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Considering the above criteria, piping supports shall be selected and designed.

The basic type of supports used in refinery are:


Anchors: It restricts all six degree of freedom (i.e,Rotational, Logitudinal & Axial).
Guides: It restricts the longitudinal movements but free to move in rotational and
axial.
Line Stops: It restricts the axial movements but free to move in rotational
and longitudinal.
Rests: It takes the vertical loads generated due to pipe weight, fluid weight,thermal
loads and occasional loads.

Indice
1. Special Pipe Supporting Cases .................................................................................. 2
2. Classification of Pipe Supports Based on Details, Constructions and Functions ..... 5
3. Purpose of Pipe Supports .......................................................................................... 8
4. Selection of Pipe Supports: Parameters Considered ............................................... 12
5. Spring Support Used in Piping ................................................................................ 13
6. Types of Loads Considered for Piping Stress Analysis .......................................... 20

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1. Special Pipe Supporting Cases
Few special supporting cases near pumps, tall vessels and exchangers are
described as follows:
Case – 1:

To avoid loading of suction nozzle due to control valve weight, which is nearby, if
we provide a trunnion (non insulated as per normal practice) to take weight of
control valve, then during operation such nozzle will move up and lift the trunnion
off its base. This will load the nozzle and purpose of trunnion will not get served.
This can be avoided by insulating trunnion, so that it will remain hot and will expand
upwards and will provide resting. Thus in most cases, the nozzle loading can be
controlled without use of spring supports, near pump nozzles.
Case – 2:
When supporting a line coming from top nozzle of a short vessel as shown in FIG-
22, if the temperature and material of the vessel and pipe line is same, then the
line may be supported at ground level.

Case – 3

:
When supporting a line coming from a tall vessel and the line temperature is
different from vessel, it should be supported from vessel at the neutral point with
respect to vessel. Such point is normally near the nozzle itself (FIG-23). The pump
should be connected through flexible loop connection to avoid nozzle loading.

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Alternatively line may be supported at bottom (near pump) and loop may be
provided at top as shown in Fig 24
Case 4:
While supporting suction and discharge piping to a pump, the supports being
provided should be sufficient to takecare the maintenance requirements of the
pumps i.e. if the valves / strainers, on the pumps are taken out for maintenance,
the lines should remain supported.
Exp. Suction line.

Case 5:

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In comparatively larger size pipes when a resting support is required at location
“A”, then an adjustable type supports should be provided. This is necessary due
to the maintenance requirements – such as changing of gaskets, etc. (see FIG-27)

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2. Classification of Pipe Supports Based on Details,
Constructions and Functions
Broadly the pipe supports are classified in three groups as per following details /
functions:
– General details
– Construction details
– Functions ie. Purpose
These are described below in brief.
1. Pipe Supports Classification as per General Details:
A pipe line needs to be supported from a foundation or a structure. The piping
loads will be acting on these foundations / structures. Since these foundations /
structures are built on ground, they will exert an equal and opposite reaction, while
supporting the pipe.
In a pipe support, there will be some parts of support arrangement which is directly
attached to the pipeline and there will be some other parts which shall be directly
attached to the foundation / structure supporting the pipe.
As per this general detail the support is classified as:
1.1. Primary Supports:
It is the parts of support assembly which is directly connected to the pipe.
1.2. Secondary Supports:
It is the parts of support assembly which is directly connected to the foundation /
structure and is supporting the primary support attached to the pipe line.
2. Pipe Supports Classification as per Construction:
Based on construction details, pipe supports are broadly classified in three types,
as
– RIGID SUPPORTS
– ELASTIC SUPPORTS
– ADJUSTABLE SUPPORTS
These are described below in brief.
2.1. Rigid Supports:
This type of support arrangement is generally very simple and has maximum use
in piping. It does not have adjustability to the erection tolerances. It will directly rest
on foundation or structure which is supporting the pipe. Common type of RIGID
SUPPORTS are shoe type (welded), shoe type (with clamp) Trunnion type,
valve holder type, support brackets (Secondary Support). These are described
under the topic ‘Supports Generally used’.
2.2. Elastic Supports:
This type of support is commonly used for supporting hot piping. It shall be able to
support pipes even when the pipe is moving up or down at support point.
Common types of elastic supports are variable type spring supports, constant type
spring supports. These are described under the topic ‘Supports generally used ‘.

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2.3. Adjustable Supports:
This type of support is Rigid type in construction but is has few nuts and bolts
arrangements for adjusting the supports with respect to the actual erected
condition of pipe. The support can be adjusted for the erection tolerances in the
piping. These are required for a better supporting need at critical locations of pipe
supports.
Mostly all type of rigid supports can be modified by using certain type of nuts and
bolts arrangement, to make it as an Adjustable support.
Only a typical type of adjustable support is described under the topic ‘Supports
Generally used.’
3. Pipe Supports Classification as per Function (i.e. Purpose)

Pipe support classification as per function.


This may change based on project.
Pipe supports classified as per functions are summarized in the Table at FIG.7.
These are shown along with its basic construction, the symbols generally used and
type of restraints it offers to the piping system.
The supports classified as per function are further described as follows:

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3.1. Loose Support:
This is most commonly used support meant for supporting only the pipe weight
vertically. It allows pipe to move in axial as well as transverse direction but restricts
only the vertical downward movement.
3.2. Longitudinal Guide:
This type of support is used to restrict the movement of pipe in transverse direction
i.e. perpendicular to length of pipe but allow movement in longitudinal direction.
This is also a commonly used type of support. Generally it is used along with Loose
support.
3.3. Transverse Guide:
This type of support is used to restrict the movement of pipe in longitudinal (axial)
direction but allows the pipe to move in transverse direction. This is also referred
as ‘AXIAL STOP’. This type is less used as compared to above two types.
Generally it is used along with Loose support.
3.4. Fixed point/Anchor:
FIX POINT type of support is used to restrict movements in all three directions.
ANCHOR type of support is used to restrict movement in all three directions and
rotation also in these three directions.
Non-Welded Type (Fix Point):
This can be considered as a combination of longitudinal and transverse guide. This
type resists only the linear movements in all directions but not the rotational
movements. This avoids heavy loading of support as well as pipe. Therefore this
type of support is preferred over welded type.
Welded Type (Anchor)
This type of support prevents total movements i.e. linear as well as rotational. This
type of support is used when it is absolutely essential to prevent any moment/force
being transferred further. It causes heavy loading on support as well as pipe.
3.5. Limit Stop:
As name itself indicates it allows pipe movement freely upto a certain limit and
restricts any further movement. This is useful when total stops causes excessive
loading on piping and support or nozzle.
This type of support should be used selectively, because of stringent and
complicated requirements of design, erection and operation.
3.6. Special Supports:
When we need a pipe support whose construction or functional details are different
from the available details, then a special support detail sketch is prepared. The
functions of this support can be any combination of above functions.

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3. Purpose of Pipe Supports
1. Introduction
The Piping Profile in general can be considered as a complex and rigid piping
network consisting of various piping components, which have different diameters
and weights. At the same time the above network is also subjected to temperature
change while switching from installed to operating condition (and visa versa)
resulting into its thermal growth in various directions in proportion to the length of
pipes. The structural integrity of the above network must therefore take into
account the overall weight effect of the profile besides its thermal growth.
A satisfactory design of the Piping System should therefore give a careful
consideration to achieve the above requirement. This is generally accomplished
by providing external attachments (known as pipe supports) at various locations of
the piping profile.
This document deals with the basic purpose of the pipe supports. In general it
deals with metallic piping systems only.
2. Purpose of Pipe Supports
A brief detail of the purpose of pipe support is described below.
2.1. To support weight of pipe-during operation & testing
Supports are required to support the line during all conditions i.e. during operation
as well as during testing.
In case of vapour line this difference will be very large due to hydro testing.
Supports should be designed for this load (unless otherwise decided in the
project).
Sometimes line is capable of having longer span but load coming on the support
may be very large (especially with large diameter pipe lines). Then to distribute the
load uniformly, more number of supports should be provided with smaller span.
Note:
a. It may be noted that during testing condition there is no thermal load.
b. All spring supports are locked during testing.
2.2. To take ‘Expansion load’:
Whenever thermal expansion is restricted by support, it introduces additional load
on the support. Support must be designed to take this load in addition to all other
loads.
2.3. To take ‘Wind load’:
Wind introduces lateral load on the line. This load is considerable especially on
large diameter pipe. This tends to sway the line from its normal position and line
must be supported guided against it. In case of large diameter overhead lines,
supported by tall support extended from floor, wind load introduces large bending
moment and should be considered critically.
2.4. To take ‘Earth quake load’:
The earthquake is normally associated with horizontal acceleration of the order of
1 to 3 m/sec2. This is around 10% to 30% of the gravitational acceleration and

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introduces horizontal force of about 10 to 30% of the vertical load (or supported
mass). While designing support this should be taken care.
2.5. To absorb ‘Vibration of Piping system’:
When the pipe is subjected to moving machinery or pulsating flow or very high
velocity flow, pipe may start vibrating vigorously and ultimately may fail, particularly
if span is large. To avoid this it may be required to introduce additional supports at
smaller span apart from other requirements. It may not take axial load, but must
control lateral movements.
2.6. To have ‘Noise control’:
In most of the plants, noise is resulting from vibration and if such vibrations are
controlled, noise is reduced to great extent. In such lines, between clamp (i.e.
support) and pipe, asbestos cloth is put to absorb vibration and avoid noise.
Noise due to pulsating flow can be reduced by using a silencer in the line. Still if it
is not below acceptable level acoustic enclosure may be used. Insulation over line
also helps in reducing the noise.
2.7. To take ‘Hydraulic thrust in piping’:
The hydraulic thrust in the pipeline is present at certain point such as pressure
reducing valve, relief valve, bellows etc.
If the control valve has large pressure differential and line size is more, then this
force can be very high.
The support should be provided and designed to take this load, otherwise this will
load the piping system and may cause failure.

2.8. To support the system during ‘Transient period of plant & standby condition’:

Transient condition refers to the start-up or shutdown condition in which one


equipment may get heated up faster and other one get heated slower. Due to this
the expansion of one equipment which in normal operation will get nullified, may
not get nullified and exert thermal load on supports.

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Standby condition is also similar. If there are two pumps, one being standby and
both connected in parallel (as shown), design and operating temp. of both the
connections will be same. But the expansion of two parallel legs will not be nullified
because at a time only one leg will be hot and another being cold.
2.9. To support the system during ‘Maintenance conditions’:
When for maintenance certain equipment or component like valve is taken out,
remaining system should not be left out unsupported.

Referring to the FIG-3, support ‘S1’ will be sufficient but when valve ‘V1’ is taken
out for maintenance there will not be any support for vertical leg. Therefore second
support ‘S2’ may be required to take care of such condition.
2.10. To support the system during ‘Shutdown conditions’:
In shutdown condition all equipment may not be in the same condition as in
operating condition.
For example, refer the pump discharge line in FIG-4, Point A is resting, Point B &
C are spring supports and Point D is the pump discharge nozzle. The springs are,
designed based on weights considering the weight of fluid as well as pipeline and
thermal movements. But during shutdown condition the fluid may be drained and
the pipe becomes lighter. Hence the spring will give upward reaction and shall load
the nozzle ‘D’ beyond permissible limit. In this case a limit stop is used which will
not allow the Point C to move up above horizontal level.
(However it will allow downward movement during operating condition).

2.11. To support the system for ‘Erection conditions’:


Erection condition can be different than the operating condition which should be
considered while designing supports.

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For example for normal operation a long vessel supported by three supports, S1,
S2 & S3 is shown in FIG-5. If support S2 is higher, than all load will act at S2 only.
During erection if level of S2 is lower than entire load will be divided into two
supports S1, S2 only. Therefore foundation of S1, S2 & S3 should be capable of
taking such conditions.

A pipe line supported by S1, S2 & S3 taken from vessel is shown in above FIG –
6. During operation there will be no weight at S2 & S3 (as it is only guide), but wind
condition will be there. Loads due to such conditions must be considered while
designing the supports

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4. Selection of Pipe Supports: Parameters Considered
The basic parameters considered during the selection of supports are mentioned
below:
1. Process design conditions
2. Pipe material of construction
3. Piping Loads including Piping weight, fluid,weight, Valves,inline instruments
etc.
4. Insulation material,thickness,density & specification.
5. Piping General Arrangement drawing
6. Thermal forces,moments & displacement of Piping
7. Occasional loads: Hydrotest loads, Sesimic loads, wind loads etc.
The basic parameters considered during the selection of supports are mentioned
below:
1. Process design conditions
2. Pipe material of construction
3. Piping Loads including Piping weight, fluid,weight, Valves,inline instruments
etc.
4. Insulation material,thickness,density & specification.
5. Piping General Arrangement drawing
6. Thermal forces,moments & displacement of Piping
7. Occasional loads: Hydrotest loads, Sesimic loads, wind loads etc.
Considering the above criteria, piping supports shall be selected and designed.
The basic type of supports used in refinery are:
Anchors: It restricts all six degree of freedom (i.e,Rotational, Logitudinal & Axial).
Guides: It restricts the longitudinal movements but free to move in rotational and
axial.
Line Stops: It restricts the axial movements but free to move in rotational
and longitudinal.
Rests: It takes the vertical loads generated due to pipe weight, fluid weight,thermal
loads and occasional loads.

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5. Spring Support Used in Piping
Table of contents:
1. Why to use a Spring Support
2. Types of Spring Supports
3. Terminology
4. Variable effort spring
5. Types of VES/CES
6. Selection of Variable effort spring
7. Constant effort spring
8. Selection of Constant effort spring
9. General notes and guidelines
10. Points to remember
11. Offshore applications
12. Spring vendors
1. Why to use a Spring Support?
 Any line operating at high temperature moves upwards/downwards (depending on
the pipe configuration) due to thermal expansion. Any rigid support provided on
such a line tends to lift pipe up/down and hence remain inactive during operating
conditions. In such a case a flexible support (springs) is provided which is capable
of taking the load in all the operating and cold conditions.
 The spring supports provides continuous support during expansion or contraction of
the pipe.
 The spring support basically employs a spring element, which can get compressed
or stretch-out depending upon the thermal movement of pipe and the corresponding
loads.

2. Types of Spring Supports


Depending on the loads to be accommodated and the magnitude & direction of the
thermal displacement to be supported, spring supports are broadly classified as:

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 Variable effort springs
 Constant effort springs
Some of the common terminology associated with the selection and procurement
of any Springs are listed below:
 Cold Load
 Hot Load
 Spring Rate
 Spring Travel
 Load Variation or Variation
 Pre-compression Length
3. Terminology

 Cold Load: This refers to the load on the spring hanger when the system is in
standby or non-operating condition.
 Hot Load: This refers to the actual load on the spring hanger during operating
conditions
 Spring Rate/ Stifness: This refers to the spring rate, force per unit length in N/mm,
kg/mm, etc. determined from flexibility analysis.
 Spring Travel: (Installed to operating): This refers to the maximum vertical
movement of the spring due to piping loads at operating conditions determined from
flexibility analysis.
 Load Variation or Variation: This refers to the allowed variations between the hot
load and cold loads.

 Pre-Compression Length: It is the initial compressing of the spring for sustained


load.
 Installation Height = loaded length – Pre-compression length

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4. Variable effort spring
 VES basically consist of a spring which can get compressed or expanded according
to thermal movement of the pipe. However, this movement causes increase or
decrease in supporting force depending on its stiffness & this differential load is
transferred to the pipe
 This load is less than that would be with the rigid support.
 In VES load variation is maintained generally within 25%.
 In VES the loads increases with pipe movement.
5. Types of VES/CES
Hanger type: In hanger type spring support, the pipe is hung from the secondary
support using hanger type spring, as shown. Clevis, Hanger rod, turn-buckle, pipe
clamp, etc. are some other attachments associated with such a support.

Bottom support type: In bottom support spring, the pipe is resting on the top of
the spring load plate, as shown. This type of spring support is also known as ‘CAN’
Type or ‘F’ Type spring.
 Hanger type or bottom support type is selected based on pipe layout and the space
availability for mounting.

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6. Selection of Variable effort spring
1. Determine the required effort & pipe movement (up or down) from installed
to operating condition.
2. Select the smallest spring size from the vendor catalogue which has the
operating load within the working travel.
3. Ensure the spring selected can accommodate the preset to operating travel
within the working range. This is done by moving up & down the chart from
the operating load by the amount of travel.
4. If the spring selected cannot accommodate the movement try a larger spring
size or the next travel range.
5. Check the variation in supporting effort for the selected spring.

6. If this exceeds the allowable variation then choose the next travel range and
go back to Step 3 above.
7. If the variation is less than half of the allowable then a smaller travel range
may be acceptable. Choose a smaller travel range and go back to step 4.
8. If the variation exceeds the allowable selection then a constant effort support
is required or possibility of routing changes to be studied.
Example:
Select a variable spring for the following conditions:
Hot load = 307 lbs, movement = ½” up, variability = 20% maximum
1. Calculate spring rate.
Spring rate = hot load x variability / movement
= 0.20*307/0.5 = 122.8 lbs per inch
2. Find the spring size column on the size and series selection chart where the
hot load is 307 lbs.
(A size 5 series fig.82 fits the criteria)
3. Calculate the cold load.

Cold load = 307 + (63 x 0.50) = 339 lbs.

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4. Now check to see if the hot load and cold load fit in the working range of size
5 series fig.82. If so, you have selected the proper unit.
7. Constant effort spring
 Whenever load variation exceeds 25% or exceeds the specified maximum load
variation percentage in a variable hanger, then a Constant Effort Spring is selected.
 In CES the load remains constant when the pipe moves from its cold position to hot
position. Thus irrespective of travel the load remains constant over complete range
of movement.
 The pipe is supported by a drop rod connected via turnbuckle to the end of the lever
arm.
 The spring coil applies a force to the trunnion arm of the lever which tends to pull
the lever-arm UP against the load of the pipe.
 The geometry of the lever arm provides a balance btw the pipe load & spring force.
The pipe may therefore move due to thermal expansion while being supported with
a nominally constant force through this travel range.

8. Selection of Constant effort spring


 Determine the load to be supported by hanger as well as the actual travel, ie. The
actual vertical movement of the pipe at the point of hanger location, refer load-travel
table.
 The total travel for constant supports should be equal to “actual travel” plus 1” or
20% whichever is greater.
 After determining the size, consideration of available room for suspending the pipe
and hanger will indicate whether a vertical or horizontal hanger is desirable.
 After hanger size & design are determined, the type of constant support to be used
depends upon the physical installation required by the suspension problem.
 Example:
 Total travel = 4 “ and 2750 lbs
 Hanger size would be 34
9. General notes & guidelines

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 Any re-adjustment of spring element shall be carried out only when the line is full
with the fluid or its equivalent in density to balance the weight of piping and the
preset load of spring.
 The adjustment of hanger type spring element is done by rotating turn buckle or
adjustment nuts provided in the hanger rod.
 During hydraulic testing, flushing or chemical cleaning of the pipeline, the spring
must be kept under locked condition or protected against overloading due to
weight of testing / flushing fluid, by providing temporary.
 After re-adjustment it is important to check whether sufficient range is available
on scale for required movement of the pipe during operation.
10. Points to remember
 Design spring based on the installation load (operating load).
 Compactness of the units. Installation heights designed to a minimum.
 During occasional case the pipe may move more than the operating movement. In
such a case, if we choose maximum deflection range the spring cannot get further
movement and thus the spring fails. To overcome such a problem provides “Cushion
Range” means even if in occasional cases the spring may get compressed, so choose
always “MID-RANGE”.
 Initial design itself the spring cannot be designed for occasional loads (e.g. Seismic,
wind etc.) & movement then it may be an over design.
 For hanging spring support the lateral movements (rod swing) should not exceed 4
degree.
 For bottom type supports, where horizontal movement of more than ½” is
envisaged, Teflon covered load pads should be specified.
 Always mention the hydro test load, while ordering a spring. This will help the
spring vendor in designing the spring locking arrangement.
 Standard inventory finish: Hot dip galvanized.
 Coils come with a protective coating :
o Protects from a wide range of corrosives.
o Does not affect the flex life of the spring.
 Supports are fitted with nameplates marked with the installation and operating load,
support reference mark, type and unique serial number.
11. Offshore applications
 Flow arm lines (X’mas tree to the production/ test manifolds).
 Compressors.
 WHRU (Waste Heat Recovery Units).
12. Spring vendors
 Sarathi
 Carpenter and paterson Ltd
 Lisega
 Anvil
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 Bergen power
 Pipe support Ltd

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6. Types of Loads Considered for Piping Stress Analysis
Every Piping system is subjected to different loads during its design life which
develops stresses in the system. Depending on the stress design basis the system
is classified as stress critical or non- stress critical. All the stress critical system
shall be stress analyzed using software system (eg.Caesar II) to keep the stresses
within the allowable limits as per the code/standard. The types of loads to be
considered in Stress Analysis shall be as given in table:
Types of Loads:
1. Thermal Loads at Various Operating Conditions
2. Sustained Loads
3. Seismic Loads
4. Wind Loads
5. PSV Reaction Force
6. Slug Force
7. Forces Induced by Surge Pressure
1. Thermal Loads at Various Operating Conditions
Analysis Temperature and Pressure to be used shall be as mentioned below.
Analysis Temperature
Normally the Design temperature (Maximum/ Minimum values as per Line List)
shall be used for thermal analysis.
For those lines having Design temperature greater than 80 deg. C and if the
difference between Operating and Design temperature is more than 25 deg. C, the
maximum/minimum Operating temperatures, as obtained from Process Group,
may be used in Stress Analysis in place of the Design temperature.
In addition to the Maximum/Minimum Design/Operating temperatures, Piping shall
also be analyzed for the Normal Operating temperature.
In addition to the Maximum/Minimum Design/Operating temperatures, Piping shall
also be analyzed for the Normal Operating temperature.
Analysis Pressure
Line Design Pressure specified in the Line List shall be considered as the analysis
pressure.
2. Sustained Loads
Sustained loads to be considered are as given below:
 Design pressure.
 Weight of Pipe and associated components such as Flanges, Valves, Strainer,
 Sight glass etc., mounted on the Piping System.
 Weight of Fluid/contents in the piping.
 Insulation and cladding weight.
 Hydro test loads, if applicable for the line.
 Snow load, if applicable.
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3. Seismic Loads
For Projects where Seismic Design is to be carried out, equivalent Static Seismic
Analysis method in Caesar II shall be used to evaluate the seismic stresses,
displacements and loads on the piping system.
If the Seismic coefficient is not provide by the client, then the calculation of static
seismic co-efficient in terms of ‘g’ based on Project site-specific data shall be
calculated as per relevant codes (UBC/ASCE/SNIP/others as applicable). In that
case, the Seismic factor calculation document shall be enclosed as an Attachment
to the Project Stress Analysis Design basis document.
The normal Operating Temperature shall be used when analyzing for Occasional
loads. Seismic loads shall be considered as acting along the horizontal axes (both
in +ve and in the –ve directions, that is, along North, South, East and West
directions), but not acting simultaneously.
4. Wind Loads
Wind loads shall be considered for lines with outside diameter 14” NB (including
insulation) & above and at Elevation 10 meters & above from ground level. The
normal Operating Temperature shall be used when analyzing for Occasional
loads.
Wind shape factor shall be considered as 0.7. Wind loads shall be considered as
acting along the horizontal axes (both in the +ve and in the –ve directions, that is,
along North, South, East and West directions), but not acting simultaneously.
Wind pressure for the different Elevations shall be specific to the Project as per
the Project Civil/Structural design basis. The same shall be considered for wind
data input in piping analysis.
5. PSV Reaction Force
If the Piping System being analyzed consists of PSV (pressure safety valve), the
reaction force due to PSV operation shall be considered as applicable and a static
equivalent method of stress analysis shall be performed considering the same.
A Dynamic Load Factor equal to 2.0 shall be applied on the valve reaction force
value. However, in the case of valves of high reaction force values, the DLF value
calculated as per appendix-II of ASME B31.1 may be used, based on valve data if
provided by Vendor.
6. Slug Force
For lines having slug flow regime, as identified by the Process group on P&ID/line
list, slug force shall be considered in the piping stress analysis. Slug force shall be
calculated as below:
Fslug = (ρ) (A) (V2) [2(1 – cos θ)]1/2 DLF
Where,
Fslug = Force due to slug in Newton.
ρ = Density of the slug in Kg/m3,
A = Inside area of pipe cross section in m2,
V = Velocity of moving slug in m/sec.
θ = inclusion angle at elbow or change of direction

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DLF = Dynamic Load Factor (DLF) equal to two shall be used, unless more
accurate value is available.

Faxial = (ρ) (A) (V2) DLF


Forthogonal = (ρ) (A) (V2) DLF
Slug properties shall be obtained from Process group.
Equivalent static analysis in Caesar-II shall be performed to simulate slug loading
in piping system, with the slug force calculated as above.
7. Forces Induced by Surge Pressure
The effect of surge on any line, as identified by the Process group or a specialist
agency, shall be considered in piping analysis.
However two concurrent occasional loadings need not to be considered in piping
stress analysis.

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