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SENIOR 1

S Y 2000 - 2 0 0 1 V o l . 20 N o . 1

C O N T E N T S
REACHING FOR THE STARS
ib er s,
Can we possibly visit our neighboring galaxies? De ar BB su bs cr
ma ki ng
ma ga zin e is
Ba to Ba la ni rit e ma ga zin e.
to yo ur fa vo
so me ch an ge s w se cti on called
ges is a ne
Among the chan sc ie nt ifi c
.” It de al s wi th
THE SPACE SHUTTLE: DEPLOYING A “P se ud os ci en ce sc on ce pt io ns th at
an d mi
SATELLITE PAYLOAD no tio ns , my th s, so , we ha ve
at on e tim e. Al
The U.S. Space Shuttle happens to be an intrepid we re po pu la r er wo rld ” se ct io n to
“C yb
space truck. ex pa nd ed ou r se ct io n.
lin ke d ac tiv ity
in cl ud e a we b-
ll help
ese changes wi
We hope that th mo re re le va nt
nc e stu di es
ON TARGET: THE STEALTH AIRPLANE ma ke yo ur sc ie y!
How do you turn an entire plane invisible? En jo
an d mo re fu n!

Th e Ed ito r

TWISTING IRON
Riding in a roller coaster is exciting. And
understanding the forces that governs its travel as
it glides along the rail may create more excitement.

R E G U L A R F E AT U R E S BOARD OF ADVISERS

3 Science & Technology News Violeta Arciaga, Jaime F. Bucoy


Jose C. Calderon, Victoria V. Cervantes,
5 Filipino Scientists and Inventors
Juanita M. Cruz, Belen P. Dayauon
Medical Facts and Fallacies CONSULTANT
9 Livelihood Technology / I’d Like to Know Merle C. Tan, Ph.D.

10 Cyber World DIWA OFFICERS EDITORIAL BOARD


Saturnino G. Belen Jr. President Lourdes F. Lozano Executive Editor
14 Earth Care
Amada J. Javellana Executive Vice President William S. Fernando Managing Editor
16 Investigatory Projects
Enrique A. Caballero,Reynaldo M. de la Cruz, Alvin Fl. Julian Magazine Editor
19 Pseudoscience Carlo F. De Leon,William S. Fernando, Virgie B. Naigan Art Director

23 More Activities To Do Jose Maria T. Policarpio, Elma L. Ropeta, SilvanoC. Santiago Cover Design
Lourdes F. Lozano Vice Presidents Jose Valeriano P. Linay Layout Design
24 Mind Games
Jun Mediavillo Illustrator
O
R
BATO BALANI for Science and Technology is published bimonthly by Diwa Scholastic Press, Inc. Bato Balani is one of Diwa’s Scholastics Enhancement Materials (SEMO). The SEMO
R R

trademark refers to a new genre of scholastic publication, comprising a selection of premium - quality magazines for greater learning. All rights reserved. All articles in this publication may be reprinted provided
due acknowledgement is given. All communications should be addressed to THE PRODUCT MANAGER, G/F Star Centrum, Gil Puyat Ave., Makati City,Philippines, Telephone numbers 843-4761 to 66.

2 SENIOR
Jurassic Spark:
Electronic wizardry to
I
T’S NOT QUITE Jurassic Park, but
it’s getting there.

Engineers on a Europe-wide project


are developing life-size robotic dinosaurs
bring dinosaurs back to life
that will walk around museums, chew on aluminum. Its movements “We’ve got three in each leg,” he says. The
plants and interact with visitors as if they are based on what is actuators are controlled by their own
had just stepped off the prehistoric plains. known from microprocessors, which are linked to the
The designers want each 3.5-metre-long, iguanodon fossils central processor that controls the beast. A
80-kilogram robotic iguanodon to be and studies of two-metre-long prototype has already been
autonomous, making its own decisions modern animals. completed.
about where to go and what to do. It will “A real dinosaur The robot is being funded by the
approach inquisitive visitors, stare at them, has hundreds of European Union as part of a
and even rear up on its back legs to browse muscles,” says project to liven up museums.
on the nearest potted palm tree. zoologist R. McNeill The designers hope to
“Usually you have to walk to museum Alexander of Leeds complete a full-size
exhibits. In this case the exhibit walks to University, a scientific version by 2001.
you,” says designer Vassilios Papantoniou, adviser to the project. “So
who works for the European Association we’ve had to
for Research in Legged Robots in Lamia, compromise.” The European
Association for
Greece. major muscles are Research in
The robot will be built from replicated using Legged Robots
composite resins and aviation-grade battery-powered actuators.

Which Came First:


Black Hole Or Galaxy?
A
TLANTA—A team of astronomers conducting a of black holes are the dominant sources of heat and kinetic energy for
systematic search for supermassive black holes star-forming gas in protogalaxies.”
has discovered three more of the mysterious Richstone says the team’s conclusions are inferred from two
objects lurking in the centers of nearby elliptical pieces of evidence. First, all or nearly all galaxies with spheroidal
galaxies. This brings the total number of distributions of stars (bulges in spirals) seem to have massive black
supermassive black holes definitively identified so far to 20. The holes. The mass of these objects seems to correlate with the mass of
discovery was announced at a news conference held during the the central part of the host galaxy. “The ubiquity of this association,
American Astronomical Society Meeting. as well as the correlation, points to a connection between the massive
“The formation and evolution of galaxies is intimately black hole and the galaxy, and poses a ‘chicken and egg’ dilemma of
connected to the presence of a central massive black hole,” said which came first,” Richstone said.
Douglas Richstone, Second, comparisons of the history of star formation in the
leader of the research universe with the history of quasars, conducted by other scientists,
team and a University reveal that quasars developed well before most star formation in
of Michigan professor galaxies. Quasars are extremely powerful bright objects capable of
of astronomy. generating the luminosity of one trillion suns within a region the size
“Radiation and high- of Mars’ orbit.
energy particles University of Michigan
released by the
formation and growth

SENIOR 3
Nomad Robot Finds
Meteorites in Antarctica
P
ITTSBURGH—Carnegie the field, has concluded that five of the seven initiative. “The robot correctly classified
Mellon University’s Nomad are meteorites. The other two raise enough three other indigenous meteorites and
robot, which conducted an questions about their composition to merit misclassified one as terrestrial rock. Nomad
autonomous search for further study. ANSMET is housed at Case achieved these results autonomously and
meteorites in Antarctica from Western Reserve University in Cleveland. without any prior knowledge about the
Jan. 20-30, has successfully completed its Meteorites are curated at the Johnson Space samples.”
mission, examining more than 100 Flight Center in Houston and made available Most of the chondrites that Nomad
indigenous rocks, studying about 50 in detail to scientists around the world. found are relatively common types,
and classifying seven specimens as “Nomad has found and correctly composed mainly of rock with small
meteorites. classified three indigenous meteorites in- metallic infusions that probably originated
An expert from the National Science situ,” said Dimitrios Apostolopolous, a from asteroids. One achondrite meteorite
Foundation’s Antarctic Search for Meteorites systems scientist at Carnegie Mellon’s which Nomad classified as interesting is so
(ANSMET) program, who collected the Robotics Institute and project manager of rare that the robot didn’t have the data in its
specimens after Nomad identified them in the Robotic Antarctic Meteorite Search base to make a determination.
Carnegie Mellon University

Tracking Weather from the Sky


U
sing a technique called neutral
atom imaging from a satellite
high above the North Pole,
researchers at the Department
of Energy’s Los Alamos National of the Los Alamos Space and Atmospheric storms were made up of smaller
Laboratory are Sciences group and Mike Henderson of Los “substorms” which occur more frequently
developing pictures of Alamos’ Space and Remote Sensing and in isolation. But more recently scientists
the magnetosphere, an Sciences group devised a way to take rough, have found that storms and substorms are
invisible magnetic low-resolution satellite data and create more related — but distinctly different —
layer around the Earth. informative composite images of the solar- phenomena. This is similar to discovering
These pictures will be wind-driven particles trapped in the that hurricanes and thunderstorms are
essential to a better magnetosphere. related, but that a hurricane is not just a
understanding of the Used as still pictures or animated for cluster of thunderstorms or a larger, more
“weather” in space, time-lapse movies, their pictures show the intense thunderstorm.
where a blast of solar ebb and flow of these particles as they near Future missions to the
wind particles can the earth and are drawn around and down magnetosphere will carry dedicated, Los
knock out a the magnetic field lines. These images are Alamos-designed, neutral atom imaging
multimillion-dollar especially critical for understanding the instruments. These include NASA’s IMAGE
satellite. progress and structure of a space mission and TWINS, which will provide
Developing phenomenon called geomagnetic storms. the first stereoscopic images of the
what he calls “weather Geomagnetic storms are the space magnetosphere.
maps for the radiation equivalent of hurricanes in the Atlantic. For Los Alamos National Laboratory -
belts,” Geoff Reeves years scientists believed that geomagnetic University of California

4 SENIOR
Dr. Julian Banzon Nuclear Chemist

D
r. Julian Banzon is a He came back to UPLB in 1963, professional and scientific organizations
man who dedicated and stayed there as chairman of the attest to his eminent stature as a chemist
himself to the study Department of Agricultural Chemistry for and academician.
and applications of seven years.
The science community is the
chemistry. At age 23,
The numerous awards, plaque, and richer for scientists like Dr. Banzon. The
he was already a noted professor at the
citations that Dr. Banzon received are younger generation is indeed blessed with
University of the Philippines in Los
testimony to his achievements as a the research finds and intellectual depth of
Baños. In 1957, he held the position of
scientist. The books and journal articles he Dr. Banzon.
chief scientist at the Philippine Atomic
had written prove his ability as a Source : Saplala, Vivas, and
Energy Commission (PAEC). Thereafter,
researcher and teacher. His active Zafaralla. 1984. Profiles: Men and Women
he became the first director of the of UPLB, College, Laguna: University of
participation in local and international
Philippine Atomic Research Center the Philippines-Los Baños, Laguna.
conferences, as well as his membership in
(PARC).

RABIES sent to a veterinary clinic for observation.


is found to be healthy, no immunization is
necessary.

Fallacy: One needs to submit The animal is kept in a place where


veterinarians can determine
In case the animal cannot be found,
then the injection should be given as a
to rabies vaccination whenever a dog
whether or not it develops safeguard. We cannot take any chances that
scratches or bites him.
rabies. If the animal rabies may develop as it has a very high
mortality rate.
Fact: The common practice
The affected area, whether it was
whenever a person is scratched or bitten
by a dog is to have anti-rabies shots. broken or not, should be washed thoroughly
Actually, the injection is for any with soap and water. The washing should
animal suspected of being rabid such last for approximately 10 to 20 minutes.
as cat, fox, rat or even rabbit. A rabid The rabies immunization vaccine is
animal is one afflicted with rabies. very effective against rabies. There is no
An anti-rabies injection is not danger of harmful side effects if somebody
always given whenever an animal is given the rabies vaccine even if the animal
bites a person. The animal is first in question does not develop rabies.

SENIOR 5
P H Y S I C S

A
ssuming that the stars you see in the sky
on a clear night were reduced into the size
of the grains of sand, you can actually
hold them all in the palm of your hand.
However, the stars you see with your naked eye is
just a tiny fraction of the stars that are in the universe.
Scientists believe that the number of stars in the
Cosmos is more than all the grains of sand on all the
beaches of the world.

The universe is so unimaginably huge beyond


compare that most of it is empty of stars. Because of
the great distances that separate us from neighboring
stars, it will take years, even for light, to cross the
interstellar space. For instance, the nearest star
system to our Sun is Alpha Centauri with a distance
of 4.35 light-years (a light-year is the distance light
travels in a year, about 9.5 trillion kilometers). This
means light will take 4.35 years, as measured in our
time, to reach us. For light, however, time stands still.

The great void seems to put a clamp on man’s


dream to reach the stars. Moreover, Einstein’s special
theory of relativity puts a limit to the speed a material
object can attain — at lightspeed of 299,792,458
meters per second. But we have evolved with a brain
that possesses unlimited capacities to go around
what Nature has imposed upon us.

Travelling at or near the speed of light produces


paradoxes that run counter to common sense.
According to the special theory of relativity, light
travels at a constant velocity whether the source
is moving or not. This means you just cannot
add your speed to the speed of light.
Otherwise, you could attain any speed you want
by hitchhiking on a fast-moving mother vehicle.

Another rule codified by Einstein in his special


theory of relativity is that the laws of Nature must be
applicable to everybody anywhere in the universe.
This means that there is no fixed frame of reference

6 SENIOR
from which to view the universe. Everything is At 92 percent lightspeed, you will age at a rate
relative, depending on his position with respect to only one-third of the rest of the universe. To an
another. Hence, the name relativity. No one can outside observer, the spaceship would appear to have
travel at, or faster than, the speed of light. Nothing in shrunk to less than half of its original length, and
physics, however, prevents you from traveling as would seem three times as massive, meaning three
close to the speed of light as you like, say at 99.99 times as resistant to acceleration. And from your
percent lightspeed. point of view, the entire universe is being compressed
ahead of the spaceship into a dome that occupies
Can we travel close to lightspeed? Let’s make
only one-third of the sky.
a Gedanken experiment (a thought experiment, like
what scientists do, including Einstein, when trying to Now as the spaceship accelerates further up to
explain the consequences of the relativity theory). lightspeed, to outside observers, the spaceship
Imagine that you hitch a ride in a futuristic spaceship appears to have no length at all (infinite
that could accelerate up to lightspeed. As the compression). Of course, the power required
spaceship gains speed, you begin to see around the demands infinite energy, which the spaceship could
corners of passing objects. You are facing forward in never have. At lightspeed, you and your companion
the direction of motion but things behind you appear including the spaceship, cease aging altogether. You
within your forward field of vision. will traverse the length and width and breadth of the
universe in an instant.
From the standpoint of a stationary observer,
you appear red when you depart because light These strange things happen because our
reflected off you is shifted to the red portion of the familiar ideas of space and time are no longer valid
spectrum, and you appear blue when you return, a when you approach lightspeed. Speed is distance
process that could be explained by the Doppler divided by time and since you cannot simply add
effect. If you approach the observer at almost the speeds near the velocity of light, space and time
speed of light, you will return shining brightly — your must change. That is why you shrink and you hardly
invisible infrared spectrum will be shifted to the age at all.
visible wavelengths. The observer will see that you
But in terms of practical engineering, is it
become compressed in the direction of motion, that
possible to travel close to the speed of light? Can we
your mass increases, and that your time slows down
build a kind of ‘lightship’ based on theories and
— a consequence called time dilation. But from the
principles we have today?
standpoint of the persons you are travelling with
inside the spaceship, neither of these effects occurs Most of the time, revolutionary ideas are far
to you. advanced for technology to catch up to. For instance,
in 1939, the British Interplanetary Society designed a
But really, how close can we accelerate up to
rocketship whose objective was to take people to the
lightspeed in practical terms? Dr. Charles Pellegrino
Moon — using the technology of the 40s. However, it
has an answer. In his book “Flying to Valhalla,” Dr.
was only three decades later that the Moon mission
Pellegrino proposed a 92 percent lightspeed for his
was accomplished by Apollo 11 in 1969.
particular spaceship. Why 92 percent lightspeed?
According to him, 92 percent lightspeed is a realistic Today, we have preliminary designs for
velocity to aim for. starships whose ultimate design objective is to take

SENIOR 7
○ ○ ○ ○ ○
P
○ ○ ○
H
○ ○ ○ ○
Y
○ ○ ○ ○
S
○ ○ ○
I
○ ○ ○
C
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S
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us to the stars. One of these is Orion, a design that


calls for explosions of hydrogen bombs against an
inertial plate as a means of propulsion. The Orion
spacecraft seems practical from an engineering point
of view, but will produce vast quantities of radioactive
debris. Another design is Daedalus, using a nuclear
fusion reactor, assuming we could develop a fusion If you travel with the Valkyrie, the long space
engine in the next few decades. Orion and Daedalus voyage from the Solar System to Alpha Centauri will
might travel at 10 percent light speed. A trip to Alpha take less than two years. With the Bussard
Centauri then would take 43 years, less than a human spacecraft, a trip to the center of the Milky Way
lifetime. Such designs, however, could not travel close would take you 21 years. Of course, people on Earth
enough to lightspeed for time dilation to become would measure an elapsed time of 30,000 years.
important.
From the point of view of the travellers,
For voyages beyond the nearest stars, relativistic flight is surely a one-way ticket to eternity.
starships with velocity approaching the speed of light
are in principle possible, though it would take our
technology thousands of years to catch up with the
ideas. An example of an interstellar starship is the
Bussard ramjet. The Bussard spaceship will have a
gigantic scoop to collect diffused matter in space
(mostly hydrogen atoms), and accelerate it into a
1. Why is an antimatter spaceship suitable for
fusion engine, then eject it out. travelling close to lightspeed?
Dr. Pellegrino has made feasibility studies for 2. From your own perspective, what happens to the
a starship that could reach 92 percent lightspeed. His universe if you can travel at lightspeed?
design is an antimatter spaceship (he calls it the 3. Why is 92 percent lightspeed significant from an
Valkyrie) that uses antihydrogen as a propellant. engineering point of view?

Antimatter is so far the ultimate fuel for propulsion


because one hundred percent of the mass of matter
and antimatter is converted to pure energy. (In
Doppler Effect – an apparent change in the frequency of
contrast, only one percent of the matter in a hydrogen sound, light, or radio waves reaching an observer when
bomb is converted to energy during explosion.) the wave source and the observer are in motion relative
to one another.
Ninety-two percent lightspeed is chosen Interstellar space – the space between stars.
because, according to Dr. Pellegrino, at speeds
Thought experiment – a fictitious story used to illustrate a
higher than this, particles of dust impacting against scientific principle.
the spaceship will explode like large hand grenades.
REFERENCES
Furthermore, the amount of fuel required to accelerate
from 92 to a higher speed, say 95 percent lightspeed, Pellegrino, Charles. 1993. Flying to Valhalla. New York: Avon
is twice as much as the acceleration from 0 to 92 Books.

percent. Sagan, Carl. 1980. Cosmos. New York: Ballantine Books,


Random House, Inc.

8 SENIOR
Q:How fast is supersonic transport?
Imagine yourself travelling
faster than the speed of
sound. That is how fast
supersonic transport is!

A:
Travelling at speeds faster than sound is referred to as Glisa F. Sanchez
Angeles University
supersonic flight, from the terms super (meaning “over” or Foundation
Angeles City
“above”) and sonic (relating to sound waves). As compared to
sound waves that travels at about 1,220 kilometres per hour through air
at sea level, supersonic aircrafts can travel from one to five times the
speed of sound!

Gulaman
Bars
G
ulaman Bars are processed substance from agar Procedure:
dhiella seaweeds. Used in different recipes, they 1. Gather the seaweeds and rinse them in clean water.
are especially prepared for delightful desserts. 2. Dry them under the sun and soak overnight in clean water.
People who live by the sea process gulaman 3. Add three litres of water and one teaspoon of acetic acid or
bars as a small- or medium-scale industry. You can vinegar for every 100 grams of seaweeds.
prepare your own gulaman bars just like the experts by following 4. Boil the mixture for one hour and filter it through a cheesecloth.
this simple procedure. 5. Boil again and repeat the same procedure to maximize gelatin
extraction.
Ingredients:
6. Pour the collected substance called agar on aluminum molds
seaweeds 20 cm long and four cm deep. Allow the agar to solidify at room
temperature.
acetic acid or vinegar, 7. Cut into four cm wide bars and put inside a freezer for five days.
water 8. Thaw the bars in running water and dry them under the sun.

SENIOR 9
A
good computer programs starts from As a convention, a flowchart begins on top
a good design. One way of designing of the page and the end of the program is placed
a program is by using a method at the bottom of the page. You need not know
called flowcharting. Flowcharting is a programming code to flowchart. Simply use
method of showing the flow of a ordinary language first and as you grow into
program using symbols. If the flowchart is designed programming you will learn to use actual
properly, then it becomes very easy to create the computer codes in your flowchart. For now it is
program code. Below are some conventional symbols sufficient to use simple words (See the sample
used for flowcharting. flowcharts).

The rectangle represents an action, computation or process that


Process Box needs to take place.

Input/Output The parallelogram is used when a value has to be entered or


Box (I/O Box) something has to be displayed on screen.

Decision Box The diamond is used to signify that a decision has to be made.
Each decision can have only two possible outcomes, true or false.

Flowlines These arrows point in the direction of the next action to be performed.
Think of these as directional signs that point you in the right way.

Connectors These circles indicate a “jump” in the program. Sometimes your


program needs to jump to another part of the flowchart.

Terminal These ovals will signify the beginning or end of the program. Simply
Symbol write START or END inside the oval.

10 SENIOR
www.batobalani.com
START START
Would you like to become
Enter
Interactive?
2 nos.X,Y Input A,B

B
atobalani magazine is now on the internet. In the
Batobalani website are archives of current and past
X+Y=Z SUM = A + B
issues as well as a variety of activities and additional
topics for the inquisitive student of science. In
subsequent issues of the magazine, we will discuss the
different activities we have prepared for you.
Display C Print SUM One useful feature in the website is a feedback or
response page. This allows you to send us your comments
and even contribute your own article. By simply typing it in or
END
pasting it on the dialogue box.
END
You will need to have a computer unit with a modem and
a valid account with any authorized internet service provider
(ISP) such as Mozcom, Infocom, Philonline, or any other ISPs.
To write us, simply follow these steps:
1). On your computer, open up an internet browser
program. For most of you, this would be Microsoft’s Internet
These are two flowcharts for Explorer or Netscape’ Navigator’s program. Make sure you are
connected to your Internet Service Provider.
the same program. The flowchart on
2). On the address window of your browser program, type
the left uses plain English to www.batobalani.com, then hit the “enter” key.
3). You will see Batobalani’s homepage on your screen.
explain what the program will do.
Also, you will see a menu of sections you can go to on the
The flowchart on the right uses lower right side of the screen. Choose “Feedback” and click
the left button of your mouse.
actual programming code from
4). The feedback page will show you different boxes for
BASIC* to show what the program you to fill in. Go ahead and fill the information. You may skip
the items that you cannot fill up. Then on the Message box,
will do. Try to understand both
type in your message or your opinion or even a simple “hello.”
flowcharts. Can you guess what the 5). Once you’re finished with your message, hit the
“send” button by clicking the left button of your mouse. Presto!
program does?
You’ve sent us your message.
There are many other interesting things you can do
*Beginners All-purpose
inside Batobalani’s website. Feel free to explore. If you have
Symbolic Instruction Code (BASIC) questions or need further instructions, why don’t you try
sending it to us using the feedback page. We hope to hear
from you soon!
WSF

SENIOR 11
A
n artificial satellite is any object placed into
orbit around the earth and used for a variety
of scientific and technological purposes.
The former Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics (USSR) launched the first artificial
satellite, Sputnik 1, on October 4, 1957. The first United
States satellite, Explorer 1, was launched on January
31, 1958, and was instrumental in the discovery of the
radiation belts around the earth.
orbit. At such velocity, the orbit becomes circular, and
In the years that followed, several thousand
at higher velocities, the orbit becomes elliptical until
satellites were launched, monopolized by the United
escape velocity is reached. Then, the orbit becomes
States and the former USSR in a battle for space
parabolic. (Escape velocity is thus also known as
supremacy until 1983, when the European Space
parabolic velocity).
Agency began launching from a space center in French
The escape velocity of an object from a spherical
Guiana. On August 27, 1989, for the first time in
astronomical body (like the Earth) is proportional to the
aerospace history, a privately owned rocket was used
square root of the mass of the body divided by the
to launch a satellite. The rocket, built and launched by
distance between the object and the center of the body.
a U.S. company, placed a British television broadcasting
A space shuttle designed to leave the earth as a
satellite into geosynchronous orbit.
vertically launched rocket must weigh at least 2 million
Satellites are usually placed into orbit by
kg with 3 million kg of thrust from its multiple propulsion
multistage rockets. In part to reduce satellite launching
systems.
costs, the National Aeronautics and Space
The two solid rocket boosters (SRBs), with a
Administration (NASA)
combined thrust of some 2.6 million kg, will provide most
uses the space shuttle to
of the power for the first two minutes of flight. The SRBs
carry satellites in its cargo
will take the space shuttle to an altitude of 45 km and a
bay and launch them into
speed of 4973 km/hr before they separate and fall back
orbit.
The minimum initial
velocity required for an
object to escape the
gravitational pull of an
astronomical body, and to
continue traveling away from
it without the use of
propulsive machinery is
called escape velocity. The
escape velocity is usually
given in terms of the
surface-launch velocity, disregarding aerodynamic
friction. Objects traveling at less than 0.71 × 11.2 km/s
(the escape velocity of Earth) cannot achieve a stable

12 SENIOR
Jerard F. Beltran

three main engines. During launch, the external tank


also acts as a support for the orbiter and SRBs to which
it is attached. Made from aluminum alloys, the space
into the ocean to be retrieved, refurbished, and prepared shuttle’s external fuel tank is the only part of the launch
for another flight. vehicle that currently is not reused. After its 1.99 million
After the boosters fall away, the three main engines liters of fuel are consumed during the first 8.5 minutes
continue to provide thrust. These of the flight, the external tank is jettisoned from the
engines are clustered at the rear orbiter and breaks up in the upper atmosphere, its pieces
end of the orbiter and will have a falling into remote ocean waters.
combined thrust of almost After placing the satellite in orbit, the orbiter
540,000 kg. The space shuttle’s segment returns from space—withstanding the intense
liquid-propellant engines will be heat when entering the earth’s atmosphere. Flown by
the world’s first reusable rocket the shuttle crew much like an aircraft, the shuttle lands
engines. They fire for only eight horizontally on a conventional airport runway.
minutes for each flight, just until
the shuttle reaches orbit, and are
designed to operate for 55 flights.
The engines are very large—4.2
m long and 2.4 m in diameter at
the wide end of the cone-shaped
nozzle at the rear of the orbiter. 1). What are the benefits of satellites?
Another propulsion system takes over once the
space shuttle’s main engines shut down as the ship
approaches the altitude at which it will begin orbiting
around the earth, known as the orbital insertion point.
Two orbital maneuvering system (OMS) engines,
mounted on either side of the aft fuselage, provide thrust
for major orbital changes. For more exacting maneuvers
Orbit — the path an object takes as it travels around another
in orbit, 44 small rocket engines (known as the reaction object.
control system), clustered on the shuttle’s nose and on
either side of the tail, are used. They have proven "Satellite, Artificial,” Microsoft® Encarta® 97 Encyclopedia.
© 1993-1996 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
indispensable in performing the shuttle’s important work
of retrieving, launching, and repairing satellites in orbit. "Escape Velocity,” Microsoft® Encarta® 97 Encyclopedia. ©
The giant, cylindrical, external fuel tank, with a 1993-1996 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
length of 47 m and a diameter of 8.4 m, is the largest "Space Shuttle,” Microsoft® Encarta® 97 Encyclopedia. ©
single piece of the space shuttle. It fuels the orbiter’s 1993-1996 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.

SENIOR 13
Save Our Seas:
A Crusade for
Coral Reefs
Mary Ann Aleli V. Barbieto

O
n September 11, 1992, a terrible Their mission -
hurricane swept through Hawaii’s “To preserve, protect,
island of Kauai. Surprised that such and restore the health
destruction could happen in such a and well-being of the
short time, three people got together and organized a world’s oceans for
truly dynamic group whose main purpose was to future generations.” –
protect and preserve the fragile marine ecosystem. was integrated into the
These three were Carl Stepath, the owner and laws of the state of
operator of Nawiliwili Marine and Sailboards Kauai; Hawaii within the next
Teresa Tico, a lawyer who was into bodysurfing, yacht year, and with much
racing and windsurfing; and Nicholas Barran, a enthusiasm, they set
computer programmer who also loved yacht racing. out on their first
Through the efforts project. This was the
of these Open Seas Recycling Program, which they launched
concerned during the 1993 Trans Pac Yacht Race, a racing
citizens, Save competition where yachts ran from the coast of Los
Our Seas Angeles to Honolulu. The board of directors who held
(SOS), was the contest were thrilled with their proposed project,
born.

14 SENIOR
Our
and immediately decided that recycling should not participate in this “adopt a reef” program, where the
only be a part of a program, but a requirement for students survey corals, marine life, and measure
those who were competing in the race. They added a water quality, then report back to SOS via the
new regulation that all trash must be kept on board, Internet. These results are then compiled and used
and all recyclable materials - paper, aluminum and for future reference in finding ways to save our
glass - were the responsibility of the racers and must speedily vanishing coral reefs.
be recycled before they reached the finish line. At These children become responsible for the reefs,
the end of the race, the project proved to be so and are then called “reef keepers.” SOS hopes that
successful that it was adopted by yacht clubs in these children will realize how important it is to care
Japan and Australia. for our coral reefs and our entire ocean ecosystem.
The Philippines is taking part in another project Through their hands-on experience, they learn how to
sponsored by Save Our Seas, “Ocean Pulse.” Its be more careful in dealing with nature.
aim is to educate the community about our coral
Do you want to become a part of SOS and
reef’s complex ecology though direct interaction with
contribute to the preservation and care of our oceans?
the living, breathing corals that surround our
You can visit their website at:
archipelago. This project involves students from all
http://hookomo.aloha.net/~sos~/ . You can also
over the country and began in their native Hawaii,
write to them at sos@aloha.net.
where they enlisted the help of seventh and eighth
graders whose schools have volunteered to create Resources: SOS homepage

databases for Save Our Seas. Schools who

SENIOR 15
I N C O O P E R AT I O N W I T H T H E
DEPARTMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLGY

UV IRRADIATION TO
CONTROL GROWTH OF
ASPERGILLUS FLAVUS IN
COPRA
ABSTRACT: control. A. flavus growth in copra was alfatoxin tolerance level of 0.2 parts per
This study explores the possibility then determined. Previously dried copra million (ppm) for copra meal and 20 parts
of controlling the growth of Aspergills (‘kokum”) were moistened, inoculated per billion (ppb) for coconut oil.
flavus in copra with ultraviolet (UV) with A. flavus, then exposed to 15- minute
Aflatoxin is produced by the
radiation. UV irradiation. The growth of the fungus
fungus, Aspergillus fluvus. It has been
was observed after five days. 15-minutes
Pure cultures of A. flavus were found to cause cancer in animals ingesting
irradiation inhibited up to 92% of the
prepared in nutrient agar. These were it. It is very potent in this respect with no
fungal growth.
exposed to different durations of exposure more than 0.05 ppm capable of inducing
to UV radiation (quartz tube-mercury INTRODUCTION illness. Aflatoxin is also a natural
vapor source, wavelength approximately mutagen.
A few years ago, the Philippines
240nm-270nm): 1, 3, 6, 10, and 15
lost much of the United States market for The control of aflatoxin
minutes. The growth rate of the fungus
copra because it took very little notice of contamination in copra depends mainly on
was observed in three replications. Among
the restrictions imposed on copra the inhibition of the growth of A. flavus.
the five treatments, UV radiation of 15
contaminated with aflatoxin. Last Growth of A. flavus is enhanced by
minutes controlled the growth of the
December 1990, the European Economic factors such as high relative humidity,
fungus to the greatest extent. This could
Community (EEC)— which absorbs 46.6 high moisture content and warm
be due to the damage on the DNA which
percent of the country’s coconut oil export temperature.
led to abnormal physiological functions
and 30 percent of copra— implemented a
and death of the cell. This study aimed at determining the
policy to standardize aflatoxin (Lorito,
relative sensitivity of A. flavus to high-
The effectivity of UV radiation to 1990). This regulation imposes an
energy radiation. Specifically it

16 SENIOR
determined the effects of UV on the high-energy radiation such as ultraviolet (Sylianco, 1983).
growth rate of A. flavus. rays, X-rays and gamma rays. Radiation
The mutagenic effects of UV
causes dimerizations (linking) and
REVIEW OF LITERATURE depends on the stage at which protein
ionizations in th DNA of the fungus
synthesis is proceeding. Increasing the
A. flavus is a brownish-green causing metabolic abnormalities. This
dose of UV light both increases the
fungus classified under Division prevents further growth or reproduction of
probability of mutation per unit of time
Eumycophuta, Class Ascomycetes. It fungi in copra.
(Fincham, 1965).
usually grows in moist warm
Low doses of UV delays budding
environments where carbohydrate is MATERIALSAND METHODS:
or germination of the fungus. Cells
present. Because of this, its growth in
irradiated with UV of wavelengths ranging A. flavus used in this study was a
agricultural products is difficult to control.
from 280nm – 380 nm did not begin to pure culture derived from the RP-UK
Moreover, the spores of the fungus are all
bud as early as the controls – in some Aflatoxin Research Project of the
around so that the possibility of
cases they never budded. A small Philippine Coconut Authority, Mintal,
contamination is great (Gloria, 1989). The
percentage of spores which survive Davao City.
presence of A. flavus is undesirable
exposure to UV radiation may produce A quartz tube-mercury vapor
especially in copra, peanuts, corn,
mutants. source from the Ateneo de Davao
soybeans and potatoes.
During UV irradiation the normal University with wavelength ranging from
In copra, contamination can start
hydrogen bond-interaction between bases 240nm to 270nm was used. Treatment
after harvest when the nut is broken on the
are cleaved. This may lead to interruption was done on A. flavus for 1 min. (T1), 3
ground and the coconut meat scooped
of replication, or division may stop short mins. (T2), 6 mins. (T3), 10 mins. (T4)
from the shell. Placing the copra in sacks
or may proceed incorrectly with an altered and 15 mins. (T5)
which may be laden with. A flavus spores
base sequence. Therfore, the effects of UV The other materials were:
further increases the chances of
radiation on living tissues is a
contamination. 10 mL coconut extract
consequence of its effect on the bases of
Contamination is usually DNA and RNA (Sylianco, 1981) 10g dextrose powder
minimized if the coconut is dried within
Changes produced by radiation 100g “kokum”
four hours after splitting. Drying in the
may be a direct effect on the molecules
“tapahan” is usually favored over sun 18 petri dishes
where the energy has been absorbed, or
drying because it reduces the moisture
indirect effects in which molecular 700 mL distilled water
content to about 10-15 percent in a short
changes are bought about by the chemical
time. If the copra is properly dried, the 1 pressure cooker
reactions of free redicals produced as
possibility of contamination is nil. But
primary effect radiations (Lea, 1955). 1 inoculating set
again, the chances of contamination
increases during storage, when the Calculations shows that radiation 1 improvised inoculating box
humidity inside the storehouse is high and which destroys perhaps only one molecule Part 1.
air circulation is inadequate (Gloria,1989). in a million can have profound biological
5 mL of agar with coconut extract
consequence and can kill the cell
A. flavus could be susceptible to

SENIOR 17
to the A1, A2, and A3 setups. B1, B2 and sq. cm/day, with about 90% mutation.
were poured into 18 petri dishes at a depth B3 were made as control.
of about 2mm. The dishes were covered
Observations were made on the SELECTED REFERENCES:
and sterilized for about 15 minutes. They
fifth day, after which the mass of the copra
were then placed in an inoculating box and Gloria, M. “Aflatoxin and Copra”.
contaminated with A. flavus was
were allowed to cool and solidify. Southern News Scope. August 1989. Vol.
determined. The percentage contamination
The coconut-agar media were was then calculated. From the difference, 2 p.8
innoculated with A. flavus spores using the percentage inhibition was determined. Gincham, J.R.S. 1965. “Fungal
the disc method and were placed in a dark
RESULTSANDANALYSIS Genetics”. Blackwell Scientific
chamber with 29 to 30oC temperature for publications.
five days. The average growth rate of A.
flavus in the control and in treated Lea, D.E. 1963. “Actions of
The growth rate of A. flavus was
medium are as follows: Radiation on Living Cells”. Cambridge
determined in sq. cm. Counting was
University Press.
performed using a graphing paper with a 1 From day 1 to day 2, the fungus in
sq. cm. grid placed underneath. the controlled setup covered a very much Lonito, D.L. 1990. “Behind the

bigger area as compared with those in T1, Aflatoxin Scare”. Mindano Farmers
Growth rate was determined by the
T2, T3, T4 and T5. However, its growth Journal.
formula:
tapered off after the second day. The Sylianco, C.Y. 1981. “Modern
s = a/d fungus in T1, T2, T3 and T4 covered a Biochemistry” Philippine Graphic Arts,
where: smaller area during the first two days. It Manila.
then accelerated after the second until the
a is the area in sq. cm
fifth day. The setups in T5 showed least
d is the time in days growth of the fungus.
UV Treatment Growth rate
s is the rate in sq. cm/day Irradiation of 1,3, and 6 min. Control (sq. cm/day)
duration caused little damage to A. flavus. 1 min. 8.3 ± 0.6
Microscopic examinations of the 3 min. 5.4 ± 0.5
10 min. exposures caused greater damage
irradiated molds were conducted every 24 6 min. 4.8 ± 0.6
to A. flavus. 15 min. exposures actually 10 min. 4.5 ± 0.6
hours.
inhibited the growth of A flavus on 15 min. 2.7 ± 0.6
Part 2. experimental copra samples, by about 0.83 ± 0.5

Six sets at 20g each of “kokum” 91.8%.

dried copra were soaked in water for 5 The fastest growth rate was
minutes, then drained and placed in petri observed in the control, 8.3 ± 0.6 sq. cm/
dishes. The dishes were labelled A1, A2, day, followed by those exposed for 1 min,
A3, B1, B2, and B3. The copra samples 3 min, then 6 min. and 10 min. Those
were all inoculated with A. flavus spores. treated for 15 min. showed only a total of

A 15 minute irradiation was given 12.5 ± 3.1 sq. cm or a growth rate of 0.83

18 SENIOR
The Philadelphia
Joe Bert G. Lazarte

Experiment
Remember the 1984 film The Philadelphia Experiment?

T
he movie was based on an alleged United presented himself as someone who was part of the
States Navy experiment(Project Rainbow) team that conducted the experiment, time-traveled in
done on October 28, 1943. According to 1943 to 1983 during the experiment and lived to tell
legend, the destroyer USS Eldridge was the story, only to be harassed by the U.S. government
made invisible, dematerialized, and for his troubles.
teleported from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to Norfolk, But in the face of these myths, the Navy came
Virginia, and back again to the Philadelphia Naval out with its official documents that take note of the
Yard. story’s salient points, such as: (1)there was no such
The experiment allegedly had such terrible side- project as the Philadelphia Experiment, no
effects, such as making sailors invisible and experiments into invisibility. There were projects code-
eventually going mad, that the Navy quit exploring this named Rainbow, but they were warplans to defeat
exciting new technology. The experiment was Italy, Germany, and Japan; (2) The Office of Naval
allegedly done by Dr. Franklin Reno as an application Research, under which the experiment was
of Einstein’s unified field theory. The experiment supposedly conducted, did not even exist until 1946;
supposedly demonstrated a successful connection (3) The U.S.S. Eldridge was never even in
between gravity and electromagnetism: Philadelphia during the fall of 1943, and the deck log
electromagnetic space-time warping. that proves this is available on microfilm via the web.
One Carlos Allende, or Carl Allen, claimed that What the Navy documents do add,
he witnessed the experiment. In fact, he was one moreover, are some valid points on the subject
major source of stories about the experiment, who, of degaussing, which is a process, and when
as further writings and probings into his correctly done, makes a ship “invisible” to the
background surfaced, later proved to be a con- sensors of magnetic mines, but remains
man who weaved the hoax. visible to the human eye, radar, and
Surprisingly, one retired military underwater listening devices.
man, Alfred Bielek, picked up where They also note that while
Allen left the story. Bielek’s memories experimenting with 1,000 hz generators
apparently came back to him after in the 1950s, “the higher frequency
watching the 1984 film, coming up with generator produced corona discharges,
more detailed explanations of the and other well-known phenomena
experiment. He co-authored a book, associated with high frequency
The Philadelphia Experiment and generators,” which can be exciting when
Other Conspiracies, which merely viewed.
rehashes the usual stories of CIA This sounds plausibly like the
plots, government conspiracies, secret genuine seed for the story, which people
meetings with aliens, trips to Mars, like Jessup, Carl Allen, and Bielek weaved
visits from the Men in Black, etc. He stories from. Such is the stuff urban
also came out with a video in which he legends are made of.

SENIOR 19
P H Y S I C S

On Target: The
Stealth Airplane
R
adar, or radio directing and ranging, is
one of the most vital devices needed by
the defense department of any country.
It is very valuable in tracing the position
of enemy ships and airplanes during wars and conflicts.
But since its invention however, a lot of research and
technology has been developed to counter-attack it. One
of this is stealth technology.

The main purpose of this system study is for anti-


detection. This technology had already begun
development in

World War II when snorkels of German U-boats


were coated with radar- absorbing materials. Since then,
researches were done in secret laboratories to determine
other ways radar detection can be avoided or at least
minimized. Special attention was given to aircrafts.

In the early 1970s, The US Department of Defense


and US Air Force collaborated for this work. Studies
were conducted and bore fruitful results. These studies

20 SENIOR
ranged from chemistry and composite materials to likewise strategically placed all over the plane.
computer-aided design and manufacture, all aiming for Suggested paint color is black in order to elude visual
the reduction of the identification of future-weapons detection since a the stealth airplane is designed to
delivery and surveillance systems used in air warfare. operate by night. However, further research is made
With this quality, any type of aircraft will have a higher concerning visibility in order to make the plane invisible
chance of survival in the battle arena. even during daytime.

The first process in making a stealth Exhausts from an aircraft are also detectable by
airplane is to create a special design for radar. Scientists in stealth research also have given
the aircraft. One may notice the unique this keen focus. Since the engine emits
geometry of a Northrop B-2, for example. To infrared or heat-source radiation, the
understand this better, it is necessary to know stealth’s exhaust sections are
how radar works. Regardless of whether it is flattened into thin, long slots that
airborne or ground-based, the radar ‘sees’ its are layered with cold air. Direct
target object within a range of 30 degrees around injections of powerful chemical
its own horizontal plane by emitting radio beams coolants are then applied to the exhaust
and waiting for them to bounce back upon contact gases, so that they would mix with the
with the object. It can then measure the length that outside air unnoticeably.
the beams had traveled and equate it as the
And yet, along with this great innovation
distance of the object from the radar source, thus
comes a great price: Both in dollars and performance-
determining the target’s position.
wise. Each of the first fifteen Northrop B-2 costs $776
This suggests that a stealth aircraft’s design needs million, making it the most expensive warplane built in
to be as flat as a straight line as possible when viewed the last few years. The stealth program has amassed a
horizontally. If it did need to curve however, it ought to total of $43 billion expenditures to date, just by making
be the double-curvature type so that reflection can be an aircraft that cannot be detected by radar. Other
minimized. Known as reflective faceting, the plane is problems encountered aside from the high cost is its
designed to have slabs or facets having angular relativity lower acceleration rate compared to ordinary fighter
so as to divert the radio beams away from the source. planes because it had to use turbofan engines with no
afterburners. Add to that is the plane’s need of a
Another process in anti-radar detection is coating
repainting job after every mission.
the stealth with radar-absorbing materials, namely
Microsoft® Encarta® Encyclopedia Deluxe 2000. © 1993-1999 Microsoft
pyroceramics, polyurethanes, silicones, and rubber and
Corporation.
carbon compounds. Several corner reflectors designed
to catch, trap and scatter radio frequency energy are

SENIOR 21
P H Y S I C S

TWISTING IRON
TWISTING IRON
“wanting” to break out of the loop. Many brave kids

I
n many theme parks around the globe, one of the
most sought-after ride is the roller coaster. In try to lift their arms above their heads as they turn
Laguna, the Enchanted Kingdom theme park upside down going through the 360 degree loop. They
offers the mind-numbing “Space Shuttle,” a 1- are trying to resist the action of the centrifugal force.
minute ride that takes you through two 360 degree Centrifugal force is proportional
loops and varying side-twists and turns. Then you go to the mass of the object it is
through the whole thing again, this time exerting upon. It can simulate
backwards! Most kids find the ride fun earth’s gravitational force.
and enervating. The serpentine That is why, in sharp turns
iron rail gleams like some giant and the full vertical loop, the
torture instrument in the rider feels weighed
daytime. And the shrieks down and feels his
and screams from those in head and arms being
the hurtling train seems to drawn towards the
confirm that. floor of the shuttle.
But roller coasters are There are other roller coaster
governed by natural laws that rides in the Philippines. The next time
permit its riders to have fun while you try one, try to observe the various
seemingly courting disaster with its neck-breaking forces that act on your body as it turns,
speed and jaw-breaking twists and turns. twists and turns upside down. It is best
As the shuttle’s wheels clamp down against the to remember to keep your sunglasses,
rail in a sharp sideways turn, the friction between the hat and other paraphernalia tucked in
tires and the rail must sustain sufficient sideways securely in your pockets before they
force to provide the necessary centripetal force for are wrested from you by the various
curved motion. Centripetal (“center-seeking”) force is natural forces that govern the
the radial force required to keep an object continually movement of the
diverted in its path so that it travels in a circle. In this roller coaster.
instance, centripetal force keeps the shuttle along a
curved path as it travels along the rail.
Centrifugal (“center-fleeing”) force refers to the
same phenomenon as centripetal force but may be
considered the equal but opposite reaction to the
action of the centripetal force. The roller coaster
shuttle hurtling along the 360 degree vertical loop of
the rail, for instance, will manifest centrifugal force by

22 SENIOR
Surface Tension
T
hroughout a liquid, the molecules are attracted to one another. At the surface
of the liquid, the forces of attraction lead to an effect called surface tension.
The two soap-film tricks shown here demonstrate surface tension action.

Materials
liquid soap
glass
water
wire
thread
Procedure
The jumping wire
1. Put some liquid soap in a glass and add water to
make a strong, soapy solution.
2. Bend a piece of wire to form a rectangular frame and
handle, as shown above. The frame should be small
enough to fit into the glass.
3. Dip the frame into the solution and then remove it.
The frame should now be covered with a soap film.
4. Hold the frame horizontally and place a straight piece
of wire across it.

5. Break the soap film on one side of the wire with your
finger. Forces of surface tension on the other side will
pull on the wire, causing it to jump from the frame.
The magic loop
1. Tie a short piece of thread to form a loop.
2. Form a soap film on a wire frame, as previously
described. Carefully place the thread on the film.
3. Now break the film inside the loop. Surface tension
forces around the loop will put it into a neat circle.

SENIOR 23
And the law says…
THERMODYNAMICS BOX Look for all the hidden words listed below
from the letter box that are related to the study
C A H I C H E N O I T C E V N O C
of thermodynamics.
O X I S O B A R I C T U I T A L U
N B Z S M Y T C D S E L O A N X M
Y D E O B D R U E H W K R X D Y E CONVECTION ISOBARIC
C R T S U O A I A E P A R Q C P R
ENTROPY POWER
A A I G S W R S L U R D K O F O U
R N R P T Y P O G R V I L J W R T LATENT HEAT PRESSURE
N K E N I G N E A O Y A C V X T A RANKINE COMBUSTION
B I R N O S A C S Z L B P B K N R
E N K G N T J P O W E A R W C E E ENGINE IDEAL GAS
A E H V X S C K X L M T E A W G P ADIABATIC CARNOT CYCLE
H K H E T S Y Y M A O I S O D B M
TEMPERATURE WORK
A R A N D U D A C T C C P L N I E
E R U S S E R P W L E K R F O H T
A M O X D R E L A T E N T H E A T

C R O S S W O R D
Across Down
1 Not bottom 1 2 3 2 Source of energy which
3 Where bees live are triggered off by light
4 House 3 Airbone vehicle, capable
7 4 5 6
7 Extraterrestrial of vertical take off
(abbr.) 5 Osmium (symbol)
9 _ _ _ic_e, small 7 8 9 10 11 6 Miss/Mrs (abbr.)
bones in the ear 7 Female sheep
10 _ _us, presiding 13 8 Tantalum (symbol)
Greek god 12
10 Zinc (symbol)
12 Unit of power 11 _ _ _phagus, food tube
13 Charged particles 15 14 15 16 16 17
15 Tellurium (symbol)
14 Refers to ear 16 Not out
17 Oxygen (symbol) 18 18 19 19 20 18 Address of respect to a
19 _ _ _ _zoic, a nun (Sp.)
geologic era 20 Fermented drink
21 Small opening 21 22 23
21 Free from contaminants
22 milli_ _ _ _ , a crawling 23 Electromagnetic unit
organism with a 24 25 26 27 28 (abbr.)
thousand “limbs” 26 Indicates early period of
24 Po_ _ , to transfer a time
29 30
liquid 27 From (abbr.)
25 Not right (direction)
28 Electromagnetic 31 32
29 Story
30 Uranium (symbol)
31 Self-fulfilling love
32 Stiff stick

24 SENIOR