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 A medicine is used to prevent or cure a disease or to relieved pain.

2.1 To compare the differences between traditional medicine and modern medicine.
2.2 To investigate the type of medicines and their functions.
2.3 To investigate the side effect from using the medicine.


3.1 Traditional Medicine
 Traditional medicines are derived from plants or animals
 The functions of some common medicinal plants and animals :

Medicinal plant Function

Aloe vera (lidah buaya) To treat skin wounds
Centella asiatica (pegaga) To treat depression and for longevity
Eurycoma longifolia (tongkat ali) To increase the male libido
Orthosiphon aristatus (misai kucing ) To treat gout , diabetes and rheumatism
Andrographis paniculata (hempedu bumi) To treat diarrhea , fever and diabetes
Ocimum basilicum (selasih) To treat coughs , colds and bronchitis

Medicinal animal Function

Sea cucumber (gamat) To treat Japanese encephalitis and hole in
the heart
Centipede To treat lockjaw and convulsion
Ant To treat hepatitis B

 Traditional medicine are usually not processed.

 Any medicinal plant containing alkaloid is potentially toxic to the liver .
 Traditional medicines can cause serious side effects.
 More research on the toxic and adverse effects of traditional medicines should be carried out in
order to ensure the safety of these medicines to the public .

3.2 Modern Medicines

 Modern medicines are made by scientist in laboratories and are based on
substances found in nature.
 The active ingredients in the substances are identified , extracted and purified.
 The medicine is then tested repeatedly in many different ways before it is marketed.
This allows scientists to make sure that the medicine is safe and to identify its side
 Modern medicines may come in many forms such as liquids , powders , capsules and
tablets .
 There are many types of modern medicines. These include analgesics , antibiotics
and psychotherapeutic medicines.

3.2.1 Analgesics
 Analgesics are medicines used to relieve pain without causing numbness
or affecting consciousness.
 These medicines do not treat the cause of the pain but merely provide
enough relief to the patients to allow them carry their daily routines.
 Examples of common analgesics are aspirin , paracetamol and codeine.
 Aspirin is used for pain relief , particularly where there is inflammation
involved , such as arthritic pain and dental pain .
a) The active ingredient in aspirin is acetylsalicylic acid .
b) Aspirin has the following structural formula

c) Aspirin is acidic in nature .

d) The side effects of aspirin are as follows :
- It causes internal bleeding and ulceration . To reduce irritation
of the stomach wall , aspirin is swallowed with plenty of water
and is taken after food.
- It is believed to cause brain and liver damage if given to children
with flu or chicken pox . Therefore , aspirin should never be
given to children.

 Paracetamol can be taken to relieve mild to moderate pain such as

headaches , muscle and joint pains , backaches and perod pains.
a) Unlike aspirin , paracetamol can be given to children as it does not
irritate the stomach ot cause it to bleed .
b) The side effects of paracetamol are rare when it is taken at the
recommended dose .
c) However, it causes skin rashes , blood disorder and acute
inflammation of the pancreas when it is taken on a regular basis for
a long time .
d) An overdose of paracetamol can cause liver damage .
 Codeine is an analgesic used in headache tablets and in cough medicine.
a) Most codeine is synthesized from morphine .
b) Codeine may cause drowsiness when it is taken .
c) Abuse of this medicine may lead to addiction , depression and

3.2.2 Antibiotics

 Antibiotics are used to kill or to slow down the growth of bacteria .

 They are used to treat infections caused by bacteria. They will not cure
infections cause by viruses such as colds and flu.
 Antibiotics are obtain from microorganisms such as bacteria anf fungi .
Different antibiotics can fight different kinf of bacteria .
 Examples of antibiotics are penicillin and streptomycin.

 Penicilin
a) Penicilin is one of the earliest and most widely usedantibiotics.
b) Penicilin is extracted from fungus Penicilium notatum .
c) This antibiotic is used to cure bacterial diseases such as tuberculosis
(TB) and pneumonia.

 Streptomycin
a) Streptomycin is an antibiotic produced by soil bacteria of the genus
b) It is used to treat tuberculosis , whooping cough and some forms of
pneumonia .

 Both penicillin and streptomycin can be broken down by the acid in the
stomach . Thefore , these antibiotics are usually given by injection and are
not taken orally .
 The patient should take the full course of the antibiotics that the doctor
prescribes to him even if he feels better .
 This is to make sure that all the bacteria are killed. Otherwise , he may
become ill again ant the bacteria may become more resistant to the
antibiotic . When this is happens , the antibiotic may become no longer
effective . The doctor will then have to prescribes a different and stronger
antibiotic to fight the same infection.
 Side effects of antibiotics are headache , allergic reaction and diarrhea.
3.2.3 Psychotherapeutic medicine

 People with mental illness are not in control of their thoughts , feelings ,
ande behaviours .
 Psychotherapeutic medicines are used to alter abnormal thinking ,
feelings or behaviours .
 These medicine do not cure mental illness . However , they can reduce
many of the symptons of mental illness and help a person to get on with
life .
 Psychotherapeutic medicines are divided into stimulants , antidepressant
and antipsychotic

Psychotherapeutic Function Example Side effects

Stimulant To reduce fatigue and Methylphenidate , A high dose or an excessive use of
elevate mood dextroamphetamine , stimulants over long period of time can lead
amphetamine to anxiety , hallucinations , severe
depression , or physical and psychological
dependence .
Antidepressant To reduce tension and Tranquilisers Tranquilisers cause drowsiness , por
anxiety coordination or light-headedness . An
overdose of these drugs can lead to
respiratory difficulties , sleeplessness , coma
and even death .
Barbiturates Barbiturates cause addiction . People who
rely on barbiturates to fight insomnia
sometimes kill themselves accidently by
taking and overdose.
Antipsychotic To treat psychiatric Chlorpromazine Antipsychotic medicines cause drowsiness ,
illnesses such as ,haloperidol and rapid heartbeats and dizziness .
schizophrenia clozapine

3.2.4 Other modern medicine (Hormon and Steroid)

 Steroid anabolic
 Corticosteroid
 Insulin
4.0 Discussion
 There is a lots of information about medicines that I have learnt in making this folio.
 Both of the type of medicine , traditional and modern medicine have their own pros and
cons .

5.0 Conclusion
 As a patient , in taking any medicine, we should know why the medicine is prescribed, how
the medicine should be used, what special precautions should be followed, what special
diet should be followed, what are the side effects, and what storage conditions are needed.

6.0 Sources:
 Focus 4U Chemistry SPM , Eng Nguan Hong ,Penerbitan Pelangi Sdn .Bhd , 2013