste of space, easy movement for
operator, good layout for high productivity
Space Availability:-
space for layout is 17M x 7.6M. This was the available space for adjusting three
welding robots

Available Time:- 1 month

Cost Analysis :- transportation cost, material and instruments cost, etc.
Total expenditure :- 1000 /-

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Prof. P.P.Bhirud,
Mechanical engineering department
K.V.N.Naik Polytechni,Nashik

Sinear Production Manager,
Sharda Motors. Pvt.Ltd.

Mr. Pawar
Assistance Maintainance Manager ,
Sharda Motors. Pvt.Ltd.

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Our project was to prepare a layot for automatic welding robots in SHARDA
MOTORS company. We had to prepare different possibilities of layout. For that we studied
diferent layouts possible to prepare. We considered different parameters like space available,
material handling, worker safety.
We studied different types of layouts and their disadvantages. And discussed those
with the company manager. Then we discussed about the best layout and chose it for the
establishment of the robots.
We learnt in this about the robots, layouts, time management, different processes
used in company for production.

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 N.S. Salunke-Production Engineering & Robotics- Techmax Publication

 http.//www. to prepar layout production layout
 http.// www. Google. Com /how to prepar layout production layout
 Company manual

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