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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, praises and thanks to the God, the Almighty, for
His showers of blessings throughout our work to complete the seminar
successfully.

We would like to express my deep sense of gratitude to my Project


guide BILAL S BAVA, Assistant professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
TKMIT , for his guidance , support and constructive criticism. This seminar could
have not been success without his enthusiasm and direction.

We would also like to express our deep and sincere gratitude to


Prof. K. Madhusoodanan Pillai , Head of Department , Mechanical
Engineering, TKMIT, whose help , simulating suggestions and encouragement
helped me to complete my seminar successfully. We also like to thank our
seminar coordinator Razeek A , Associate professor , Department of
Mechanical Engineering , TKMIT for his dynamism , vision , sincerity and
methodology of coordinating project and giving us this valuable
opportunity.

We are extremely grateful to our parents for their love, prayers, caring
and sacrifices for educating and preparing us for our Future.

Our thanks and appreciations also go for all faculty members for
Mechanical Department, TKMIT, friends and people who have willingly
helped us out directly or indirectly with their abilities.

ABHINANDH M.J.
AKHIL JOSEPH
ANSAF A.
HASHIR H.

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ABSTRACT

A CNC router is very similar concept of CNC milling machine. In this tool paths are
controlled via computer numerical control. The aim of this project is used to reduce cost and
complexity of machine. This project deals with the design of automatic CNC machine for
PCB drawing and drilling, wood engraving and cutting, glass cutting. This work is concerned
with the design and development of Control unit comprising of the Arduino as the core
element in controlling the motion in X, Y and Z direction of the Computer Numerical Control
machine. Three unipolar stepper motors are used for controlling the machine axes.

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CONTENTS

Page No:

AKNOWLEDGEMENT i

ABSTRACT ii

CONTENTS iii

LIST OF FIGURES iv

LIST OF SYMBOLS v

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 01

CHAPTER 2 NUMERICAL CONTROLS 03

CHAPTER 3 NC AND CNC TECHNOLOGY 05

CHAPTER 4 CONVENTIONAL AND CNC 07


MACHINING

CHAPTER 5 NUMERICAL CONTROL 10


ADVANTAGES

CHAPTER 6 TYPES OF CNC MACHINE 15


TOOLS

CHAPTER 7 PERSONNEL FOR CNC 18

CHAPTER 8 SAFETY RELATED TO CNC 20


WORK

CHAPTER 9 CALCULATIONS 22

CHAPTER 10 DESCRIPTION OF 24
COMPONENTS
CHAPTER 11 CNC ROUTING MACHINE 27

CHAPTER 12 ROUTING MACHINE 31


ELECTRONICS
CHAPTER 13 CONCLUSION 38

CHAPTER 14 FUTURE WORK 39

REFERENCES 40

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LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE NO: CAPTION PAGE NO:

10.1 Lead Screw 24

10.2 Ball bearing 25

10.3 Circular rod 25

10.4 Linear ball bearing 26

11.1 Mechanical Structure of Router 27

11.2 Z axis of the machine 28

11.3 Y axis of the machine carrying the Z 29


axis structure.

11.4 Side view showing X axis of the 30


machine.

12.1 Bipolar stepper motor. 31

12.2 Power supply 32

12.3 Arduino Uno R3 33

12.4 CNC shield and drv8825 driver 34

12.5 Connection 34

12.6 Software Tool Chain 35

12.7 CNC Control Software Window 36

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LIST OF SYMBOLS

SYMBOLS ABBREVIATIONS

CNC Computer numerical control

CAD Computer-aided design

CAM Computer Aided Manufacturing

mm Millimetre

Kg Kilogram

% Percentage

3D Three dimensional