You are on page 1of 22

ENGLISH IV

“Part Of The Body and Health Problems”

Mentor : Iin Noviana, M. Pd

By Group 1 :

1. Diafitriana (151001009)
2. Makfiatul Abadyah (151001023)
3. Nuratri Harmiani (151001033)
4. Yuyun Siti Nur J (151001047)

PROGRAM STUDI S1 KEPERAWATAN


SEKOLAH TINGGI ILMU KESEHATAN
PEMKAB JOMBANG
2016 – 2017

1
PREFACE

Thank to Almighty God who has given His bless to the writer for finishing
the English paper assignment entitled “Part Of The Body and Health Problems”.
The writer also wish to express his deep and sincere gratitude for those who have
guided in completing this paper.
This English paper contains explanations of parts of the human body as well
as some health problems that may arise.
Hopefully, this paper can help the readers to expand their knowledge about
English reading.

Jombang, September 18, 2017

Author

2
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
1.1 General
Healthy is a maximum condition, both from physical, mental and social
so that it can perform an activity that produces something. A healthy body
condition in humans can be seen from the fitness of the body. In a community
environment sometimes experience some health problems, whether young,
old, female or male. Health can be defined as an important investment to
support economic development and has an important role in poverty
reduction efforts. Health development should be viewed as an investment to
improve the quality of human resources. In the measurement of Human
Development Index (HDI), health is one of the main components besides
education and income. In Act No. 23 of 1992 on Health it is stipulated that
health is a prosperous state of body, soul and social that enables every person
to live socially productive and economy.

1.2 Purpose
What a part the body and problems

1.3 Objectives Of This Write


Part the body and problems

3
4
CHAPTER 2
DISCUSION

2.1 Part Of The Body

1. Head
The human head is home to all the body’s major sensory organs
(smell, touch, sight, taste, and hearing) and the most important function is
protect the brain.
2. Forehead
The frontal bone is a bone of the skull found in the forehead region. It
is one of eight bones that form the cranium, or brain case. The frontal
bone plays a vital role in supporting and protecting the delicate nervous
tissue of the brain. It gives shape to the skull and supports several muscles
of the head.
3. Eye
Our eyes are one of the most significant tools we use to process the
world around us. They allow us to interpret shapes, faces, colors, and
depth by translating the light that reflects off of these things into electrical
signals that the brain reads as images.

5
4. Ear
The ear is an advanced and very sensitive organ of the human body.
The ear’s function is to transmit and transduce sound to the brain through
the parts of the ear: the outer ear, the middle ear and the inner ear.
The major task of the ear is to detect, transmit and transduce sound.
Another very important function of the ear is to maintain our sense of
balance.
5. Nose
The function of nose in respiratory system is very important. It is
responsible for choosing, filtering and inhaling the atmospheric oxygen.
The incoming oxygen is in sufficient amount to meet body needs. This
article also throws some light on the basic parts of the nose and their
functions.
Another function of nose :
- Contributing to Facial Beauty:
Nose is the most prominent and perhaps the first attractive feature of
the face.
- A Support for Glasses:
It is one of the uses of human nose that the nose chambers support
glasses. Sometimes, the critics use the nose size and shape variations
to analyze the personalities of the being.
- Olfactory Function:
Nose is also the house for smell. So, you can define nose as the
olfactory organ. The entire perception and appetite for the food goes
vain without capturing its smell.
6. Mouth
The mouth is an oval-shaped cavity inside the skull. The two main
functions of the mouth are eating and speaking. Parts of the mouth
include the lips, vestibule, mouth cavity, gums, teeth, hard and soft palate,
tongue and salivary glands. The mouth is also known as the oral cavity or
the buccal cavity.

6
7. Cheek
The cheeks (buccae) are important in the process of mastication (and
also drinking in herbivores). Minor Salivary glands are located within the
buccal musculature. The cheeks also create extensive food storage
pouches in some species.
8. Chin
Perhaps the most common explanation is that our chin helps buttress
the jaw against certain mechanical stresses. the chin evolved in response
to our unique form of speech, perhaps protecting the jaw against stresses
produced by the contraction of certain tongue muscles generated by
chewing food.
9. Neck
The neck is the body part that connects the head to the trunk. It also
sustains the head and helps it move up and down, left and right. Another
important function of the neck is protecting the nerves that send sensory
and motor information from the brain to the rest of the body.
10. Trunk
The trunk is the body part that connects all the other parts and hosts
many important internal organs such as: heart, lungs, stomach, liver,
kidneys and reproductive organs.
11. Adam’s Apple
The Adam's apple, in conjunction with the thyroid cartilage which
forms it, helps to protect the walls and the frontal part of the larynx,
including the vocal cords (which are located directly behind it).
Another function of the laryngeal prominence is related to the
deepening of the voice. During adolescence, the thyroid cartilage grows
together with the larynx. Consequently, the laryngeal prominence grows
in size mainly in men. Together, a larger soundboard is made up in
phonation apparatus and, as a result, the man gets a deeper voice note.

7
12. Shoulder
The shoulder joint is a highly mobile joint with a large range of
movement to allow us to perform overhead activities. A consequence of
being so mobile is that the shoulder joint is inherently unstable and relies
on static and dynamic stabilisers to control the position of the head of the
humerus on the glenoid fossa of the scapula.
13. Hand
Hands are capable of a wide variety of functions, including gross and
fine motor movements. Gross motor movements allow us to pick up large
objects or perform heavy labor. Fine motor movements enable us to
perform delicate tasks, such as holding small objects or performing
detailed work.
14. Finger
Finger is a body part that is in the hands and feet both left and right. In
normal human fingers amounted to five. Finger is often used as a means
of communication through the motion and shape of the finger. One
example that is often used by people with speech impaired, they
communicate through movements that contain a certain meaning.
15. Chest Breast
The breast is the tissue overlying the chest (pectoral) muscles. Women's
breasts are made of specialized tissue as well as fatty tissue. The amount
of fat determines the size of the breast. In women the breasts are
secondary sex organs with the function of producing milk after childbirth.
Men have breasts and nipples because they already had them before they
became male. Since there's no real caloric cost to men having boobs,
evolution has no impetus to erase them.
16. Abdomen
The abdomen is the body space between the thorax (chest) and pelvis.
The abdomen contains all the digestive organs, including the stomach,
small and large intestines, pancreas, liver, gallbladder, kidneys and
spleen. Many important blood vessels travel through the abdomen,
including the aorta, inferior vena cava, and dozens of their smaller
branches.

8
17. Groin
The groin is an area of your hip between your stomach and thigh. It is
located where your abdomen ends and your legs begin. The groin area has
five muscles that work together to move your leg.
18. Genital (Penis / Vagina thigh)
- The vagina is an elastic, muscular canal with a soft, flexible lining that
provides lubrication and sensation. The vagina connects the uterus to
the outside world. The vulva and labia form the entrance, and the
cervix of the uterus protrudes into the vagina, forming the interior
end.
The vagina receives the penis during sexual intercourse and also
serves as a conduit for menstrual flow from the uterus. During
childbirth, the baby passes through the vagina (birth canal).
19. Foot
Foot is the most important anatomical part of the body to balance the
weight and transmit weight of the body to the ground. Foot has a dorsal
(facing ground) and ventral (facing upward) surface. Bottom or ventral
surface of the foot is also known as sole or bottom of the foot. The foot is
divided in heel, arch of the foot and anterior bony prominence of
metacarpo-phalangeal joint.
There Are 3 Main Functions of the Foot:
- Weight Transmission- Transmits the body weight to the ground
during standing, walking or jogging.
- Balance Posture- Maintain equilibrium of posture while standing,
walking and jogging.
- Assist Ambulation- Ambulation is moving from one place to another
place.
20. Toes
The toes provide a few functions when they work properly. They support
the weight of the body, and along with other structures of the feet, provide
shock-absorbing properties when running, walking, or jumping. In
addition, the toes also provide balance when walking, and provide the
final push-through during a stride. Those who have lost toes to

9
amputation, injury, or congenital defect are still able to walk without toes,
but may find their gait somewhat impaired compared to those with normal
foot anatomy.

2.2 Health Problem


1. Head
- Migrain
A migraine is a specific type of headache that is severe,
persistent and often occurs in conjunction with a wide variety of
symptoms. Migraines can be so severe that they can be disabling in
many cases, leading to serious disruption of work, school,
relationships, and social activities.
- Headache
A tension headache is a very common type of headache. The
exact cause of tension headaches is uncertain, but they may be the
result of a disturbance of brain chemicals and/or a straining of the
muscles of the neck, jaw, shoulders, scalp, or face. Tension
headaches can occur infrequently, or they can affect some people
nearly every day. Tension headaches are most common in teens and
adults.
- Head Lice
Also called Pediculus humanus capitis are parasitic insects
found on the heads of people. Anyone who comes in close contact
with someone who already has head lice, contaminated clothing, and
other belongings.
2. Eye
- Blurry Vision
Blurry vision has many causes, from fatigue and eyestrain to
serious eye diseases such as glaucoma.
- Presbyopia
All about this normal age-related loss focusing ability that
becomes noticeable after age 40
- Myopia

10
People can see fine up close, but distant objects are a blur
- Red eyes
Red eyes can be caused by allergies, eye infections and eye
injuries.
- Uveitis
Painful inflammation of the uvea causes light sensitivity,
floaters and blurred vision.
- Cataract
A cataract is a clouding of the eye's natural lens, which lies
behind the iris and the pupil. Cataracts are the most common cause
of vision loss in people over age 40 and is the principal cause of
blindness in the world
3. Ear
- Ear infections
Ear infections are one of the most common childhood illnesses
diagnosed. The most common ear infections in children occur in the
middle ear. Middle ear infections are called otitis media.
- Ear Wax
A sticky substance secreted by the cerumen glands in the skin of
the ear canals. The secretion may build up to a level where hearing is
impaired until the buildup is removed. The secretion protects the
inner ear by trapping foreign material such as insects and dust.

4. Nose
- Sinusitis
- Sinusitis usually occurs following a viral upper respiratory infection
and may also occur with allergies and fungal infection that causes
inflammation of the mucous membranes. Swollen mucous
membranes trap and promote the growth of bacteria that cause
infection. Risk factors include seasonal allergies (hay fever), change
in atmospheric pressure (e.g., flying, mountain climbing,
swimming), and pollutants that damage the cilia of the mucous
membrane responsible for drainage, like cigarette smoke.

11
- Nasal Polyps
Nasal polyps are benign growths or swellings in the lining of the
nasal cavity. Polyps typically narrow the sinus passages, blocking
the normal drainage of mucus.
Polyps may occur singly, but they more often appear in clusters
in both sides of the nose. They are generally not a serious health
threat but may grow large enough or numerous enough to obstruct
the airways and cause breathing difficulty. Also, they may block
drainage of the sinuses and foster recurrent sinus infections.
5. Mouth
- Oral cancer
Oral cancer can develop in any part of the mouth, including the
lips, tongue, hard and soft palates, salivary glands, lining of the
cheeks, floor of the mouth (under the tongue), gums, and teeth. Most
often, tumors begin on the floor of the mouth, on the tongue, or in
the surface areas of the mouth.
- Tooth and Mouth Injuries
It's not uncommon for a tooth to be knocked out because of an
accident, fight, sports injury, or rough play. A hard blow to the tooth
often can be enough to dislodge it or shear it off. This happens to as
many as three million Americans annually. Failing to take immediate
action can result in the loss of the tooth. If dealt with promptly and
calmly, a dislodged permanent tooth, in most cases, can be
successfully reattached and retained for life.
- Dry mouth (Xerostomia)
Dry mouth is abnormal dryness of the mucous membranes in the
mouth, due to a reduction of the flow or change in the composition
of saliva. It can occur as a symptom of many possible underlying
disorders or as a side effect of certain medications. Dry mouth itself
is not a serious medical problem, but it may contribute to poor
nutrition, psychological discomfort, mouth infections and tooth
decay if left untreated. Medical care is aimed at relieving symptoms
and treating the underlying disorder.

12
6. Cheek
- Slapped cheek syndrome
Slapped cheek syndrome is a viral infection that's most common
in children, although it can affect people of any age. It usually causes
a bright red rash on the cheeks.
Although the rash can look alarming, slapped cheek syndrome is
normally a mild infection that clears up by itself in one to three
weeks. Once you've had the infection, you're usually immune to it
for life. However, slapped cheek syndrome can be more serious for
some people. If you're pregnant, have a blood disorder or a
weakened immune system and have been exposed to the virus, you
should get medical advice.
7. Chin
- Numb chin syndrome (NCS)
Numb chin syndrome is a rare but important clinical symptom
and sign. It describes a condition presenting as anaesthesia or
paraesthesia over the chin, which is usually unilateral. The condition
manifests spontaneously with no history of trauma, infection or
obvious odontogenic cause. NCS is a clinically important finding as
it may be the primary manifestation of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) or
sign of systemic malignancy.
8. Neck
- Laryngitis
Laryngitis is inflammation of the larynx or voice box, the
structure in the throat containing the vocal cords. The most common
symptom of either form of laryngitis is hoarseness that may, within
several days, progress to partial or total loss of the voice. Fever, sore
throat and swallowing difficulty may occur as well.
- Thyroid nodules
Thyroid nodules are solid lumps arising in the thyroid gland.
The thyroid gland, at the base of the neck, produces thyroid
hormone, which regulates body growth and metabolism.

13
Nodules usually grow slowly over many years. They appear
singularly or in clusters (benign nodular goiter) and usually are not
detectable until they have grown to at least one centimeter in size.
The greatest concern of a solitary nodule is the possibility of cancer,
although this is uncommon.
9. Shoulder, Hand & Finger
- The Carpal Tunnel
The carpal tunnel is a narrow passageway of ligament and bones
at the base of your hand. It contains nerve and tendons. Sometimes,
thickening from irritated tendons or other swelling narrows the
tunnel and causes the nerve to be compressed. Symptoms usually
start gradually. As they worsen, grasping objects can become
difficult.
- Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis. It causes
pain, swelling, and reduced motion in your joints. It can occur in any
joint, but usually it affects your hands, knees, hips or spine.
Osteoarthritis breaks down the cartilage in your joints. Cartilage
is the slippery tissue that covers the ends of bones in a joint. Healthy
cartilage absorbs the shock of movement. When you lose cartilage,
your bones rub together. Over time, this rubbing can permanently
damage the joint.
- Fracture
A fracture is a break, usually in a bone. If the broken bone
punctures the skin, it is called an open or compound fracture.
Fractures commonly happen because of car accidents, falls, or sports
injuries. Other causes are low bone density and osteoporosis, which
cause weakening of the bones. Overuse can cause stress fractures,
which are very small cracks in the bone.
- Dislocation
Dislocations are joint injuries that force the ends of your bones
out of position. The cause is often a fall or a blow, sometimes from
playing a contact sport. You can dislocate your ankles, knees,

14
shoulders, hips, elbows and jaw. You can also dislocate your finger
and toe joints. Dislocated joints often are swollen, very painful and
visibly out of place. A dislocated joint is an emergency.
10. Chest Breast
- Fibrocystic breasts aren’t harmful or dangerous, but may be
bothersome or uncomfortable for some women. More than half of
women will develop fibrocystic breast disease at some point in their
lives. Many women with fibrocystic breasts will not have any
associated symptoms. Although it isn’t harmful to have fibrocystic
breasts, this condition can make the detection of breast cancer more
challenging.
- Nipple Discharge
Nipple discharge refers to any fluid that seeps out of the nipple
of the breast. Nipple discharge in women who are not pregnant or
breast-feeding may not be abnormal. Nipple discharge in men under
any circumstances could be a problem and needs further evaluation.
One or both breasts may produce a nipple discharge, either
spontaneously or when you squeeze your nipples or breasts. A nipple
discharge may look milky, or it may be clear, yellow, green, brown
or bloody. Nonmilk discharge comes out of your nipple through the
same nipple openings that carry milk. The consistency of nipple
discharge can vary — it may be thick and sticky or thin and watery.
11. Abdomen
- Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Gastroesophageal reflux disease, also called GERD and acid
reflux disorder, is a condition in which contents from the stomach,
such as acid and bile, flow back up (reflux) into the lower part of the
esophagus.
- Gastritis
Gastritis is an inflammation, irritation, or erosion of the lining of the
stomach. It can occur suddenly (acute) or gradually (chronic).
Gastritis can be caused by irritation due to excessive alcohol use,

15
chronic vomiting, stress, or the use of certain medications such as
aspirin or other anti-inflammatory drugs.
12. Groin
- Groin Pain
Groin pain is any discomfort in this area. The pain typically
results from an injury caused by physical activity, such as sports. A
pulled or strained muscle in the groin area is one of the most
common injuries among athletes.
13. Genital
- Genital Infections
Genital herpes is a chronic, life-long viral infection. Many such
persons have mild or unrecognized infections but shed virus
intermittently in the anogenital area. As a result, most genital herpes
infections are transmitted by persons unaware that they have the
infection or who are asymptomatic when transmission occurs.
- Genital Warts (HPV)
The human papillomavirus (HPV) that causes genital warts can
be transmitted by close skin-to-skin contact. Some types of HPVs
cause cervical or anal cancer. Genital warts can be big or small, flat
or raised. They generally appear as a small bump or group of bumps
in the genital region, and may be shaped like a cauliflower.
- Orchitis
Orchitis is an inflammation or infection of the testicle, often
caused by a virus or bacteria. Symptoms of orchitis include pain,
swelling, or a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum.
Orchitis can occur in men who get mumps, influenza, or
tuberculosis. Sexually transmitted infections may also cause orchitis.
14. Knee
- Osteochondritis
Osteochondritis dissecans causes pain and decreased movement
when a piece of bone or cartilage or both inside the knee joint loses
blood supply and dies.

16
- Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis (degenerative joint disease) may cause knee pain
that is worse in the morning and improves during the day. It often
develops at the site of a previous injury.
- Osgood-Schlatter Disease
Osgood-schallater disease causes pain, swelling, and tenderness
in the front of the knee below the kneecap. It is especially common
in boys ages 11 to 15.
15. Foot & Toes
- Calf pain
Calf pain is often linked to foot and knee problems and is
usually a result of a problem in the calf muscle. It may be due to
muscle weakness or tightness or from poor foot positions. It can
also be caused by problems in the neural or vascular structures in the
lower leg.
- Heel Pain
Heel pain usually occurs either at the back of the heel or
underneath the heel. Our heels absorb most of the force going
through our feet so it is a common place to get foot pain. Heel pain is
rarely serious and usually settles down in a few weeks to months,
often with simple exercises.
- Toe Pain
Pain in the toes most commonly involves the big toe and often
affects our daily activities such as walking. Alternatively, sporting
activities may put undue stress through the toes leading to problems
such as Turf Toe and Tennis Toe. It may be that there is a problem
with the nerves supplying the toes like Morton's Neuroma, or it may
be a soft-tissue problem such as blisters or ingrown toe nails.
- Pain on Top of the Foot
Top of foot pain is often caused by damage to the muscles,
tendons or nerves running along the top of the foot from activities
like running, jumping and kicking is also a common cause of top of
foot pain. This can lead to small breaks in the bone (stress fractures)

17
or inflammation and degeneration in the muscles and tendons
(tendonitis). There may also be a problem with the positioning of
the bones which places excess stress on the surrounding structures.
A heavy impact onto the top of the foot can result in a bone fracture
or damage to the tendons on the top of the foot.
- Bottom of Foot / Arch Pain
Pain underneath the foot or in the foot arch is particularly
common in people who spend long periods on their feet. Pain on the
bottom of the foot often results from a problem in the position of the
foot arches. Muscle weakness, tightness or overloading often causes
pain along the bottom of the foot.
Poor foot hygiene can also lead to conditions such as Trench
Foot and Athletes Foot affecting the bottom of the foot.

18
CHAPTER 3
CLOSING
3.1 Conclusion
The organs in living beings are divided into two parts, namely internal
organs and the outside, the studying science is called Anatomy which is a
branch of biology associated with the structure, parts and organization of
living things.
The skeletal system or musculoskeletal system is the inner bones that
make up the body and as the support of the movement of the body in humans.
The Digestive System is a process of converting foods from large sizes
into smaller, refined sizes, and absorbing the content present in the food and
breaking down complex food molecules into simple molecules using enzymes
and digestive organs.
Female Reproductive System Represents Organs that play a role in a
series of processes aimed at proliferating and multiplying offspring and the
way out of urine and blood during menstruation.
The urinary system is the site of the process of blood filtering in the
body so that the blood is free of substances that are not used by the body and
absorb substances that are still used by the body and then removed from the
body.

19
REFERENCES

2015. Accessible at : http://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/head-


organs-veins-lymphatics/male#seoBlock. Accessed on Saturday, September 16,
2017 at 6.52 PM

Tim Taylor, Anatomy and Physiology Instructor. Accessible at :


http://www.innerbody.com/image_skel01/skel40_new_skull.html#full-description
19.17

Daniel Zambon. 2016. Shoulder Function. Accessible at :


http://www.physiohealth.com.au/shoulder-function/. Accessed on Monday,
September 18, 2017 at 11.15 AM

Human Nose Facts, Diseases, Functions And Location. Accessible at :


http://www.organsofthebody.com/nose/. Accessed on Monday, September 18,
2017 at 11.22 AM
https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/conditionsandtreatments/mouth 12.34
PM

Erin Wayman. 2012. Why Do Humans Have Chins?. Accessible at :


http://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/why-do-humans-have-chins-
15140492/. Accessed on Monday, September 18, 2017 at 12.49 PM

https://en.wikivet.net/Cheeks 1.09 PM

Meredith F. Small. 2008. Why Men Have Breasts. Accessible at :


https://www.livescience.com/4971-men-breasts.html 1.37 PM. Accessed on
Monday, September 18, 2017 at 1.33 PM

Carol DerSarkissian. 2017. The Breast (Human Anatomy) : Picture,


Function, Conditions & More. Accessible at :
http://www.webmd.com/women/picture-of-the-breasts#1. Accessed on Monday,
September 18, 2017 at 1.42 PM

20
Kansas City Foot Spesialists. 2014. Toes : Anatomy, Function and Common
Injuries. Accessible at : http://www.kcfoot.com/blog/297-toes-anatomy-function-
and-common-injuries. Accessed on Monday, September 18, 2017 at 1.47 PM

Pramod Kerkar. 2015. 3 Main Function Of The Foot : Weight


Transmission, Balance Posture, Assist Ambulation. Accessible at :
https://www.epainassist.com/joint-pain/foot-pain/functions-of-the-foot . Accessed
on Monday, September 18, 2017 at 1.53 PM

Heathline Medical Team. 2015. Hand Anatomy, Pictures & Diagram.


Accessible at : http://www.healthline.com/human-body-maps/hand#seoBlock.
Accessed on Monday, September 18, 2017 at 2.28PM

Matthew Hoffman. 2015. The Vagina (Human Anatomy): Picture, Parts,


Function and Definition. http://www.webmd.com/women/picture-of-the-vagina#1
at 8.01 PM

Gary Heiting. 2017. Eye Problem and Diseases.


http://www.allaboutvision.com/conditions/ Thursday, September 19, 2017 at 9.04
PM

Stanley J. Swierzewski. 2015. Ears/Nose/Throat.


http://www.healthcommunities.com/health-topics/ears-nose-throat.shtml 9.31PM

2014. Foot Pain Diagnosis. http://www.foot-pain-explored.com/foot-pain-


diagnosis.html Wenesday, September 20, 2017 at 10.38 AM

2015. Knee Problems and Injuries - Topic Overview.


http://www.webmd.com/pain-management/knee-pain/knee-problems-and-injuries-
topic-overview#2 Wenesday, September 20, 2017 at 10.42 AM

George S. Athwal. 2010. Shoulder Pain and Common Shoulder Problems.


http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00065 Wenesday, September 20, 2017
at 10.03 PM

21
NHS.Choices. 2015. Slapped cheek syndrome.
http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/slapped-cheek-syndrome/Pages/Introduction.aspx at
10.09 PM

F. Ryba, S. Rice & I. L. Hutchison. 2010. Numb chin syndrome: an ominous


clinical sign. British Dental Journal 208, 283 – 285.
http://www.nature.com/bdj/journal/v208/n7/full/sj.bdj.2010.292.html?foxtrotcallb
ack=true at 10.24PM

22