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544

METHODOLOGY OF SHIP HYDROELASTICITY INVESTIGATION I. SENJANOVIĆ, Š. MALENICA, S. TOMAŠEVIĆ, S. RUDAN

Ivo SENJANOVIĆ1

Šime MALENICA2 Methodology of Ship

Stipe TOMAŠEVIĆ1

Smiljko RUDAN1 Hydroelasticity Investigation

Original scientiﬁc paper

The importance of hydroelastic analysis of large and ﬂexible container ships of today is

pointed out. A methodology for investigation of this challenging phenomenon is drawn up and

a mathematical model is worked out. It includes deﬁnition of ship geometry, mass distribution,

structure stiffness, and combines ship hydrostatics, hydrodynamics, ship motion and vibrations.

Based on the presented theory, a computer program is developed and applied for hydroelastic

analysis of a ﬂexible segmented barge for which model test results of motion and distortion in

waves have been available. A correlation analysis of numerical simulation and measured response

shows quite good agreement of the transfer functions for heave, pitch, roll, vertical and horizontal

bending and torsion. Such checked tool can be further used for reliable hydroelastic analysis of

ship-like structures.

Keywords: container ships, ﬂexible barge, hydroelasticity, mathematical model, numerical

simulation, model tests

Izvorni znanstveni rad

Authors’ addreses: Naglašena je važnost provođenja hidroelastične analize velikih suvremenih kontejnerskih bro-

1

University of Zagreb, Zagreb, dova, koji su vrlo elastični u pogledu uvijanja. Opisana je metodologija istraživanja ovog izazovnog

Croatia; problema. Razrađen je matematički model, koji uključuje deﬁniranje geometrije broda, raspodjele

e-mail: ivo.senjanovic@fsb.hr masa, krutosti konstrukcije, i objedinjuje hidrostatiku, hidrodinamiku, njihanje i vibracije broda. Na

2

Bureau Veritas, Paris, France; osnovi prikazane teorije razvijena je odgovarajuća programska podrška, koja je primijenjena za

e-mail: hidroelastičnu analizu vrlo elastične segmentne barže, za koju postoje rezultati modelskih ispiti-

sime.malenica@bureauveritas.com vanja njihanja i deformiranja na valovima. Usporedbena analiza numeričke simulacije i izmjerenog

odziva pokazala je relativno dobro slaganje prijenosnih funkcija poniranja, posrtanja, ljuljanja, te

Received (Primljeno): 2007-02-07 vertikalnog i horizontalnog savijanja i uvijanja broda. Ovako provjereno sredstvo može se nadalje

pouzdano upotrijebiti za hidroelastičnu analizu brodskih konstrukcija.

Accepted (Prihvaćeno): 2007-03-29

Open for discussion (Otvoreno za Ključne riječi: kontejnerski brodovi, elastična barža, hidroelastičnost, matematički model,

raspravu): 2008-06-30 numerička simulacija, modelsko ispitivanje

1 Introduction body [1]. The obtained wave load is then imposed to the elastic

3D FEM model of ship structure in order to analyse global lon-

Sea transport is rapidly increasing and larger fast merchant gitudinal and transverse strength, as well as local strength with

ships are built. Large ships are relatively more flexible and their stress concentrations related to fatigue analysis [2].

structural natural frequencies can fall into the range of the en- The above approach is not reliable enough for ultra large ships

counter frequencies in an ordinary sea spectrum. Therefore, the due to mutual influence of the wave load and structure response.

wave induced hydroelastic response of large ships becomes an Therefore, a reliable solution requires analysis of wave load and

important issue especially for improving the classification rules ship vibration as a coupled hydroelastic problem [3]. This is

and ensuring ship safety. especially important for impulsive loads such as ship slamming

For ships with closed cross-section and ordinary hatch ope- that causes whipping.

nings such as tankers, bulk carriers, general cargo vessels etc., The methodology of hydroelastic analysis is shown in

the lowest natural frequencies are usually associated with the Figure 1 according [4]. It includes definition of the structural

vertical bending. On the other hand, for ships with open cross- model, ship and cargo mass distributions, and geometrical mo-

section, such as container ships, the lowest elastic natural modes del of ship surface. First, dry natural vibrations are calculated.

are those of coupled horizontal and torsional vibrations. This Then modal hydrostatic stiffness, modal added mass, damping

coupling is highly pronounced due to the fact that the torsional and wave load are determined. Finally, wet natural vibrations

(shear) centre is below the keel. are obtained as well as the transfer functions (RAO-response

The classical approach to determine ship motions and wave amplitude operator) for determining ship structural response

loads is based on the assumption that the ship hull acts as a rigid to wave excitation.

I. SENJANOVIĆ, Š. MALENICA, S. TOMAŠEVIĆ, S. RUDAN METHODOLOGY OF SHIP HYDROELASTICITY INVESTIGATION

zero with corresponding eigenvectors representing the rigid

body modes. As a result, the first six diagonal elements of [k]

are also zero, while the first three elements in [m] are equal to

structure mass, the same in all directions x, y, z, and the next

three elements represent the mass moment of inertia around the

coordinate axes.

3.1 Strip mesh

Slika 1 Metodologija hidroelastične analize

2 Structural model

The hydroelastic problem can be solved at different levels of

complexity and accuracy. The best, but highly time-consuming

way is to consider 3D FEM structural model and 3D hydrody-

namic model based on the radiation-diffraction theory [5]. Such

an approach is recommended only for the final strength analysis.

However, in the preliminary strength analysis it is more rational

and convenient to couple 1D FEM model of ship hull [6] with

3D hydrodynamic model. Figure 2 Panel of wetted surface

In both cases of the FEM approach the governing matrix Slika 2 Panel oplakane površine

equation of dry natural vibrations yields [7]

For determining pressure forces acting on the wetted surface

([ K ] − Ω [ M ]) {δ } = {0}

2

(1) it is necessary to specify panels and their position in space. Wet

surface is given by offsets of waterline ordinates at body plan

where stations, bik. If the strip method is used for pressure calculation,

[K] - stiffness matrix then the panels bounded with two close stations, i and i + 1,

[M] - mass matrix and waterplanes, k and k + 1, can be used, Figure 2. Arcs of the

ΩΩ - dry natural frequency panel yield

{δ} - dry natural mode

s1 = li + bx j , s 2 = bz j + dk (4)

As solution of the eigenvalue problem (1) Ωi and {δ}i are

obtained for each the i-th dry mode, where i = 1,2...N, N is total where

number of degrees of freedom. Now natural modes matrix can bx = bi+1,k - bi,k , bz = bi,k+1 - bi,k

be constituted l - station distance

d - waterplane distance

[δ ] = ⎡⎣{δ }1 , {δ }2 ...{δ }i ...{δ }N ⎤⎦ (2)

The panel normal vector is

and the modal stiffness and mass can be determined [8]

S s1 × s 2

n= = = n x i + n y j + nz k (5)

[ k ] = [δ ] [ K ][δ ] , [ m] = [δ ] [ M ][δ ]

T T

(3) S s1 × s 2

with components

Since the dry natural vectors are mutually orthogonal, ma-

trices [k] and [m] are diagonal. Terms ki and Ω2i mi represent dbx ld lb

nx = , n y = − , nz = z (6)

deformation and kinetic energy of the i-th mode respectively. S S S

METHODOLOGY OF SHIP HYDROELASTICITY INVESTIGATION I. SENJANOVIĆ, Š. MALENICA, S. TOMAŠEVIĆ, S. RUDAN

is the panel area. where w is hull deflection, ψ is twist angle, Y and Z are coordi-

nates of the point on ship surface, and zN and zS are coordinates

3.2 Rational mesh of neutral line and shear centre respectively.

If strong coupling between horizontal and torsional vibra-

If 3D radiation-diffraction theory is used for hydrodynamic tion occurs, as in the case of container ships, the coupled mode

pressure determination, the wetted surface mesh can be created yields

in such a way that panels of more regular shape and refined

subdivision in the area of the free surface are achieved [9]. Such ⎛ d wh dψ ⎞

a rational mesh is shown in Figure 3, where the panel rows fol- h ht = ⎜ − Y+ u ⎟ i + [ wh + ψ ( Z − zS )] j − ψ Y k (14)

low the ship body diagonals similarly to the structural elements ⎝ dx dx ⎠

of ship outer shell. In this way, efficiency and accuracy of the

hydrodynamic calculation is increased. where u = u ( x, Y , Z ) is the cross-section warping function

reduced to the wetted surface [10], [11].

5 Hydrodynamic model

Harmonic hydroelastic problem is considered in frequency

domain and therefore we operate with amplitudes of forces and

displacement. In order to perform coupling of the structural and

hydrodynamic models, it is necessary to express the external

pressure forces in a convenient manner [12]. First, the total

hydrodynamic force Fh has to be split into two parts: the first part

FR depending on the structural deformations, and the second one

FDI representing the pure excitation

Figure 3 Rational mesh of wetted surface

Slika 3 Racionalna mreža oplakane površine F h = F R + F DI (15)

Concerning the normal vector, let us consider a triangular Vector of the wetted surface deformations H (x, y, z) can be pre-

panel, which is defined by three position vectors from the origin sented as a series of dry natural modes hi (x, y, z)

of the coordinate system x, y, z

N

ri = xi i + yi j + zi k, i = 1, 2, 3 (8) H( x, y, z ) = ∑ ξi hi ( x, y, z ) =

i =1

The panel arcs are N

(16)

= ∑ ξi ⎡⎣ h ( x, y, z ) i + h ( x, y, z ) j + h ( x, y, z ) k ⎤⎦

i

x

i

y

i

z

a = r2 − r1 , b = r3 − r1 (9) i =1

and the panel normal vector yields where ξi are unknown coefficients. Vectors hi (x, y, z) related to

wetted surface are obtained from the structural dry modes as

S a×b explained in the previous section.

n= = = n x i + n y j + nz k (10)

S a×b The potential theory assumptions are adopted for the hydro-

dynamic part of the problem. Within this theory the total velocity

where S is double value of the triangular panel area. potential ϕ, in the case of no forward speed, is defined with the

Laplace differential equation and the given boundary values

4 Dry modes of wetted surface

∆ϕ = 0 within the fluid

As mentioned in Section 2, structural dry modes can be de-

termined by 1D or 3D FEM analysis. If 1D analysis is used, the ∂ϕ

−νϕ + = 0 at the free surface, z = 0 (17)

beam modes are spread to the ship wetted surface as follows. ∂z

Vertical vibration ∂ϕ

= −iω H n on the wetted body surface, S

d wh ∂n

hv = − ( Z − zN )i + wv k (11)

dx where ν is the wave number, ν = ω 2 g , ω is wave frequency,

Horizontal vibration n is the wetted surface normal vector, and i is the imaginary

unit [13].

d wh Furthermore, the linear wave theory enables the following

hh = − Y i + wh j (12)

dx decomposition of the total potential [5]

I. SENJANOVIĆ, Š. MALENICA, S. TOMAŠEVIĆ, S. RUDAN METHODOLOGY OF SHIP HYDROELASTICITY INVESTIGATION

ϕ = ϕ I + ϕ D − iω ∑ ξ j ϕ Rj (18) are taken into account. Time independent forces are included

j =1 in still water strength analysis as a separated static problem.

where Dynamic analysis is performed by the modal superposition

gA ν ( z +ix ) method. Modal forces represent work of actual forces on modal

ϕ I = −i e (19) displacements. Modal restoring forces consist of time dependent

ω

modal pressure forces and gravity forces. They include effect of

ϕI - incident wave potential large displacements.

ϕD - diffraction potential

ϕRj - radiation potential Pressure forces

A - wave amplitude

Concerning the hydrostatic part of the total pressure in (21),

Now, the body boundary conditions (17) can be deduced for

ρgz, it is necessary to determine the change of the modal hydro-

each potential

static force as the difference between its instantaneous value

∂ϕ D ∂ϕ ∂ϕ Rj and the initial value for the vibration mode hi of the body wetted

=− I, = h jn (20)

surface Z = Z (x, y) [14]

∂n ∂n ∂n

It is necessary to point out that the diffraction and radiation

Fi H = − ρ g ∫∫ Z hi n d S + ρ g ∫∫ Z hi n d S (26)

potentials should also satisfy the radiation condition at infinity.

S S

Once the potentials are determined, the modal hydrodyna-

mic forces are calculated by pressure work integration over the

wetted surface. The total linearised pressure can be found from ~ Each of the above quantities can be presented in the form

(...) = (...) + δ (...) , where δ denotes the variation. By neglec-

Bernoulli’s equation ting small terms of higher order, one can write for the modal

hydrostatic force (26)

p = iωρϕ − ρ gz (21)

First, the term associated with the potential ϕ is considered Fi H = − ρ g ∫∫ (δ Z hi n + Z δ hi n + Z hi δ n)d S (27)

and subdivided into excitation and radiation parts (18) S

Fi DI = iωρ ∫∫ (ϕ I + ϕ D )hi n d S (22) plying the notion of directional derivative H—, where H is given

S

with (16) and — is Hamilton differential operator

N

Fi R = ρ ω 2 ∑ ξ j ∫∫ ϕ Rj hi n d S (23) N N

⎛ ∂ ∂ ∂⎞

j =1 S

H∇ = ∑ ξ j h j ∇ = ∑ ξ j ⎜ hxj + hyj + hzj ⎟ (28)

j =1 j =1 ⎝ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠

Thus, (22) represents the modal pressure excitation. Now one

can decompose (23) into the modal inertia force and damping

force associated with acceleration and velocity respectively As a result

N

Fi a = Re( Fi R ) = ω 2 ∑ ξ j Aij , Aij = ρ Re ∫∫ ϕ Rj hi n d S (24)

δ Z = (H∇ )Z = Hk, δ hi = (H∇ )hi , δ n = (H∇ )n (29)

j =1 S

N Determining the variation of the body surface normal

Fi v = i Im( Fi R ) = iω ∑ ξ j Bij , Bij = ρ ω Im ∫∫ ϕ Rj hi n d S (25) vector, δn, according to (29) is a rather difficult task. Therefore,

j =1 S a relatively simpler procedure, taken from [14], is shown in

where Aij and Bij are elements of added mass and damping ma- Appendix A.

trices respectively. By using Eqs. (28), (29) and (A12), the modal hydrostatic

Determination of added mass and damping for rigid body force (27) can be presented in the following form:

modes is a well-known procedure in ship hydrodynamics [1]. N

Now the same procedure is extended to the calculation of these Fi H = − ∑ ξ j CijH (30)

quantities for elastic modes. j =1

considered within the hydrostatic model.

CijH = CijHp + CijHh + CijHn (31)

6 Hydrostatic model

is the i,j-th element of the hydrostatic stiffness matrix, composed

6.1 Elastic modes of static pressure, surface mode and normal vector contributions,

General respectively

In dynamic analysis a structure vibration is considered with CijHp = ρ g ∫∫ hzj (hxi nx + hyi ny + hzi nz )d S (32)

respect to the static equilibrium position. Therefore, only dyna- S

METHODOLOGY OF SHIP HYDROELASTICITY INVESTIGATION I. SENJANOVIĆ, Š. MALENICA, S. TOMAŠEVIĆ, S. RUDAN

⎡⎛ ∂h i ∂h i ∂h i ⎞

CijHh = ρ g ∫∫ Z ⎢⎜ hxj x + hyj x + hzj x ⎟ nx + N

⎣⎝ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠ Fi m = − g ∫∫∫ (H∇ )hzi d m = − ∑ ξ j Cijm

S (37)

⎛ ∂hyi ∂hyi ∂hyi ⎞ V j =1

⎝ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎟⎠ where

⎛ ∂h i ∂h i ∂h i ⎞

⎛ ∂h i ∂h i ∂h i ⎞ ⎤ Cijm = g ∫∫∫ ⎜ hxj z + hyj z + hzj z ⎟ d m (38)

+ ⎜ hxj z + hyj z + hzj z ⎟ nz ⎥ d S V ⎝

∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠

⎝ ∂x ∂y ∂z ⎠ ⎦

Restoring stiffness

⎧⎪ ⎡⎛ ∂h ∂h j ⎞

j

∂h j

∂h j ⎤ Finally, the complete restoring coefficients read

CijHn = ρ g ∫∫ Z ⎨ ⎢⎜ + z ⎟ nx − ny − z nz ⎥hxi +

y y

S ⎪⎩ ⎢⎣⎝ ∂y ∂z ⎠ ∂x ∂x ⎥⎦

Cij = CijH + Cijm (39)

(34)

⎡ ∂hxj ⎛ ∂hxj ∂hzj ⎞ ∂hzj ⎤ i

+ ⎢− nx + ⎜ + ny − nz ⎥ hy + It is important to point out that the above expressions for the

⎣ ∂y ⎝ ∂x ∂z ⎟⎠ ∂y ⎦ hydrostatic and gravity coefficients are general and therefore valid

⎡ ∂h j ⎛ ∂h j ∂hyj ⎞ ⎤ i ⎪⎫ not only for the elastic modes but also for the rigid body modes

∂hyj

+ ⎢ − x nx − ny + ⎜ x + nz ⎥ hz ⎬ d S as well as for their coupling.

⎢⎣ ∂z ∂z ⎝ ∂x ∂y ⎟⎠ ⎥⎦ ⎪

⎭

6.2 Rigid body modes

Note that the wetted surface coordinate Z is measured from the In this special case, the modal restoring stiffness can be de-

waterplane. Based on the constitution of the above coefficients, it termined in direct, simpler and physically more understandable

is evident that the hydrostatic stiffness matrix is not diagonal. manner. It can also be used for checking the previously developed

In the literature various definitions of hydrostatic stiffness general method.

matrix can be found. Somewhat simple formulae are derived A free ship exhibits rigid body motion with six degrees of

in [15] using a slightly different approach. Those formulae lead freedom around its centre of gravity. The first three rigid body mo-

to the same result as the more classical method in which some des are unit translations in direction of the coordinate axes, while

integral transformations are applied in order to simplify the final the other three are unit rotations around these axes. The modal

expressions [16], as elaborated in [15]. Quite different expres- restoring stiffness is equal to the restoring force or moment per

sions are presented in [17]. unit displacement respectively. According to the ship hydrostatics

The advantage of the present method is that the derived only three degrees of freedom have restoring force [1]

formulae are general and applicable for a complex body as

well as for its parts. This is important for determining the local Heave:

hydrostatic action as internal loads, transfer of load to a FEM

structural model, etc. C33 = ρ g AWL (40)

If 1D structural model is used together with the strip mesh,

the integration over the body wetted surface in determining the Roll:

hydrostatic stiffness (32), (33) and (34) can be split into two

steps C44 = ρ g [ IWLX + V ( zB − zG )] (41)

L

C55 = ρ g [ IWLY + V ( zB − zG )]

S 0 s

(42)

where f(x) is modal function, g(x, s) is function of modal coeffi-

cients and s is circumference coordinate of body station. where

IWLX - transverse moment of inertia of waterplane area

The above expressions represent only the action of the hydro- IWLY - longitudinal moment of inertia of waterplane area

static pressure, and the gravity part has to be added in order to V - volume of displacement

complete the total restoring coefficients. Similarly to the pressure zB, zG - coordinate of centre of buoyancy and centre of gravity

part, Eqs. (26) and (27), a change of the generalised modal gravity respectively (from base line).

force associated with a particular mode yields [14]

When rigid body modes are in question, it is also necessary

to determine modal ship mass. For the translations, modal

Fi = − g ∫∫∫ δ hi k d m

m

(36)

masses are equal to the total ship mass, while for the rotations,

V

modal masses represent ship mass moments of inertia around

where V is body volume and dm is differential mass. coordinate axes.

I. SENJANOVIĆ, Š. MALENICA, S. TOMAŠEVIĆ, S. RUDAN METHODOLOGY OF SHIP HYDROELASTICITY INVESTIGATION

7 Hydroelastic model

After the structural, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic models

have been determined, the hydroelastic model can be constituted.

For that purpose, let us impose modal hydrodynamic forces (23),

(24) and (25) and hydrostatic and gravity forces (30), (36) to the

modal structural model, Section 2.

2 DI

+ {F} + {F} + {F} + {F}

a v H m

(43)

plitudes, ξi, can be separated on the left hand side. Thus, the

governing matrix differential equation for ship motions and

vibrations is deduced Figure 4 Barge cross-section

Slika 4 Poprečni presjek barže

{[ k ] + [C] − iω ([ d ] + [ B(ω )]) − ω ([ m] + [ A(ω )])} {ξ} = {F}

2

(44)

The main characteristics of the prismatic barge are the fol-

where all quantities are related to the dry modes lowing [4], [12]:

[k] - structural stiffness Young’s modulus of rod: E = 2.1 · 1011 N/m2

[d] - structural damping Shear modulus of rod: G = 0.808 · 1011 N/m2

[m] - structural mass Moment of inertia of rod a4

[C] - restoring stiffness cross-section: Iy = Iz = = 8.33 · 10-10 m4

12

[B(ω)] - hydrodynamic damping

Polar moment of inertia a4

[A(ω)] - added mass

of rod cross-section: It = = 16.67 · 10-10 m4

{ ξ} - modal amplitudes 6

{F} - wave excitation Bending stiffness of rod: EI = 175 Nm2

ω - encounter frequency Torsional stiffness of rod: GIt = 135 Nm2

Length of barge

Structural damping can be given as a percentage of the critical (pontoons + clearances): L = 2.445 m

value based on experience. As it is well-known, added mass and Total mass

hydrodynamic damping depends on the frequency. The solution (pontoons + equipment): M = 171.77 kg

of (44) gives the modal amplitudes ξi and displacement of any Distributed mass: m = M/L = 70.253 kg/m

point of the structure obtained by retracking to (16). Radius of gyration in roll: ix = 0.225 m

The wet natural modes can also be determined by solving the Polar moment of inertia

eigenvalue problem extracted from (44) of distributed mass: J t0 = mix2 = 3.556 kgm

Distance of gravity centre

{[ k ] + [C] − ω ([ m] + [ A(ω )])} {ξ} = {0}

2

(45) from torsional centre: c = – 0.144 m

Polar mass moment of inertia

Now damping is neglected since its influence on the eigenpair about torsional centre: J t = J t0 + mz 2 = 5.013 kgm

is very small. The solution of (45) gives natural frequencies

Jt

of ship motion and vibration in water and the corresponding Radius of inertia: r= = 0.267 m

so-called wet natural modes. Since added mass is a frequency m

dependent function, it is evident that an iteration procedure has

to be employed to solve (45). Therefore, the wet modes are not 8.2 Dry vibrations

orthogonal. Also, there are no more zero natural frequencies Dry vertical natural vibration and coupled horizontal and

and pure rigid body modes due to their coupling with the elastic torsional vibrations are performed by a general computer program

modes [12]. developed for this purpose [18]. The program is based on the

theory presented in [6]. As a result of dry vibration calculation

8 Hydroelasticity of a ﬂexible barge the modal stiffness and modal mass in (44) are obtained. The first

two natural modes are shown in Figures 5 and 6.

8.1 Barge characteristics

Natural vibrations for a prismatic pontoon can be also deter-

The experimental model of a flexible barge, consisting of mined analytically as elaborated in [19].

12 pontoons, is considered [4], [12]. The front pontoon No. 12 Vertical vibration, -l ≤ x ≤ l, l=L/2

differs somewhat from the others. The pontoons are connected by Symmetric modes

a steel rod somewhat above the deck level, as shown in Figure 4.

So, the deformation centre is above the gravity centre. This is 1 ⎛ chβ n x cosβ n x ⎞

wn = + , n = 0, 2, 4.... (46)

the opposite situation to the one in the case of container ships, 2 ⎜⎝ chβ n l cosβ n l ⎟⎠

but anyway strong coupling between horizontal and torsional

vibrations is achieved. β0l = 0, β2l = 2.365, β4l = 5.497

METHODOLOGY OF SHIP HYDROELASTICITY INVESTIGATION I. SENJANOVIĆ, Š. MALENICA, S. TOMAŠEVIĆ, S. RUDAN

Restoring stiffness matrix in (44) is determined by the deve-

loped program [18] based on the theory considered in Section 6.

However, for better understanding of the physical meaning, the

calculation procedure is illustrated in Appendix B for the case

of vertical vibration of the prismatic barge.

Added mass, hydrodynamic damping and wave excitation

in (44), depending on dry modes and wave frequency, are de-

termined by program Hydrostar [20]. Structural damping of the

pontoon joints to the rod, and of the rod itself is quite low in

the considered case. The mesh of the wetted surface used in the

calculation is shown in Figure 7.

tions, ω2 = 5.727 rad/s

Slika 5 Prvi pretežno ﬂeksijski oblik spregnutih vibracija barže,

ω2 = 5.727 rad/s

Slika 7 Geometrijski model oplakane površine barže

dry modes consisting of 6 rigid body modes, the first 5 vertical

elastic modes and 5 coupled horizontal and torsional modes. The

chosen number of elastic modes is sufficient to describe accurately

enough the barge response in waves.

The model tests of the considered barge were conducted in

Figure 6 The ﬁrst dominant torsional mode of coupled barge the BGO-First Basin, Toulon, France. Detailed description of

vibrations, ω3 = 7.884 rad/s

Slika 6 Prvi pretežno torzijski oblik spregnutih vibracija barže,

ω3 = 7.884 rad/s Figure 8 Barge in waves

Slika 8 Barža na valovima

Anti-symmetric modes

1 ⎛ shβ n x sinβ n x ⎞

wn = + , n = 1, 3, 5....

2 ⎜⎝ shβ n l sinβ n l ⎟⎠

(47)

where

( β n l )2 EI

ωn = (48)

l2 m

Analytical solution of coupled horizontal and torsional

vibrations can be obtained by direct integration of governing

differential equations or by the energy approach. However, in

both cases the solution is rather complicated [19].

I. SENJANOVIĆ, Š. MALENICA, S. TOMAŠEVIĆ, S. RUDAN METHODOLOGY OF SHIP HYDROELASTICITY INVESTIGATION

the barge, equipment, measuring procedure and the obtained Figures 9, 10 and 11 show RAOs (Response Amplitude

results is given in [4, 12]. The barge is constructed to be quite Operator-transfer function) in the wave period domain, T, for the

flexible in order to expose high level of hydroelastic phenome- average value of heave, pitch and roll respectively, measured at

na. The success of this intention can be seen in Figure 8, where the every second pontoon. In Figures 12, 13 and 14, vertical and

the barge distortion follows more or less the wave surface. The horizontal bending and barge torsion are shown. These quantities

model tests were performed in irregular waves generated by are defined as difference of the rotation angles at the last and

JONSWAP spectra. first pontoon.

Numerical calculation of the barge response to waves is

performed for a set of heading angles. For verification of the de-

scribed methodology and numerical simulation only the transfer

functions for χ = 60° are shown and compared to the measured

ones. This particular heading angle was chosen since it includes

complete coupling of the rigid and flexible modes of the vertical

and horizontal and torsional vibrations, which are highly exited

in the case of quartering seas.

Slika 12 Prijenosna funkcija vertikalnog savijanja

Slika 9 Prosječna prijenosna funkcija poniranja

Slika 13 Prijenosna funkcija horizontalnog savijanja

Slika 10 Prosječna prijenosna funkcija posrtanja

Slika 11 Prosječna prijenosna funkcija ljuljanja

Figure 14 Torsional transfer function

Slika 14 Prijenosna funkcija uvijanja

heave RAO, as translation motion, converges to unity for higher

T values. Contrary, RAOs for all others motions, which are ro-

tational, converge to zero [1].

The relatively large scattering of the measured transfer fun-

ctions is mostly caused by irregular waves. The obtained nume-

rical results agree quite well with the average of the measured

ones. Higher discrepancies between the calculated and measured

values occur in area of the response peaks, i.e. at resonances

METHODOLOGY OF SHIP HYDROELASTICITY INVESTIGATION I. SENJANOVIĆ, Š. MALENICA, S. TOMAŠEVIĆ, S. RUDAN

where damping plays the main role. Figures 9-14 show the final response for this very sensitive non-linear experimental model

calculation results determined by adjusting damping to achieve with large amplitudes of rigid and elastic modes of the same order

minimal discrepancies. is achieved. Thus, one may conclude that the presented methodo-

The modal damping is adjusted in such a way that the value of logy and mathematical model are reliable enough to be applied for

diagonal elements in damping matrix is increased for ca 5%, de- hydroelastic analysis of ship structures for which the amplitude

pending on the type of vibration, i.e. rigid body, vertical vibration ratio of the elastic and rigid modes is somewhat lower.

and coupled horizontal and torsional vibration. This adaptation Application of the developed tool is especially important for

can be physically explained. Namely, in the hydroelastic analysis hydroelastic analysis of large container ships which are very flexi-

the segmented barge is considered as a monohull. The influence ble from torsional point of view, and therefore exposed to the high

of this assumption on restoring forces and water inertia forces is level of coupling between horizontal and torsional vibrations.

negligible. However, additional resistance to the pontoon motion The further development is directed to the investigation of

is induced between their heads, Figure 15. In the case of an elastic the hydroelastic response to impulsive load, i.e. slamming and

vibration mode the pontoons play as a shell family on the string whipping, sloshing, underwater explosions etc. in time domain.

with the jet propulsion. The induced resistance depends on the The final target is to analyse the influence of ship elasticity on wave

relative angular velocity of the pontoon adjacent heads. load in order to check validity and applicability of the present clas-

sification rules for large container ships. In the meantime, direct

strength calculation as a hydroelastic task should be applied.

References

[1] …:”Principles of Naval Architectures”, SNAME, 1988.

[2] HUGHES, O.F.: “Ship Structural Design”, SNAME,

1988.

[3] BISHOP, R.E.D., PRICE, W.G.: “Hydroelasticity of Ships”,

Cambridge University Press, 1979.

[4] REMY, F., MOLIN, B., LEDOUX, A.: “Experimental and

numerical study of the wave response of a flexible barge”,

Hydroelasticity in Marine Technology, Wuxi, China, 2006,

p. 255-264.

[5] SALVENSEN, N., TUCK, E.O,. FALTINSEN, O.: “Ship

motion and sea loads”, Transactions, SNAME, Vol. 70, p.

250-287, 1970.

[6] SENJANOVIĆ, I., GRUBIŠIĆ, R.: “Coupled horizontal and

torsional vibration of a ship hull with large hatch openings”,

Computers & Structures, Vol. 41, No. 2, p. 213-226, 1991.

[7] BATHE, K.J: “Finite Element Procedures”, Prentice Hall,

1996.

[8] SENJANOVIĆ, I.: “Finite Element Method in Ship Struc-

tures”, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, 1998. (in Croatian).

[9] MALENICA, Š., SENJANOVIĆ, I., CHEN, X.B.: “Auto-

matic mesh generation for naval and offshore hydrodynamic

simulations”, SORTA‘04, Plitvice Lakes, Croatia, 2004.

[10] SENJANOVIĆ, I., FAN, Y.: “A finite element formulation

Figure 15 Pump effect of pontoon oscillations of ship cross-sectional stiffness parameters”, Brodogradnja

a – vertical vibration 41(1993)1, p. 27-36.

b – horizontal vibration [11] SENJANOVIĆ, I., FAN, Y.: “A higher-order theory of

Slika 15 Pumpni učinak osciliranja pontona

a – vertikalne vibracije thin-walled girders with application to ship structures”,

b – horizontalne vibracije Computers & Structures, 43(1992) 1, p. 31-52.

[12] MALENICA, Š., MOLIN, B., REMY, F., SENJANOVIĆ, I.:

9 Conclusion “Hydroelastic response of a barge to impulsive and non-im-

pulsive wave load”, Hydroelasticity in Marine Technology,

The investigation methodology of hydroelasticity of ship Oxford, UK, 2003, p. 107-115.

structures is presented. A mathematical model which combines [13] NAHIN, P.J.: “An Imaginary Tale - The Story of −1 ”,

ship geometry, mass distribution, 1D hull model, dry natural vi- Princeton University Press, 1998.

brations, hydrostatic model and hydrodynamic model is worked [14] MALENICA, Š.: “Some aspects of hydrostatic calculations

out. The numerical procedure and developed computer program in linear seakeeping”, The 14th NAV Conference, Palermo,

are validated for the case of a very flexible barge for which Italy, 2003.

coupling between rigid and elastic modes is highly pronounced [15] MOLIN, B.: “Hydrostatique d’un corps deformable”, Te-

as well as coupling between horizontal and torsional vibrations. chnical note, Ecole Superieure d’Ingenieurs de Marseille,

Quite good agreement between simulated and measured barge Marseille, France, 2003.

I. SENJANOVIĆ, Š. MALENICA, S. TOMAŠEVIĆ, S. RUDAN METHODOLOGY OF SHIP HYDROELASTICITY INVESTIGATION

Applied Ocean Research 16(1994), p. 47-59.

[17] HUANG, L.L., RIGGS, R.R.: “The hydrostatic stiffness of

flexible floating structure for linear hydroelasticity”, Marine

Structures, 13(2000), p. 91-106.

[18] TOMAŠEVIĆ, S.: “Hydroelastic model of dynamic response

of Container ships in waves”, Ph. D. Thesis, FSB, Zagreb,

2007. (in Croatian).

[19] SENJANOVIĆ, I., ĆATIPOVIĆ, I., TOMAŠEVIĆ, S.:

“Coupled horizontal and torsional vibrations of a flexible

barge”, Engineering Structures (accepted).

[20] …: “Hydrostar, User’s manual”, Bureau Veritas, Paris,

2006.

[21] BRONSTEIN, I.N., SEMENDJAJEW, K.A., MUSIOL, G.,

MÜHLIG, H.: “Mathematical Handbook”, Golden marke-

ting - Tehnička knjiga, Zagreb, 2004. (in Croatian).

[22] KREYSZIG, E.: Advanced Engineering Mathematics, John

Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1993.

[23] NOVOŽILOV, V.V.: “Thin Shell Theory”, P. Noordhoff

Ltd., Groningen. The Netherlands, 1964. Figure A1 Deﬁnition of normal vector variation δ n due to modal

[24] SENJANOVIĆ, I.: “Plate and Shell Theory”, University of deformation h of the parametrically deﬁned body sur-

Zagreb, Zagreb, 1998. (in Croatian). face

Slika A1 Deﬁniranje varijacije normale δ n parametarski zadane

površine tijela uslijed modalne deformacije h

Appendix A

Variation of body surface normal vector If the body surface is deformed by the mode h, the deformed

Parametric body surface surface is represented by the resulting position vector

implicit, explicit, parametric or vectorial form [21], [22]. In the

considered problem the vectorial representation by position vector The corresponding arcs read

is preferable (widely used in the shell theory [23], [24])

∂r ⎛ ∂ r ∂ h⎞

d su = du = ⎜ + du

r = x (u, v ) i + y(u, v ) j + z(u, v ) k (A1) ∂u ⎝ ∂ u ∂ u ⎟⎠

(A6)

where u and v are parameters that form coordinate mesh on the ∂r ⎛ ∂ r ∂ h⎞

d sv = dv = ⎜ + dv

surface. Therefore, these parameters are called curved or Gauss ∂v ⎝ ∂ v ∂ v ⎟⎠

coordinates.

It is well-known in the differential geometry that the arcs of and the deformed differential surface

differential surface are, Figure A1

⎡∂r ∂r ∂h ∂r ∂r ∂h ∂h ∂h⎤

d S = d su × d sv = ⎢ × + × + × + × ⎥du dv (A7)

∂r ⎛∂x ∂y ∂z ⎞ ⎣∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v ⎦

d su = du = ⎜ i+ j+ k du

∂u ⎝ ∂u ∂u ∂ u ⎟⎠ The first product in (A7) is dS, while the last product is a

(A2)

∂r ⎛∂x ∂y ∂z ⎞ small quantity of higher order and can be therefore neglected.

d sv = dv = ⎜ i+ j+ k dv Thus, one finds for variation of differential surface

∂v ⎝ ∂v ∂v ∂ v ⎟⎠

For differential surface one finds ⎡∂h ∂r ∂r ∂h⎤

δ (d S) = d S − d S = ⎢ × + × ⎥ d u d v = δ N d u d v (A8)

⎣∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v ⎦

d S = d su × d sv = N d u d v (A3)

where components of the normal vector are the following The above vector products take form

∂y ∂z ∂z ∂y ∂ h ∂ r ⎡ ∂ hy ∂ z ∂ hz ∂ y ⎤ ⎡ ∂ hz ∂ x ∂ hx ∂ z ⎤ ⎡ ∂ h ∂ y ∂ hy ∂ x ⎤

Nx = − × = −

∂ u ∂ v ⎢⎣ ∂ u ∂ v ∂ u

i+ −

∂ v ⎥⎦ ⎢⎣ ∂ u ∂ v ∂ u ∂ v ⎥⎦

j+ ⎢ x − ⎥k

∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v ⎣ ∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v ⎦ (A9)

∂ r ∂ h ⎡ ∂ hz ∂ y ∂ hy ∂z⎤ ⎡ ∂ h ∂ z ∂ hz ∂ x ⎤ ⎡ ∂ hy ∂ x ∂ hx ∂ y ⎤

∂z ∂x ∂x ∂z × = −

∂ u ∂ v ⎢⎣ ∂ v ∂ u ∂ v ∂ u ⎥⎦

i+⎢ x −

⎣ ∂v ∂u ∂v ∂u ⎦

⎥ j + ⎢ ∂v ∂u − ∂v ∂u ⎥k

Ny = − (A4) ⎣ ⎦

∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v

Since

∂x ∂y ∂y ∂x

Nz = −

∂u ∂v ∂u ∂v h = hx ( x, y, z ) i + hy ( x, y, z ) j + hz ( x, y, z ) k (A10)

METHODOLOGY OF SHIP HYDROELASTICITY INVESTIGATION I. SENJANOVIĆ, Š. MALENICA, S. TOMAŠEVIĆ, S. RUDAN

⎛ ∂Z ∂Z ⎞

dS = ⎜− i− j + k ⎟ d x d y = N z d Sz = n d S (A18)

⎝ ∂x ∂y ⎠

∂ hx ∂ hx ∂ x ∂ hx ∂ y ∂ hx ∂ z

= + + (A11)

∂u ∂ x ∂u ∂ y ∂u ∂ z ∂u The corresponding quantities for the third case of body surface

definition are shown in Figure A2.

etc. for the other derivatives of hx, hy, hz per u and v. Furthermore,

by substituting those derivatives of type (A11) into (A9) and

summing up all terms, one finds according to (A8) variation of

the normal vector

⎡⎛ ∂ hy ∂ hz ⎞ ∂ hy ∂ hz ⎤

δ N = ⎢⎜ + ⎟⎠ N x − ∂ x N y − ∂ x N x ⎥ i +

⎣ ⎝ ∂ y ∂ z ⎦

⎡ ∂h ⎛ ∂h ∂h ⎞ ∂h ⎤

+ ⎢− x N x + ⎜ x + z ⎟ N y − z N x ⎥ j + (A12)

⎣ ∂y ⎝ ∂x ∂z ⎠ ∂y ⎦

⎡ ∂h ∂ hy ⎛ ∂h ∂ hy ⎞ ⎤

+ ⎢− x N x − Ny + ⎜ x + Nx ⎥ k

⎣ ∂z ∂z ⎝ ∂x ∂ y ⎟⎠ ⎦

as it is elaborated in [14]. Since

the same form of expression (A12) is also valid for the variation Figure A2 Deﬁnition of normal vector variation (δ n)z due to modal

of the unit vector, δ n, with components nx, ny and nz. deformation h for the explicitly deﬁned body surface

Z = Z(x, y)

Explicit body surface Slika A2 Deﬁniranje varijacije normale (δ n)z eksplicitno zadane

površine tijela Z = Z(x, y) uslijed modalne deformacije h

Body surface can also be represented in one of the following

vectorial forms The deformed body surface by mode h is represented by

r = X ( y, z ) i + y j + z k vector

r = x i + y j + Z ( x, y ) k

In the first surface definition (A14) one can write for arcs of

where the second form is conventional in naval architecture, differential element of deformed surface

Section 3.1. Arcs of differential surface in the first case yield

∂r ⎛ ∂ r ∂ h⎞

∂r ⎛∂X ⎞ d sy = dy=⎜ + dy

d s1 = dy=⎜ i+ j⎟ d y ∂y ⎝ ∂ y ∂ y ⎟⎠

∂y ⎝ ∂y ⎠ (A20)

(A15) ∂r ⎛ ∂ r ∂ h⎞

∂r ⎛∂X ⎞ d sz = dz = ⎜ + dz

d s2 = dz = ⎜ i + k⎟ d z ∂z ⎝ ∂ z ∂ z ⎟⎠

∂z ⎝ ∂z ⎠

Differential element is defined as follows

Differential surface reads

⎡⎛ ∂ r ∂ r ⎞ ⎛ ∂ h ∂ r ⎞ ⎛ ∂ r ∂ h ⎞ ⎛ ∂ h ∂ h ⎞ ⎤

⎛ ∂X ∂X ⎞ d S = d s y × d s z = ⎢⎜ × ⎟ +⎜ × ⎟ +⎜ × ⎟ +⎜ × ⎟⎥d ydz (A21)

dS = d s1 × d s 2 = ⎜ i − j− k d y d z = N x d Sx = n d S (A16) ⎣⎝ ∂ y ∂ z ⎠ ⎝ ∂ y ∂ z ⎠ ⎝ ∂ y ∂ z ⎠ ⎝ ∂ y ∂ z ⎠ ⎦

⎝ ∂y ∂ z ⎟⎠

where d Sx = dy dz, i.e. orthogonal projection of d S onto y, z the first product in (A21) represents differential element of the

plane, Nx is the corresponding normal vector while n is the unit undeformed surface (A16), the last product is a small negligible

normal vector. quantity of higher order, while the second and third products

In the second and third surface representation (A14) in a are related to the variation of differential element due to modal

similar way one finds deformation. Thus,

⎛ ∂Y ∂Y ⎞ ⎛ ∂ h ∂ r ∂ r ∂ h⎞

dS = ⎜ i− j+ k ⎟ d x d z = N y d Sy = n d S δ (d S) = d S − d S = ⎜ × + × d Sx (A22)

⎝ ∂ y ∂ z ∂ y ∂ z ⎟⎠

(A17)

⎝ ∂x ∂z ⎠

I. SENJANOVIĆ, Š. MALENICA, S. TOMAŠEVIĆ, S. RUDAN METHODOLOGY OF SHIP HYDROELASTICITY INVESTIGATION

Similar expressions can be derived for the other two defini- The derived expressions are different in spite of the fact that

tions of body surface (A14) they should represent the same quantity. Almost a half of their

terms are common. Due to practical reason, a unified expression

⎛ ∂ h ∂ r ∂ r ∂ h⎞ should be formulated. If we want to keep all essential terms of

δ (d S ) = ⎜ × + × d Sy (A23) formulae (A26), (A27) and (A28) in such a formulation without

⎝ ∂ x ∂ z ∂ x ∂ z ⎟⎠ their repeating, then let us refer to the mathematical logic and

apply the set theory [21], [22]. In that case the unified expression

⎛ ∂ h ∂ r ∂ r ∂ h⎞ for variation of normal vector is represented with the union of

δ (d S ) = ⎜ × + × d Sz (A24)

⎝ ∂ x ∂ y ∂ x ∂ y ⎟⎠ sets (A26), (A27) and (A28)

By substituting (A14) into (A22), (A23) and (A24) respecti-

vely and taking into account relation

which is illustrated by Venn diagram in Figure A3. It is intere-

sting to point out that the following relation also exists in the

δ (d S ) = δ n d S (A25)

considered case

and (A10), one finds the following three expressions for the 1

δn= ⎡(δ n)x + (δ n)y + (δ n)z ⎤⎦ (A30)

normal vector variation depending on the body surface definition 2⎣

(A14)

⎛ ∂ hy ∂ hz ⎞ ⎛ ∂h ∂h ∂h ⎞ Appendix B

(δ n)x = ⎜ + n x i + ⎜ − x n x + z n y − z nz ⎟ j +

⎝ ∂y ∂ z ⎟⎠ ⎝ ∂y ∂z ∂y ⎠ (A26) Barge restoring stiffness for vertical vibration

⎛ ∂ hx ∂ hy ∂ hy ⎞

+⎜− nx − ny + nz k

⎝ ∂z ∂z ∂ y ⎟⎠ As specified in Section 8.3, the barge hydroelastic analysis

is performed by taking into account 6 rigid body modes, 5 dry

vertical modes, and 5 dry coupled horizontal and torsional modes.

⎛ ∂h ∂ hy ∂h ⎞ ⎛ ∂h ∂h ⎞ These modes in three sets are denoted with index i = 1, 2...6;

(δ n)y = ⎜ z nx − n y − z nz ⎟ i + ⎜ x + z ⎟ n y j + 7, 8...11; 12, 13...16.

⎝ ∂z ∂x ∂x ⎠ ⎝ ∂x ∂z ⎠

(A27) Only static pressure acting on the barge bottom and the barge

⎛ ∂h ∂ hy ∂h ⎞ front and aft heads is relevant for the barge hydrostatic stiffness

+ ⎜ − x nx − n y + x nz ⎟ k

⎝ ∂ z ∂ z ∂x ⎠ in the case of vertical vibration. The pressure forces on the bar-

ge sides and the adjacent pontoon heads are in equilibrium and

therefore cancelled. For the bottom panels the normal vector is

⎛ ∂ hy ∂ hy ∂h ⎞ n = k, while for the aft and fore head panels n = ± i respectively.

(δ n)z = ⎜ nx − n y − z nz ⎟ i + The origin of the coordinate system is located at the waterplane

⎝ ∂y ∂x ∂x ⎠

(A28) below the centre of gravity, Figure B1.

⎛ ∂h ∂h ∂h ⎞ ⎛ ∂h ∂ hy ⎞

+ ⎜ − x n x + x n y − z nz ⎟ j + ⎜ x + nz k According to (11) the bottom elastic mode yields

⎝ ∂y ∂x ∂y ⎠ ⎝ ∂x ∂ y ⎠⎟

hiK = ϕ i ( zN + T )i + wi k , i = 7, 8... (B1)

Figure A3 A Venn diagram for variation of unit normal vector in Figure B1 Coordinates of actual points for restoring stiffness

explicitly represented body surface determination

Slika A3 Vennov dijagram varijacije jedinične normale eksplic- Slika B1 Koordinate bitnih točaka za određivanje povratne

itno zadane površine tijela krutosti

METHODOLOGY OF SHIP HYDROELASTICITY INVESTIGATION I. SENJANOVIĆ, Š. MALENICA, S. TOMAŠEVIĆ, S. RUDAN

while at the level of the centre of gravity one finds coupling with elastic modes. The corresponding indexes for rigid

body modes are i, j = 3, 5, while for the coupling modes i = 3, 5

hiG = ϕ i ( zN − zG )i + wi k , i = 7, 8... (B2) and j = 7, 8..., and vice versa i.e. i = 7, 8... and j = 3, 5.

In addition, it is interesting to determine the restoring coef-

where wi is the barge deflection and ϕi rotation of cross-sec- ficients for rigid body modes. Thus, one finds for heave, where

tion. w3 = 1, ϕ3 = 0:

By employing expressions (32), (33) and (34) for hydro-

static stiffness, and (38) for gravity contribution, the following Bottom:

formulae for the elements of the restoring matrix are derived,

where i, j = 7, 8... C33Hp = ρ g LB, C33Hhn = C33

m

=0 (B10)

Pressure:

l Heads:

CijHp = ρ g B ∫ w j wi d x (B3)

−l C33Hp = C33Hhn = 0 (B11)

Modes and normal vector: It is obvious that the total restoring coefficient C33 = ρ g LB is

l

∂ϕ j equal to that determined by the ship hydrostatics, Eq. (40), since

CijHhn = − ρ g BT ( zN + T ) ∫ wi d x (B4) LB is waterplane area, AWL.

−l

∂x The pitch mode yields: w5 = x, ϕ5 = 1, where -l ≤ x ≤ l. The

corresponding coefficients are the following:

Gravity, m = ρ BT:

l Bottom:

Cijm = ρ g BT ( zN − zG ) ∫ ϕ jϕ i d x (B5) BL3

−l C55Hp = ρ g

12 (B12)

where l = L/2, and L, B, T are the barge length, breadth and

draught, respectively. C55Hhn = 0

For the barge heads one finds according to (11), (32), (33) C55m = ρ g LBT ( zN − zG )

and (34) Heads:

C Hp

= rp ⎡⎣ w j (l )ϕ i (l ) − w j (−l )ϕ i (−l ) ⎤⎦ (B6)

ij

⎛ T⎞

C55Hp = − ρ g LBT ⎜ zN + ⎟

⎧ ∂ϕ (l ) ∂ϕ (−l ) ⎤ ⎫

⎝ 2⎠

⎡

CijHh = rh1 ⎨rh2 ϕ j (l ) i − ϕ j (−l ) i − ⎡ w j (l )ϕ i (l ) − w j (−l )ϕ i (−l ) ⎤⎦ ⎬ (B7)

⎩ ⎣⎢ ∂x ∂x ⎥⎦ ⎣ ⎭ LBT 2

C55Hh = − ρ g (B13)

2

CijHn = rn ⎡⎣ϕ j (l )wi (l ) − ϕ j (−l )wi (−l ) ⎤⎦ (B8) LBT 2

C55Hn = ρg

2

where

rp = − ρ gBT ⎜ zN + ⎟ plane area and LBT = V is volume of displacement, the restoring

⎝ 2⎠ coefficient yields

BT 2 T2 4

rh1 = ρ g , rh2 = + zN T + zN2 (B9)

2 2 3 ⎡ ⎛T ⎞⎤

C55 = ρ g ⎢ IWLY − V ⎜ + zG ⎟ ⎥ (B14)

BT 2 ⎣ ⎝2 ⎠⎦

rn = ρ g

2

It is identical to the hydrostatic expression (42), since the

The constitution of the hydrostatic and gravity coefficients coordinate of the centre of buoyancy reads zB = – T/2. The coor-

indicates that the restoring force depends not only on the barge dinate of neutral line, zN, is cancelled in C55 and that is physically

deflection w and cross-section rotation ϕ = dw/dx, but also on correct for rigid body modes.

the curvature κ = d2w/dx2 that is of low effect. Concerning coefficients of mixed modes, w3 and w5, their

The above formulae, derived for elastic modes, are general values are zero since the modes are orthogonal. As a result, the

and therefore applicable for rigid body modes, as well as for their restoring coefficients yield C35 = C53 = 0.

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