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CNC Routing Basics: Toolpaths

and Feeds ‘n Speeds

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What’s a Router?
Before discussing or using a CNC
router it is helpful to know how to
use a handheld router. Your typical
router has a motor (possibly a
variable speed motor), height
adjustment (either fixed, or
plunge), and a collet, which is a
tapered spring that when
compressed creates the friction
necessary to hold your cutting tool
in place.

When you use a noncomputerized

router you see, hear, and feel how
the tool can cut with instant haptic
feedback. If you have access to
one, go play with it before
attempting to create toolpaths on the computer. Make a quick sketch on a
12”x12” piece of scrap plywood and use a ¼-inch bit to cut it out. If you are
working with a fixed base (not a plunge router) be sure to drill a 3/8-inch hole
to enable you to safely start the router in the material. Set the bit so that it
cuts no more than 1/8 of an inch deep per pass, and be sure to secure the
plywood to your table. Be advised that using a router bit/depth not specified
could be potentially dangerous. Use a bit smaller than 3/8 inch and use a
step of less than the radius of the bit.

Begin the cut at the center of your shape and work out in a spiral-like pattern,
this will provide support for your router if your shape is larger than its base.
As you work your way toward the sketched lines, try making both clockwise
and counterclockwise motions and notice that one direction provides far
more control and accuracy.

What are Toolpaths?

A toolpath is the user-defined coded route which a cutting tool follows to
machine a part. They are represented on the screen by lines and curves
which represent the path of the bottom center of the cutting tool. Pocket
toolpaths etch the surface of the material, while profile toolpaths cut all the
way through.
The process described in the handheld example above is called a “pocket”
toolpath. In your first pass you will remove everything inside your lines to a
constant depth of 1/8 inch below the surface. If you want to remove more
than 1/8 of an inch simply pause after the first pass, lower the bit, and
remove a second pass 1/8 of an inch lower and so on.

Pocket Toolpaths in RhinoCAM

The red lines are “pen up” travel lines, where the router lifts the cutter and
travels above the surface of the material to get to the next cut point. The blue
shaded area indicates where material will be removed.
Pocket Toolpaths in RhinoCAM

If you were to want to cut out your shape instead of removing material inside
the lines, the toolpath to use would be called a profile (or contour).
Profile Toolpaths in RhinoCAM

Most CAM software provides what seems to

be an insane number of controls and options
in the toolpath dialogue. Don’t get
overwhelmed and take your time to slowly
move through each tab in succession being
sure you understand all the options. The most
important concepts to take away from the
handheld router experiment above are:
spindle speed, feed rate, step-down, and step-
over. We’ll cover these in more detail below.

Climb vs. Conventional Cutting Motion

A standard router bit spins clockwise. If this Profile toolpaths being cut.
were to follow the left side of the line it would
be a climb cut, if it were to follow the right side of the line it would be a
conventional cutting motion.
Climb vs Conventional Cuts

The main difference between climb and conventional cutting is how the
cutter bites into the material. A conventional cut deflects the bit towards the
cut and a climb cut pushes the bit away. Climb cutting is often preferred
when using a CNC router, as it causes less grain tearing or “tearout.” However,
climb cutting can be dangerous on a noncomputer controlled router, as the
piece may be hard to control by hand and may “walk away.”

In the handheld example above, a clockwise spiral-like pattern from the

inside out would also be a conventional cut and will provide more control
because we have limited strength when using handheld tools. In fact, many
woodworking books refer to this method as the only safe direction to use a
router bit.

A CNC router however will typically provide a better cut when using a climb
cut especially in solid wood because it will eliminate the possibility of tear
out along the cutting vector. Starting out, don’t worry too much about this.
Generally you should choose the option which includes both such as ‘mixed’
and the software will choose what to use.
There are 4 main types of flute patterns for router bits, plus many types of
specialty bits.

Straight Flute – great all around bit, decent chip removal

Up Spiral – great chip removal, can tear-out the top of thin veneer such as
finish grade plywood
Down Spiral – poor chip removal, no tear out, slower feed rate
Compression – combination of up and down spiral, great all around bit,
great for plywood or laminated sheet goods.

Each of these flute patterns has their downfalls. If money isn’t an issue and
you are mostly cutting finish grade plywood, I really like the Freud 77-202 or
77-204. Straight flutes are also fantastic, inexpensive and underrated.

3D Containment Boundaries
I encourage students to spend time with 2D cuts before using full 3D
toolpaths. There are a number of reasons for this, but most importantly
taking the time to understand 2D machining allows for a much better
understanding of the 3D parameters. I’d be happy to cover 3D in more depth
at a later date, but for now I want to discuss containment boundaries.

Instead of using wireframe geometry or curves and lines as the primary

source of input, a 3D toolpath uses surfaces called ‘drive surfaces.’ In order
to achieve the desired outcome it is often necessary to use a containment
boundary. This is a curve which defines the limits of motion in x and y on the
drive surface. The key to using containment boundaries is that they must be
above your geometry.
Typically I move the model below to the construction plane before starting and put containment on
the CPlane.

Feeds and Speeds

Most spindles (the term for the router attached to your cnc router) will go
from about 7,000rpm to 18,000rpm. This speed is termed ‘spindle speed’ and
is directly related to the feed rate or surface speed, which most machines are
capable of doing up to about 200ipm. The two other variables, step-down and
step-over should be kept so that the cross-sectional area engaged with the
material is no more than the radius times the diameter of the bit. This is a
rule of thumb, but it’s a good starting point for feed and speed calculations.

To recap:

Spindle Speed – rotational speed of the cutting tool in revolutions per min
Feed Rate – Surface speed at the center of the rotating tool
Step down – the distance in the z direction per pass that a cutting tool is
plunged into the material
Step over – the maximum distance in the x/y direction that a cutting tool
will engage with uncut material

Calculating Feeds and Speeds

Below is a formula for calculating feed rate:

ChipLoad x CutterDiameter x NumberOfFlutes x SpindleSpeed = FeedRate

Where chipload is the amount of material cut per tooth (feed per tooth). Feed
rate is the surface speed of the cutting tool in inches per min, spindle speed
is the rotational speed of the cutting tool in revolutions per min, number of
flutes and cutter diameter are determined by your tool. In this case they are ¼
inch and 2 flutes. Depending on the size of your bit, the chipload for plywood
is between 0.005 inches 0.01 inches per tooth. For small bits below 1/8 inch
start with 0.005 and increase from it there. For bits 1/4 inch and larger you
will probably not break anything starting out at 0.01.

The size of the chipload or feed per tooth is a very important factor in
machining, larger chips are able to pull away more heat. Smaller chips are
easier on your machine and tools but can cause too much heat. You want to
make chips that when dropped fall to the floor rather than become dust that
stays in the air.

When trying to hone in on your feeds and speeds with a new bit, guess as
best you can using the feeds and speeds formula and touch the bit as soon
as it stops spinning after making a few cuts (remember: safety first), it
should be warm, maybe a little hot to the touch, but it should not burn you. If
it is too hot, increase the feed rate or lower the spindle speed. Look at the
quality of the edge after the cut has been completed. If it is wavy, that’s tool
chatter and you should decrease your feed rate or increase your spindle

Use your ears too, the tool should sound good when cutting … trust your gut.

Some Examples

If we plug in our known variables we get:

0.01 x 0.25 x 2 x 18000 = FeedRate = 90ipm

Keeping in mind that we don’t want to push the bit any faster than roughly
200ipm, if we wanted to use a 1/2 inch 4 flute bit, we could solve for spindle
speed rather than feed rate.

0.01 x 0.5 x 4 x SpindleSpeed = 200ipm

SpindleSpeed = 10,000rpm

It’s helpful to make a chart so you can quickly find the numbers you are
looking for. You are welcome to use my feeds and speeds chart.

Machining Tips and Tricks

Step-Down and Bit Diameter
All of these numbers are based on a step-down of the radius and step-over of
the diameter of the bit. With the chipload set to 0.01 it is possible to step
down and over the diameter of the bit, but that is the absolute maximum and
should only be brief moments in the cut. It’s possible to damage your spindle
by pushing it too hard, remember to always warm up the spindle for at least
10 minutes before making any cuts. There are some expensive bearings in
there that will be destroyed if you skip this step.

Onion Skins on Profile Cuts

When profile cutting veneered plywood I like to use a compression bit with a
technique called onion skinning. There are many different ways to program
any job, but this method is a catchall for small parts and a good finished
edge with no tear out on a vacuum table with a spoilboard. The idea is to
step down by level first, so cut all your parts down to the first step, then to the
second step and so on, leaving a thin layer of veneer at the bottom of each
cut. Then, in a final pass, cut the thin ‘onion skin’ of veneer which is left.
Because the amount left is so thin it offers little resistance to the bit and
lowers the chance of your part moving.

If I were cutting 3/4 in plywood it would actually measure somewhere around

0.72 inches, I would step down twice, 0.34 per pass leaving 0.04 inches plus
0.02 breakthrough for the last toolpath to remove. Because I’m stepping
down almost 3/8 of an inch while cutting the full 1/4 inch width of the bit in
each pass, I would have to lower the feed rate.

With a 1/4 inch bit I should be stepping down 1/8 of an inch (the radius)
when making contour cut using a chipload of 0.01 inches. But I want to use a
compression bit to avoid any tear out on the top of my sheet and that bit
doesn’t have a down spiral until about 5/16 of an inch up the cutting edge. So
I have to step down 3/8 of an inch. Because I’m increasing the cross-
sectional area of the bit engaged with the material, I should decrease the
chipload by the same amount so the new chipload would be 0.00333 and
return a new feed rate of 30ipm. After a bit of experimentation I have found
that a chipload of 0.005inches at 18000rpm resulting in a feed rate of 45ipm
is optimal for my needs.

Experiment Safely
Don’t get too carried away with the numbers, use your common sense and
trust your gut. Every bit is a little different and there is a wide range of
densities in solid wood and different sheet goods. Also, always wear your
safety glasses. It seems like an overly cautious measure many times, but
consider the likely scenario of a small 1/8 inch carbide bit shattering. It’s not
likely that wood dust will put you in the hospital, but a small shard of steel in
your eye is something to reckon with.

Download the example Rhino 3D files

If you are interested it is possible to download a free trial of

Rhino for 90 days. You can also download RhinoCAM from MecSoft.
It will not allow you to save your files, but you can experiment and
learn for free.


By Ryan McKibbin

March 21, 2014, 9:05 am PDT





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