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# Exercise 7: Anaerobic Contractions in Human

Biteng, Alicia Magdalene, Calaycay, John Arvin, Martin, King Dave, Reyes, Trisha Anne, Tagala, Julliane Monique
Department of Biology, College of Science, University of the Philippines Baguio, Baguio City 2600, Benguet

## Results and Discussion

A. Muscle Fatigue during Isometric Contractions
Introduce.
Describe Figure 1.

100.

78.16
80.
Time (seconds)

58.29
60.
46.36
41.47
40.
30.51 31.78
25.67 27.96 27.03
23.88
20.

0.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Trial
Figure 1. Time (seconds) of sustained isometric muscle contraction prior to fatigue across ten
trials.

Discuss Figure 1.
B. Calculating Anaerobic Power Using Margaria-Kalamen Stair Climb Test
Introduce.
Describe Figure 2.
875.

692.97
700.

525.
398.09
355.71 Average Time (sec)
350. Calculated Anaerobic Power (Watts)

175.

## 2.35 2.63 1.35

0.
1 2 3
Trial

Figure 2. Recorded average time (seconds) and calculated anaerobic power (watts)
across three trials.
Discuss Figure 2. Anaerobic condition, relationship between time and anaerobic
power, M-K test significance, etc.

## Questions for Research

1. Discuss how the three types of skeletal muscle contraction (isokinetic, isotonic, and
isometric) relate to dynamic and static contractions.
2. Provide a schematic representation of the possible site of muscular fatigue.
3. Indicate the most probable cause of muscle fatigue for the following categories of
exercise: anaerobic, prolonged-moderate, prolonged-heavy, incremental to maximum,
static, and resistance.
4. What is the significance of computing anaerobic power of muscles using the Margaria-
Kalamen test?
Margaria-Kalamen test is a test that assess the maximum anaerobic power
(Bucken, 2004). Anaerobic power stored in the muscles in the form of adenosine
triphosphate (ATP) only provides a burst of few seconds of energy, then the phosphate
creatine (PC) system is used to provide additional energy that can last up to 20 seconds.
After both of these supplies are depleted, glycolysis begins to break down carbohydrates
for more energy (Schmitz, 2012). Knowing the athlete’s current anaerobic power is
significant in designing training programs for greater power development.
5. How is anaerobic condition achieved in Margaria-Kalamen test?
Margaria-Kalamen test is an assessment that monitors an athlete’s strength and
power of lower extremities as well as the activation of the phosphagen energy system
(Hoffman, 2006). A large amount of power is needed by the ATP-dependent muscles to
contract during short-term, intense activities such as the Margaria-Kalamen stair climb test.
During this test, the most efficient way to resynthesize ATP is through the Phosphagen
System or ATP-CP Sysytem (Robergs and Roberts, 1997). An inorganic phosphate (Pi) is
donated by creatine phosphate (CP) in the skeletal muscles to ADP to produce ATP. This
process requires no carbohydrate, fat, nor oxygen thus, achieving an anaerobic condition
in Margaria-Kalamen test (Armstrong, 2003).

References
Armstrong, L. (2003). Physiological responses to exercise-heat stress. In Exertional heat illness.
USA: Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc.

Bucken, M. (2004). Evaluation of the immediate energy system. Retrieved 16 November 2017
from, http://web.cortland.edu/buckenmeyerp/fall2004/labimmediate.html

Hoffman, J. (2006). Norms for Fitness, Performance, and Health. Champaign, Ill.: Human
Kinetics.

Robergs, R.A. & Roberts, S.O. 1997. Exercise Physiology: Exercise, Performance, and Clinical
Applications.Boston: William C. Brown.
Schmitz, R. (2012). The importance of anaerobic power training for triathletes. Retrieved 16
November 2017 from, http://my.moxymonitor.com/blog/bid/233834/The-Importance-of-
Anaerobic-Power-Training-for-Triathletes
Appendices
Computation of Anaerobic Power
Trial 1
𝑚
9.8 𝑠
𝑷1 = (74𝑘𝑔 × 1.29𝑚) × = 398.09𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑠
2.35𝑠
Trial 2
𝑚
9.8 𝑠
𝑷2 = (74𝑘𝑔 × 1.29𝑚) × = 355.71𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑠
2.63𝑠
Trial 3
𝑚
9.8 𝑠
𝑷3 = (74𝑘𝑔 × 1.29𝑚) × = 692.97𝑤𝑎𝑡𝑡𝑠
1.35𝑠