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Qin Zhou, Jianhan Liu, Anders Høst-Madsen, Olga Boric-Lubecke, Victor Lubecke

Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Hawaii

ABSTRACT small compared to the wavelength, a circuit that couples both

the transmitted and reflected waves to a mixer can produce

Doppler radar life sensing has shown promise in medical and an output signal with a low-frequency component that is

security applications. The current paper considers the directly proportional to the movement. This is the case when

problem of determining the number of persons in a given measuring chest surface motion related to respiration and

area (e.g., a room) using the Doppler shift due to heartbeat. heart activity. Figure 1 illustrates this concept. Internal body

The signal is weak and time-varying, and therefore poses a reflections are greatly attenuated (more severely with

complicated signal processing problem. We develop a increasing frequency) and will not be considered here.

generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT) based on a model of The current paper focuses on the problem of detecting the

the heartbeat, and show that this can be used to distinguish

between the presence of 2, 1, or 0 subjects, even with a

single antenna. We further extend this to N antennas. The

results show that one can expect to detect up to 2N-1 subjects

using this technique.

1. INTRODUCTION

activity is a promising technique for unobtrusive health

monitoring and life sensing, with proof of concept

demonstrated for various applications [1-3]. However, so far

Fig. 1 A single antenna system with a single subject. A homodyne

this approach has been limited to sensing and detection of a radio is used to detect a phase shift proportional to chest

single subject. When there are two or more subjects present displacement due to cardiopulmonary activity.

in the environment, it is more challenging to isolate signals

from individual subjects. We are exploring separation of number of subjects within range of the device, and possibly

signals from multiple subjects in a single and multiple location, through direction of arrival (DOA). This has a

antenna systems. In a single antenna system, based on number of important applications: to find survivors in

expected different spectral signatures of individual disaster situations like earthquakes, and for military

cardiovascular related motion, it is possible to separate recognizance.

individual signals in frequency domain. In a multiple

antenna system (SIMO or MIMO), even if individual 2. SIGNAL MODEL

cardiovascular signatures are very similar, it is possible to

distinguish different subjects based on angle of arrival. In We assume a continuous wave (CW) radar system

this paper we will discuss theoretical background for both of transmits a single tone signal at frequency ω.. This signal is

these approaches, experimental results for a single antenna reflected from a target at a nominal distance d, with a time-

system, and simulation results for the SIMO system. varying displacement given by x(t). Suppose at first that the

The use of Doppler radar to sense vital signs is a signal from a given subject arrives from a single path. The

relatively recent innovation [1-3]. The clear advantage of sampled, passband received signal at the n-th antenna in a

such a method is that individuals can be monitored at a SIMO system with quadrature receivers can be written as

distance, with no contact required. By the Doppler effect, an [12]

RF wave reflected at a moving surface undergoes a rn (t ) = A exp( jω (t + x(t − nτ ) − nτ )) + wn (t ), n = 0..M − 1

frequency shift proportional to the surface velocity. If the

d

surface is moving periodically, such as the chest of person τ= sin(v)

breathing, this can be characterized as a phase shift c

proportional to the surface displacement. If the movement is

†

This research was sponsored by NSF under contract ECS0428975 and the U.S. army under contract W15P7T-05-C-B202

Here τ is of the order 1/(3⋅108), so that x(t-nτ)≈ x(t). After x i (t ) = ( Ai + α i (t )) cos(ω i t + ϕ i (t ) + θ )

mixing with the carrier wave, the basband received signal = Ai cos(ω i t + θ ) + n(t )

can be written as,

rn (t ) = A exp( j (ωx(t ) − nφ − θ )) + wn (t ), n = 0..M − 1

n(t ) = Ai (cos(ϕ i (t )) − 1) cos(ω i t + θ )

2πd + α i (t ) cos(ω i t + ϕ i (t ) + θ )

τ= sin(v) + ( Ai + α i (t )) sin(ω i t + θ ) sin(ϕ i (t ))

λ

for a linear array, with angle of incidence v and noise wn(t). If The amplitude variations αi(t) and ϕi(t) are zero mean

we collect the signal received at the M antennas into a vector, random processes modeling the HRV. We assume that these

this can be written as have zero mean not only at DC but at all frequencies, i.e.,

r (t ) = A exp( jωx(t ))s(φ ) + w (t ) T T

∫ α (t )e ∫ ϕ (t )e

1 − iωt 1 − iωt

(1) lim dt = lim dt = 0

s(φ ) = [1, exp( jφ ), K , exp( j ( M − 1)φ )]T T →∞ T

i

T →∞ T

i

−T −T

As ωx(t) is very small From this we can conclude that

exp( j (ωx(t )) ≈ (1 + jωx(t )) (2) T

∫ n(t )e

1 − iωt

is a good approximation, so that lim dt = 0

T →∞ T

r (t ) ≈ (1 + jωx(t ))s + w (t ) −T

Thus, the signal is characterized by a characteristic vector s. and therefore that

If there are now S subjects at different positions, they will ⎧1 ω = ω i

T

∫ x (t )e

1 − iω t

likely have different DOA vectors s, and we can write the lim dt = ⎨

⎩0 ω ≠ ω i

i

T →∞ T

total received signal as −T

S Thus, if we calculate the Fourier transform (and not the

r (t ) = ∑ exp( j(ωx (t ))ss s + b + w (t ) power spectral density) of the received signal, we can expect

s =1 to see peaks at the heartbeat frequencies ωi. The HRV is

S S

∑ ∑s

included in the term n(t) which can be seen as an additional

≈ jωx s (t )s s + s + b + w (t ) noise term.

s =1 s =1

where b is a DC component due to reflection from other 3. GLRT FOR DETECTION OF HEARBEAT

objects (e.g., walls, funiture) than humans. If we use the

approximation (2) we then get. This shows that the DC There exist a number of methods for determining model

component of the signal does not contain any information, order, e.g., AIC and MDL [9]. However, since our primary

and this can therefore be filtered out. objective is to determine the number of subject, we prefer to

state the problem as a tradional Neymann-Pearson hypothesis

2.1. Heartbeat signal model test [9].

Consider at first the case of a single receiver antenna with

The signal xi(t) generated by each subject consists of only the I-component available with at most 2 subjects in

respiration and heartbeat. The respiration is usually in the range. As argued in the previous section, we model the data

range 0-0.8 Hz and the heartbeat in the range 0.8-2 Hz. received in am interval as a mixture of two periodic signals,

While the respiration is a stronger signal than the heartbeat, y[k ] = A1 cos(ω1 kT ) + B1 sin(ω1 kT )

it is also more difficult to characterize and therefore to (1)

detect. In the current method we therefore remove most of + A2 cos(ω 2 kT ) + B 2 sin(ω 2 kT ) + n[k ]

the respiration by high pass filtering. The heartbeat signal where n[k] is white Gaussian noise (WGN) with power σ2,

itself is a rather complicated signal. It is nearly periodic, but and A1, A2, B1, B2, ω1, ω2, and σ2 are unknown. Since n[k]

B B

the period can vary from one beat to the next; this is called includes terms due to HRV, assuming it is WGN is indeed a

heart rate variability (HRV). HRV can be modeled as a rough approximation. However, in absence of detailed

random process [5] with strong periodicity. To simplify the information about HRV terms, one can argue from maximum

modeling, we filter the received signal with a bandpass filter entropy principles that a WGN model is the most robust. The

with a pass band of 0.8-2 Hz so that only the fundamental problem of determining if there are two or more or less than

frequency of the heartbeat is received. The resulting signal is two persons present can then be stated as the following

modeled as hypothesis test problem

H 1 : ( A1 , B1 ) ≠ (0,0), ( A2 , B2 ) ≠ (0,0)

H 0 : ( A2 , B2 ) = (0,0)

This is a composite hypothesis test problem with many

unknown parameters, and the best detector for this kind of

problem is commonly accepted to be the generalized

likelihood ratio test (GLRT) [12-13]. In the GLRT the t (y ) =

following test statistic is defined

∑ y[k ] − ( A cos(ω t ) − B sin(ω t ))s(φ )

N 2

max A , B , A , B ,ω ,ω ,σ 2 f (y ) min 1 1 1 1 1

k =1

t (y ) = 1 1 2 2 1 2

2

min ∑ y[k ] − ∑ ( A cos(ω t ) − B sin(ω t ) )s(φ )

max A , B , A =0, B =0,ω ,ω ,σ 2 f (y ) N 2

1 1 2 2 1 2

k =1 i =1 i i i i i

where f(y) is the likelihood function (probability density

function) for the received data y=[y[1],...,y[N]]. If t(y)>τ, Now the minimization ω1, ω2, φ1, φ2 is a non-linear problem

solved using a simple grid search.

where τ is some threshold, the GLRT decides H1 (two or

more persons), otherwise H0 (less than two persons). The Notice that the minimization with respect to φ1, φ2 gives

DOA as a by-product, so the methods can also be used to

threshold τ is determined so that a desired false alarm

localizing subjects.

probability is guaranteed. If H0 is decided, another GLRT can

then be used to decide between 0 or 1 subjects.

In the Gaussian case, the GLRT test statistic can be 4. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

simplified to

0.2

t (y ) = 0.1

N 2

min 0

A1 , B1 ,ω1 k =1

-0.1

2

∑ ⎛ y[k ] −

∑ A cos(ω i t ) + Bi sin(ω i t ) ⎞⎟

N 2

min ⎜

k =1 ⎝

-0.2

ω ω

A1 , B1 , A2 , B2 , 1, 2

i =1 i ⎠ 0 1 2 3 4 5

time(sec)

6 7 8 9 10

B B

0.4

the minimization over ω1, ω2 is a non-linear problem, which is

0.2

currently solved using a simple grid search.

0

-0.2

3.1. Extension to multiple sensors

-0.4

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

time(sec)

Assume that there are multiple receiver antennas with both I

and Q-components, and that multipath is negligible. The

received signal can then be modeled by Fig.3. Top: wireless signal; Bottom: reference signal.

y[k ] = ( A1 cos(ω1 kT ) + B1 sin(ω1 kT ) )s(φ1 )

+ ( A2 cos(ω 2 kT ) + B 2 sin(ω 2 kT ) )s(φ 2 ) + n[k ] A single antenna system, with one subject in the antenna

field of view, is illustrated in Fig. 2. The return signal is

Where s(φ) is given by (1). The GLRT test statistic is is now

mixed with a sample of the transmitted signal to produce an

output voltage with its magnitude proportional to the phase

shift between them, which in turn is proportional to chest

displacement due to cardiopulmonary activity. All radar

measurements were conducted with the CW signal source at

2.4 GHz with 0 dBm output power.

Fig. 3 shows a typical heart beat signal, compared with a

reference signal measuring the pulse from a finger sensor.

The signal has been filtered with a lowpass filter with cutoff

10Hz. It can be seen that the signal, compared with the

reference signal, is very noisy, and the heartbeat cannot be

find simply from peak detection.

5. RESULTS

set of measurements with a single antenna. The

measurements are at first filtered with a bandpass filtered

with a passband 0.8-2Hz to remove respiration and higher

order harmonics, and are then divided into (overlapping)

intervals of length 15s. This ensures that the model (1) is 6. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

reasonably accurate. The test statistic is now evaluated in

each interval. It shows that it is objectively possible to We have shown that it is possible to determine the

determine the number of persons, e.g., by using threshold of number of subjects within range using hypothesis testing,

1.25. Notice that once it has been determined that less than although we are dealing with very weak and complicated

two persons are present with the above test, another GLRT signals. The method has potential of detecting up to 2N

can then be used to distinguish 0 and 1 persons. subjects with N antennas. The performance is acceptable, but

Results do not always turn out as well as in Fig. 4. Test could possibly be improved by taking into account more

subjects with strong HRV is sometimes not detected. To characteristics of the signals. On the other hand, already the

remedy this either the SNR has to be improved, or multiple current method is very computationally complex. It can be

simplified by using an approximate minimization, for

1.9

example by using 2D FFT and peak search.

Two persons data If there is heavy multipath the current method cannot be

one person data

1.8

no person data

used. Essentially, the method used is a spatio-temporal DOA.

1.7 With heavy multipath blind source separation methods must

be used, for example methods inspired by space-time music

1.6

[6-8].

Test Statistics

1.4

HRV from the data, but this is beyond the scope of the

current paper.

1.3

1.2 REFERENCES

1.1

[1] J. C. Lin, “Microwave sensing of physiological movement and

1

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

volume change: a review,” Bioelectromagnetics, vol. 13, pp. 557-

Time(Sec) 565, 1992.

[2] K. M. Chen, D. Mirsa, H. Wang, H. R. Chuang, E. Postow,

Fig.4. GLRT test for 2/1/0 person with 1Ant

“An X-band microwave life detection system,” IEEE Transactions

of Biomedical Eng., vol. 33, pp. 697-70, 1986.

antennas applied.

We do not yet have a working experimental setup with [3] V.M. Lubecke, O. Boric-Lubecke, G. Awater, P.-W. Ong, P.

Gammel, R.-H. Yan, J.C. Lin, “Remote sensing of vital signs with

multiple antennas. Multiple antenna data is therefore telecommunications signals,” World Congress on Medical Physics

obtained from partial simulation. Reference signals are and Biomedical Engineering (WC2000), Chicago IL, July 2000.

measured for different persons. They are then multiplied with [4] D. Samardzija, O. Boric-Lubecke, A. Host-Madsen, V. M.

DOA vectors, and independent noise is added at each Lubecke, T. Sizer, A. D. Droitcour and G. T. A. Kovacs,

antenna. Fig. 5 shows some results. In this case we used test “Applications of MIMO Techniques to Sensing of Cardiopulmonary

subject with strong HRV. With a single antenna it is Activity”, IEEE/ACES International Conference on Wireless

therefore difficult to detect reliably if there are 1 or 2 Communications and Applied Computational Electromagnetics,

subjects. With more antennas it is clearly possible to 2005.

distinguish between these situations. [5] McSharry PE, Clifford GD, Tarassenko L, Smith L. “A

dynamical model for generating synthetic electrocardiogram

signals”. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol 50(3), pp: 289-294, Mar.

1.7 2003.

1Ant,2p

1Ant,1p [6] A. Belouchrani, K. A. Meraim, J.-F. Cardoso, and E. Moulines,

1.6 1Ant,0p

4Ant,2p

“A blind source separation technique using second order statistics,”

4Ant,1p IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, vol. 45, pp. 434–444, Feb. 1997.

1.5

4Ant,0p [7] A. Belouchrani and M. G. Amin, “Time-frequency MUSIC,”

GLRT STATISTICS

1.4

IEEE Signal Processing Lett., vol. 6, pp. 109–110, May 1999.

[8] Bousbia-Salah, A.; Belouchrani, A.; Cichocki, A.;”Application

1.3 of time-frequency distributions to the independent component

analysis of ECG signals”. Signal Processing and its Applications,

1.2 Sixth International, Symposium on. 2001. vol.1, pp.238 – 241, Aug.

2001.

1.1 [9] S.M. Kay: “Fundamentals of statistical signal processing,” Vol.

2, Prentice Hall, 1998.

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