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Howard University

College of Engineering and Architecture

MEEG 441-01 Senior Project I Fall 2017
Professor: Dr. G.Warner
SAE Mini Baja Project Report #2
November 5th, 2017

Group 1:
Abigail Ezedonmwen
Onaopemipo Alagbe
Durga Man Shrestha
David Currie
Joseph Adams
Amber Childs-Santos

Table of Contents
List of Figures 1

List of Tables 2

Executive Summary 3

Problem Statement 4

Proposed Approach 22
Functional Requirements of Brakes 5
Functional Requirements of Powertrain 6

System Design 7
System Design of Braking System 7
System Design of Powertrain Error! Bookmark not defined.

Project Timeline 22

Appendix 14

Aeticle 7 14

B.7.1Brake System 14

Calculations 17

Assembly Documents 20

References 22

List of Figures
Figure 1: Powertrain Design…...7
Figure 2: Free body diagram used to calculate low gear…...12

List of Tables
Table 1: Acceleration Event Results - BAJA SAE Illinois 2017….9
Table 2: Overall Gear Ratios…...10

Executive Summary
BAJA SAE is an intercollegiate engineering design competition where each team designs and
builds a single-seat, all-terrain, sporting vehicles whose drive is contained within the structure of the
vehicle and compete across the nation with other teams. The inaugural Mini Baja event was held in 1976
and since then the competition has grown to become a premier engineering design series with over 110
university teams participating in each race. This is Howard University’s first year participating in the SAE
BAJA competition. The HU SAE BAJA has set out to build a car that can compete and finish all events in
the BAJA SAE Maryland 2018. The team is hopeful that this car would set benchmark for design
standards to be used by future HU SAE team.
The HU BAJA team is responsible for the design of the powertrain system and braking system.
This include the engine, transmission, differential, any power transmitting shafts and braking system.
The engine is a constraint in our design, as SAE requires the use of a Briggs & Stratton Model. After
research, discussion with UMD BAJA team and teammates, three different types of transmission setup
were considered. The transmission setup selected is a Continuously Variable Transmission paired with a
chain reduction drive. The CVTs are the most popular transmission system for SAE BAJA events because
they have large range of transmission ratios. CVTs have relatively light weight for the gear ratio ranges
they offer and have models that were specifically produced for BAJA applications. The chain reduction
drive allows for easy adjustment of gear ratios and adjusts the torque and rpm from the engine. The
Comet TAV2 Torque Converter is perfect for our design as this design gives the team weight reduction,
simplicity, and allows for powertrain to be packaged into smaller assembly. The total cost of the
powertrain system is expected to be around $900. The braking system is designed to produce adequate
braking force to meet competition regulations while being as light as possible. Cutting brake systems
were selected because they are compatible with the differentials and the design prevents the brakes
from overheating.

Problem Statement
Baja SAE is a competition that comprises of real-world applications in an engineering
design project. Engineering students from around the world compete in the various Baja SAE
competitions that take place in an attempt to showcase their design talents. The competition requires
students to design and build an off-road vehicle that can withstand the beatings of the rugged terrain
course. The requirements for this off-road vehicle include building a single-seat, all-terrain, sporting
vehicle whose structure will surround the driver. This off-road vehicle will be used as a model for a
reliable, maintainable, ergonomic, and economic production vehicle to a recreational user market.
The objective of this competition is to introduce SAE student members with the task of planning,
designing, creating, developing, implementing, and manufacturing all the parts in an off-road vehicle. All
the teams competing against each other must have their design approved and accepted for
manufacturing by a fictitious firm. Students are tasked with working together as a team under strict
guidelines and rules about what can and cannot be used for the vehicle. They are also required to
produce this vehicle with a ten-horsepower Intek Model 19 engine donated by Briggs & Stratton
Corporation. This engine is given to teams upon completion of registration.
Safety is a critical aspect of designing and manufacturing the vehicle. The vehicle must go
through safety inspections and well as testing before competition to satisfy the endurance standards.
Vehicles are designed with the possibility that it may rollover, collide into obstacles, vibrate from the
terrain and the various height magnitudes. The terrain includes obstructions such as rocks, sand, logs,
steep inclines, mud and shallow water. The vehicle most operate in any weather condition including
rain, snow and ice.

Proposed Approach

Functional Requirements of Brakes

The team aims to design a braking system which can meet the braking force by the all-terrain
environment while being as light as possible without compromising durability or maneuverability. The
overall braking system will be attached to the axles’ of the differential which control the direction and
rotation of the wheels.The cyan tubing on Figure [1] is the master cylinder output shaft which is a part of
the braking system connected to the vehicle’s axles.

Figure 1: Detailed Braking Systems from Master Cylinder to Wheel Attachment

Figure [1] shows the various components of the the braking system. There are various
components within the braking system consist of the following: master cylinder, rotors, calipers, brake
pads, and hubs. The vehicle brakes are engaged by the use of system hydraulics. Once the operator
presses down onto the pedal, braking fluid is then forced through the brake lines pushing the fluid
against the pistons , forcing the calipers against the brake pad and rotor. Brake calipers are housings
that fit over top of the rotors and holds together the brake pads and pistons. There are two types of
calipers, fixed and floating. Floating calipers are most widely used due to their cost and simplicity.
Floating calipers move freely over the rotor, and contain pistons on just a single side. Just like the
operation described previously, when the driver engages the brakes the pistons press against the brake
pads on one side of the rotor, causing the caliper to slide so pads on both sides (piston and non piston)
contract to the rotor to stop the wheels from rotating. Refer to Figure [1] and Figure [2]

Figure 2: Detailed Braking System from Master Cylinder to Pedal

Along with the functional requirements of brakes, the SAE Baja Rules and Regulations must be taken
into consideration as well. Article 7 of the SAE Rules and Regulations book contain strict guidelines on
foot brake, independent circuit, cutting brakes, and their location [A1]. The design of the braking system
must have two independent hydraulic circuits, a pedal with a direct actuation for the master cylinder
and must lock all four wheels.

Functional Requirements of Powertrain

The powertrain of a vehicle consists of the engine, transmission and differential systems. The
primary function of the powertrain, is to transfer the rotational energy of the engine to the rear axles
which are connected to the rear wheels. The powertrain system chosen consists of a continuously
variable transmission connected to a chain reduction drive which is then connected to the differential.
The continuously variable transmission allows for seamless transition between an infinite
amount of gear ratios between the highest and lowest. This allows for smooth acceleration rather than
the constant jerks associated with manual and automatic transmissions when gears are changed. The
chain reduction drive is also added to allow for extra adjustments to the gear ratios for optimum
performance. The continuously variable transmission and chain reduction tandem also allow for easier
maintenance.The differential chosen was an open differential. The differential allows the wheels to turn
at different speeds when turns are made. The open differential will allow for that need to be met.
The powertrain should be securely mounted at the rear of the vehicle behind the driver's seat,
and also as low as possible so as to allow for a low center of gravity for the vehicle.[WG1] When designing
this we must ensure to consider the undercarriage clearance of the vehicle. Our Baja vehicle will be

subjected to off road terrain and jumps in the course. If the vehicle is too low environmental hazards will
damage it.
The max horsepower output of the engine is 10 HP our power train must be able to transfer this
kinetic energy from the output shaft of the engine to the rear wheels of the vehicle the energy will cause
a rotational motion of the wheels and due to the friction between the wheels and the ground cause the
vehicle to move forward. The amount of force the wheels will exert on the ground overcoming its
frictional coefficient and causing motion is known as torque. There is a direct correlation between the
amount of horsepower an engine can output, the torque a vehicle can produce, and the rotations per
minute of the wheels. Powertrains can be configured to optimize speed or torque of a vehicle. Due to
the off road nature of SAE Baja, our powertrain will be optimized for max torque capability.

System Design

System Design of Braking System

The braking system consist of master cylinder, rotors, calipers, brake pads, and hubs disc/drum
brake pads. The two main type of braking systems are drum braking systems and disc braking systems
[2]. Out of the two braking systems, the disc braking system proved to be the better system for the
competition conditions. When the vehicle comes to a stop or decelerate, friction is created between the
hubs, rotors, and calipers. The friction due to braking causes heat generation which would need to be
dissipated for endurance purposes. A portion of the kinetic energy from the braking system is converted
into thermal energy because of this the excess thermal energy needs to be dissipated to avoid
overheating. “A good braking system is dependent on how well a brake system converts wheel
movement into heat (by way of friction) and, subsequently, how quickly this heat is removed from the
brake components [2].” The drum brakes consist of two metal drums . Disc brakes consist of rotor,
caliper and a ceramic disk. Note, ceramics have higher thermal resistance than metals such as copper
therefore ceramics can dissipate heat much quicker in comparison to metals [3]. The overheating of the
braking system can cause issues with maneuverability due to the friction on the brakes. In the
competition, the endurance portion is the event with the best opportunity because it consist of the
most points. Per SAE regulations, there must be two independent hydraulic circuits, one will controls
the front axle and the other control the rear axle. The powertrain sub-group has determined an open
differential would be most beneficial to our competition environment, this means four different calipers
are required for the wheels to lock independently.
Although all four wheels must lock, the team has the design option of pressure distribution from
the master cylinder to the front and rear axles. Ideally, more pressure would need to be applied to the
half of the vehicle where the vehicle is the heaviest. The braking force upon each set of axles’ was

calculated by the braking force and the center of gravity [4]. The braking force needed for the rear axle
is approximately 262 percent more than the front axle. The detailed calculations can be found in the
calculation section [C3]. A team with at least ten years of SAE Baja Competition, University of Virginia
has a similar design which focuses on heavily on rear braking, commonly referred to as “inboard
brakes”. This system design allows for control in the rear wheels while allowing maneuverability on the
front wheels which is great for sharp turns and curves. Christopher Tomely, the U.V.A. SAE president
suggested the team should build remainder of the braking system “surrounding” the hubs. The reason
being, the hub and rotor must be attached to the rims while also fitting the bore sizing for the calipers.
The wheel given to the Howard SAE Baja team from the UMD Terps Racing are 19-inch tires with13-inch
rims, +/- .5-inch. Within the given parameters by rim, the team selected the Polaris 2012 Sportsman 400
Model because the hub set is customize for inboard rear braking which consist of rear bearing carrier,
rear hub, rear hub bearing, rear retaining ring, front hub and castle nut. The total for the hub subsystem
is approximately $200.00.

As for the master cylinder, the cylinder must be able to exert a net force of at least 3,112 N
(Front Axle: 2,254 Rear Axle:828 N see calculation [C2]) within one stroke upon the pedal. The bore area
must be able to withstand the actuation of pressure over 3,000N. A master cylinder bore of ¾” will yield
an area of .575 in2 per 75 lbf applied for a total of 173 psi. The area of the pedal is approximately 25 in2
and therefore will exert 4,325 N in one single pedal stroke. The master cylinder components has a factor
of safety of 1.4. Given the weight distribution of the vehicle and the frame structure , the master
cylinder would need to be placed in the rear. The Polaris 2012 Sportsman 550/850 model has a custom
set of rotors, calipers, and the master cylinder that ensure compatibility within the braking system. This
set includes a rear master cylinder with a ¾” bore along with rotors that have an outer diameter of 10
inches which will need to fit inside the 13 inch rim/hub components. The remainder of the braking
system will consist of : Asm., Caliper, LH (1.188" Bore), Asm., Caliper, RH (1.188" Bore),Asm., Caliper,
Brake, Rear (1.5" Bore), Brake Rotor - Front and Rear (9.56 OD) and Rear Master Cylinder Asm (3/4"
Bore), with the considerate total of $ 880.00.

The fluid within the hydraulic brake lines are commonly referred to as brake fluid. In the
automotive industry there are two distinct types of braking fluid that were investigated; Dot 3 and Dot 4
which are brake fluids classified by the Department of Transportation. These fluids differ in their boiling
points. The hydraulic systems with the braking mechanisms use rely on incompressible fluid to transmit
force to move the piston engaging the brakes. In order to achieve this the fluid must be able to stay in
the incompressible liquid state in any condition. As stated earlier, the regulation for brake line
requirements within the system, stated that the use of plastic tube is prohibited. Given this fact, an
investigation of the exact material that the brake lines would be made out of was conducted. The team
reached out to the University of Virginia SAE chapter (via Skype) to gage more insight and the feedback
that was given was that from experience the best option and material that was used consistently
throughout the competition was braided steel. The justification behind this was due to the fact of its

flexibility. The style in which the steel is braided allows for maximum range of motion to fit around
components within the vehicle chassis. The selection of steel braided brake lines were chosen to be
used for both the front and rear braking apparatuses. The estimated cost from Polaris totals to $259.00
(Polaris 2012 RZR S).
In order to actuate the brakes, the first step happens with the engagement of the pedal. The
pedal must be able to withstand the force that is transferred from the driver to the master cylinder in
order to function. The brake pedal was designed to operate as a first class lever where the load would
move in the opposite direction of the foot plate of the brake pedal. The material of selection for the
manufacturing of the brake pedal is Aluminum 6061-T6. This has been the universial material selection
for experienced chapters (University of Maryland, Colorado University, and University of Virginia) due to
its low cost and weight. Given the fact that our team is new to the competition, the use of gaining
knowledge on what other successful teams have used in the past was crucial in the justification of this.
As explained previously, the exact driver force (force applied to the pedal from the driver) is 75 lbf.
meaning that the pedal design must be able to withstand this force. Whether or not the pedal will
designed and manufactured in house or outsourced has not been determined however the constraints
and design choices selected must be taken into account in both options that are chosen.

System Design of Powertrain

The powertrain consists of the engine, transmission and differential. The engine is
supplied by the event organisers, so the only considerations to be made are the transmission
and the differentials. The transmission setup selected is a Continuously Variable Transmission
paired with a chain reduction drive. The selected differential is an open differential with a
sprocket for connection with the chain reduction drive.

Figure [6]: Powertrain Design.

CVT stands for Continuously Variable Transmission. A system that is a fairly new
component in engines. A CVT has the ability to create an unlimited amount of output gear
rations seamlessly theoretically allowing a driver to always have the most efficient output from
an engine. Because a CVT does not use traditional gears it also allows a car's ride to be a lot
smoother, eliminating the physical jerk of gear shifting and the momentary loss of acceleration
when the clutch is disengaged.
Explaining the functionality of a CVT it's best to first explain a manual transmission. A
manual transmission uses a set of six gear ratios (and a reverse gear) that range from a low
ratio max acceleration to a high ratio. A complex system of shafts gears and clutches are used
to obtain the different configurations without stopping the car. A CVT however scraps the
traditional blueprint of a transmission allowing for an unlimited amount of gear rations to be
In the case of SAE Baja there are many advantages of a CVT over the alternative manual
transmission. A primary advantage is space. With a manual transmission not only is space
required for multiple gear set ups but also an manual clutch shifter has to be installed. Baja
vehicles being open framed there isn't any practical way to implement this system.
Unmistakably the most important advantage is the unlimited gear ratio. For top performance in
a manual transmission the user not only has to be proficient in physically shifting gears, but also
studying torque charts to see the optimal shiting time not to lose out on power or acceleration.

Even with a master driver the gear ratios are fixed to 5 or 6 positions. With a CVT the entire
process is automatic. And will always allow you to be in a position to yield the highest efficiency
from your engine this can be achieved through modification of flyweights and springs inside
the CVR. The Comet 780 series torque converter is perfect for our design it fits the 1’ bore of
our engine and will be customized with the #41 sprocket for more strength
The chain reduction drive is required to further adjust the torque and rpm from the
engine to acceptable ranges. The chain reduction drive allows for easy adjustment of gear ratios
because the sprockets can easily be removed and replaced. To determine the overall high and
low gear ratios that would be ideal for the design, data from previous competitions were
considered. It was determined that from Table 1 that the maximum speed of the vehicle would
be 35 mph. It was also determined through questions asked on baja sae forums that the most
common inclination of the hill in the hill climbing event would be 40 degrees. Using this data
the overall gear ratios were calculated, those calculations are shown in the appendix. The
calculated gear ratios are shown in Table 2. The high gear ratio allows for maximum speed for
the acceleration event, and the low gear ratio allows for maximum torque for the hill climbing
event. The maximum weight of the vehicle plus the driver agreed upon, and based on data from
SAE BAJA forums was 600lb.
Finally from the SAE rule book there is a call for guards to cover all moving or open belts
pulleys and sprockets. A choice of 1010 steel (>1.524mm) or 6061-T6 aluminum (>3mm) can be
used because the aluminum is more ductile it is a better choice for constructing the guard
casing also strength is not the main concern since the guard is for safety of operator rather than
protection of parts from debris,

Rank Car # School Team Best Time

1 37 Government College of Engrg Pune Team Nemesis Racing 3.804


2 1 Univ of Michigan - Ann Arbor Michigan Baja Racing 3.902

3 4 Cornell Univ BIG RED RACING 3.954

4 72 National Institute of Tech - Jalandhar Team Avishkar 3.969

5 90 Purdue Univ - W Lafayette Purdue Baja Racing 3.986

6 101 Sinhgad College of Engineering Team Kraftwagen 4.033

7 41 Pimpri Chinchwad College of Team Red Baron 4.034


8 75 McGill Univ McGill Baja Racing Team 4.054

9 6 Iowa State Univ Cyclone Racing 4.073

10 66 Université Laval Alérion 4.083

Table 1: Acceleration Event Results - BAJA SAE Illinois 2017

Parameter Value

High Gear Ratio 5.875:1 or less

Low Gear Ratio 22.14:1 or greater

Table 2: Overall gear ratios.


Project Timeline
September 20, 2017 - Report #1: Proposal report to the faculty
October 3, 2017 - Online Registration Opens
October 4, 2017 - Initial Design Review: Ideas/Knowledge Gaps
October 18, 2017 - Second Design Review: Ideas/Evidence/Experiments
November 1, 2017 - Final Design Review: Detailed Design/B.O.M./Order Placed
November 13, 2017 - Registration Deadline
November 15, 2017 - Prototyping Tests Setup and/or Executed
November 21, 2017 - **Tuesday** Prototyping Tests Tests Results Submitted
November 29, 2017 - Final Presentation of the Semester
January 19, 2018 - Frame Pre-Check Deadline
March 16, 2018 - Design Report Deadline
March 28, 2018 - Comprehensive Oral Presentations
April 4, 2018 - Fast Track Roster Affiliation Deadline
April 19-22, 2018 - Baja SAE Maryland Competition
April 25, 2018 - Final Presentations and Banquet


Collegiate , S. (2017, August). SAE BAJA RULES AND



Article 7

B.7.1Brake System

The vehicle must have a primary hydraulic braking system that acts on all wheels and is
operated by a single foot pedal. The pedal must directly actuate the master cylinder through a
rigid link (i.e., cables are not allowed). The brake system must be capable of locking and sliding
all wheels, both in a static condition as well as at-speed on pavement and on unpaved surfaces.

B.7.1.1Independent Circuits
The braking system must be segregated into at least two (2) independent hydraulic circuits such
that in case of a leak or failure at any point in one system, effective braking power shall be
maintained on at least two wheels. Each hydraulic circuit must have its own separate fluid
reservoir either through physically separate reservoirs or by the use of a full-height dam in an
OEM-style reservoir.
B.7.1.2Brake Location
The brake(s) on the driven axle must operate through the final drive. Inboard braking through
universal joints is permitted. Braking on a jackshaft through an intermediate reduction stage is
B.7.1.3Cutting Brakes
Hand or feet operated “cutting brakes” are permitted provided the section B.7.1 is also
satisfied. A primary brake system must be able to lock all four wheels with a single foot. If using
two separate pedals to lock two (2) wheels apiece; the pedals must be close enough to use one
foot to lock all four wheels.
Any and all brakes, when actuated, shall cause the brake light to illuminate.
B.7.1.4Brake Lines
All brake lines shall be securely mounted to the vehicle and not project below the vehicle frame
or suspension components.

All brake lines shall be routed and oriented such that they are not pinched by steering or
suspension parts, nor engaged with sharp edges.
All brake lines shall have full range of motion within the steering and suspension system.
At no time shall the brake lines be loaded in tension or become engaged with the vehicle’s tires
and wheels.
All brake lines shall be designed for the pressures expected in the braking system, and be
chemically compatible with the brake fluid in use.
No brake line may be constructed of plain, plastic tubing.
B.7.2.Throttle System
The vehicle’s throttle system shall be capable of fully actuating the throttle arm to full throttle
(100%) on the engine and return to idle (0% throttle) when released. The throttle shall remain
in the as-inspected condition for the duration of the event. Re-inspection is available by
appointment with Briggs and Stratton at the event site. “Throttle-by-wire” or other electronic
throttle controls are explicitly prohibited.
Only mechanical, pedal (foot) operated throttle controls are allowed. The throttle pedal shall
actuate a throttle cable.
Foot pedals shall be positioned to avoid entrapment of the driver’s foot when in any position.
Mechanical extensions such as thick pads or blocks may not be attached to the pedal or to the
driver’s feet. 63

B.7.2.2Pedal Stop
A substantial, mechanical, wide-open throttle stop must be mounted at the pedal. Body panels
or other flexible materials are explicitly prohibited.
B.7.2.3Throttle Cable
The throttle cable must be covered (sheathed or jacketed) from the forward mounting point in
the cockpit and the vehicle firewall.
Throttle cables may be of “bicycle style” construction where the cable operates only in tension.
Throttle cables may be of “aircraft style” construction where the cable is capable of push-pull
(tension-compression) operation.
B.7.2.4Fail Safe
All throttle controls shall be designed to return to the idle-stop in the event of a failure. The
throttle cable must be covered (sheathed) between its forward mounting point and the firewall
to prevent debris ingress.

B. Tables

Rank Car # School Team Best Time

1 37 Government College of Engrg Pune Team Nemesis Racing 3.804

2 1 Univ of Michigan - Ann Arbor Michigan Baja Racing 3.902

3 4 Cornell Univ BIG RED RACING 3.954

4 72 National Institute of Tech - Jalandhar Team Avishkar 3.969

5 90 Purdue Univ - W Lafayette Purdue Baja Racing 3.986

6 101 Sinhgad College of Engineering Team Kraftwagen 4.033

7 41 Pimpri Chinchwad College of Team Red Baron 4.034


8 75 McGill Univ McGill Baja Racing Team 4.054

9 6 Iowa State Univ Cyclone Racing 4.073

10 66 Université Laval Alérion 4.083

Table 1: Acceleration Event Results - BAJA SAE Illinois 2017

Parameter Value

High Gear Ratio 5.875:1 or less

Low Gear Ratio 22.14:1 or greater

Table 2: Overall gear ratios.

Calculating the Gear Ratios Required For Transmission [C1]:

Figure 2: Free body diagram used to calculate low gear.

Max acceleration = Max torque

Torque = [1/2 (M*R^2)]*Angular acceleration

● Solving for Angular acceleration


● M- mass of disk (wheel)

● R- Radius of disk (wheel)

● Since the mass and radius are constant Torque and acceleration have a positive
● Where the max torque is found so is the max acceleration Assuming a flat surface with
no extra load added.
● A CVT allows us to always be at the most efficient torque ratio for the situation

Master Cylinder Calculations [C2]

Bore = 3/4” diameter (d=.75” r=.375”)
.1831*pi=.575” in^2
This means a bore of ¾” has a bore area of .575 in^2 per 75 lbf (pedal force approximation).
Therefore, 75lbf/.575in^2=173psi
Area of pedal is 5.5”*4.5”= 24.75 in ^2
Total force applied=4,325 N.
This total braking force needed is 3,112 N to stop the vehicle. This master cylinder allows more than
enough pressure to be actuated to stop the vehicle.
F.O.S=(force applied)/(force required)=4,325 N/3,112 N=1.39

Braking Force Calculation [C3]

Eq.1 The braking force in Newtons converted from psi

r=radius of brake discs = 5.5 inches
R=radius of tires= 7.5 inches
u= coefficient of friction between pads and disc =.8
Aw= area of calipers= 8.92 in^2
Am= area of master cylinder bore = 24.5 in^2
Rp=pedal ratio (6:1)
f=pedal force (approx. 250 N)

Front Braking Force= 858 N

Rear Braking Force = 2254 N

D.Assembly Documents
Graph from Elbaz


[1]Shinde. “Literature Review on Fem Analysis Of Disc Brake System.” International Journal Of
Engineering And Computer Science, Apr. 2015.

[2] Updated: 05/12/2009 - by Karl Brauer, Editor in Chief. (2009, May 12). Brakes: Drum vs. Disc.
Retrieved October 29, 2017, from

[3] Table A.1 The Thermophysical Properties of Metals. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass
Transfer, Seventh Edition Binder Ready Version. (2011). Chichester: John Wiley and Sons.

[4] Gritt, P. (n.d.). SAE Brake System 101 [PDF].

[5]Po, “Polaris Parts List SAE Baja 2016.” Polaris Suppliers, Ann Arbor, 2016.
[6]Gillespie, Thomas D. “Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics”. Print.