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hgfPsf] xf] . o; laifodf
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Joj;foLsf] laifonfO{{ hf]8/] kf6L{ k|jQmf cfdhg;d'bfonfO{{ clkn ;d]t u/] .

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sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{n]
Pdfn] cWoIf;d]t /x]sf k|wfgdGqL s]kL
zdf{ cf]nL / dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|sf cWoIf
Pdfn]_ sf cWoIf v8\uk|;fb cf]nLsf]
afnsf]6l:yt lgjf; / emfkfsf] bds
l:yt lgjf; / Pdfn]sf] s]Gb|Lo sfof{no
g]tfx¿ x]dGtk|sfz cf]nL …;'bz{gÚ Pj+
kbd /fO{ / kf6L{ ;Da4 y'k}| o'jfnfO{{
lj/f6gu/df lu/ˆtf/ u/L, em'7f d'2f
k|wfgdGqL cf]nL / k|r08lj?4 s]Gb|Lo
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ljj/0f o; k|sf/ /x]sf] 5–
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sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf pRr g]tx¿nfO{{ lgu/fgLdf /fVg] /
k'iksdn bfxfn …k|r08Úlj?4 …jf/]G6Ú w'Daf/fxLdf k'hL{ 6fFl;Psf] a'lemPsf] 5 . nufPsf] / @)&$ r}t % ut] g]skfsf k|wfgdGqL cf]nLlj?4 hf/L ePsf] k|jQmf …k|sf08sf] 3/df jf/]G6 k'hL{ lu/ˆtf/ ug]{ sfo{nfO{{ lg/Gt/ lbFb}
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] f] ;/sf/L 6f]nLnfO{{ :yfgLon] cfO/x]sf] 5 . u[xdGqL /fdaxfb'/ yfkf
hgcbfntn] cf]nL / k|r08sf gfddf lj/f6gu/df x'g nfu]sf] /fli6«o o'jf y'k}| g]tfnfO{{ lagfsf/0f lu/ˆtf/ u/L df]xgk|;fb cf]nLsf] 5f]/f emfkf nv]6s ] f 5g\ . sflnsf]6 lhNnfsf] …afbnÚn] g]skfsf ultljlw / zlQmaf/]
hgcbfntdf d'2f k/]sf] hfgsf/L :yfoL 7]ufgf eO{ xfn eQmk'/ lhNnf, dfNsf]6–$ l:yt k|jQmf k|sf08sf] 3/df ;'/Iff lgsfo;Fu tLg lbg] l/kf]6{ dfu
u/fpFb} !% lbg] …jf/]G6Ú hf/L u/]sf] ;"ol{ jgfos gu/kflnsf–@ afNsf]6 a:g]
xf] . pQm jf/]G6 s]Gb|Lo hgcfbntsf tkfO{F v8\uk|;fb cf]nLsf lj?4df
k|dv' k|sfzsf] gfdaf6 hf/L ePsf] s]Gb|Lo hgcbfnt, /f]Nkfdf lgDg
5 . g]skf dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|sf cWoIf pNn]lvt d'2fx¿ k/]sf] x'Fbf ;f]
k|r08lj?4 nlntk'/l:yt v'dn6f/df ;DaGwdf cfjZos vg';Gwfg eO/x]sf]
/x]sf] lgjf;, lrtjgsf] lzjgu/l:yt / tkfO{; F d]tnfO{{ a'‰g' kg]{ ePsf]n] of]
k|r08sf] k'/fgf] 3/, nfoG; rf]s / ;"rgf k|fKt u/]sf] jf ;fj{hlgs :yfgdf
xflsd rf]sdf /x]sf] ;Dks{ sfof{nodf 6fF; ePsf] ldltn] !% lbgleq s]Gb|Lo
;"rgf 6fF; ePsf] 5 . ;Dks{ sfof{nodf hgcbfnt /f]Nkfdf pkl:yt x'gsf laxLaf/ lbpF;f] @ ah]lt/ ef]hk'/ lhNnf u/]sf] s]xL lbg glaTb} k"jd{ GqL ;d]t
/x]sf] pQm 3/df k|r08 lrtjg cfpFbf nflu ;"lrt ul/G5 . tf]lsPsf] ;dodf cbfntsf] cfb]zkq af]s/] O{nfsf k|x/L /x]sf k|sf08lj?4 kqmfp k'hL{ 6fF;g]
a:b} cfPsf 5g\ . a'waf/ ljxfg} Ps} pkl:yt gePdf s]Gb|Lo hgkl/ifb\ sfof{no s'dfn ufpFaf6 ;/sf/L k|of; ePsf] xf] .
;dodf tLg} 7fpFdf 6fFl;Psf] :yfgLon] g]kfnsf] gLlt lgod cg';f/ x'g] s'/fsf] sd{rf/L;lxt k|x/Lsf] Ps 6f]nL k'us ] f] o;}aLr, g]skfn] klg k|wfgdGqL /
atfPsf 5g\ . k|r08sf lj?4 hf/L hfgsf/L ;d]t u/fOG5 . lyof] . 6f]nLn] 3/df k'u/] k|sf08lj?4 s]kL zdf{ cf]nL / dfs]sf cWoIf
ul/Psf] jf/]G6 kqdf dxfg hgo'4sf] tkzLn kqmfp k'hL{ 6fF:g vf]hk] l5 :yfgLo;Fu k'iksdn bfxfn …k|r08ÚnfO{{ /fi6«3ft
zflGt k|lqmofdf cfPkl5 qmflGtk|lt != @)&$ kmfu' g ^ ut] ljjfb ePsf] lyof] . clGtd;Ddf k|x/Ln] / hg3ft u/]sf] ljifo v'nfP/ hjfkm
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a'emfPsf] / hgd'lQm ;]gfnfO{{ lju7g hg:jod;]jssf] ;fj{hlgs sfo{qmddf 3/kl/jf/n] k|ltjfb u/]kl5 k'hL{ …hgcbfntÚdf pkl:yt x'g cf]nL /
u/]sf] pNn]v 5 df]/ª lj/f6gfu/tkm{ hfFb} ubf{ g]skfsf g6fFl;sg} 6f]nL lkmtf{ ePsf] 5 . ljjfb k|r08sf] 3/df jf/]G6 k'hL{ 6fF;s
] f] 5 .
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k|wfgdGqL tyf g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ - df]/ª lj/f6gu/tkm{ hfFb} ubf{ g]skfsf lj?4df d'2f k/]sf] jf/]G6df pNn]v 5 . -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_ cf]nL ;/sf/n] g]skfsf sfo{stf{bl] v k|ltqmof lbPsf 5}gg\ .

clvn qmflGtsf/Låf/f ;Demf}tfxLg ;+3if{sf] pb\3f]if s;n] /f]Sg] 1jfnLsf] 7uLwGbf


sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{ ;~rfng ug]{ ePsf] 5 . xfn} bfªdf kqsf/ ;Dd]ngsf] cfof]hgf u/L
sf7df8f}F . gofF afg]Zj/l:yt lh–
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cfO/x]sf] v'nf;f ePsf] 5 . a|f08]8
;fdu|L laqmLsf gfddf pgn] u|fxsnfO{
;fdfgsf] u|fxsx?nfO{ Eof6 lan glbg],
k;nef8f Go"gtd b]vfO{ /fhZj 5Ng]
lgs6 clvn qmflGtsf/Ln] z}lIfs ;DkGg /fli6«o ;Dd]ngsf lg0f{o qmflGtsf/Ln] ;f] hfgsf/L lbPsf] xf] . ;/sf/, u|ffxs / sfdbfnfO{ 7uL ub}{ 7uL ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ eg] laqmL ePsf -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_
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geO{ lzIff dGqfno / lzIff ljefux¿
g} aGb ug{k' g]{ cj:yf cfPsf] atfPsf]
5 . g]kfn sDo'lg:6 kf6L{sf] ljBfyL{
;+u7g clvn qmflGtsf/Lsf] @! cf}+
/fli6«o ;Dd]ng kmfu'g @& ut] ;'? eO
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lr/~hLjL 9sfnsf] cWoIftfdf %(
;b:oLo s]Gb|Lo ;ldlt lgjf{lrt u/]sf]
lyof] . ;Dd]ng kZrft a;]sf] s]Gb|Lo
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dxf;lrjdf k|sfz zfxL, ;lrjdf
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lasnfO{{ rog u/]sf] lyof] .
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sf7df8f}F . sflnsf]6sf] dxfj}
ufpFkflnsfsf cWoIf, pkfWoIf /
sfo{sf/L clws[tsf] csf]{ sf08sf]
glaTb} cGo yk e|i6frf/ ePsf] v'nf;f
ePsf] 5 . ;fj{hlgs P]gcg';f/ s'g}
klg ;"rgf k|sfzg gu/L ljgflan
lu/ˆtf/ g]tf l/xf gu/] ;zQm ;+3if{ Û
sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ ;+nUg ePsf] cf/f]kdf k|dv
' l;njfnnfO{{ dfgjclwsf/sdL{x¿sf] dfemaf6 uDeL/ cfklQ hgfPsf] 5 . g]skf
g'jfsf]6sf hgkl/ifb k|dv ' laGtf]if lu/ˆtf/ ul/Psf] k|x/Ln] atfPsf] 5 . sfo{qmd :ynaf6} lagfsf/0f cfˆgf g'jfsf]6sf OGrfh{ ;ljtf tfdfªn] k|;]
l;njfn …czf]sÚ nfO{{ k|x/Ln] lu/ˆtf/ o;} a Lr, kqsf/ / g]tfsf] lu/ˆtf/L u/]kl5 g]skf g'jfsf]6n] lj1lKt hf/L ub}{ ;/sf/sf] o:tf] sfo{kl| t
u/]sf] 5 . l;njfnnfO{{ a'waf/ kqsf/ 3f]/ lj/f]w tyf eT;{gf u/]sL 5g\ . pgn]
;Dd]ng:ynaf6} k|x/Ln] lu/ˆtf/ u/]sf] l;njfnnfO{{ tTsfn lagfzt{ l/xfOsf]
xf] . g'jfsf]6sf] ljb'/ gu/kflnsf–@ dfu ub}{ l/xfO gul/Pdf tTsfn ;zQm
a§f/df kf6L{sf] wf/0ff ;fj{hlgs ug{ ;+3if{sf] sfo{qmd 3f]if0ff ug{ afWo xg]
cfof]lht kqsf/ ;Dd]ng :ynaf6 g} lj1lKt hf/L u/L pNn]v u/]sf] l5g
k|dv ' cfzf]snfO{{ k|x/Ln] ckx/0fsf/L ;fy} pQm kl/l:yltsf] lhDd]jf/L :jod
z}nLdf 3]/faGbL xfn]/ lgoGq0fdf lhNnf k|zf;g x'g] lj1lKtdfkm{t hfgsf/L
lu/ˆtf/ u/]sf] g]skf g'jfsf]6n] atfPsf] ;d]t lbPls 5g\ . o; laifodf g]skf
5 . tfD;flnË :jfoQ k|bz ] sf] cfof]hgdf g'jfsf]6sf OGrfh{ ;ljtf tfdfªn] hf/L
kqsf/ ;Dd] n gd} k' u ] / k| x /Ln] u/]sf] k|;] lj1lKt o; k|sf/ /x]sf] 5 -
l;njfnnfO{{ 3]/f xfn]/ lu/ˆtf/ u/]sf] æcfh ldlt @)&$ r}q !$ ut] g]kfn
atfOPsf] 5 . o;}qmddf g'jfsf]6 k|x/L sDo'lgi6 kf6L{ lhNnf ;ldlt g'jfsf]6sf]
k|dv' P;kL a;Gt s'jF /n] l;njfnnfO{{ ;b:o s= ljGtf]if l;njfnnfO{{ ljb'/
lu/ˆtf/ u/]sf] :jLsf/ u/]sf 5g\ . pgn] gu/kflnsf a6f/af6 kqsf/ ;Dd]ng
v'nf;f ePsf] 5 . s/f]8f}+ e|i6frf/ e/kfO{ ;fdfg vl/b u/]sf], e|d0f vr{ df}lvs ph'/Lsf cfwf/df lu/ˆtf/ ug]{ qmddf lagf sf/0f k|x/Ln] lu/ˆtf/L
ePsf] ;dfrf/;Fu} ufpFkflnsfsf] eg]/ nfvf}+ /sd dgf]dfgL tl/sfn] ul/Psf] atfP . s'jF /n] g]skfn] d]o/– u/]sf]df xfd|f] lhNnf kf6L{sf] uDeL/
ah]6df tLg}hgfn] hUuf vl/b u/]sf] ljt/0f u/]sf], ;/sf/L cf}iflwsf vl/b pkd]o/ / ufpFkflnsf k|dv ' x¿sf] Wofgfsif{0f ePsf] 5 . tfD;flnË :jfoQ
v'nf; ePsf] 5 . ufpFkflnsfdf / gSsnL lan agfPsf], sd{rf/L lgod /fhLgfdf dfu]sf] df}lvs / s]xL ;do k|b]z cGt/utsf] hgkl/ifbåf/f
dgf]dfgL tl/sfn] s/f]8f}+ /sd lxgfldgf ljkl/t / lgo'Qm u/]sf] / ljsf; cufl8 Pg;]n 6fj/dfly cfqmd0fdf
ePsf] ;drf/ k|sfzg ePsf] Ps xKtf -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_ -af“ s L clGtd k] h df_
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g]kfnnfO{{ ;fDk|bflos /0fd}bfg agfpg] v]n
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pkof]u u5{g\ – n]lgg
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ePsf] 5 wd{lg/k]Iftf hfltotf /
Pp6f /fi6« b'O6{ f /fli6«otf pTkfbg u/fP/
t/fO{ g]kfnsf] leGg d'ns ' xf] . v; cfo{,
vf;u/L g]kfndf tLg k|sf/sf]
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IfqLo tyf hflto latG8f pTkfbg v; cfo{x¿af6 dw];L, cflbjf;L, kf6L{sf] l6s6 gkfP/ k|lt;f]wsf] Ov
sfo{qmddf x:tIf]k ug],{ p;sf sfo{stf{nfO{ u/fP/ cfˆgf] pkl:ylt hgfpg] hghflt, pTkLl8t 5g\ . o;sf] xnsf] /fv]/ a;]sf] zlQm t];|f] /fi6« /
s'r]i6f u/]sf 5g\, h:sf] lg/Gt/tf nflu /fHosf] k' g ;{ + / rgfdfkm{ t /fli6«otfsf] ;'/Iff k|htGq rfxg] t/
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tLj|tf lbPkl5 To;sf] b'ikl/0ffd b]lvg yfn]sf] k|lta]bgnfO{{ lng ;lsG5 .
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g]kfndf lqsf]0ffTds pkl:yt / cfjZostf s] < zlQmaf6 k|efljt ag]/ Odf];gn
ug{ kfpg] ;+ljwfg k|bQ xsdfly ;/sf/n] c+sz ' rnv]n ug{ cfˆg} tyfgfd tl/sf g] k fndf d' V ou/L /fhgLlt df;sf] k|ltlglwTj ug{;Sg] a9L
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nufpg yfn]kl5 g]skf klg pQ]lht x'bF } uPsf] cfOk'Ubf ef/t, cd]l/sL / o'/f]k]nL /fhgLltsf] aLp /f]Kg] cfOPglhcf]sf] vt/f l;s] /fjt b]lvG5g\ . of]
;+;f/;]g k[ys
5 . ;/sf/n] g]skfsf g]tfx?dfly jf/]G6 hf/L k'g;{+/rgf hgk|ltlglwsf] af/]df
d'ns' x¿ cfˆgf] pkl:ylt hgfpg
leGg tl/sf ckgfpb} cfPsf 5g\ .
e"ldsf /x]sf]] 5 o;sf] g]kfnL hgtf
g]kfn ;/sf/ / g]kfnsf /fhgLlt
b]lvPsf] l;s] /fjteGbf gb]lvPsf]
gl:no l;s]/fjt e]6fpg o'/f]k]nL /
ub}{ 3/–3/df kqmfp k'hL{ 6fF:g yfn]kl5 g]skfn] Jofks ;d:of b]lvFb} cfPsf] 5 ef/t ;fd|fHosf] ugug] ygyg] k|jl[ Q kf6L{x¿n] g]kfnaf6 o:tfvfn] ;a} cd]l/sL d'n'sx¿ tNnLg 5g\ .
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klg hgcbfnt ;lqmo agfPsf] ;dfrf/x? /fhgLlt kf6L{ x ¿df Jofks lg/Gt/tf afx|a'Fb] ;Demf}tf x'Fbfv]/L o'/f]lkog o'lgogsf] d'Vo k|ltlglw lxhf] ef/tnfO{{ 6'KkL s;]/ ufnL
cqmdGotf b]lvG5 . o;}sf] kmfObf o'/f]k]nL / ef/t Ps7fpFdf a;]/ Ph] G 6sf] ¿kdf Pglhcf] / ug]x{ ¿ cfh g]kfnsf] /fhgLltdf 3[0ff
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lagfsf/0f /fhgLlts k|ltzf]wsf sf/0f jf/]G6 rt'/f] x'bF } o'Pg gfdsf] Kn]sf8{ af]s/]
r'gfjL dt ;a]{If0fsf] gfddf kf/]sf]
u/fpg] of]hgfcg';f/ g]kfndf lbuf]
cl:y/tf sfod ug]{ x]t'n] ;+l3otf
PghLcf] / cfOPglhcf] ePsf]
/fhgLlt kf6L{x¿ Pdfn] / dfcf]jfbL
hah{ : t lgb] { z g ug{ o' / f] k ] n L
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klg Pdfn] cWoIf tyf k|wfgdGqL s]kL cf]nL / aLp /f]k]sf l;s]/fjtnfO{{ /fxt xTofsf08 36fOPsf] lyof]] . h;af6 latG8f pTkfbg x'g] k|an ;+efjgf Ozf/fdf rn]sf] 5 :ki6tfsf ;fy
dx;'; x'g] u/L kxf8L e8\lsnf] l;s] ef/tnfO{{ lbuf] c;/ kg]{ b]v]/ a9]/ cfosf] 5 . g]kfnL /fhgLlt a'‰g ;lsG5 .
dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|sf cWoIf k|r08sf] gfddf !% lbg] /fjt vf]hLdf 5g\ . of] k|lqmof d"ntM dw];af6 Aofs eof] . clkt' ;+ljwfg kf6L{ / ltgsf d"n g]tT[ jn] af]Ng] t/fO{df l;s] /fjtnfO{ ub{gdf
jf/]G6 hf/L ub}{ pgLx?sf] 3/df k'hL{ 6fF;s ] f] 5 . clxn]sf] xf]Og ;+ljwfg n]vg /
3f]if0ff;Dd cfOk'Ubf g]kfnn] cd]l/sL
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gsf/fTds ugug] ygyg] sfo{;}nL
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af]s/] kxf8L gl:no l;s] /fjt vf]Hb}
5g\ . klZrdLx¿ dfgjclwsf/ eg]/
o:tf] l:ylt cfpg'df vf;u/L ;QfkIfs} sdhf]/L tyf o' / f] k ] n L d' n ' s x¿sf] rfv cg'xf/ :j¿k gfsfaGbLn] ubf{ cd]l/sL pS;fx6df cleJolQm x'g] 3[0ff / lav08gsf] /fhgLlt ug]{ /
cg'sn " lqmofsnfk ub}{ cfosf lyP . g]kfnaf6 ef/t w]/} Aofs x'g'k/]sf] u/]sf 5g\ . cd]l/sL ;fd|fHojfbn] g] k fnnfO{ { ;fDk| b flos /0fd} b fg
b]lvG5 . lsgls ;Qf kIfn] g]skfsf] zflGtk"0f{ h;sf] k|ltkmn clxn] k|To]If x:tIf]k xf] . cfˆgf] bL3{ s fnLg nfe / g]kfnnfO{{ ?jf08f tyf l;l/of agfpg] agfpg vf]Hg] o'/f]kn ] L gLltnfO{ a'‰g
/ lgb]z { gfTds 9Ën] k|ikm'6g ePsf] rfvcg';f/ g]kfndf of] jf Tof] 8/nfUbf] rfnafhL ul//x]sf 5g\, h?/L 5 . g]kfn Pp6f dxTjk"0f{
sfo{qmddf k|x/L bdg, lu/ˆtf/L / p;sf xf] . klZrdL d' n ' s x¿n] g] k fn ¿kdf ;fdflhs ;b\efa Pstfsf] h:nfO{{ ga'‰g' u'nfd ;Qfdf]xsf] e";]t' xf], h;sf] dxTj /fli6«o
sfo{stf{nfO{ e"m7f d'2fdf kmfpg] sfo{ gu/]sf] Pl;ofnL d'ns ' df ;a}eGbf ;+ab] gl;n
efae"lddf cal:yt 5 . Pl;of
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eP o:tf] l:ylt cfpg] g} lyPg . cfk"mnfO{ ;Rrf dxfb]zsf] c9fO{ ca{ hg;+Vofsf] d"n To:sf] k| l tlglw kfqsf] ¿k} d f ;fd|fHojfbsf] v]tfnf] ag]/ g]kfndf ;/sf/ / ;Qf u7aGwgsf] aLraf6
lg;fgfsf] aLrdf g]kfn 5 . oxL l;s]/fjtnfO{{ sfFwdf af]s]/ lxF8\g] /fhgLlt ul//x]sf 5g\ . glZno l;s] /fjt ghlGdof];\ .
nf]stGqjfbL atfpg] ;Qf kIfn] ;+ljwfg k|bQ
xssf] pkof]udf afwf c8\rg k'¥ofpFbf o:tf]
cj:yf cfPsf] ;j{ljlbt} 5 . To;}n] b]zdf clxn] ux'tF af6 !$* k|sf/sf /f]u lgsf] x'g] Û
sf7df8f}F . :yfgLo ufO{sf] ux'tF af6 !$* P;f]l;P;g, ef/tsf cWoIf 8f km/dnl8xfO8 Uof; lgl:sG5 . k|fl] klng kfOg] / o;n] dfgj z/L/sf ;Dk"0f{
ghflgFbf] 9Ën] åGå a9\b5 } , h'g eljiodf lgs} k|sf/sf /f]u lgsf] x'g] j}1flgs cg';Gwfgaf6 zflGtnfn ;fxn] e};F Lsf] b"wdf …nf]ªr \ g cS;fO8n] jiff{ ug{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpF5 eg] cfjZostfnfO{{ k"lt{ u/L lg/f]uL aGgsf
kL8fbfoL x'g] b]lvG5 . t;y{, ;Qf kIf ;sf/fTds k'li6 ePsf] 5 . ufO{sf] £o"n] a9]sf] sf]n:] 6f]/n ˆof6Ú a9L eO{ gzf hd]/ cj?4 x'bF f Olylng cS;fO8 / km/dn8LxfO8 Uof;n] nflu ;xof]u k'¥ofpF5 .
7Ls u/fpF5 . uf]/; d'6/' f]udf ;d]t Åbof3ftsf ;d:of b]vfk/]sfn] ufO{sf] kof{j/0fdf gsf/fTds c;/ k'¥ofpg] O6fnLdf k|flhO lj+u8] n] ufO{sf]
x'g g;s] l:ylt lgs} hl6n x'g] b]lvG5 . ;Qf nfebfos /x]sf] tYo j}1flgs cg';Gwfgaf6 b"w Åbo /f]uLsf nflu a/bfg ;fljt hLjf0f'nfO{{ df/L z'4Ls/0f ub{5 . o;}n] uf]a/dfly cg';Gwfg u/L o;df Ifo/f]u
k|dfl0ft ePsf] 5 . x'g] cg';Gwfgaf6 k'li6 u/]sf 5g . ubf{ ufO{sf] £o"sf] dxTj 5 . :yfgLo / dn]l/ofsf sL6f0f'nfO{{ dfg]{ cb\et"
kIfsf] bdgsf/L z}nLs} sf/0f g]skf cfˆgf] ?;L j}1flgs lz/f]aLrn] dflg;df cd]l/sfn] ufO{sf] ux'tF df zf]w u/L ufO{sf] b"wdf cf]du] f—# gfds tTj kfOG5 Ifdtf x'G5 eGg] tYo kQf nufpg'eof] .
x'g] /]l8of]wdL{ s0fsf] k|efj gi6 ug]{ uf]dq" af6 aGg] kfFrj6f cf}iflwsf] …k]6G] 6 o;n] :d/0f zlQm a9fpF5 . ;]/L a|f;] fO8 gk';+ stf, lrl8\r8fkg, dw'dx] , pRr
cl:tTj /Iffsf] sf/0f klg d}bfg 5f8\g] 5}g . Ifdtf ufO{sf] b"w, bxL, £o", ux'tF / /fO6Ú lnPsf] :yfgLo ufO{sf] cWoogdf gfds tTjn] s'g} klg k|sf/sf ca{b' /Qmrfk, afy, lduf{}nf cflb /f]u
h;n] ubf{ åGå a9\g hfg] lglZrt 5 . To;sf/0f uf]a/df x'g] cg';Gwfgaf6 kQf nufPsf nfUg'ePsf uf]j|tL of]uL ;f]d/fh /f]u x'g lbFbg} . uf]dq" df sSo{l' dg gfds cfw'lgs s[lif k|0ffnLsf pkh x'g\ .
x'g\ . ;g\ @)!@ df cd]l/sg x6{ atfpg'x'G5 . ef/tn] klg ufO{sf] tTj kfOG5, h'g ca{b' /f]u lg/f]ws cf}iflw ufO{sf] ux'tF / uf]a/af6 ag]sf] k|fËfl/s
;/sf/n] tTsfn g]skfdfly bdg ug{ 5f]8L Pzf]l;Pzgn] :yfgLo ufO{sf] bxL ;]jg uf]a/df cg';Gwfg u/L $* j6f xf] eGg] tYo j}1flgs¿kdf k|dfl0ft dnsf] k|of]u ul/Psf] v]tLaf6 o:tf /f]u
ugf{n] pRr /Qmrfksf /f]uLdf #! cf}iflwsf] …k]6G] 6 /fO6Ú lnPsf] 5 . ePsf] 5 . nfUg] cgfh pTkfbg x'bF g} . clxn] o'/f]k /
;+ljwfg k|bQ xssf] pkef]udf s'g} afwf Jojwfg k|ltztn] sdL cfPsf] tYo ;fj{hlgs ufO{sf] £o"n] xjg ubf{ k|fl] klng o;n] ca{b' /f]u nfUgaf6 ;d]t cd]l/sfsf zx/df ;d]t cUof{lgs -h}ljs_
u¥of] . OG6/g]zgn sfl8{of]nf]hL cS;fO8, Olylng cS;fO8, arfpF5 . uf}dq" df cGo @$ j6f tTj v]tL ug]{ qmd a9]sf] 5 .
ug'{ x'bF g} / g]skfsf g]tf, sfo{stf{dfly nufOPsf
e"m7f d'2f tTsfn vf/]h ug'k{ 5{ ;fy} lu/ˆtf/
ul/Psf g]tf, sfo{stf{nfO{ tTsfn l/xf ug'k{ 5{ . kmf]A;{ Dofulhgsf] d"Nof+sgdf uDeL/ q'l6
sf7df8f}F . ljZjsf wgLx¿sf] ;'lr ! xhf/ % ;o ^! cf}+ :yfgdf k/]sf l6dnfO{ { of] cf/f] k g] k fnL oltj]nf aflemPsf] 5 h'g k|ltj]bg
cGoyf ;Qf kIfsf] bdgn] lgDTofpg] b'ikl/0ffdn] k|sflzt ub}{ cfPsf] kmf]A;{ Dofulhgn] 5g\ . ut jif{ pgL ! xhf/ % ;o ^# ;j{;fwf/0fx¿n] nfufPsf x'g\ . tLj|va/;+u ;'/lIft 5 .
d'ns' ;+s6df kg]{ lglZrt b]lvG5, r]tgf eof==== . ub}{ cfPsf] wgLx¿sf] d"Nof+sgdf q'l6
x' g ] u/] s f] cf/f] k g] k fnsf]
cf}+ :yfgdf lyP . ljgf]b rf}w/Lsf] d'Vo
cfDbfgL ug]{ sDkgL ;LhL sk{ Unf]an
rf}w/L;+u ePsf] clwsf+z ;DklQ /
pgsf] sDkgLdf g]kfnsf k"j/{ fhf
g] k fn ;/sf/nfO{ { s/ sd
a'emfpg] sDklgsf] ;'lrdf klg
;j{;fwf/0fx¿n] ug{ yfn]sf 5g\ . /x]sf] kmf]A;{n] pNn]v u/]sf] 5 . tyflk :jlu{o lj/]Gb| lj/ljqmd zfx / olta]nf rf}w/L u|k' cu|klQmdf k/]sf]
;fpbLsf /fhs'df/ g]kfn cfpFb}
sf7df8f}F . nlntk'/sf] uf]bfj/L /fhs'df/nfO{ k|d'v cltlysf ?kdf
pgLx¿n] g]kfnsf wgL elgPsf ljgf]b
rf}w/Lsf] ;"lr k|sflztdf kmf]A;{
g] k fnsf] ;Gbe{ d f eg] cGo /fhkl/jf/sf] aNofs dgL nufgL /x]sf]
/ ;f] nufgL / ;DklQ n'sfP/ cfˆgf]
5 . p;sf] pTkfbg / ahf/ a9L 5
tyflk s/ eg] sd ltg{; ' u+ } pgsf]
gu/kflnsfdf cfof] h gf x' g ] Nofpg gu/kflnsfsfn] kxn u/]sf] Dofulhgn] ulDe/ q'l6 u/]sf] cf/f]k b]vfPsf] ;dfrf/;|ft] n] pNn]v u/]sf] st{t' 5n{ª ePsf] xf], of] ;+u} oltj]nf
cGt/f{li6«o a'l4rfn k|ltof]lutf xf] . k|ltof]lutfdf ?;, :nf]eflsof, nufPsf x'g\ . g]kfnsf pBf]uklt 5 . pgsf] ;DklQ ut jif{sf] t'ngfdf pgsf] ;DklQ a9] / ljZjsf
cjnf]sg ug{ ;fpbL c/]laofsf ef/t, kfls:tfg, dflNbE;nufot ljgf]b rf}w/L !=%@ ca{ 8n/;lxt @) ca{ ¿k}ofF yk ePsf] ljZjsf wlgx¿sf] ;' l rdf pgL psfnf]
/fhs'df/ ;]v ;'Ntfg lag vflnb @% /fi6«sf Ps ;o %) v]nf8L kmf]A;{ Dofulhgsf] ;"rLdf 5g\ . oBlk wgf9\ox¿sf] ;"rL k|sflzt ug]{ nfUg'nfO{{ cfd ;j{;fwf/0fx¿n] kmf]A;{
cnldnfg uf]bfj/L cfpg] ePsf ;xefuL x'g5 ] g\ . g]kfndf s/ lt/]sf] ;Gbe{nfO{{ s]nfpg] cd]l/sL Dofu]lhg kmf]A;{n] hgfPsf] Dofulhgsf] d"Nof+sg l6dsf] d"Nof+sg
5g\ . ;fpbL /fhs'df/ cnldnfg uf]bfj/L gu/kflnsfn] g]kfn xf] eg] pgL g]kfnsf] nflu ul/a ;'lrdf 5 . cl3Nnf] jif{ pgsf] ;DklQ !=% q'l6k"0f{ ePsf] cf/f]k nufPsf x'g\ .
Pl;og al4rfn dxf;+3sf cWoIfsf] a' l 4rfn ;+ 3 ;F u sf] ;xsfo{ d f ;'lrs[t 5g\ . tyflk pgL ljZjsf] ca{ cd]l/sL 8n/ lyof] . ;g\ @)!* g]kfnsf] ;Gbe{df ;a}eGbf pRr
x} l ;otdf g] k fn cfpg nfu] s f] cGt/f{li6«o a'l4rfn k|ltof]lutf wgL ;'lrdf ;'lrs[t eP;+u} kmf]A;{ dfr{ ^ ;Ddsf] ;DklQ u0fgf ub]{ s/ a'emfpg] sDkgLsf dflns eGbf
uf]bfj/L gu/kflnsfsf k|dv ' uh]Gb| cfof]hgf ug{ nfu]sf] xf] . …/fhs'df/sf] Dofulhgsf] d" N of+ s g sld6L kmf]A;{n] o:tf] ljj/0f ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] sd s/ a'emfpg] rf}w/L ljZjsf]
dxh{gn] hfgsf/L lbP . ;fpbL pkl:yltn] uf]bfj/L gu/kflnsfsf] d"Nof+sgdf c;Ifd /x]sf] cf/f]k xf] . kmf]A;{nfO{{ lbPsf] pgsf] k|ltj]bg wgLsf] ;'lrdf kg'; { u+ } cem pgsf]
/fhs'df/;Fu} k|ltof]lutfdf ljZj ko{6g ljsf;df d2t k'Ug] ljZjf; g]kfnsf ;j{;fwf/0fx¿n] nufpg / g]kfn ;/sf/nfO{{ lbPsf] pgsf] ;'lr psfnf] nfUg'nfO{{ cy{k"0f{ /x]sf]
a'l4rfn dxf;+3sf cWoIf s';fGt lnPsf 5f}Ú+ , gu/k|dv' dxh{gn] eg], yfn]sf 5g\ . ;j{;fwf/0fx¿n] cfˆgf] k|ltj]bg PsfPs aflemPsf] k'li6 ts{ g]kfnL ;j{;fwf/0fx¿sf] 5 . of]
On'dlemgf]e klg uf]bfj/L cfpg …gu/sf] ko{6g k|j4{gsf nflu g]kfn ljxfgsf] b}lgsL lrof lkpg] k;nx¿df] sDklgx¿sf] ;'lrdWo] sd /fhZj tLj|va/n] km]nf kf/]sf] 5 . kmf]A;{ d"Nof+sg;+u} kmf]A;{ Dofulhgsf]
nfu]sf 5g\ . gu/k|d'v dxh{gsf a'l4rfn ;+3;Fu ldn]/ cGt/f{li6«o of] vfnsf] cleJolQm lbFb} cfPsf x'g\ . a'emfpg] ;'lrdf ;f]xL sDkgL kg{n
' ] DofulhgnfO{{ lbOPsf] k|ltj]bg / g]kfn d"Nof+sg l6d cfnf]lrt aGg k'us ] f]
cg' ; f/ k| l tof] l utfdf ;fpbL k|ltof]lutf cfof]hgf ug{ nfu]sf xf}+ .Ú kmf]A;{sf] gofF ca{klt ;"rLdf rf}w/L klg kmf]A;{ Dofulhgsf] d"Nof+sg ;/sf/ s/ sfof{nosf] k|ltj]bg xf] . – kljq zdf{
@)&$ ;fn r}t !* ut] cfOtaf/ 3

O{os" f] l/kf]6{ M s'lT;t s'07fsf] cleJolQm


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g]kfnL xjfO{ csfz c;'/lIft, # aif{df !) 7"nf b'36{ gf
sf7df8f}F . kl5Nnf] ;do g]kfnL xjfO{ csfz lgSs} c;'/lIft
x'bF } uPsf] b]lvPsf] 5 . t/, b'36{ gf sd ug{ ug{k' g]{ sfdx¿df
gful/s p88\og k|flws/0f eg] r's]sf] b]lvPsf] 5 . gful/s
;d'bfonfO{{ lbOPsf] slyt\ cf/If0f - b]zx¿ O;fO{ /fHodf kl/0ft xf]pg\ . ;+ljwfgsf] 3f]if0ff ug]{ k|so[ fnfO{{ sfg'gL¿kd} k};fdf lsGg ;lsg]
;dfg'kflts k|0ffnLnfO{{ cf/If0f eg]/ cd]l/sf;lxtsf] o'/f]lkog w'/Ln] k|efljt ug{ o'/f]lkogx¿n] u/]sf wd{lg/k]Iftf lgof{t\ ug{ ;lsof];\ . p88og k|flws/0fsf] dxflgb]z { s ag]/ ;GhLj uf}td cfPsf] em08}
aªofpg vf]hs ] f 5g\_ sf] ;+jw} flgs g]kfndf gf+uf] ¿kdf a]bvn ub}{ ck/fwx¿ / ;+ljwfg hf/L eO;s]kl5 ltgLx¿sf] nufgL ;Daf]wg ug{sf tLg aif{ ljTg nfUof] t/ of] cjlwdf !) cf]6feGbf a9L b'36{ gfdf
k|fjwfgnfO{{ x6fpg' kg]{ egL tof/ cfpg' s f] d' V o sf/0f g] k fnsf] To;sf] ;+zf]wg x'gk' /{g\ ] elg )&@ b]vfpg] af]qmf] t tof/ eof] t/ afXo eO;s]sf] 5 . pgL @)&@ ;fn h]7df dxflgb]z { s ePotf 7"nf
kf/]sf] k"jl{ gwf{l/t l/kf]6{ sf af/]df e"/fhgLltsf] b'¿kof]u u/]/ rLg / r}tdf Ol08of;Fu ldn]/ g]kfn lj?4 sf/0fn] To;df u' l b el/Pg .
rf}tkmL{ lj/f]w eO/x]sf] 5 . t/, ;f] Pl;ofsf] ;EotfnfO{{ lgzfgf agfpg' a| ; ] N ;af6 hf/L u/] s f] jQmAo, …ax'/fli6«otfÚ sf] k|ltlglwTj gug]{
ax'hfltotf, cfTd–lg0f{o ljgfsf]
e/t bfxfn ;+ 3 Lotf, Aofkf/ ug{ gkfO{ g ]
wd{lg/k]Iftf / hfltotf gePsf]
o'/f]lkogx¿ rfxG5g\ ls k|bz] pgLx¿nfO{{ kr]sf] 5}g .
g]kfnsf] ;+ljwfgdf olt Joj:yf
pgLx¿sf] cfˆgf] lubf]{ gubf{;Dd g]kfnLx¿nfO{{ tfldn,
lzv, x't', t'T;L, euf}8f ltAatL,
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;+ej 5}g . o;f] ug{ g;Sbf;Dd
¿kdf rln/xgsf nflu g]kfnnfO{{ rLg;+u n8\g] :yfoL c•f
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rLgnufotsf s'g} klg rfx] h:tf] ;fdflhs hu 5}g / b'36{ gfx¿ eP t/ xjfO{ b'36{ gf sd u/fpg] lbzfdf pgn] s'g}
/fi6«x¿sf] dxfzlQmsf o;sf nflu sfg'gL xltof/sf] ;xf/f
glnO{ x' F b } g . To;} n ] o' / f] l kog
7f]; sbd rfNg ;s]sf 5}gg\ . a? emg\ kl5 emg\ g]kfnsf]
p88\og If]q c;'/lIft x'bF } uPsf] b]lvG5 . @)&@ a}zfv !@ sf]
¿kdf pbo gxf];,\ pgLx¿ ;fd|fHojfbLx¿ zlQmx¿sf] ;Dk"0f{
tfst Pglhcf]x¿ dfkm{t\ ;dfh e"sDk uP nuQ}af6 xjfO{ p•og If]qsf] g]t[Tj u/]sf uf}td
chDd/L n'6/] f /lx/xgsf efF8\g k|of; ug]{ tyf bnfn / dxflgb]z { s ePkl5 @)&@ ;fndf cd]l/s x]lnsK6/ b'36{ gf eof]
Ph]G6x¿ lsg]/ ltgLx¿ dfkm{t\ hxfF !# hgfsf] d[To' ePsf] lyof] eg] @)&@ h]7 !( ut] g} dfpG6]g
nflu ;a}n] ltgs} ;f]r xf]xNnf dRrfpg] z}nLdf cl3 a9\g Pc/sf] x]lnsf]K6/ b'36{ gf x'bF f $ hgfsf] d[To' ePsf] lyof] .
vf]lh/x]sf] 5 . …o'/f]lkog o"lgogÚ sf] To:t} @)&@ kmfNu'g !@ ut] DofUbLsf] bfgf uflj;sf] ;f]nL3f]K6]
cg';f/ sfd u?g\ / ;fd| f HojfbL l/kf] 6 { s f] /0fgLlt eL/df tf/f Po/nfO{G;sf] ljdfg b'36{ gfdf k¥of] h;df @% hgfsf]
;+ljwfgsf] ;+;f]wgsf nflu jftfj/0f
o:tf] :jfy{sf] ;f+:s[lts c+usf ¿kdf ;a} b]zx¿ O;fO{ /fHodf agfpg efF8e}nf] dRrfpg' xf] g} . Hofg uof] eg] To;sf] kl;{kN6} kmfu'g !$ ut] Pc/ sfi7df08ksf]
o;sf] tfTsflns sfo{gLlt klg ljdfg sflnsf]6df b'36{ gf x'bF f @ hgfn] Hofg u'dfP . To:t} @)&#
kl/0ft xf]pg\ . cd]l/sf;lxtsf] o'/f]lkog w'/Ln] g]kfndf gf+uf] o;} ; + u hf] l 8Psf] 5, h;nfO{ { >fj0f @) ut] x'Dnfsf] l;ldsf]6df kg]{ s0ff{nL gbLdf dsfn'
¿kdf a]bvn ub}{ cfpg'sf] d'Vo sf/0f g]kfnsf] e"/fhgLltsf] pgLx¿n] k|s6 ¿kdf eGg ;Sb}gg\ .
Tof] sfo{gLlt xf]– cfGtl/s emd]nf
Po/sf] b'36{ gf eof] . o;df dfgjLo Iflt geP klg To;sf] rf/
lbg kl5 @)&# >fj0f @$ ut] g'jfsf]6sf] j]ltgL hËn r'Rr]le/df
b'¿kof]u u/]/ rLg / Pl;ofsf] ;EotfnfO{{ lgzfgf agfpg' xf] l;h{gf u/]/ s]kL cf]nL g]t[Tjsf] ePsf] lkm:6]n Po/sf] b'3{6gfdf & hgfn] Hofg u'dfP . To:t}
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@)&# c;f]h * ut] ¿kGb]xLsf] e}/xjf ljdfg:ynd} otL Po/nfO{G;sf]
eGg] s'/f 3fdem}+ 5n{ª 5 . ;Sg] ;Defjgfdf Jojwfg v8f ug{' .
hxfh b'36{ gf eof] . dfgljo IftL gePklg o;n] 7'n} c;/ u¥of] .
s;}dfly ljho k|fKt ug{ ;lsg]
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‘O{o’" sf] slyt l/kf]6n{ fO{{ lj/f]w u/]/ dfq 5f]l8of] eg] gLlt ckgfpg' /fhgLlts ;+3if{sf] !@ ut] x'Dnfsf] l;ldsf]6 Po/kf]6d{ f g} tf/f Po/sf] b'36{ gf eof] .
;fdfGo lgod xf] .
;/sf/n] To;sf] dxFuf] d"No r'Qmf ug{k' g]{ cj:yf cfpF5 . …o"/f]kLog o"lgogÚ sf] slyt l/kf]6{
cl3Nnf] dlxgf kmfu'g @* ut] lqe'jg cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg:yndf g}
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bn / sd{rf/LtGqsf dflg;x¿nfO{{ Pglhcf];u + hf]l8g k|s/0f pgLx¿nfO{{ nfu]sf] ;fdfGo
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#$ dlxgfsf] cjlwdf !) 7"nf b'36{ gf x'bF f !)$ hgfeGbf a9Lsf]
k|ltaGw nufpg], ljsf; lgdf{0fsf sfdafx]s cGo If]qdf /0fgLltsf] g]kfn sl8 xf] . o;sf]
k|ToIf ;DaGw …lk|m ltAjtÚ l8hfOg;+u d[To' eO;s]sf] 5 . t/, ;'wf/ ug{'kg]{ kIf cem} ;'wf/ gePsf]
Pglhcf] nufgL aGb ug]{ / cgfjZos PghLcf]x¿ vf/]h 5, euf}8f ltAatLx¿nfO{{ g]kfnL p88og If]qsf hfgsf/ xl/eQm >]i7 atfpF5g\ .
gful/stf lbnfpg] p2]Zo;+u 5, gful/s p88og k|flws/0fnfO{{ clxn] xjfO{ If]qsf] nfO{;]G;
ug],{ zt{;lxtsf nufgLx¿ leq\ofpg aGb ug]{ / /f]lx+ufx¿sf] z/0ffyL{ lzlj/ v8f ug]{ lbg]bl] v lgodg ug]; { Ddsf] clwsf/ 5 . Pp6} lgsfon] b'O{ lhDd]jf/L
of]hgf;+u 5 / ck|ToIf ¿kdf
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;Dxfn]sf] sf/0f klg lgodgsf] kf6f] ;w} lkmtnf] b]lvPsf] 5 . cem
sf]l/of ljjfb, …;fpy rfOgf ;LÚ g]tT[ jn] xjfO{ If]qsf] ;'wf/df tbf?stfsf ;fy cufl8 a9\g g;Sbf
lgod gagfOsg pgLx¿sf] x:tIf]knfO{{ /f]Sg c;Dej k|s/0f, pOu'/ k[ystfjfb ;a};+u b'36{ gfx¿ x'g] u/]sf] hfgsf/x¿ atfpF5g\ t/ o;nfO{{ ;'wf/ ug{k' g]{
5 . lsgsL rLg lj/f]wL oL ;a} w]/} 7fpF 5 eG5g\ . olb cj:yf o:t} x'g] x'g] xf] eg] g]kfnL cfsfz
h:t} 5 . ultljlwsf] cg's"ntfdf g]kfnsf] sfnf];"lrdf kg]{ vt/f 5 . l;d/f ljdfg:yndf ;g\ !(%% df
e"/fhgLltnfO{{ luhf]Ng ;xh x'G5 . sfln+uf Po/sf] b'36{ gfaf6 z'? ePsf] of] l;nl;nf kl5Nnf] ;do
l/kf]6{ sf] ;f/tTj, l/kf]6{ sf cfofd / xf] eGg] s'/f 3fdem}+ 5n{ª 5 . lgjf{rgsf a]nf s~rgk'/ lhNnf To;}n] ;/sf/ o; dfldnfdf tLj| ag]sf] 5 . t/ xfn;Dd klg ePsf b'36{ gfx¿sf] sf/0f /
To;sf] kIfdf af]Ng] Psfw Ph]G6x¿sf] ljt]sf] c9fO{ bzsotfsf] ljZj cbfntdf uP/ b]vfPsf] xs{t tyf rnfv / s7f]/ x'g cfjZos 5 .
lglxtfy{sf af/]df ulxl/P/ ax; x'g /fhgLlt x]g]{ xf] eg] cd]l/sg / clxn] …v;cfo{Ú ;d'bfosf] slyt …O{oÚ" sf] slyt l/kf]6n { fO{{ lj/f]w u/]/ To;sf] ;'wf/sf nflu s'gk} lg k|of;x¿ lgSs} lkmtnf] b]lvPsf] 5 .
;s]sf] 5}g . of] k|s/0fnfO{{ pgLx¿sf] o'/f]lkogx¿sf] lgzfgfsf] s]Gb|laGb'df cf/If0f x6fpg'k5{ elg tof/ kf/]sf] dfq 5f]l8of] eg] ;/sf/n] To;sf] dxFuf] ljdfg b'36{ gf h:tf] ;+ab] gzLn ljifodf /fHo uDeL/ gx'gs ' f]
dgdf nfu]sf] s'/fsf ¿kdf ;/nLs/0f Pl;of 5 eGg] oyfy{ ;a}n] k|i6 ¿kdf l/kf]6;
{ Ddsf s[ofsnfknfO{{ cWoog d"No r'Qmf ug{k' g]{ cj:yf cfpF5 . kl/0ffd k6s k6s b'36{ gf eO/x]sf] 5 . b'36{ gf nut} 5fgjLg
ul/of] eg] g] k fn k' g M lx+ ; f / cg'ej ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . klZrd u/]/ pgLx¿sf] dlitisdf ljsf; bn / sd{rf/LtGqsf dflg;x¿nfO{{ ;ldtLx¿ aG5g\ / k|lta]bg tof/ kf5{g\ / ;a} h;f] k|ltj]bgx¿n]
c/fhstfsf] af6f]df ws]lng]df s'g} Pl;ofsf O/fs, lnljof, l;l/of tyf ePsf] s'T;f / ;a} dof{bf ljkl/t Pglhcf];u+ hf]l8g k|ltaGw nufpg], rfnsnfO{{ g} bf]if b]vfPsf 5g\ eg] s]xLn] ef}uf]lns ca:yfnfO{{ klg
z+sf 5}g . dWo Plzofdf ckmuflg:tfg, kfls:tfg, 5f8f ¿kdf k|s6 x'bF } cfPsf] s'G7fnfO{{ ljsf; lgdf{0fsf sfdafx]s cGo o;sf] bf]if b]vfPsf 5g\ . lqe'jg cGt/f{li6«o ljdfg :ynb]lv g]kfnsf
o' / f] l kog ;fd| f HojfbLx¿sf] pHj]ls:tfg x'bF } k"jL{ Pl;ofsf rLg, ;xh ¿kdf klxrfg ug{ ;lsG5 . If]qdf Pglhcf] nufgL aGb ug]{ /
cGo ;fgf 7"nf ljdfg :ynx¿sf] cj:yf clxn] klg ;xh / ;'ljwfhgs
ab\lgotnfO{{ vf]tNgsf nflu n]vsf] adf{ / pQ/ sf]l/of;Dd Pl;ofsf] s'g} Ol08of;lxt klZrdL cgfjZos PghLcf]x¿ vf/]h ug],{
zLif{sdf …s'T;fÚ / …s'07fÚ zAbx¿sf] o:tf] e"efu afFsL 5}g, hxfF pgLx¿n] ;fd|fHojfbLx¿n] )^# ;fnkl5 zt{;lxtsf nufgLx¿ leq\ofpg aGb 5}g . slt Pc/kf]6x{ ¿sf] wfjg dfu{ sfnf]kq] g} 5}g eg] clwsf+z
k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . ljZj /0fgLltsf] x:tIf]k gu/]sf xf]pg\ . 7f]; ¿kdf …zflGt k|lqmofÚ sf] gfddf h'g ug]{ / /fHo:t/Lo afXo nufgLnfO{{ Pc/kf]6d{ f ;+of]ujz b'36{ gf eOxfNof] eg] To;sf] p4f/sf nflu ;|ft]
Pp6f cleGg s8Lsf ¿kdf g]kfnsf] eGg] xf] eg] ljut c9fO{ bzsotfsf] p2]Zosf nflu h;h;nfO{{ hlt /sd ;/sf/ cfkm}n F ] kl/rfng ug]{ lgod ;fwg / pks/0fx¿ kof{Kt 5}g . t/, p88og If]qsf] g]tT[ j lhDd]jf/
e"–/fhgLltnfO{{ luhf]Ng pgLx¿n] h]– pgLx¿sf] if8\oGqd"ns ;fd|fHojfbL nufgL u/]sf lyP, Tof] ck]Iffs[t gagfOsg pgLx¿sf] x:tIf]knfO{{ /f]Sg gx'bF f lg/Gt/ b'36{ gfx¿ al9/x]sf 5g\ h;n] dflg;sf] Hofg lnO/x]sf]
h:tf] of]hgf agfPsf 5g\, Tof] /0fgLltsf] s]Gb|:ynsf ¿kdf Pl;of ¿kdf k|fKt ePsf] 5}g / ljut Ps c;Dej h:t} 5 . 5 eg] g]kfnsf] p88og If]qdf r'gf}ltx¿ ylkPsf 5g\ .
pgLx¿sf] s'T;f;Fu hf]l8Psf] 5 . g} /x]sf] 5 . bzs otf g]kfnsf] e"/fhgLlt / jt{dfg kl/l:yltdf b'i6 dltsf
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afah'b rfx] cg';f/sf] kl/0ffd k|fKt klxnf] k|of; xf]Og . …zflGt k|so[ fdf d[udl/rLsfsf ¿kdf kl/0ft ub}{ gfddf csd{0o eP/ a:g' eg]sf] n]v, /rgf / tl:j/x¿ pknAw u/fO{ ;xof]u k'¥ofpg' x'g
ug{ g;Sg'af6 pTkGg lg/fzfhgs dWo:ytfÚ sf] lgx'Fdf …cgldgÚ n] nu]sf] 5 . o; k|sf/sf] k|lts"ntfnfO{{ g]kfnsf] e"/fhgLltdf lrlgofF, Ol08og ;DalGwt ;a}df cg'/f]w ul/G5 . k|fKt ;dfrf/ / /rgfx¿
dgf]lj1fg ltgsf] s'G7f xf] . hflto åGå u/fpg v]ns ] f] e"ldsfnfO{{ s;/L cg' s " n tfdf abNg] eGg] / o"/f]–cd]/LsL lq–sf]0ffTds o'4nfO{{ k|sflzt ug]÷{ gug]{ ;Dk"0f{ clwsf/ ;Dkfbsdf lgxLt x'g5
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pgLx¿sf] cfˆgf] lubf]{ ;fd|fHojfbL ug]{ k|so[ fnfO{{ k|efljt ug{ …hghfltÚ ljikmf]6gsf] sf/0f xf] . x:tfIf/ ug{' xf] . olta]nf ;du|
d"nk|lt /fv]/ dfq k7fpg'xf]nf .
x}sd oyfjt\ ¿kdf rln/xgsf nflu gfddf u/]sf] nufgL, )&! df3df o' / f] l kog ;fd| f HojfbLx¿n] hghLjgdf k~hf km}nfP/ a;]sf
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kl/jt{gsf] clwsf/sf kIfdf n]vs ] f]
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ltgs} ;f]r cg';f/ sfd u?g\ / o:tf] o'lgogsf k|ltlglwx¿åf/f ;Ls] ;lsof];\, ;+3Lotfdf cfTdlg0f{osf] a'lem/fVg h?/L b]lvG5 . E-mail : chhepyastra@gmail.com
4 @)&$ ;fn r}t !* ut] cfOtaf/

a'l4dfg dflg;sf v/fa cfgLafgL Û


oL x'g\ rGb|dfsf] hUuf bnfnsf gfOs] Û
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sf7df8f}F . lbdfu t ;a} dflg;sf] x'G5 . t/ a'l4 rfxLF ;a}sf] a/fa/
sxfF x'G5 / < sltko lgs} a'l4dfg, sf]xL dWod t sf]xL dGb a'l4jfnf .
a'l4dfg dflg;n] cfˆgf] cufl8 cfpg] w]/} ;d:ofsf] ;dfwfg cfkm} vf]Hg
bnfnx¿n] /fd|f] hldgnfO{{ Knl6ª To;sf nflu #) jif{;Dd kmfOgfG; dxTj lbPg . s'g} hjfkm gcfPsf] !(&( sf] cnUu} d"g Plu|d]G6n] ;S5g\ ;a} If]qdf k|ult ug{ ;S5g\ . t/ o:tf a'l4dfg dlg;sf klg s]xL
u/]/ lsga]r ug]{ s'/f t gofF ePg u5{Ú' 6]lnlehg cGt/jftf{sf] qmddf eGb} pgL cufl8 a9] . oxL ljifodf rGb| d fsf] k| f s[ l ts ;| f ] t x¿sf] v/fa cfgLafgL rfxLF x'G5g\ g} . a'l4dfg dflg;df x'g] elgPsf ltgvfn]
g} . cfˆgf] kmfObfsf] nflu 8]lg;n] eg]sf 5g\ . 8] l g;n] Pla;L 6] g ;F u sf] Joj:yfkg ;DaGwL lgod agfPsf] v/fa afgL Jox]/f oL x'g\–
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x}g . To;}n] d}n] o'PgnfO{{ kq n]v]/ nflu of] ln+sdf df uP/ x]g{ ;lsg] ;xf/f lnO/x]sf klg x'g;S5g\ . t/ Ps cWoog cg';f/ s;d vfO/xg]
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t/ pgLx¿n] hjfkm lbPgg\ .Ú pgsf] jOlnPdnfO{{ rGb|dfsf] hUuf a]Rg] ;fdfGo dflg;eGbf km/s x'G5 / k|i6} klxrfg ug{ ;lsG5 .
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kqnfO{{ /fi6« ;+3n] dxTj g} lbPg . https://www.moonestates.com/ t'ngfdf sddfq ;'Tb5g\ . /ftdf ca]/dfq ;'Tb5g\ . a'9fkfsfsf] egfO{
s'g} b]zn] :jldTj bfaL u/]sf] eP gfdsf] 5'§} j]a;fO6 agfP/ rGb|dfsf] cg';f/ /ftdf l56f] ;'Tg] / laxfg ;a]/} p7\g] dflg; a'l4dfg x'g'kg]{xf] .
/fi6« ;+3 cjZo} af]NYof] xf]nf g} . hUuf a] l r/x] s f 5g\ h;af/] t/ j}1flgs ¿kdf rfxLF o;sf] pN6f] 5 . Ps cWoog cg';/ hf] dflg;sf]
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hUufsf] gSsnL nfnk'hf{ agfP/ 7Ub} pgsf] pQm pkfo cefj / rGb|dfsf] hUuf a]Rg ;'? ul/xfn] . j]a;fO6 5 h;df Ps Ps8 @(=(% dflg;x¿sf] sf]7fdf hfg'x'G5 ta pgLx¿sf] sf]7f tkfOFnfO{ slxNo}klg
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s'/f g]kfnLsf] nflu gofF x'g ;S5 . snfsf/ lyP . pgn] ;f]r F h
] :tf] sfd Pla;L 6] g l6eL;F u sf] OG6/gn ckm]o;{sf ¿kdf sfd cfˆgf] cf;kf; x'g] 5l/Psf ;fdfgx¿s} dfWodaf6 pgLx¿nfO{{ s]xL km/s
Tof] klg k[YjLaf6} . cd]l/sfsf Ps kfO/x]sf lyPgG, lgs} ;+3if{ ug{' k/]sf] cGt/jftf{sf] qmddf o';L 8]le;sf ul/;s]sf cjsfz k|fKt jsLn 9+un] ;f]FRg] Ifdtf k}bf ePsf] x'G5 .
bnfnn] k[YjLaf6} rGb|dfsf] hUuf
bnfnL ;'? u/]sf lyP . clxn] To:tf
lyof] . ToxL cefjs} aLr pgsf]
>Ldlt;Fu l8ef];{ eof] . To;kl5
sfg' g ;DaGwL k| f ] k m] ; / cg' k d
rfGbn/n] 8]lg;sf sfd u}/sfg'gL
:6] k mg O= 8f] o nn] eg] s f 5g\ ,
…clxn]sf nflu rGb|df ;d'b| h:tf]
! ldlnld6/ nfdf] tyf !
bh{ g f} + bnfnx¿ 5g\ . of] klg
cd]l/sf;lxt cGo b]zsf] nflu gofF
8]lg; emg\ ;+s6df k/] . pgsf]
cufl8 s'g} pkfo lyPg / sf]xL
gePklg rGb|dfsf] hUufsf] :jldTj
gePsf] atfP . pgL eG5g\, …pgsf]
xf] . ;a}n] k|of]u ug{ kfpF5g\ t/
s;}n] :jfldTj lng kfpFbg} g\ . tkfO{F
ldlnld6/ rf}8fOsf] sDKo'6/ Û
xf]Og . t/, oxL s'/f g]kfnLsf] nflu ;xof]u ug]{ klg lyPgg\ . s] ug]{ / sfd u}/sfg'gL x}g t/ rGb|dfnfO{{ rGb|dfdf hfg ;Sg'x'G5, rGb|dfsf] sf7df8f}F . ljZjdf lj1fg tyf k|ljlwn] cg]s}+ km8\sf] df/L /x]sf] 5 .
To:t} xfn} Ps sDkgLn] ljZjs} ;fgf] sDKo'6/ k|bz{g ug]{ tof/Ldf /x]sf]
5 . kmfOe Og kmfOe eGg] cjwf/0ffdf cfof]hgf x'g nfu]sf] ;Dd]ngdf
cfFbf] kfFr jif{df dfgjLo lhjgz}nLdf g} kl/jt{g Nofpg;Sg] cfljisf/
tyf k|ljlwx¿ k|bz{g ul/g]5 . Tof;df cfOaLPd sDkgLn] cfkm'n] tof/
kf/]sf] ljZjsf] ;a}eGbf ;fgf] sDKo'6/ klg k|bz{g ug]{5 .
;dfrf/ cg';f/ of] sDKo'6/sf] cfsf/ g'gsf] ;fgf] l9sfsf] 6'qmf hq}
5 . cyf{t\ ljZjs} ;a}eGbf ;fgf] o; sDKo'6/ ! ldlnld6/ nfdf] tyf !
ldlnld6/ rf}8fOsf] /x]sf] 5 . oltdfq xf]Og, of] tof/ kfg]{ nfut klg
cljZj;gLo ¿kdf sd 5 . cyf{t\ hDdf bz ;]G6 dfq . o;cl3 ldl;ug
dfOqmf] df]6n
] ] ;g\ @)!% df ;a}eGbf ;fgf] cfsf/sf] sDKo'6/ tof/ kf/]sf]
lyof] . To;sf] cfsf/ @ ldlnld6/ nDafO{ tyf @ ldlnld6/ rf}8fO{ lyof] .
cfOlaPdn] agfPsf] sDKo'6/ To;eGbf cfwf ;fgf] 5 . of] ;fgf] sDKo'6/n]
cfpFbf] % jif{df k|ljlwsf] b'lgofnfO{{ k"0f{¿kdf abNg] bfaL sDkgLsf] 5 .
s] olt ;fgf] cfsf/sf] sDKo'6/n] jf:tjdf cGo sDKo'6/n] ug]{ sfd ug{
;S5 sL b]Vgsf nflu dfq} xf] t ? olb o:tf] ;f]FrfO{df x'g'x'G5 eg] 9'Ss
aGg';\ of] sDKo'6/sf] :6fldgf tyf kkm{d]G; bdbf/ 5 . of] sDKo'6/n]
kkm{d]G;sf] cfwf/df c? 7"nf sDKo'6/nfO{{ dfy ub{5 .
of] sDKo'6/df xhf/f}F 6«flGh:6;{sf] k|of]u ul/Psf] 5 . ;fy} o;df
eg] gofF xf] . s;f] ug]{ eGb} pgsf] w]/} /ft lat] . a]Rg] :jfldTj 5}g . o'Pg jf s'g} df6f] lng ;Sg'x'G5 t/ ToxfFsf] OG6g{n d]df]/L, kfj/ Aof6«L, lrk, #*^ kfj8{ k|f; ] ;
] /, $ PdaLsf] o{ fd,
cd]l/sfsf Ps gful/sn] ;'? Tolts}df Ps /ft pkfoaf/] ;f]FRb} klg b]zsf] ;/sf/sf] ;]n]l:6on hldgdf j[Qfsf/ lrXg nufP/ Tolt PnO8Ldf cfwfl/t Ps sDo'lgs];g o'lg6 tyf kmf]6f] l86]S6/ klg /x]sf]
u/]sf] rGb|dfsf] hUuf bnfnL Pp6f ubf{ pgn] cfsfzdf rGb|df b]v] . a8Ldf clwsf/ x'g] jf clwsf/ lbg] hUuf d]/f] xf] eGg kfpg'xG' g .Ú rGb|df 5 . olt ;fgf] Uofh]6df oL ;a} l8lh6n l8efO; x'g'sf sf/0fn] of]
sDkgL vf]n/] rGb|dfsf] hUuf bnfnL pgsf] v'/fkmftL lbdfun] rGb|dfsf] s' / f gePsf] n ] cbfntdf uP hUuf lsg]sf] k|df0f s'g} klg b]zn] sDKo'6/n] jf:tjd} /fd|f] kkm{dG] ; lbG5 . cfufdL % jif{leqdf of] sDKo'6/nfO{{
ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . pgsf] gfd 8]lg; hUuf a]Rg] pkfo lgsfNof] . l8g];sf clwsf/ vf/]h x'G5 .Ú lbg]5}g . cem} ;fgf] cfsf/sf] tyf zlQmzfnL agfOg] sDkgLsf] of]hgf 5 . of]
xf]k xf] . 8lg;n] n'gf/ PDa];L gfdsf Tolts} d f csf] { s' / f pgsf] 8]lg; olt rnfv 5g\, s'g} klg g]kfnL /d]zk|;fb hf]zLn] Ps sDKo'6/sf] k|of]u vf;u/L ;KnfO{{ r]g Dofg]hd]G6 nufotdf x'g] atfOPsf]
sDkgL vf]n]sf 5g\ . pgn] ;g\ lbdfudf v]Nof] . ;g\ !(^& 8]lg;n] ;do cfˆgf] :jldTj vf/]h x'g ;Sg] bnfn sDkgL;Fu hUuf vl/b u/]sf] 5 . of] sDKo'6/sf] gfd tyf d"No slt x'g] eGg] af/]df rfxLF cfOaLPdn]
!(*) b]lv rGb|dfsf] hUuf a]Rg lnglkmN8 sn]hdf k9\g] a]nfdf ePsf] n ] cfk" m ;F u hUuf vl/b ;dfrf/;Fu} ljleGg k|lsof k|ltlqmof s]xL v'nfPsf] 5}g .
yfn]sf] cd]l/sfsf] Pla;L 6]g l6eLn] cGtl/If ;lGw -:k]; l6«6L_ sf] sIff u/]sfx¿sf] clwsf/sf] /Iffsf] nflu cfO/x]sf 5g\ . sf7df8f}aF f;L hf]zLn]
atfPsf] 5 . 8]lg; rGb|df hUuf lnPsf lyP . pQm ;GwLdf rGb|df eGb} Uofn] l 6s ue/d] G 6 ;d] t s;}sf] :jldTj gePsf] rGb|dfdf
bnfnsf gfOs] x'g\ . pgn] g} of] k]zsf]
;'?jft u/]sf lyP . c? w]/} bnfn
jf cGo cGtl/Ifsf u|xsf] :jfldTj
s'gk} lg b]z jf ;/sf/n] bfaL ug{
agfPsf 5g\ . 8]lg;sf] cfDbfgL b]v/]
cGo v'/fkmftLx¿ klg rGb|dfsf]
hUuf vl/bsf] gfddf 7luPsf]
sltkon] atfPsf 5g\ eg] s]xLn] b]zdf zflGt, ;'Joj:yf /
ePklg pgL w]/} sdfPsf bnfn x'g\ . g;Sg] pNn]v lyof] . ;'?df of] ;GwLn] hUuf lsga]r ug{ cu|;/ eP . pgL rGb|dfdf hUuf vl/b ug]{ klxnf]
pgn] &) nfv dflg;x¿nfO{{ rGb|dfsf]
hUuf a] l r;s] s f 5g\ . pQm
rGb|dfsf] hUuf a]Rg cj/f]w x'g] eof]
eg]/ s]xL lg/f; ePsf 8]lg;sf]
clxn] pgLh:t} cGo sDkgLn] klg
rGb|dfsf] hUuf a]lr/x]sf 5g\ .
g]kfnL ePsf] atfPsf 5g\ . s]xLn]
s;};uF :jldQj gePsf] rGb|dfsf]
ljsf; ;a} g]kfnLx¿sf]
6]lnlehg;Fu s'/f ub}{ 8]lg;n] ljut
@# jif{bl] v cfˆgf] sdfO{sf] ;|ft] g}
v'/fkmftL lbdfun] km]l/ csf]{ pkfo
nufO{xfNof] . pQm ;GwLdf b]z jf
kl5Nnf] k6s vf]lnPsf sDkgLn]
;lhn} sdfO/x]klg ;'?df eg] ;lhn}
hUuf vl/b u/] eGg' d"v{tf ePsf]
atfPsf 5g\ .
rfxgf xf] . o;k|lt k|lta4
rGb|dfsf] hUuf ePsf] atfPsf 5g\ .
;fy}, /fd|f] sdfO{ eO/x]sf] ;d]t atfP .
;/sf/sf] :jldTj gx'g] elgPsf] 5,
t/ JolQmsf] s'/f pNn]v gePsf]n]
gePsf] atfOPsf] 5 . ;'?sf !%
jif{ vf;} sdfO gePsf] 8]lg;n]
rGb|dfdf udL{ 7fpFdf !)) l8u|L
;]lN;o;b]lv Psbd} hf8f] dfOg; x'g' g]kfnLx¿sf] st{Jo xf] .
8] l g;n] cfˆgf] sfof{ n odf cfˆgf] of]hgf cufl8 a9fpg] csf]{ cGt/jftf{sf] qmddf atfPsf 5g\ . !&# l8u|L ;]lN;o;;Dd tfkqmd
rGb|dfsf] kmf]6f] /fv]sf 5g\ . kmf]6f]df lg0f{o u/] . pgn] Pp6f sDkgL btf{sf] pgn] cfk"mnfO{{ g} dfhs nfu]sf] t/ k'U5 . of] k[YjLsf] eGbf !^=% l8u|L
rGb|df b]vfpFb} hUuf a]lr/x]sf 5g\ . k|lqmof cufl8 a9fO{xfn] . /fd|f] sdfO{ x'g yfn]kl5 v'zL ePsf] sd u'?Tjfsif{0f x'g] 7fpF To;dfly
olt dfq} xf]Og pgn] Kn'6f] u|x;lxt :k]; l6«6Ldf JolQmsf] :jldTj atfP . rGb|dfsf] Tof] w'nf], k|lzIf0f k|fKt
cGo cf7 u|xnfO{{ a]Rg] tof/L klg gx'g] gePsf] pNn]v ub}{ rGb|dfsf] 8] l g;n] Pp6f Kn6sf] d" N o cGtl/If ofqL eGbf c? sf]xL klg
ul//x]sf 5g\ . …d tkfO{FnfO{{ ;f9] bfaL u/]/ ;+o'Qm /fi6« ;+3nfO{{ kq @@=$( 8n/ /fv]sf 5g\ . h'g pgsf] ToxfF w]/} ;do a:g rfxFbg} g\ .

t]nsf] yf]kfyf]kf hf]ufcf}+ g] k fn ;/sf/


;~rf/ tyf ;"rgf k|ljlw dGqfno
;"rgf ljefu

OGwg vr{ 36fcf}+ ;fj{hlgs :yfgdf


g]kfn cfon lgud lnld6]8 kmf]xf]/ kmfn]df
kmf]g g+=+ $@^@(&), km\ofS; M $@^#$&! hl/jfgfdf kl/G5 .
@)&$ ;fn r}t !* ut] cfOtaf/ 5

@)!* df lgDg !@ :yfgdf ofq'x¿ ghfFbf /fd|f]


sf7df8f}F . lat]sf !@ dlxgf ko{6ssf] af9L g} nfUof] . slt;Dd eg] !% cf}F ztfAbLsf] lsNnfdf k|j]z ug]{ ko{6ssf] b}lgs ;+Vof !) xhf/ # ;o eL8;Fu ;‹if{ ul//x]sf] x'G5 . tfhdxnsf] ;]tf] dfj{n kFx]lng yfn]sf 5 .
sltko ko{6sLo uGtJoaf6 kof{j/0fdf c;/ k'Ug] u/L ljb]zL ko{6s ** af6 emf/]/ $ xhf/df ;Lldt ul/Psf] 5 . of] sfddf 8'a|f]lgsn] ;g\ 5]pd} aUg] od'gf gbLdf k|b"if0f a9\bf] 5 . ef/t ToxfF ko{6ssf] ;+Vof
cfPsf] 3f]if0ff ul/of] . o;af6 cfufdL labfdf ofqfsf] of]hgf a'lg/x]sfx¿ @)!^ sf] Ps} lbgdf ;kmntf klg k|fKt u/]sf] 5 . ToxfFsf d]o/n] o;sf] 36fpg] of]hgfdf 5 . clwsf/Lx¿ cfGtl/s ko{6snfO{{ 5'6;lxt $) ef/tLo
ljj]szLn ofqLx¿ cndndf kg{' cfZro{ xf]Og . o;df e]lg; / afl;{nf]gfb]lv k|frLg aGb/ufxdf k|jz ] ug]{ kfgL hxfhsf] ;+Vof klg 36fpg] of]hgf ¿k}ofF -sl/a ^) ;]G6_ df lbg] l6s6 s6f}lt ug]{ af/]df ;f]lr/x]sf 5g\ .
unfkuf]; åLk / tfhdxn;Ddsf rlr{t ko{6sLo uGtJo k5{g\ . t/, lgDg agfO/x]sf] 5 . Toxf ;g\ @)!^ df emG8} * nfv dflg; kfgL hxfhaf6 ef/tdf b}lgs $) xhf/ cfGtl/s ko{6s tfhdxn x]g{ k'U5g\ . ljb]zL
!@ ko{6sLo uGtJoaf/] ;r]t ko{6sn] ;g\ @)!* sf] labfdf lg:sg' cl3 k'us
] f lyP / k|foh;f] # 306f a;]/ kms]s { f lyP . tkfO{n
F fO{{ ToxLF hfg' 5 eg] ko{6snfO{{ eg] tfhdxn e|d0fsf nflu ! xhf/ ef/tLo ¿k}ofF -!% cd]l/sL
@ k6s ;f]Rg' kg]{ b]lvG5 . cfˆg} of]hgf cg';f/ hfg'xf]; / :jtGq eP/ ;do latfpg'xf];\ . geP 8n/_ lnOG5 . tfhdxn g} hfg] xf] eg] em'Ns] 3fdd} tfhdxn k'Ug'xf];\ .
;u/dfyf, g]kfn (Mount Everest, Nepal) glhs}sf] Sofj6f6 hfg'xf];\ / l/Qf ;d'Gb| lsgf/ / k'/fgf] ;x/sf] cfsif{s 9f]sf laxfg ^ ah] v'N5 . ;fy} eL8;Fu ;‹if{ ug]{, / 7]nf7]n ug{sf nflu
:yfgLo z]kfx¿n] of] ;+;f/}s} cUnf] lxdfnnfO{{ vt/f k'Ug] u/L ko{6sx¿sf] b[Zodf x/fpg'xf];\ . eL8af6 aRg] of] pkoQm ljsNk xf] . tof/L xfntdf klg a:g'xf];\ . xf]Og eg] lbNnLl:yt x'dfo'G; 6'Da hfg'xf];\ .
eL8 a9]sf] u'gf;f] nfdf] ;dob]lv ul//x]sf 5g\ . ;u/dfyf cf/f]x0fsf e]lg;, O6fnL (Venice, Italy) of] tfhdxn hlQsf] ljzfn t 5}g, t/ eL8df 7]nf7]n ug{' kb}{g .
nflu cg'dlt ;Lldt ul/Psf] 5 . To;dfly g]kfnn] b[li6ljxLg, lxdfn r9\g l/ofN6f] la|h / ufof8]sf sgndf t}l//x]sf kfgL hxfh;Fu ;]NkmL lng] dfr' lkr', k]? (Machu Picchu, Peru)
;Sg] Ifdtf b]vfpg] d]l8sn ;l6{lkms]6 ljxLg b'j} v'§f qmLltd ePsf dflg; ko{6saf6 jfSs ePkl5 ;g\ @)!& df e]lg;]nLx¿ ;8sd} pq] . of] ;x/sf] ;g\ @)!^ df dfr' lkr'df b}lgs % xhf/ ko{6s k'u] . of] o'g:] sf]n]
hg;+Vof %% xhf/df em/]sf] 5 . t/, oxfF x/]s jif{ # s/f]8 xf/fxf/L ko{6s l;kmfl/; u/]sf] ;+Vofsf] bf]Aa/ xf] . ToxfF hfg] ljb]zL ko{6snfO{{ ufO8 clgjfo{
cf]Ol/G5g\ . clxn] ToxfF ufof8]sfdf kfgLhxfhnfO{{ cfpg k|ltaGw nufOPsf]
5 . tkfO{F ToxfF hfg] g} xf] eg] ;]NkmL l:6s gnfg'xf];\ / kfgLsf] ;f}Gbo{ lgofNg]
k|of; ug{x' f];\ . ;fy} vfgsf nflu 6'l/:6 xjdf geP/ :yfgLo /]:6'/G] 6df
hfg'xf];\ . geP k|mfG;sf] Plg;L hfg'xf];\ . ToxfF sgnx¿sf] hfnf] g} 5 . ;'Gb/

/ kyk|bz{s g/fVg] Psn kj{tf/f]xLnfO{{ ;u/dfyf r9\g glbg] ljjfbf:kb


lg0f{o u/]sf] 5 . clwsf/Lx¿n] d[To'hGo b'3{6gf sd ug{ gofF k|fjwfg 5 . To;sf ;fy}, h'nfO{{ @)!& df k]? ;/sf/n] ToxfF hfgsf nflu gofF ;do
agfP/ sfof{Gjogdf NofOPsf] k|ltlqmof lbPsf 5g\ . ;u/dfyf g} cf/f]x/0f tflnsf nfu" u¥of] . To; cg';f/, ToxfF laxfg ^ ah]bl] v ck/fXg ;Dd /
ug]{ xf] eg] kof{Kt k};fsf] ;'lglZrttf ug{'xf];\ . kj{tf/f]x0fsf] /fd|f] cg'ej ck/fXgb]lv ;fFem ;f9] % ah];Ddsf] @ j6f ;do tflnsf nfu" ul/Psf] 5 .
;+ufNg'xf];\ . lsgeg] ;u/dfyf cf/f]x0fsf nflu cg'dlt lngdfq ! xhf/ ! eL8 lgoGq0f ug]{ p2]Zon] ;do tflnsf agfOPsf] eP klg To;sf] glthf b]vf
;o cd]l/sL 8n/ nfU5 . geP Nxf]T;] ld8n r9\bf klg x'G5 . of] ;+;f/sf] tfn / snfTds ejg 5g\ . ;fy}, ToxfF e]lg;sf] h:tf] eL8 5}g . kl/;s]sf] 5}g . tkfO{F dfr' lkr' g} hfg] xf] eg] cS6f]a/–clk|n leq hfg'xf];\ .
rf}yf] cUnf] lxdfn xf] . ;u/dfyfsf] blIf0f lbzfdf /x]sf] of] lxdfn g]kfnn] ;fG6f]l/gL, u|L; (Santorini, Greece) jiff{sf] df};d ePsfn] Tolt a]nf ko{6ssf] ;+Vof ToxfF s]xL sd x'G5 . Tolt
;g\ @)!# b]lv cf/f]x0fsf nflu v'nf u/]sf] 5 . ;fG6f]l/gL h:tf] ;"o{ c:tfPsf] cfsif{s / ljzfn b[Zo b]lvg] 7fpF a]nf tkfO{n F ] ToxfFsf lsNnfx¿ /fd|/L cjnf]sg ug{ ;Sg] ;Defjgf a9L /xG5 .
cfOn ckm :sfO, :s6Nof08 (Isle of Skye, Scotland) ;G;f/df yf]/} 5g\ . t/, of] ;fgf] åLkdf ko{6ssf] ;+Vof wfGg} g;Sg] cj:yfdf xf]Og eg] sf]nlDaof hfg'xf];\ / n:6 l;6Lsf] ;'Gb/tf cjnf]sg ug{x' f];\ . ToxfF
Un]gla|6ndf hfb'doL kf]v/L, PNuf]ndf c:tfpFbf] ;"o{ / :6f]/df /sL k'u]sf] 5 . ;g\ @)!& df oxfF @) nfv ko{6s k'u] . To;dWo] * nfv %) sd ko{6s k'U5g\ h;n] tkfO{n F fO{{ ;'Gb/ b[Zo x]g{ ;lhnf] agfOlbG5 .
cf]N8 Dofg x]g{ hfg] xhf/f}F ko{6s / pgLx¿sf] ;jf/L ;fwgdfsf] ef/ wfGg xhf/ kfgL hxfhaf6 k'u] / s]xL 306fdfq a;]/ kms]{ . kfgLhxfhaf6 hfg] unfkuf]; cfONof08\;, OSjfb/ (Galápagos Islands, Ecuador)
g;s]/ ut jif{ :s6Nof08sf] of] ;a}eGbf 7'nf åLksf] ef}lts ;+/rgfaf6 lglZrt 7fpF / tf]lsPsf] af6f]af6 x/]s kn ufO8nfO{{ g5f]8f ko{6snfO{{ 3'Dg
rsf]{ cfjfh lg:Sof] . cGttM pQm ;'Gb/ åLksf afl;Gbfn] cfjfh ;xg nufP/ ;+;f/sf] ;a}eGbf k|l;4 k|fs[lts jf;:yfg hf]ufpg] nIo k|fKt ug{' OSjfb/
;/sf/sf nflu s7f]/ nIo xf] . unfkuf]; cfONof08\; hf]ufpg ut jif{ cem} lgod
ylkPsf 5g\ . To;df ko{6sn] kmls{g] l6s6, xf]6n] l/he];{ g jf s;sf] 3/df a:g]

dflg;x¿n] ToxfF lbg latfpg kfPgg\ . o;af6 cfnf]rgf cfPkl5 ToxfFsf


;s]gg\ . pgLx¿n] ko{6sn] ;fj{hlgs :ynd} lk;fa km]l/lbPsf] u'gf;f] d]o/n] kfgLhxfhaf6 cfpg] ko{6ssf] ;+Vof * nfvdf ;Lldt ul/lbP .
;d]t u/] . To;kl5 k|x/Ln] af;:yfg clu|d a'lsª gu/L ko{6snfO{{ ToxfF ko{6ssf] ;+Vof 36fpg / o;sf] ;'Gb/tf hf]ufpg pgn] pQm sbd rfn]sf xf] p;n] n]vs ] f] kq / :k]zn 6«flGh6 sG6«fn] sf8{ k5{g\ . t/, oL lgod nfu"
ghfg ;Nnfx lbP . ToxLF hfg] xf] eg] ;d/df hfg' . lsgeg] Tolt a]nf x'g\ . tkfO{F ToxLF hfg] xf] eg] :yfgLo xf]6]ndf vfg] a:g] ug{'xf];\ / aGb/ufx eO;s]sf eg] 5}gg\ . tkfO{F ToxLF hfg] xf] eg] unfkuf]; g]zgn kfs{n] hf/L u/]sf]
ko{6ssf] ;+Vof 36\5 / eL8;Fu kf}+7]hf]/L gvnL ;'Gb/ åLksf] ;'Gb/tfdf 3'Dg cfrf/df k|Zg pAhg ;Sg] 8+sL /fO8 gug{'xf];\ . xf]Og eg] GofS;h !$ j6f lgod s07 ug{x' f];\ . xf]Og eg] tkfO{F k]?s} O:n; a]n:] 6; hfg ;Sg'xG' 5 .
/dfpg kfOG5 . gq /d, ds / Ouh:tf ;fgf ;fgf åLk hfg jf blIf0fdf hfg'xf];\ h'g ;fG6f]l/gL åLks} ;d"xdf k5{ . ToxfF 9'Ë] kxf8 5g\ . ;'Gb/ Kofl;lkms dxf;fu/ glhs /x]sf] of] 7fpFsf] ofqf tkfO{s F f nflu :d/0fLo x'g5] . oxfF
/x]sf] h'/f åLkdf x/fpg ;lsG5 . ;d'Gb| lsgf/ 5g\ . 8f]8s ] lghl:yt Kof6\df]; klg TolQs} ;'Gb/ / zfGt 7fpF tkfO{nF ] xhf/f}F ;fd'Gb|L r/f, k]Gu'Og, ;L nfog / l;n b]Vg kfpg'xg' 5
] .
afl;{nf]gf, :k]g (Barcelona, Spain) xf] hxfF cfsif{s ;d'Gb| / /]:6'/]G6 5g\ . lrÍ\j] t]/]{, O6fnL (Cinque Terre, Italy)
of] Sof6fngx¿sf] /fhwfgLdf ko{6ssf] af9L g} nfU5 . ;g\ @)!^ df e'6fg (Bhutan) oxfF ;g\ @)!% df @% nfv ko{6s cfP . To;sf] csf]{ jif{ ;/sf/n]
oxfF # s/f]8 $) nfv ko{6s cf]Ol/Psf lyP h'g ;g\ @)!@ sf] eGbf @% …xfO Eofn', nf] ODKofS6Ú ko{6g gLlt cg';f/ x/]s ko{6snfO{{ df};d ToxfF !% nfveGbf a9L ko{6s hfg glbg] Joj:yf u¥of] . kl5 pQm Joj:yf
k|ltzt a9L xf] . olt w]/} ljb]zL cf]Ol/Pkl5 :yfgLo afl;GbfnfO{{ l/; cg';f/ b}lgs @ ;o b]lv @ ;o %) cd]l/sL 8n/ z'Ns / @ hgfsf] vf/]h t ul/of], t/ ko{6ssf] eL8nfO{{ lnP/ ;/sf/ lrlGtt 5 . kfgL
p7\of] . pgLx¿n] ko{6s lj/f]wL lrq agfP h'g ;x/el/ b]Vg ;lsG5 . hxfhn] ToxfF Psftkm{ vr{ gug]{ ko{6s NofpF5 eg] csf]{ tkm ko{6ssf]
eL8sf sf/0f ToxfF klx/f] hfg] / r§fg emg]{ ;d:of b]lvPsf] atfOPsf] 5 .

cu:6 @)!& df ko{6s lj/f]wLx¿n] afl;{nf]g]6f lar g} sAhf u/]/ ;d"xdf jf PSn} uPsf ko{6snfO{{ cltl/Qm $) cd]l/sL 8n/ cltl/Qm
c/fhs Jojxf/ b]vfPP . ;]jf If]q h:tf] Pc/ laPgaLnufotn] ef8f z'Ns lnPklg of] ;fgf] lxdfnL b]zdf ko{6gsf sf/0f lrGtf a9]sf] 5 . lrÍ\j] t]/{] g} hfg] xf] eg] udL{sf] ;dodf hfg'xf];\ / ToxfFsf] :yfgLo /]:6'/G] 6df
cfsflzg] qmd rln/x]sf] 5 . ptf ;/sf/n] eg] ko{6s ;d:of ;Daf]wg ug{ :yfgLo afl;Gbfn] ko{6ssf sf/0f oxfFsf] jftfj/0fdf c;/ k/]sf] atfO/x]sf vfg'xf];\ . xf]Og eg] tkfO{F blIf0ftkm{sf] ;'Gb/ ;x/ kf]tf]{e]g]/] hfg'xf];\ . /]n
6'l/:6 a]8;DaGwL sfg'g kfl/t u/fsf] 5 . o;n] ko{6ssf nflu a]8sf] 5g\ . tkfO{F ToxfF hfg] g} xf] eg] af}4 k/Dk/fk|lt cfb/ b]vfpg'xf];\ / kmf]xf]/ ;'ljwf gePsf] of] ;x/df ko{6s klg sd hfG5g\ .
;+Vofdf c+s'z nufpF5 . afl;{nf]gf g} hfg] xf] eg] Vofn ug{'xf];\ ToxfF nf; gug{'xf];\ . xf]Og eg] ef/tsf] c?0ff~rn k|b]z e'6fgsf] /fd|f] ljsNk xf] . PG6fl6{sf (Antarctica)
/fDnf; 3'Dg]dfq xf]Og, y'k}| s'/f 5g\ . t/, afl;{nf]gfsf] ljsNk vf]Hg] xf] eg] ToxfF k|frLg af}4 :t'kfx¿ / cfsif{s lxdfnx¿ 5g\ . ;fy}, ToxfF tkfO{Fn] k[YjLdf /x]sf] clGtd k"0f{ k|fs[lts :yfg eg]/ lrlgg] PG6fl6{sfdf hfg]
Eofn]lG;of lsg ghfg] < oxfF dgfOg] labf afl;{nf]gfhltsf] rk]6fo'Qm x'bF g} . e'6fgdf h:tf] dxFuf] z'Ns ltg{' kb}g{ . ko{6ssf] sf/0f jftfj/0fjfbLx¿ nfdf] ;dob]lv lrlGtt 5g\ . clxn] ToxfF
;fy}, vfgf / ;+:s[ltn] afl;{nf]gfnfO{{ 6Ss/ lbG5 . tfhdxn, ef/t (Taj Mahal, India)
b'a|f]lEgs, qmf]l;of (Dubrovnik, Croatia) tfhdxn] x]g{ x/]s jif{ *) nfv dflg; k'U5g\ . To;sf] cfwf cGt/f{li6«o
dfgj eL8s} sf/0f o'g:] sf]n] ljZj ;Dkbf ;"rLaf6 x6fpg] r]tfjgL ko{6s x'G5g\ . t/, glthf Hofb} b'Mvb 5 . tfh dxn x]g{ ToxfF x/]s dflg;
lbPkl5 b'a|f]lEgsn] ko{6ssf] ;+Vof 36fpg s8f gLlt lnPsf] 5 . oxfFsf]

% ;oeGbf a9L ko{6s n}hfg kfgL hxfhnfO{{ k|ltaGw nufOPsf] 5 . s8f


sfg'gsf sf/0f kltko kfgL hxfh ! ;o ko{6sdfq lnP/ klg PG6fl6{sf
k'U5g\ . of] dxfb]zdf :yfoL afl;Gbf 5}gg\ . t/, kl5Nnf jif{x¿df ko{6ssf]
;+Vof csflz/x]sf] 5 . ;g\ @)!^–!& df dfq ToxfF $$ xhf/ # ;o ^&
ko{6s k'u] . To;kl5 blIf0f w|j' sf] jftfj/0f lau|g] lrGtf klg a9]sf] 5 .
tkfO{F ToxfF hfg] xf] eg] lj1fg;DaGwL 1fg ePsf ;fgf] 6f]nL agfP/ hfg'xf];\ .
xf]Og eg] blIf0f hlh{of hfg'xf];\ ToxfFsf] lxpFdf /Dg'xf];\ . – l;PgPg
duGt]
6 @)&$ ;fn r}t !* ut] cfOtaf/
/jLGb| g fy 6} u f] / wf/f aufpFb} Psl5gkl5 pm cfˆgf]
Tof] b[li6ljxLg a"9L ;w}+h;f]
dlGb/sf] 9f]sfdf pleGyL, bz{gfyL{
em'k8Llt/ nfuL .
csf]{ lbg laxfg cf}iflwn] k|efj
gSsnL dfG5]
aflx/ lgl:sFbf xft km}nfP/ eGyL, b]vfpg yfNof] . df]xgsf] Hjf/f] – emk]Gb|/fh a}B
…of] cGwLnfO{{ bof ug{; ' \ .Ú ;fd;'d eof] . xf]z cfPkl5 p;n] ;a} gSsnL gSsnL
p;nfO{ { yfxf lyof] – dlGb/ hDdf u/]/ /flvlbg';\ . d cfFvf To;kl5 pm nv{/fpFb} em'k8Llt/ cfFvf vf]Nof] / eGof], …cfdf ÛÚ gSsnL /fHodf
cfpg]x¿ ;ÅboL / >4fn' x'G5g\ . b]lVbgF, sxfF /fVb} lxF8"F <Ú nfuL . p;n] ;fx"nfO{{ cfzLjf{b xf]Og, gofF / ckl/lrt cg'xf/ b]v]kl5 s] 5 ;SsnL <
p;sf] of] cg'dfg unt lyPg . ;fx"n] k'n'Ss efF8f]lt/ x]¥of] / >fk lbPsL lyP . df]xgn] cfFvf lrlDnof] . plQv]/} Hj/f] kfgL gSsnL
cfpg]–hfg]x¿n] b'O–{ rf/ k};f xftdf eGof], …s] 5 o;df <Ú aRrfsf] cj:yf lalu|Fb} uof] . a9\g yfNof] . hltv]/ klg …cfdf Û :jf; gSsnL
/flvlbGy] . xftdf k};f k/]kl5 p;n] p;n] egL, …eLv dfuL–dfuL k};f gx'Fbf cf}iflwkfgL ug}{ ;lsg . cfdf ÛÛÚ eGg yfNof] . ;fx"sf xftv'§f k|Zjf; gSsnL
cflzif lbGyL . s]xL dlxnfx¿n] 5f]/fsf] nflu b'O{–rf/ k};f hDdf cj:yf emg} vl:sFb} uof] . aRrf un] . rf/}lt/ cFWof/f] b]v] . s] u¿F,
b"wdf kfgL, cf;]l{ gs kfgL
p;sf] ;f8Lsf] nKsf]df slxn]sfxLF s;f] u¿F eof] . olt jif{kl5 e]l6Psf]
t/sf/Ldf KjfOhg
u/]sL 5' . cfk"m;Fu /fVg 8/ nfU5 . afFRg] ;Defjgf lIf0f x'Fb} uof] .
h] u/] lg x'G5
vfBfGg klg xflnlbGy] . o;nfO{{ tkfO{+;Fu} ;'/lIft /flvlbg';\ To;kl5 a" 9 Lsf] dgf] a n klg 5f]/f]nfO{{ d[To'n] lgNb} 5, s;/L
To;}nfO{ k'/:sf/
a"9L ;w}+ laxfgb]lv ;fFem;Dd x} .Ú vl:sof] . ;f/f ;+;f/df cfk"m PSn} arfpg] xf]nf <Û
;TonfO{ lt/:sf/
o;}u/L xft km}nfP/ dlGb/cl3 ;fx"n] n]vfkfnnfO{{ cfFvf ;GsfpFb} ePem}+ nfUof] . 3l/3l/ ;fx"sf] jrg ‰jf§ p;n] a" 9 Lsf] cg' x f/ eg;'g eP ;a} x'G5
ple/xGyL . dg}dg eujfgnfO{{ k|0ffd eGof] , …n, b/fhdf /flvb] p m .Ú ;lDemGyL / l/;n] bfx|f ls6\yL . olt ;lDemof] . kTgLnfO{{ 9f]sfaflx/ x]g{ laz'4 kl5sf] kl5
uyL{ / To;kl5 n¶L 6]Sb} cfˆgf] To;kl5 a"9Llt/ kmls{P/ ;f]Wof], …ltd|f] wgL eP/ klg b'Mvsf] a]nf b'O{–rf/ k7fof] . a"9L t 3/ uO;s]sL lyO{ . af]Ng]sf] kL7f] laS5 .
em'k8Llt/ hfGyL . p;sf] em'k8L gfd s] xf] <Ú k};f lbPg . cfˆg} k};f dfUbf klg pm cfkm} + uf8L rnfP/ a" 9 Lsf] ;'gdf tfdf x'G5
;x/eGbf cln aflx/ lyof] . af6fdf a" 9 Ln] cfˆgf] gfd egL . p;n] kfOg . em'k8Llt/ xflGgof] . em'k8Ldf 9f]sf z'4 cfdf x'G5
e]l6g] a6'jf;Fu klg xft km}nfP/ n]vfkfnn] gub ug]/ p;sf] gfddf PSsfl; v} s] ;f]rL– aRrfnfO{{ lyPg, leq k:of] / b]Vof]– a"9L k'/fgf] ;a} afp eGg ;lsGg .
dfUyL . t/, w]/}h;f] ;]tf n'uf hDdf u¥of] . a"9L ;fx"nfO{{ cfzLjf{b cFufnf]df p7fO{ / nv{/fpFb} ;fx"sf] dlSsPsf] vl6ofdf eSsflgFb} 3f]K6f] anfTsf/, Hofblt / ckx/0f
nufPsf e]l6Gy], h;af6 k};f emg]{ lbFb} p7L / cfˆgf] em'k8Llt/ lxF8L . 3/cufl8 uO{ . aRrfnfO{{ 9f]sfcl3 k/]sL lyO{ . ;fx"n] la:tf/} p;sf] las/fn r'gf}tL 5 .
;Defjgf x'bF g} Yof] . /, klg p;n] lev b'O{ jif{ ;'vn] lat] . t/, crfgs ;'tfO{ / cfk"m ToxLF a;L . aRrfsf] z/L/nfO{{ rnfof] . a"9L klg Hj/f]n] s[ltd ;'Gb/tfsf] Aofkf/
dflu/xGyL . em'k8L;Dd k'Ubf yk Pslbg aRrfnfO{{ Hj/f]n] lyRof] . z/L/ Hj/f]n] plDnPsf] lyof] . To;sf] lg:nf]6 k/]sL lyO{ . ;'Gb/L k|ltof]lutf
b'O–{ rf/ k};f xft kYof]{ klg . a"9Ln] cf}iflwd'nf] u/L, emf/km's u/L, 7Ls ljk/Lt a"9Lsf] d'6' a]tf]8n] ;fx"n] eGof], …ltd|f] aRrf db}{ 5, lkt[;Qfsf] bdg
em'k8Lsf] glhs} k'Ug] a]nf !) 6'gfd'gfsf] z/0fdf k/L . t/, ;a} lrl;Psf] lyof] . 8fS6/n] klg cfzf dfl/;s] . df]xgn] ;fdGtL ;F:s[lt kltsf] pkf;gf
jif{sf] afns bf}l8Fb} cfP/ pm;Fu k|of; ljkmn eP . aRrfsf] cj:yf ;fx"sf] Pshgf gf]s/ s]xL sfdn] ltDnfO{{ af]nfO{/xG5 . ca ltDn] g} ;a} cGwlaZjf; s[ltd x'g\ .
nkSs} 6fFl;GYof] . p;n] ;'D;'DofpFb} lbgk|ltlbg lalu|Fb} uPsf] lyof] . aflx/ cfof] . a"9LnfO{{ b]vk] l5 p;n] p;sf] k|f0f arfpg ;S5\of} . d;Fu la1fkg yf]/} ;SsnL w]/} gSsnL .
dfof uyL{ . ufnfdf DjfO{ vfGyL . a"9Lsf] dg l5ofl5of eof] . p;sf ;fx"nfO{{ hfgsf/L lbof] . ;fx"n] eGof], lxF8 / cfˆgf] aRrfnfO{{ arfpm .Ú ;Qf g} gSsnL c? s] x'G5 ;SsnL
aRrf sf] xf], s;sf] xf], sxfFaf6 cfFvfdf klxNo} cFWof/f] lyof], aRrfsf] …p;nfO{{ t'?Gt} ToxfFaf6 lgsfn .Ú a"9Ln] egL, …d5{ eg] dg{ lbg';,\ 3f]if0ffkq Psflt/ sfds'/f] csf]l{ t/
cfPsf] xf]– s;}nfO{{ yfxf lyPg . kfFr k|d
] n] sd;]sd k/]nLleq} eP klg gf]s/n] a"9LnfO{{ hfg eGof] t/ d klg db}{ 5' . xfdL b'j} :ju{df hgtf 7Ug b/af/lt/
jif{b]lv 5/l5d]sn] p;nfO{{ PSn} pHofnf] b]VyL . To;df klg PSsfl; pm 8]u rlng . dfg]{ wDsL lbof], pm uP/ km]l/ cfdf–5f]/f eP/ afFRg]5f}+ . sfd ug]{ sfn', ds} vfg] efn"
b] l v/x] s f lyP . t/, Pslbg cFWof/f] 5fof] . clGtddf s] ;f]rL 6;d; eOg . p;n] ;fx"nfO{{ eGof], of] nf]sdf ;'v 5}g . ToxfF d]/f] 5f]/f] a;La;L /ut r':5g\ hGdhft 7fn" .
;fFemkv p;sf] sfvdf l5d]sLn] s'lGg– 8S6/sxfF lnP/ hfg] eO{ . …a"9L t d/] pl7\bg .Ú ;'vn] afFRg]5 . :ju{ k'u]kl5 d}n] o;}n] t zf]if0f cGofo x'G5
/f]O/x]sf] Pp6f aRrf b]v] . p;n] t/, pm;Fu k|z:t gub lyPg . ;fx" cfkm}+ aflx/ cfof] . a"9LnfO{{ p;sf] :oxf/;';f/ ug]5 { ' .Ú u/L vfg] / a;L vfg] b'O{ au{ x'G5g\ .
yKykfpFb} p;nfO{{ ;'tfpg] k|of; To;}n] pm ;fx"sxfF k'uL . ;fx" 3/d} b] V g] l alQs} lrGof] . aRrfnfO{ { aNn ;fx"sf cfFvf el/P / cfF;' lghL ;DkQL ha x'G5 au{x? aG5g\ .
ul//x]sL lyO{ . Tof] s'g} c;fwf/0f e]l6of] . b]v]kl5 pm Psl5g ltlNdnfof] . e'OFdf v;] . cfh;Dd p;n] s;}sf] ;a} s[ltd wgL u/La s[ltd
36gf lyPg . To;}n] p;nfO{{ aRrfaf/] a"9Ln] xft hf]8\b} laGtL u/L, c;+Vo sldnfn] z/L/df 6f]s]h:tf] cufl8 6fpsf] lgx'/fPsf] lyPg t/ hft–eft, wd{–sd{ ;a} s[ltd .
s;}n] ;f]w]g . ToxL lbgb]lv aRrf …;fx"hL, d}n] hDdf u/]sf] k};f lbg'eP eof] . Tof] aRrfsf] cg'xf/ x'ax' cfh a"9Lsf] ;fd' pm em'Sof] / eGof], sf]xL t ;f+;b klg s[ltd
p;sf] ;fydf lyof] / v'zL lyof] . 7"nf] u'g nfUYof] . d]/f] 5f]/f la/fdL p;sf] 5f]/f df]xg;Fu ldNYof] . ;ft …sd;]sd cfdfsf] ddtfnfO{{ t dg{ gful/stf s[ltd, wd{ s[ltd
cfk"meGbf dL7f] v'jfpFyL, cfk"meGbf eP/ e/]–ef]ln ePsf] 5 . 8fS6/sxfF jif{cl3 df]xg Pp6f d]nfaf6 x/fPsf] gb]pm . cflv/ ltdL klg t p;sL k9fO s[ltd, ;l6{lkms]6 s[ltd
/fd|f n'uf nufOlbGyL . b]vfpg hfg] k};f ePg .Ú lyof] . ;fx"n] df]xgnfO{{ y'k|} 7fpFdf cfdf xf} . ltdL uof} eof] 5f]/f] :jf:ydf v]naf8 8fS6/ klg s[ltd
a"9Ln] cfˆgf] em'k8Ldf ;fgf] ;fx"n] s7f]/ zAbdf eGof], …s:tf] vf]Hof] t/ st} e]§fPg . plQv]/} afFR5 .Ú ;fx" ;'SF ;'sfof] . cf}ifwL s[ltd, gf]6 s[ltd
vfN8f] vg]/ Pp6f efF8f] uf8]sL lyO{ . k};f < slxn] hDdf u/]sf] k};f < ;fx"n] ;lDemof]– df]xgsf] hfªdf …ddtfÚ zAbn] a"9LnfO{{ unfof] . clg t ef]6 klg x'G5 s[ltd
lbgel/ dfu]/ NofPsf] k};f p;n] d;Fu s;}sf] s]xL hDdf k};f 5}g .Ú Pp6f /ftf] /+usf] lrGx lyof] . pm t'?Gt} egL, …n lxF8\g';\ .Ú k};f eP x'G5 d]nf b]V5g\ v]nf
ToxL efF8f]df /fVyL / dflyaf6 a"9Lsf cfFvf /;fP . ?Fb} ofrgf a"9Lsf] glhs uof] / aRrfsf] hfª ;fx"n] ;xf/f lbP/ a"9LnfO{{ p7fof] t/
9fSyL . rf]/ gnfu"g\ eg]/ p;n] u/L, …b'O{ jif{cl3 xh'/s} lhDdf x]¥of] . /ftf] lrGx t lyof] t/ / uf8Ldf a;fNof] . uf8L t'kmfgem}+ sfd ug]s { f xftdf k5{g\ 7]nf–7]nf
To:tf] h'lQm nufPsL lyO{ . hDdf nufP/ lxF8]sL lyPF . bof u/]/ klxn] e Gbf 7" n f] . p;nfO{ { k" 0 f{ alQof] . Tolta]nf ;fx" / a"9L b'j}sf] /fli6«otf s[ltd, s:tf] hdfgf <
ePsf] vfBfGgrflxF ksfpFyL, vfGyL lbg';\ .Ú ljZjf; eof]– Tof] aRrf cfˆg} 5f]/f] Pp6} bzf lyof] . b'js } f] sfdgf lyof]– cfk"mnfO{ ;/ k/] ef/t elQm
/ aRrfnfO{{ v'jfpFyL . /flt aRrfnfO{{ pm lxSsf 5f8]/ /f]O{ . df]xg xf] . l56f] 5f] / f;fd' k' u " F / dfofn] csf{n] agfOlbPsf] gSsnL dGqL
cfˆgf] 5ftLdf 6fF;/] ;'tfpFyL . laxfg ;fx"n] n]vfkfnlt/ /x:odo ;fx"n] a"9Lsf] cFufnf]af6 aRrfnfO{{ ;'D;'DofpmF . b]zeQmnfO{ b]vfpF5g\ zlQm
p;nfO{ { v' j fP/ cfk" m dlGb/sf] b[li6n] x]¥of] / eGof], …o;f] x]g{';\ t, tfGof] / cfˆgf] cFufnf]df a]¥of] . z/L/ 3/ cfPkl5 ;fx"n] a"9LnfO{{ t/
9f]sfcufl8 pleg hfGyL . logsf] gfddf s]xL hDdf 5 ls 5}g Û Hj/f]n] plDnPsf] lyof] . gf]s/nfO{{ ;dft]/ leq nu] . hfg]lalQs} p;n] u/]/ gx'g] s] x'G5 <
sfzLdf agf/;Lbf; ;fx" w]/} ltd|f] gfd s] xf] /] <Ú cx|fP/ 8S6/ lng k7fof] / cfk"m df]xgsf] 6fpsf]df xft /fvL / ;a} ;SsnL x'G5
k|l;4 gfd xf] . aRrfb]lv a"9f;Dd olt ;' g ] k l5 a" 9 Lsf] dgdf 3/le/ uof] . ;'D;'DofO{ . df]xgnfO{{ yfxf eof]– of] bnfn k'h F Ljfb xf]Og, gofF hgjfb x'G5 .
;a} p;nfO{{ lrGy] . 7"nf] b]zeQm / PsfPs cfzfsf] lbof] aNof] . dgdf a"9L aflx/ ?Fb} lrRofpFb} lyO{, p;sL cfdfsf] xft xf] . k'nS' s cfFvf a}1flgs ;dfhjfb x'G5
wdf{Tdf lyof] pm . wd{df a9L ?lr plQv]/} v'zLsf nx/f nx/fP . klxnf] …d]/f] aRrfnfO{{ gn}hfpm . k};f t vf]Nof] / b]Vof]– cfdf p;s} ;fd' ;fDojfb klg x'G5 .
lyof] . lbpF;f] !@ ah];Dd :gfg / pQ/ ;'Gbf p;nfO{{ nfu]sf] lyof]– ;fx" lgNof}–lgNof}, aRrfnfO{{ klg daf6 plePsL 5g\ . RofKk xft ;dfTof] / cflv/ larf/ g xf]
Wofgdf x/fpFYof] . 3/df ;w}h + ;f] eL8 a]Odfg /x]5 . bf];f| ] pQ/kl5 nfUof]– 5'§fpg nfUof} <Ú eGof], …cfdf, cfpg'ef] <Ú gofF larf/ /f]k]
nflu/xGYof] . w]/}h;f] shf{ lng lal;{Psf] klg t x'g ;S5 . o:tf ;fx" cln uDeL/ eP/ af]Nof], a"9Ln] eSsflgP/ egL, …cF afa', gofF laxfg x'G5
cfpFy] . sf]xL To:tf klg cfpFy], wdf{Tdf klg sxLF em'6 af]N5g\ / < …of] aRrf d]/f] xf] . Psdfq 5f]/f] . tFnfO{{ 5f8]/ sxfF hfg ;S5' / ÛÚ ;a}nfO{ sfd ;a}nfO{ dfd x'G5 .
h;n] cfk"m;Fu hDdf ePsf] k'FhL p;n] cfˆgf] gfd egL . ;ft jif{klxn] d]nfdf x/fPsf] lyof], a"9L df]xgsf] 6fpsf] glhs} a;L lx6n/ uP, d';f]lngL uP
;' / Iffsf nflu p;sf] lhDdf n]vfkfnn] vftf x]/h ] :tf] u/]/ eGof], clxn] aNn e]l6of] . d o;nfO{{ ca / sfvdf /vL . p;n] olQsf] ;'v g]kfndf 1fg]Gb| uP
nufpFy] . a"9LnfO{{ klg of] s'/f yfxf …of] gfddf t Ps k};f klg hDdf daf6 5'l§g lbGgF . ;f/f ;+;f/ Ps o;cl3 slxNo} kfPsL lyOg . df]xg lgla{sNk s] x'G5 <
lyof] . t/, yfxf 5}g lsg– clxn];Dd ePsf] 5}g t .Ú u/fP/ eP klg pkrf/ u/] / p;s} sfvdf lgbfof] . hgtf Ps h'6 eP
pm hDdf k'h F L ToxfF hDdf ug{ uPsL a"9L km]l/ h8 eO{ . d'6d' f plQv]/} arfpF5' .Ú csf]{ lbgb]lv g} df]xgsf] cj:yf :jtGqtf, Gofo / zflGt
lyOg . tLvf] wg'ifn] 3f]r]h:t} eof] . km]l/ a"9L l/;n] efjGg} eP/ af]nL, ;'lw|g yfNof] . 8S6/sf cf}iflw, j}Bsf jf:tlas x'G5 .
pm;Fu w]/} k};f hDdf eO;s]sf] cfFvfaf6 a// cfF;' em/] . ?Fb} egL, …cfˆgf] aRrf ePkl5 dfq} arfpg], hl8a'6Ln] ug{ g;s]sf] sfd a"9Lsf] gofF g]kfnsf] klxrfg x'G5
lyof] . em'k8Ldf n'sfP/ /fv]sf] efF8f] …;fx"hL, eujfgsf] gfddf, wd{sf] d]/f] ePsf] eP olQs} dg{ lbg] < :g]xn] u¥of] . !)–!% lbgd} pm kxf8 kv]/f em'kf| xf:5g\
el/O;s]sf] lyof] . rf]/ nfUnf eg]/ gfddf s]xL lbg';\ . d]/f] 5f]/f] olQs} sxfFsf] Gofo xf] of] < o:tfnfO{{ wdf{Tdf t+lu|of] . pm k"/} :j:y ePkl5 a"9Ln] afnsx?sf cf]7+ df xfF;f] x'G5 .
p;nfO{{ 8/ nflu/xGYof] . Pslbg d5{ . d lhGbuLel/ tkfO{+sf] u'0f eG5g\ < o;nfO{{ x'sf{pg d}n] /ut– labf dfuL . ;fx"n] ;Fu} ToxL 3/df ToxL xfF;f]n] g]kfn pHofnf] x'G5 .
;fFemkv p;n] Tof] efF8f] lgsfnL / ufpFb} lxF8\g]5' .Ú kl;gf aufPsL 5' . d s;}u/L klg a:g cg'go–ljgo u¥of] t/ a"9L :jtGq hGd]sf] dfG5]
wf]tLdf a]/]/ ;fx"sf] 3/lt/ lxF8L– t/, 9'u+ f klUnPg . ;fx" klUnPg . tkfO{n + fO{{ lbGgF .Ú cfˆgf] lg0f{oaf6 kl5 xl6g . afWo aGwgdf lsg <
n¶Lsf] e/df . emg} S¿4 eP/ eGof], …v'?Ss hfG5\of} ;fx" a8f] c;d~h;df k{of] . eP/ ;fx"n] p;nfO{{ labf u¥of] . pm cfrf/–larf/sf] t aGwg x'G5
pm k'Ubf ;fx" lx;falstfa ub}{ ls gf]s/ af]nfP/ aflx/ lgsfn"F <Ú pkfo s]xL gnfu]kl5 Psl5g ToxLF p7]/ hfg] a]nf ;fx"n] k};fsf] y}nf]
h]=+ P;= dLnsf] v'Nnf cfsfz
lyof] . ;f]Wof], …s] 5 < lsg cfPsf] <Ú lbof] . a"9Ln] y}nf] 5fd5'd u/L /
s;/L ;+ea x'G5 <
a"9L n¶L 6]s]/ p7L / ;fx"lt/ l7+u pleO/Xof] / ;/f;/ 3/leq
clwsf/ / st{Ao Ps csf{sf k'/s
p;n] efF8f] cufl8 ;f/L / 8/fO{– kmls{P/ egL, …eujfgn] tkfO{n + fO{{ w]/} uof] . 8\ofDd 9f]sf nufof] . a"9L ;f]wL, …o;df s] 5 <Ú
eP/ kf] ;dfh x'G5 .
8/fO{ egL, …;fx"hL, of] k};f tkfO{; + uF } lbpmg\ .Ú s]xLa]/ ToxLF /f]P/ pleO/xL . cfF;s ' f ;fx"n] em'ss
] f] :j/df eGof], …o;df
t/
ltd|f] k'FhL 5 . ltdLn] sdfPsf] wg larf/df ;a}nfO{ 5'6 x'G5
5 . d}n] ltdLdfly ck/fw u/]+===Ú ;dfhsf] /y larf/ g} x'G5 .
a"9Ln] aLrd} sf6]/ egL, …of] k};f gSsnL /fhfsf] gSsnL sfdn]
t d}n] df]xgsf] nflu hDdf u/]sL uf]? k5fl8 uf8f cufl8 x'G5 .
lyPF, p;}nfO{{ lbg'xf]nf .Ú lasf; / ;d[l4
Tof] y}nf] ToxLF 5f8]/ a"9L n¶L gSsnL dfG5]sf] gSsnL uf8f
6]Sb} aflx/ lgl:sO{ . p;sf cfFvfel/ lqz'nLdf enf{ª\ vfG5 .
cfF;' lyP . pm duGt] eP/ klg ofqf kZrudg zf;g lx6n/L x'G5
;fx"eGbf s}of}+ u'0ff wgL lyO{ . eGgnfO{ h] eg] lg x'G5
olta]nf pm bftf / ;fx" duGt]h:tf Ps} l5gdf l;+ufk'/ x'G5
lyP . sfd u/] kf] b]z aG5
-;fef/M rfFb l;tf/]– /jLGb|gfy gSsnL larf/n] s] x'G5 <
6}uf]/ sL sxflgofF_ dfG5] ;SsnL eP kf] x'G5 .
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ufO{sf08sf] bf];f| ] ;+:s/0f


g]kfndf ufO{sf08sf] bf];f| ] ;+:s/0fn] s7f]/ ;hfosf] eflubf/ agfPsf 5g\\ . nflu of] sf08 u|f08l8hfO{gdf of] zf;gJoj:yf ljb]zLsf] Ozf/fdf k|hftGq / dfgj clwsf/sf] kf7 kmf]l/xfn eg]s} t xf] . k]znhL /
ahf/ kfPsf] 5 . x'g t ufO{sf08 k/Dk/fsf] l:yltdf ufO{ sf6]sf], vfPsf] sf08 d~rg ePsf] xf] . of] a]df};dL rln/x]sf 5g\\ . g /fi6« :jflwg 5 g k9fpg] klg pg} x'g ;'/;] hLsf] dfGotf pxL g} 5 .
jiff}b{+ l] v ufpF ufpFdf e}/x]sf 5g\\ . lgx'df s}of}+ dflg;sf] xTofs} em}+ cleof]u / k|fof]lht sfo{ xf] eg]/ klg ts{x¿ t hgjfbL zf;gJoj:yf g} 5, gt bfglao, cfttfoL d':nf] Nofpg] clxn] ufO{sf] df;'vfg] / gvfg]
;fdGtjfb, bnfn k'h F Ljfb / gf]s/zfxL nfu]/ sfg'g cg';f/ h]n3/df 5g\\ . ul/Psf 5g\\ . ufO{nfO{{ /fli6«o hgfj/ hgtfn] ef]us ] f ;d:ofx¿k|lt zf;s klg pg} x'g jfbljjfb ;fdflhs ;+hfndf k|;:t
k'h
F LjfbLx¿sf] /fHodf ;fdGtL ;dfhsf Psvfnsf kfv08Lx¿nfO{{ of] la‰b}g dfGg'kg]{ bjfj em]Ngg;s]/ sDo'lg:6 / Joj:yfg} pQ/bfoL 5g\\ . b]z xfdLnfO{{ levdfuf agfpg] klg e]l6g nfu]sf] 5 . t/ o;sf] j}1flgs
c:kJo:t / a]lyltaf6 rln/x]sf] 5 . pg} x'g tYo s;}n] k|:t't u/]sf] 5}g ls s:tf]
ljgf]b bfxfn ufO{nfO{{ b]jtfsf] ¿kdf k'hs
km]l/ klg uf}xTofnfO{{ dfgjsf] xTofsf]
] f] / xfd|} cl:dtf / ;DkQL n'6]/
bfgla/ sxlng] pg} x'g.
df;' vfg of]Uo 5 < xfdLn] ahf/df
kfpg] ;a} df;' vfg of}Uo 5 t <
wfld{s e|ddf kf/]/ k'/]t, ;/x ;hfo x'g] u/]sf] ljBodfg
sfg'gaf/] af]Ng lgif]w ul/Psf] xf] t <
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dGqL, ;f+;b jf b]zsf] Aoj:yfksf]
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kl08t, wfdL, Hof]ltif / s] of] rrf{ ;fdfGo xf] t < s] of]
36gfdf dflg; k| l tlqmoflaxLg x'g
cfˆgf :jfy{df nDk;f/ kg]{ log} a:g] t o:tf] k| Z g;lxt l6Kk0fL
ub{5g\\ .
k'hf/Lx¿n] lgd'vf hgtfnfO{{ x'g;S5 < of] 36gfn] b]zdf kl/jt{g
cfPsf] atfpg] /fhgLlts g]tT[ jx¿n]
esf/Ldf cGg eP klg lev dfUg]
log} x'g
/fl:qo hgfa/ ax;
c? b]zn] /fli6«o hgfa/, r/f,
r'l;/x]sf 5g\\ / n'l6/x]sf ;lx af]ns ] f 5g\\ of a]l7s < s] g]kfn
cw{ ; fdGtL cj:yfaf6 d' n tM
lasf;sf] efif0f ub}{ lagf; Nofpg]
log} x'g
df5f cflb vfG5g\\ ls vfb}gg\, k"hf
u5{g\ ls cflb eg]/ o;f] internet-
5g\\ . hldgdflysf] :jfldTj k' F h Ljfbdf kbfk{ 0 f ePsf] eGg]
sDo'lg:6 cfGbf]ngsf cjz/jfbLn]
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log} x'g .
based study u/]sf] t o:tf] kfOof]—
af+ U nfb] z sf] lIish (national
sfod u/]/ ;fdGt / u/]sf] bfjLdf s'g} ;RrfO{ e]l6G5 <
;fF9] @ ;ojif{ cl3b]lv g]kfndf lxGb'
Pdl8n] o:tf] kf]i6 u/]sf 5g\\ .
klZrdn] wldnf] kfgLdf dR5f dg]{
fish) O{ln; df5f t v"a :jflbnf] x"g]
/]5, vfFbf klg /]5g\,\ a]r/] lgof{t ;d]t
lhdbf/n] ls;fgnfO{{ 7u]sf] v;x¿sf] Psn / s]Gb|Ls[t /fHo
;~rfng ePsf] oyfy{af/] ;a}df jf]w
sfd eg] ul//x]s} 5 Û of] ;fob
;a}af6 :jLsfo{ g}+ xf] Û
ubf{ /]5g, Costa Rica sf] White-
talied deer -national animal_,
7Uy} / n'6]sf] n'6\o} 5g\\ . ePs} 5 . Tof] zf;gJoj:yfnfO{{
eTsfpg k6sk6s hgcfGbf]ng /
To:t} csf]{ l6Kk0fL—
/fli6«o hgfj/ vfg' x'Gg eGg]nfO{{
xl/0f sf] ;'s6' Lsf] s'/} gu?d, iraq
sf] af]sf Goat -KRG_, hfkfgsf] carp
3/ agfpg]nfO{{ 3/df k|j]z ;z:q qmflGtx¿ eP . kl5Nnf]k6s
;+;bjfbL / dfcf]jfbL eP/ Tof]
r]tgfsf nflu hf/L ul/Psf]=;"rgf==
/fli6«o hgfj/ x'bf vfgf gx'g]
-fish_ df5f tf hfkfgL resturant
df 6+g,} New Zealand sf] Kiwif\
lgif]w 5 . dlGb/ agfpg]nfO{{ klaq:yfgsf] gfddf ToxL eTsfPsf] bfjL ul/of] . b]z ax'hflto,
ax' w fld{ s , ax' ; f+ : s[ l ts ePsf]
xf]Og / vfg} k5{ eGg] d]/f] ts{ klg
xf]Og{ t/ c:6«l] nofsf] /fli6«o hgfj/
r/f, Srif\ Lanka sf] sflnh -
junglefowl, etc .
atfO{of] . s'g}klg wd{, ;+:s[lt, s+uf? xf] . h'g ToxfF v'nd v'Nnf xf]Og{ xf] of] ufO{jfnf s'al" 4 xfd|fd] f
pm lgif]w 5 . hldg cfjfb ug]{sf] hldgsf] :jfldTj k/fDk/fsf gfddf dflg;nfO{{ lje]b vfgfdf k|of]u x'G5 . :k]gsf] /fli6«o pxL Ol08ofaf6 cfsf]+ t xf]nf lg /
ul/g] 5}g eGg] ;+ljwfg hfl/ ul/Psf] hgfj/ ;fF8] xf] h'g ToxfF ;a}eGbf dftf eg]/ ufO{nfO{{ bfDnfn] afw]/ 3fF;
vf]l;Psf] 5 . ul/jx¿ cj;/xLg ePsf 5g\\ . klg atfOof] . /fHonfO{{ wd{lg/k]Iftf a9L vfgfdf k|of]u x'G5, ;fpbLc/asf] xfN5g, cflˆg cfdfnfO{{ rflx+ a[bf>df .
3f]if0ff ul/of] / hgtfsf] txdf wfld{s /fli6«o hgfj/ pF7 xf] Tof] ToxfF dHhfn] /3' lwld/]sf] kf]i6af6 .
zf;sx¿ ax'/fli6«o sDklgsf Ph]G6sf] ¿kdf sfd :jtGqtf . ;dfj]zL tyf ;dfg'kflts vfgfdf k|of]u x'G5 . olxF l5d]sL xfd|f Jojxf/x¿ pTkfbgd'ns,
k|0ffln nfu' ul/of] elgof] . b]zdf d'n'ssf] s'/f ug]{ xf] eg] *)=% pkof]uL / j}1flgs x'gk' 5{ g ls
ul//x]sf 5g\\ . zf;gJoj:yf ljb]zLsf] Ozf/fdf nf]stGq, u0ftGq / ;+3Lotf cfPsf] k|ltztsf] xf/fxf/L lxGb" /x]sf] ef/tdf cfbz{ j fbL . dflg;n] >d u/] /
klg zf;sx¿af6 uj{sf;fy eGg] ufO{ uf]?sf] df;' ljkm ;KnfO{d{ f ljZjsf] a:gnfO{{ 3/ agfpF5g\,\ nufpgnfO{{ n'uf
rln/x]sf 5g\\ . g /fi6« :jflwg 5 g t hgjfbL ul/Psf] klg ;'lgof] . hgtfn] g} gDa/ ! d'ns ' ePsf] 5 h'g sDkgLsf] / vfg–lkpgsf] nflu v]tL ug]{ /
;+ l jwfg lgdf{ 0 f u/] s f] / dflnsx¿ a|fXd0f g} 5g\\ . oxfF t pTkfbgug]{ ub{5g\\ . wd{ dflg;sf] jfO{
zf;gJoj:yf g} 5, gt hgtfn] ef]u]sf ;d:ofx¿k|lt ;dfhjfbpGd'v ;+ljwfg agfPsf] bfjL lxGb'x¿n] cfdf dfGg] ePsf sf/0f g} k|f8] S6:\ xf] . wd{ dfq x}g wd{eL? klg
klg ul/Ps} 5 . cem cfk"mnfO{{ ufO{nfO{{ /fli6«o hgjf/ agfPsf x'g\ . To:t} x'g\ . wd{ ljifQm lrh klg xf]
zf;s / Joj:yfg} pQ/bfoL 5g\\ . b]z c:kJo:t / sDo'lg:6 eGg]x¿ b'Ol{ txfO{sf] zlQm g]kfn cfbLdsfnb]lv g} ufO{ vfg] b]z h;n] dflg;nfO{{ xfgL ub{5 . wd{n]
lnP/ zf;g Joj:yfsf] s]Gb|df 5g\\ . xf] . g]kfnsf cfbLaf;L hghflt ;a}n] dflg;nfO{{ dflg; x'g lb+bg} . wd{
a]lyltaf6 rln/x]sf] 5 . t}klg b]zdf ufO{sf] df;' a]rs ] f] lgx'df ufO{sf] df;' vfG5\g\ . slk . hgla/f]wLx¿sf] xltof/ xf] . wd{n]
cfhLjg sf/fjf;sf] ef]Ug]x¿ s}of}+ /flwsfhL xNnf / wDsL;F u dflg;nfO{{ 1fgL aGg lb+bg} , o;n]
hjh{h:t cjz]ifx¿ ;njnfO/x]sf eg] csf{ vfnsf dflg;x¿ lgl/x em}+ eGg]x¿;d]t /fli6«o hgfj/ ufO{ dfGg b]lvP . ufO{nfO{{ k'Hg] / v; a|fDx0fx¿ g8/fpg'xf]; . ufO{ Pp6f hgfj/ b"w dflg;nfO{{ c1fgL d'v{ / kfvl08
5g\\ h'g :jefljs x'g\ . lgod, sfg'g, cGofo ;x]/ a;]sf 5g\\ . /fli6«o bjfj k'u] . ;+ljwfg d:of}bf agfpFbf tTsflng 5Fb5 } g\\ eg] ufO{sf] df;' vfg] k/Dk/f / df;'sf]nflu kflnG5 . uf]?sf] agfp5 . hLjg Jojxf/af6 h:n]
;+:sf/, ;+:s[lt / ;fdflhs Jojxf/df xfNb} tTsflng ;+;bdf kb\d\ /TgnfO{{ dfcf]jfbLnfO{{ sf+u|];n] blIf0fkGyL ePsf hflt, wfld{s / ;fF:s[lts df;'vfbf h]n a:g' k5{ eg] Tof] h]n wfld{s lzIff lbg] b':k|of; ub{5 pm
;fdGtjfb lhpFb} / zlQmzfnL 5 . ?jfpg] tTjx¿ csf]{ sf08sf] ¿kdf k|fr0f8 em'08 /fk|kfnfO{; { d]t pl5g]/ ;d'bfox¿ klg /x]sf] tYonfO{{ yfx} d]/f] nflu klg vfln u/ ;/sf/ . lzIfs xf]Og, pm 3fts dfG5] xf] .
dflg;sf ;fdflhs / Jojxf/ cGofo k'js { h]ndf a;]sfx¿sf] kIfdf ls ufO{nfO{{ /fli6«o hgfj/ dfg ls t gePsf] h:tf]u/L k|ltlqmofjfbL /fHon] k]zn vltj8fn] n]vs ] f 5g\\ . To;}n] oxfF ;+;bLo /fhgLlts bnx¿df
ef}ltsjfbL / hgjfbL x'g lg0ff{os cfjfh p7fPsf] lgx' d f /flwsf o'4sf] ;fdgf u/ eGg k'u]kl5 u/]sf] Jojxf/n] hg:t/df rflx+ ufO{sf] df;' vfPsf] cleof]udf w]/} g]tf e]l6+bg} g\, kfvl08x¿ dfq 5g\\ .
;+3if{n] ljho gkfPsfn] gful/sn] tfdfªdfly cfqmd0fsf] lgzfgf nufpFb} kl/jt{gsf] ;fgf] c+z;d]t hgtfn] kl/jt{gsf] cfefif ldn] h:tf] b]lvPg . tfdfªx¿ h]n a:g'k/]sf] ljifodf sd{rf/Ldf dflg;sf] bhf{ lbgnfossf
;fdflhs Jojxf/df ;fdGtjfbnfO{{ 5g\\ . of] sf08n] cg]sf}+ ts{x¿ / dxz'; ug{ kfPgG\ . kl/0ffd Jojxf/df /flwsf tfdfªn] /fv]sf] dfGotfsf] tfdfªx¿sf] ;+:yfn] u[xdGqLnfO{{ sf]xL klg b]lv+bg} g\ . ;]gf–k|x/Ldf au/]
s6fP/ ug{;Sg] cj:yf g} cfPsf] 5}g . larf/x¿ ;txdf NofPsf] 5 . b]lv+b5} ls bfO{hf] gNofPsf] lgx'df ljifonfO{{ lnP/ ;fdflhs ;~hfndf ;d:of ;dfwfgsf] nflu 1fkgkq / k'hf/Lsf sfdbf/l;jfo c? x'g
slyt pkNnf] hftn] cGo hftnfO{{ ufO{sf] df;' a]rs
] f] cleof]udf dlxnfsf] lgd{d xTofsf 36gf p:t} dfld{s l6sfl6Kk0fLx¿ cfPsf 5g\\ . a'emfPsf] /x]5 . o;}nfO{{ aª\o\ fP/ clxn] ;ls/x]sf 5}gg\ . lzIfsx¿ klg
wd{, k/Dk/f, /Lltl/jfh, e|d / 8/df cflhjg h]ndf /x]sf tfdfªx¿sf] 5 . slyt af]S;Lsf] lgx'df ufpFufpFdf pgsf] ;fob klZrdf zlQmx¿;Fu ufO{sf] k'R5/ ;dfP/ a}tgL{ tg{ vf]Hg] lzIfs x'g nfossf 5}gg\, ljBfnod}
kf/]/ zf]if0f ug],{ pTkL8g ug],{ bdg ljifodf /flwsf tfdfªn] u[xdGqL;dIf dlxnfx¿sf] xTof e}/x]sf] 5 . wfld{s ;DaGw gxf]nf lsgls l6sfl6Kk0fLx¿df s]xL wfld{s cltjfbLx¿, r'gfakl5 kf7k'hf u5{g\ / gofF k':tfnfO{{ klg
ug],{ x]nfxf]rf] ug],{ cGofo ug]{ l:ylt /fv]sf s'/fx¿nfO{{ ufO{sf08sf] bf]>f] e|ddf kf/]/ k'/]t, kl08t, wfdL, pgLsf] ;DaGwsf] k|;Ë st} b]lvPsf] 56k6fPsf uug k|al[ Qx¿, klZrdf laufl//x]sf 5g\\ .
ljBdfg g} 5 . o;df /fHo ;xof]uL ;+:s/0f clxn] ahf/df 5 . o;df Hof]ltif / k'hf/Lx¿n] lgd'vf hgtfnfO{{ 5}g . t}klg o:tf /f]rs / k]lrnf lqmlirog ldlzg/Lx¿ Ps;fy bf]>f] ufO{sf08 Pp6f 36gf eP
aGg] u/]sf] 5 . wd{sf] ljif lknfpg], cg] s f} + sf] 0 f / lgotaf6 r'l;/x]sf 5g\\ / n'l6/x]sf 5g\\ . tYox¿;d]t e]l6Psf 5g\—\ ;fDk|bflostf e8\s \ fpg vf]Hb}5g\\ . klg ;du|df of] b]zsf] ;d:ofsf]
cnf} l ss zlQmsf] 8/df kfg] { , lqmofk|ltlqmofx¿ cfO{/x]sf 5g\\ . hldgdflysf] :jfldTj sfod u/]/ …pg} x'gÚ ;fjwfg x'g h?/L 5 . b]jG] b| sf]O/fnfsf] phfu/ xf] . of]l;t larf/ / /fhgLlt
cGwljZjf;sf] 3]/fdf kfg],{ e|dsf] h;/L s}nfnLdf af]lS; asfpg] lgx'df ;fdGt / lhdbf/n] ls;fgnfO{{ 7u]sf] ––– l6Kk0fL 5 . hf]l8Psf] 5 . klZrdf / b]zsf
hfnf]df kfg],{ cj;/xLg / cefjdf kf/]/ o'jltdfly 306f}; + Dd lg3f{t s'6lk6 7Uy} / n'6s ] f] n'6o\ } 5g\\ . 3/ agfpg]nfO{{ ufO{ / s's/' sf] emu8f ;Nsfpg] ufO{nfO{{ ufO{ e} /xg b]pm, To;sf] b'Zdgn] o;df b]lvPsf] sdhf]/Ldf
zlQmxLg agfpg], ul/aL / lajztfsf] ul/Psf] 36gfn] hlQs} rrf{ of] bf]>f] 3/df k| j ] z lgif] w 5 . dlGb/ klg pg} x'g Jofj;flos pTkfbg / pkef]u ug{ v]Ng kfPsf 5g\\ . ;~rf/ hutn]
kmfO{bf n'6g] ;fdGtL ju{n] cfˆgf] ;Qf ufO{sf08n] lnPsf] 5 . wd{lg/k]If agfpg]nfO{{ klaq:yfgsf] gfddf ToxL df;' / d'qsf] km/s 5'6o\ fpg] klg s'g} k|ltaGw gnfufpm Û s;}sf] wfld{s klg hgtfsf] cfZyfsf] gfddf wd{sf]
cem} 5f]8s ] f] 5}g . dflg;nfO{{ dflg; b] z df wfld{ s cfwf/df ag] s f pm lgif]w 5 . hldg cfjfb ug]s { f] pg} x'g / ;f+:s[lts d"Nosf] dfg bf]>f] wd{ / e|d lkmFhfO/x]s} 5g\\ . ju{ ;+3if{nfO{{
x'g glbP/ ls eujfg ls /fIf;sf] sfg' g m:x¿ kl/dfh{ g sf] s' / f hldgsf] :jfldTj vf]l;Psf] 5 . xfd|f lardf df/fdf//egfeg ;d'bfodfly yf]kg{ aGb u/ Û ;'/z ] 5fofFdf kfg{ ;a} hgla/f]wL tTjx¿
l:yltdf k'¥ofPsf] 5 . olt;Dd ls k'/ftgkGyLx¿n] lgif]w ul//x]sf 5g\\ . ul/jx¿ cj;/xLg ePsf 5g\\ . u/fpg] klg pg} x'g uf}tdsf] o:tf] egfO{ 5 . of] klg Ps eP/ nfu]sf 5g\\ . o;sf] lzsf/
hgfj/nfO{{ eujfgsf] bhf{ lbP/ Psvfnsf dflg;sf] ts{ s] 5 eg] zf;sx¿ ax' / fli6« o sDklgsf cf]xf] lau|g nfUof] egL ldnfk /flwsfs} efiff xf] . ufO{sf] df;' a]Rof] Gofosf] kIfdf jsfnt ug]{ /flwsfx¿
dflg;nfO{{ /fIf;Ls/0f u/]sf 5g\\ / o'/f]kn] lxGb'x¿n] O;fO{s/0f ug{sf] Ph]G6sf] ¿kdf sfd ul//x]sf 5g\\ . u/fpg] klg pg} x'g vfof] eGb}df h]ndf sf]Rg] sfg' t'?Gt} / sDo'lg:6x¿ kl//x]sf 5g\\ .
8 @)&$
sf= lh=;fn
k|= r}
sf=t !*
b= g+ut] cfOtaf/
= !^#÷@)^#÷^$

clvn=====
;fj{hlgs ub}{ gjlgjf{lrt cWoIf
zfxLn] efO–a'xf/L / >LdtLsf] gfddf
hUuf vl/b u/]sf 5g\ eg] cWoIf l;+xn]
/ sfo{sf/L clws[tn] !^–!^ ld6/sf
anfTsf/sf] abnf anfTsf/ Û g]skfåf/f v'nfn' dfNsf]6 ;8s lgdf{0f tLj|
sf7df8f}F . anfTsf/sf 36gf lbg]x¿;d]t kqmfp k/]sf 5g\ .
lr/~hLjL 9sfnn] ljBfyL{ cfGbf]ng sf7df8f}F . g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{n] cfˆg} nufgLdf ;'¿ u/]sf] sflnsf]6sf]
ca ;Demf}tfxLg ;+3if{df cufl8 a9\g] b/n] a}gf a'emfPsf 5g\ . sxfnLnfUbf] u/L a9\g yfn]sf 5g\ . o;} …8g Go"hÚsf cg';f/ 6f]af 6]s l;+x
qmddf anfTsf/ kLl8t o'jtLsf bfh'n] lhNnfdf Ps o'jsn] @) dfr{df Ps v'nfn' dfnsf]6 ;8sv08 lgdf{0f sfo{nfO{{ tLa|tf lbPsf] 5 . g]skfsf] s]lGb|o
atfP . pgn] ljutdf ljBfyL{ o;}aLr, :yfgLo /fhgLlts kf6L{sf of]hgfcg';f/ cfhaf6 lalwjt ¿kdf lhNnfsf] v'nfn' b]lv n}km" ;Ddsf] ;8s
;+u7gx¿n] a]nf a]nfdf cfGbf]ng ug]{ k|ltlglwn] d'VodGqL dx]Gb|axfb'/ zfxLnfO{ kL8ssf] kl/jf/;Fu ldnfkqsf gfddf dlxnfnfO{{ anfTsf/ u/]sf lyP .
anfTsf/ u/]sf] 36gf k|sfzdf cfPsf] 36gfkl5 cf/f]kLsf kl/jf/hgn] kLl8t v08dWo] dfNsf]6;Ddsf] ;8s lgdf{0f ul/Psf] hgfOPsf] 5 . pQm ;8ssf] ut
/ k6s k6s ;Demf} t fdf uP/ ufpFkflnsfdf ePsf] e|i6frf/sf]
6'ªUofpg] u/]sf] lttf] Oltxf; /x]sf] 5fgljgsf] nflu dfu u/]sf 5g\ . g]skf 5 . of] 36gf kfls:tfgsf] k~hfj k|fGtsf] kl/jf/;Fu dfkmL dfu]sf lyP . kLl8t
atfpFb} ca cfk"mx¿n] lzIff If]qdf Pdfn]sf ufpFkflnsf ;+of]hs v8\saxfb'/ xf], hxfF k|x/Ln] anfTsf/df ;+nUg tyf kl/jf/n] dfkmLsf nflu zt{ /fv]sf]
/x] s f tdfd ljs[ l tsf lj?4 l;+x, dfcf]jfbL s]Gb|sf l8NnLaxfb'/ l;+x, ;xof]uL e"ldsf lgjf{x u/]sf] cf/f]kdf lyof] . kLl8t kl/jf/n] kL8ssL
;Demf}tfxLg ;+3if{ cufl8 a9fpg] lg0f{o g]kfnL sfFu;]| sf k"j;{ efklt wgaxfb'/ !@ hgfnfO{{ kqmfp u/]sf] 5 . ;dfrf/ alxgLnfO{{ anfTsf/ ug]{ zt{ cl3 ;f/]sf]
u/]sf] atfP . ;fy} ljBfyL{ cGbf]ngnfO{{ l;+x / /fk|kfsf efgaxfb'/ l;+x / ;f]xL Ph]G;Lx¿sf cg';f/ Ps anfTsf/LnfO{{ / pQm zt{nfO{{ kLl8ssf kl/jf/n] ;d]t
clGtd lgisif{df k'¥ofP/} 5f8\g] 7f]sj' f ufpFkflnsfsf sfg'gL ;Nnfxsf/ slyt ¿kdf dfkmL lbg] / ldnfkq ug]{ :jLsf/ u/]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . ;f]xL
u/] . qmflGtsf/Ln] z}lIfs ;d:of /fh]Gb|axfb'/ yfkfn] ;+o'Qm ?kdf gfddf kLl8t o'jtLsf bfh'nfO{{ kL8ssL ;xdltcg';f/ anfTsf/sf] abnfdf
;dfwfgsf nflu k|yd r/0fsf sfo{qmd d'VodGqLnfO{ kq n]v/] 5fgljgsf] nflu alxgL anfTsf/ ug{ cg' d lt anfTsf/ ePsf] lyof] .
klg ;fj{hlgs u/]sf] 5 . h;cg';f/ dfu u/]sf 5g\ . hgk|ltlglwsf] o:tf] ul/Psf] 5 . of] cfly{s P]g ljkl/t ef/tLo sDkgLx¿;Fu ug]{ u/fpg]
r}t @& ;Dd 5nkmn, cGt/lqmof / xs{taf6 :yfgLo cfqmf]lzt ePsf 5g\ . eGb} :yfgLon] sf]6z ] g cfXjfg ug{ sfo{df ;+nUg /xL / /fi6«lxt lj?4
1fkgkq a'emfpg] h:tf sfo{qmd ug]{ pgLx?n] e|i6frf/L hgk|ltlglw rflxFbg} eGb} lbPsf] ;'emfjnfO{ cWoIf / pkfWoIfn] sfo{ u/]sf] xf] .
/ To;kl5 r/0fa4 ;+3if{sf sfo{qmddf sfnf]df];f] bNg' kg]{ atfpFb} cfPsf 5g\ . ;'gs ] f 5}gg\ . ;fdfg 9'jfgLsf] gfddf #=slyt :yfgLo lgsfosf] r'gfjdf
xf]ldg] qmflGtsf/Lsf cWoIf 9sfnn] o;}u/L, gGbaxfb'/ l;+x / pkfWoIf uf8LnfO{ kfbd3f6af6 dfGdaf6 ;'vt{ ] – sflnsf]6 lhNnfsf] dfNsf]6df :yfgLo
hfgsf/L lbP . df]xg/fh zfxLsf]] ldn]dtf]df sfg'gL g]kfnuGh km]l/ g]kfnuGhaf6 dfGd;Dd wg¿k a6fnf / s}nfnLsf rGb|axfb'/
kqsf/x¿sf] Ps k|Zgsf] hjfkm ;Nnfxsf/sf] tna vfFb} cfPsf] 36gf eGb} * nfv /sd lgsf;f ul/Psf] l;+x …;g;fOhÚ ;d]tsf] xTofdf uf]nL
5 . t/, uf8L Ps nfv !% xhf/ rnfpg cfb]z lbg' eGg] lgb]{zg kmfu'g ! ut] hgo'4 lbj;sf] cj;/ kf/]/ pb\3f6g ul/Psf] lyof] . sl/a ^ – &
lbFb} cWoIf 9sfnn] ca z}lIfs ;+:yf ;fj{hlgs ePsf] 5 . sfg'gL ;Nnfxsf/ dlxgfdf ;8s lgdf{0f sfo{ ;DkGg ug]{ nIo lnOPsf] hgfOPsf] 5 . klxnf]
dfq geO{ lzIff dGqfno / lzIff ?kdf lgo'Qm kfPsf /fh]Gb| yfkfnfO{ ;Demf}tf ePsf] dflns atfpF5g\ . oL u/]sf] .
ljifodf a'‰g vf]Hbf cWoIf / pkfWoIf $= @)&$ r}q % ut] g]skfsf r/0fdf nfn' n}km' ;8ssf] v'nfn' dfNsf]6 ;8sv08cGtu{t !@ lsnf]ld6/
ljefux¿ ;d]t aGb ug{k' g]{ cj:yf s'g} hfgsf/L g} ;]jf ;'ljwf cfkm}F lgsf;f ;8s lgdf{0f ug]{ g]skfn] hgfPsf] 5 . ;;:q hgo'4 ;'? ug{e' Gbf cl3b]lv
cfPsf] atfP . pgn] ljBfyL{sf ;d:of u/]/ s'DNofpFb} cfPsf 5g\ . olt;Dd ;Dks{df cfPgg\ . sf]zL Ao"/f] OGrfh{ ls/0f /fO{nufot
k| r 08===== y'k}| g]tfx¿nfO{{ lagf sf/0f ul/ˆtf/ lgdf{0fsf] of]hgf agfOPsf] pQm ;8s @% aif{kl5 g]skfn] lgdf{0f ug{ nfu]sf] xf] .
;dfwfg / ;du| z}lIfs kl/jt{gsf ls yfkfnfO{ hfgsf/L g} glbP/ sfg'gL
nflu ;a} vfnsf ;+3if{df cfˆgf] ;+u7g
cufl8 a9\g] bfjL u/] . pgn] eg], …ca
;Nnfxsf/df lgo'Qm ul/Psf] lyof] .
cfk"m lgo'Qm ePsf] c?n] eg]/ dfq}
kbd /fO{ / kf6L{ ;Da4 y'k}| o'jfx¿nfO{{
lj/f6gu/df lu/ˆtf/ u/L em'§f d'2f
u/L y'gfdf /fv]sf] .
lu/k\mtf/===== ;fj{hlgs hUuf vf]Hg z'?
:s'n sn]h dfq} aGb ul/b}g . yfxf kfPsf] yfkf atfpF5g\ . ut h]7 nufPsf] . cfof]lht hgtfsf] hghLljsfsf] sf7df8f}F . sf7df8f}F dxfgu/kflnsfsf k|dv ' ljBf;'Gb/ zfSon] #@ j6} j8f
ljBfyL{x¿sf] lxtdf, cleefjssf] !% ut] ufpFkflnsfn] lg0f{o ul/;s]kl5 @= @)&$ r}q % ut] g]skfsf ;jfnnfO{{ lnP/ kqsf/ ;Dd]ng e}/x]sf] cWoIfnfO{{ ;fj{hlgs hUufsf] hfgsf/L u/fpg lgb]z { g lbPsf 5g\ . sfdkfn] s/Lj
kIfdf zflGtk'0f{ cfjfh p7fpFbf xfd|f] ;fpgsf] clGtddf ufpFkl/ifbn] sf]zL Ao"/f]sf OGrfh{ ls/0f /fO{nufot cj:yfdf kqsf/x¿, b'O{ xKtfb]lv k|dv' zfSos} cu'jfO{df ;fj{hlgs hUufsf] hfgsf/L lng yfn]sf] xf] .
s'/f ;'gj' fO ePg eg] xfdL lzIff cg'df]bg u/]/ yfkfnfO{ lgo'lQm u/]sf] y'k}| g]tfx¿nfO{{ lagf sf/0f lu/ˆtf/ dgjclwsf/sdL{x¿sf] dfemaf6 sfo{qmd lj;+ @)&@ df uPsf] ljgfzsf/L e"sDksf a]nf ;fj{hlgs hUufsf] klxrfg x'g
dGqfno / lzIff laefu aGb ug]{ lyof] . t/, pgn] eg] 5 dlxgfkl5 u/L wgs'6fdf y'gfdf /fv]sf] . dfcf]jfbL :ynaf6} lagf sf/0f lu/ˆtf/L u/]sf]n] g;Sbf ;d:of ePsfn] cg'udgnfO{{ tLj|tf lbPsf] sfdkfn] hgfPsf] 5 . gu/k|dv '
cfGbf]ngsf] l;h{gf u5f}{ .Ú dfq} hfgsf/L kfP . yfkfnfO{ dfl;s s]Gb|sf cWoIf k|r08nfO{{ cf]nLeGbf w]/} of] bnfn u[x k|zf;gsf] sfo{ z}nL zfSon] ;fj{hlgs hUuf vf]Hg] lhDdf lbFb} cltqmd0f x6fpg / To;nfO{{ pkof]u ug]{
!* xhf/sf] b/n] ;]jf ;'ljwf pknAw d'2f k/]sf] atfOPsf] 5 . zflGtk|lqmofdf k|wfgdGqL s]kL cf]nLsf] kmfl;:6 z}nL of]hgf agfpg];Ddsf] clwsf/ j8f sfof{nonfO{{ g} k|Tofof]hg ul/;s]sf 5g .
dxfj} = ==== u/fpg] lg0f{o ePsf] lyof] . pgsf] cfPkl5 qmflGtk|lt ljZjf3ft u/]sf], hgtfsf] ;fd' G g] , kqsf/ tyf :yfgLo ;/sf/ ;~rfng P]g (@)&$) n] ;fj{hlgs hUufsf] ;+/If0fsf] lhDd]jf/L
lgdf{0fdf s/f]8f}+ /sd e|i6frf/ u/]sf] lgo'lQmnfO{ uf]Ko /flvPsf] lyof] . :yfgLo xltof/ a'emfPsf], hgo'lQm ;]gf lj36g dfgjclwsf/sdL{x¿sf] ;fd'Gg] pbfª\uf] d"n¿kdf :yfgLo txnfO{{ lbPsf] 5 . w]/} ;fj{hlgs hUuf s]xL JolQm jf ;+:yfn] k|of]u
eGb} :yfgLo cGo /fhgLlts kf6L{n] dfs]sf g]tfn] dfOGo'6sf] kmf]6f]skL u/]sf], dflyNnf] s0ff{nL, c?0f t];f| ] ePsf] 5 . o:tf] sfo{zn} L k|lt xfd|f] ul//x]sf] kfPkl5 ;fj{hlgs hUuf ;fj{hlgs ¿kdf g} /fVgsf nflu klxrfg ug{ yfn]sf]
lj/f]w ub}{ cfPsf 5g\ . u/]kl5 dfq} cfk"mnfO{ lgo'Qm ul/Psf] hgljB't cfof]hg ef/tnfO{{ lbg] sfo{df kf6L{n] 3f]/ lj/f]w tyf eT;{gf ub{5 . sfdkfsf lgb]z { s gj/fh 9sfnn] hfgsf/L lbg'eof] . j8f g+= # sf] sfof{no ejg;Fu}
cy{ dGqfnon] ufpFkflnsfsf] yfkfn] kQf] kfP . lgo'lQmdf yfkfnfO{ ;+nUg ePsf] jf/]G6df pNn]v 5 . xfd|f] ;fyLsf] tTsfn lagfzt{ l/xfO{sf] hf]l8Psf] ;f9] ^ cfgf hUuf lkmtf{ lnP/ dxfgu/n] cleofgsf] yfngL u/]sf] 5 .
Joj:yfkg ug]{ eg]/ k7fPsf] %@ nfv ufpFkflnsfsf] k/fdz{bftfsf] ?kdf dfcf] j fbL s] G b| s f cWoIf dfu ub{5f}+ . olb lagf ;t{ l/xfO clxn] sf7df8f}F dxfgu/kflnsfdf #@ j8f 5g\ . h;df sl/a !% j6f j8f
cWoIf, pkfWoIf, sfo{sf/L clws[t lgo'Qm ul/Psf] lg0f{odf pNn]v 5 . k|r08lj?4 hf/L ePsf] jf/]G6 – gul/Pdf xfd|f] kf6L{n] tTsfn ;zQm leqL zx/df kb{5 . olt g} hUuf /x]sf] 5 eGg] Plsg hfgsf/L eP klg w]/}
ldn]/ ;fdfg vl/b u/]sf] / gSsnL cfk"mnfO{ lgo'Qm u/]sf] hfgsf/L 5 d'lQm/fd bfxfnsf] 5f]/f lrtjg ;+3if{sf] sfo{qmd ug{ afWo x'g5 ] f}+ / ;fj{hlgs hUufx¿ aflx/L j8fdf kb{5g\ . cleofgcGt{ut j8f g+= # df dfq ;o
Eof6 lan agfP/ e|i6frf/ u/]sf 5g\ . dlxgfkl5 kfpFbf cfkm}n F fO{ nfh nfu]sf] lhNnf e/tk'/ gu/kflnsf j8f !$ To;af6 pTkGg x'g] kl/l:yltsf] o;} /f]kgLeGbf a9L ;fj{hlgs hUuf e]l6Psf] 5 . h'g hUufsf] d"No ? ;ft s/f]8
%)) kg]{ Knfli6ssf s';L{ vl/b u/]/ yfkf atfpF5g\ . cfk"mnfO{ lgo'Qm u/]sf] lzj gu/ :yfoL 7]ufgf eO{ xfn gfnfos bnfn–;fdflhs bnfn k'hLFjfbL a/fa/sf] 5 . ca ljZjlxGb" dxf;+3n] k|of]u u/]sf] @@ /f]kgL / ufoqL ;dfhn]
*)) sf] lan agfPsf], k|To]s j8fnfO{ / ;]jf ;'ljwf klg tf]lsPsf] hfgsf/L nlntk'/ lhNnf v'dn6f/ a:g] tkfO{F ;Qfsf dltof/x¿ hjfkmb]xL x'gk' g]5 { k|of]u ul//x]sf] $@ cfgf hUuf klg tTsfn} ;fj{hlgs k|of]hgdf lkmtf{ Nofpg]
#) xhf/sf] Nofk6k vl/b u/]/ %% kfPkl5 a'‰bf ;a} dlxgfsf] a'em]sf] k'iksdn bfxfn …k|r08Ú sf lj?4df eGg] o;} lj1lKtdfkm{t\ cjut u/fpg sfdkfn] hgfPsf] 5 . ;a} ;fj{hlgs hUufnfO{{ ;+/lIft hUufdf kl/0ft u/L afn
xhf/sf] lan agfPsf] kfOPsf] /]s8{ ufpFkflnsf sfof{nodf e]6fPsf] s]Gb|Lo hgcbfnt, /f]Nkfdf lgDg rfxG5f}+ .Æ pBfg, Ho]i7 gful/ssf] cf/fd:yn, laxfg a]ns ' f xfjf vfg] 7fpFsf ¿kdf ljsf;
atfOPsf] 5 . e|d0f vr{ eg]/ $) pNn]lvt d'2fx¿ k/]sf] x'Fbf ;f]
nfv 5'6o\ fOPsf] t/ slxn], sxfF /
yfkf atfpF5g\ . pgsf] kfl/>lds
;DaGwdf cfjZos cg';Gwfg eO/x]sf] s;n] = ==== ug]{ / ;fj{hlgs hUuf ;a}sf] ;femf ¿kdf /flvg] klg atfOPsf] 5 .
s'g p2]Zodf e|d0f ul/of] eGg] s'g}
/]s8{ 5}g . of] ufpFkflnsfdf cWoIfdf
pkfWoIf zfxLn] sLt]{ u/]/ a'‰b} cfPsf
lyP . ;a}sf] bjfjkl5 s]xL dlxgfsf]
kfl/>lds kfPsf] yfkf atfpF5g\ .
/ tkfO{; F d]tnfO{{ a'‰g' kg]{ ePsf]n] of]
;"rgf k|fKt u/]f] jf ;fj{hlgs :yfgdf
u/]sf] Ps sfdbf/n] atfP . lh–zksf
sfdbf/sf cg';f/ k;n ;~rfns jfo' k|bi" f0fn] ;Ldf gf£of]
g]kfnL sfFu;] | sf gGbaxfb'/ l;+x / g]skf 6fF; ePsf] ldltn] !% lbgleq s]Gb|Lo 1jfnLn] sfdbf/nfO{ ;/sf/n] sf7df8f}F . sf7df8f}F pkTosfsf] ljsf; lgdf{0f nyfln+u x'bF f jfo' k|bi" f0fn]
5fgljg x'bF f pkfWoIf zfxLn] cfk"mn] tf]sa] df]lhdsf] Go"gtd kfl/>lds;d]t
Pdn]af6 pkfWoIfdf df]xg/fh zfxLn] yfkfsf] tna a'em]sf] :jLsf/ u/]sf hgcbfnt /f]Nkfdf pkl:yt x'gsf l;df gf3]sf] 5 . k|bi" f0fsf sf/0f ;j{;fwf/0fsf] :jf:Yodf uDeL/ gsf/fTds
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