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FORM TP 2017204 MAY/JUNE 20I7

CARIBBEAN EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL


CARIBBEAN ADVANCED PROFICIENCY EXAMINATIONO

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

ECOLOGY PEOPLE AND NATURAL RESOURCE USE

UNITl-Paper02
2 hours 30 minutes

READ THE FOLLOWING INSTRUCTIONS CAREFULLY.

I This paper consists of SIX questions in THREE sections. Answer ALL


questions.

2 Write your answers in the spaces provided in this booklet.

3 Do NOT write in the margins.

4. You may use a silent, non-programmable calculator to answer questions.

5 You are advised to take some time to read through the paper and plan your
answers.

6" If you need to rewrite any answer and there is not enough space to do so
on the original page, you must use the extra lined page(s) provided at the
back of this booklet. Remember to draw a line through your original
answer.

7 If you use the extra page(s) you MUST write the question number
clearly in the box provided at the top of the extra page(s) and, where
relevant, include the question part beside the answer.

DO NOT TURN THIS PAGE UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO.

Copyright O 2015 Caribbean Examinations Council


All rights reserved.
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0212002003 I
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MODULE 1
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Answer BOTH questions. .E
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(a) iI*
l. Define the term 'ecological niche'
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(b) The law of competitive exclusion states that no two species will occupy the same niche and
compete for the same resources. Figure I illustrates the niches for Species A and Species B.

Species B

Species A
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c, Niche
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Resource gradient

f igure 1. Niches for species A and species B

(i) What does the region 'X'represent? ::tT:


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02120020/cAPE2017

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0212002004
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Draw a similar diagram to show how the niches of the two species will change over
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0212002005
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r (c) (i)
-6-

Identifr TWO types of interactions, other than competition, between organisms in


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communities.

[2 marks]

(iD Define ONE of the types of interactions identified in (c) (i) and use an example
to explain how it may influence the population numbers of an organism in an
ecosystem.

[4 marksl

(iii) Outline the role of adaptation in addressing the interaction discussed in (c) (ii)"

[2 marks]

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02t20020lcAPE20t7

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0212002006 I
r (iv)
-7 -

Discuss the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem stability


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[6 marksl

Total20 marks
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0212002007
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2 Two groups of students were taken to a natural savannah ecosystem where they determined the
distribution of three plant species. Group I used the line transect method while Group II used the
quadrat method. The following results were recorded by the students.

Group I

TABLE 1: RECORDS OF PLANT SPECIES IN A SAVANNAH USING


THE LINE TRANSECT METHOD

Plant Distance along Line Transect (m)


Species 5 l0 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
,/ Present
A x r , x
B u x a T ,(
x Absent
C

Group II

TABLB 2: RECORDS OF PLANT SPECIES IN A SAVANNAH USING


THE QUADRAT METHOD

Plant Quad rat Number/1.[umber of Individuals


Species
I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
A 8 5 0 0 4 2 9 ll 6 8
B 4 2 8 10 J l5 I J I 0
C 6 7 9 4 4 7 6 5 8 4

(a) (i) Explain the difference between the methods used by Group I and Group II
respectively.

[3 marks]
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02t20020lcAPE 20r 7

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0212002008
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-9 -

A student decided to use the data collected by Group II to estimate the density for
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Species A and the percentage frequency of Species B. Calculate the values for
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rE-: each of these two parameters using the data collected by Group II"
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[6 marksl

(iii) The results in Table 2 show a type of interaction between Species A and Species
B. Use the data in the table to explain this type of interaction.
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[3 marksl

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0212002009 _l
r (b) (i)
-10- -l
Describe how the data in Tables I and? may be used to provide information on the
distribution of the three plant species.

:; marks

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02120020/CAPE2017

L ffi 0212002010 J
r ( ii)
- ll -

Explain TWO ways in which human activities can disrupt the integrity of natural
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ecosystems.

[4 marks]

Total20 marks

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0212002011 J
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-12-

2
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Answer BOTH questions.

3. Figure 2 illustrates how the population size of Country X is influenced by demographic


characteristics/factors represented by the letters A, B, C and D.

A C
Population
B suze D

Figure 2. Population of Countly X

(a) ldentifo the demographic characteristics/factors labelled A, B, C and D

[4 marksl

(b) (i) Outline TWO reasons why urbanization is likely to occur in a Caribbean country.

[4 marksl

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02120020/CAPE20t7

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0212002012
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- 13 -

Explain THREE environmental impacts of urbanization in the Caribbean


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[9 marks]

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0212002013
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r (iii)
-14-

Discuss a suitable approach that can be used to minimize any ONE of the
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environmental impacts discussed in (b) (ii). rft:
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02120020/C.APE20t7

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0212002014
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4. Thble 3 shows demographic statistics for four Caribbean countries. Use the data provided in the
table to answer the questions that follow.

TABLE 3: DEMOGRAPHIC STATISTICS FOR FOUR CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES

Number of Live Number of Fertile Women


Country
Births in 2005 (lH9 years) in 2fi)5
A 434 28r r00
B 964 455 r00
C I 100 2t9 540
D 756 I 87 950

(a) Define the following terms:

(i) Total fertility rate

[2 marks]

(ii) Replacement level fertility

[2 marksl

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02120020't5
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-16-

Calculate the total fertility rate for EACH country in Table 3


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[4 marks]

(c) Use the values calculated in (b) to determine which country is at its replacement level
fertility. State TWO reasons for your response.

[3 marks]

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021200201cAPB2017

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0212002016
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-17 -

Explain the significance of the total fertility rates calculated for countries
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A and C"

[2 marks]

(ii) Describe TWO environmental impacts that may occur as a result of the fertility
rates in Country C"

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[4 marksl
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ffi 02120020/CAPE 2017

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0212002017
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- l8 -

Discuss ONE measure which the Caribbean governments can implement to control
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the birth rates.

[3 marks]

Total20 marks

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02120020tcAPE20t7

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0212002018 J
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i.ft.. Answer BOTH questions.
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s (a) The table below shows types of natural resources in the Caribbean. Examples of these
--:lsi'. resources are not given. Complete the table by stating an example of each type of natural
::I+l resource shown.
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TABLE 4: NATURAL RESOURCES
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Caribbean
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Ecosystems
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Water

Landscape

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ffiE 021200201cAPB2017

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0212002019 J
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-20 -

Most Caribbean countries have tourism-based economies. In order to sustain their


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economies, many beachfront properties are being constructed.

(i) Discuss THREE environmental impacts associated with this paftern of resource use.

[9 marksl
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021200201CAPE.2017

L r rilil ffi ilil rlllI ilil ilil illll ffi ItlI ililt t]t til
0212002020 J
r (ii)
-21 -

Outline ONE process that may be used to minimize the environmental impacts
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discussed in (i).

[3 marks]

(c) Using a named example, explain how the Ramsar Convention may be used as a tool for
natural resource conservation in the Caribbean.

[5 marks]

Total20 marks
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ffi 021200201cAPB 2017

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0212002021
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6"
-22 -

A small country, A, consists of 450 km2 of uninhabited moist tropical forests" This area is home
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to endemic bird species. It is also the home of 2 amphibians, 2 reptiles and 65 plants which are
found only in the area. It is an area with high ecotourism value; howeveq it is at risk from bauxite
mining"

Unfortunately for the birds, the landscape, and many communities, the country is pushing hard
to extract every bit of bauxite from the soil, to export for aluminium production" Tourism now
generates 45 per cent of the country's foreign earnings and provides jobs for approximately a
quarter of the working population. Mining employs fewer persons and is not sustainable.

(a) Use examples from the description of Country A to distinguish between consumptive and
nonconsumptive uses of natural resources" .l
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[3 marks]

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02l20020lcAPE20t7

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0212002022
ililt ilt! ilil til ffi
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-23 -

Outline TWO environmental impacts the bauxite mining may have on this country,
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[6 marks]

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ffi 02l20020lcAPE 2017

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0212002023
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r (c) (i) Stakeholder groups suggested the use
-24 - -l
of a more stringent Environmental Impact
Assessment (EIA) prior to the continuation of bauxite mining in Country A. Comment
on the use of an EIA as a natural resource management tool.

[5 marksl

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02l20020lcAPE20t7

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0212002024
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( ii) Consider the following statement: "lf a natural resource is to be exploited for foreign
exchange earnings, it does not have to result in a depletion of its ecosystem value".

Evaluate this statement using the example of Country A.

[6 marks]

Total20 marks

END OF TEST

IFYOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, CHECKYOUR WORI( ON THIS TEST.

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0212002025
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