1

GRAMMAR

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NOUN 1
Singular

Countable Noun
Plural Regular Irregular

><

Uncountable Noun
without a/an/ -s

a /an/the

Noun –s/ es

Note 1
a means/series/species – means .. a child – children a foot – feet a tooth – teeth a louse – lice a person – people a goose – geese a mouse – mice a man – men a woman – women on ox - oxen a fish - fish a carp – carp a cod – cod a salmon – salmon a deer – deer a sheep - sheep a crisis – crises a calf - calves a half - halves a knife - knives a leaf - leaves a life – lives a loaf - loaves -self - -selves a sheaf - sheaves a thesis – theses a diagnosis - diagnoses a hypothesis – hypotheses a parenthesis - parentheses an axis - axes an oasis - oases a phenomenon – phenomena a criterion - criteria a memorandum – memoranda a curriculum – curricula a bacterium - bacteria a syllabus – syllabi a cactus – cacti a fungus – fungi a stimulus – stimuli a radius – radii an appendix – appendices an index – indices a shelf - shelves a thief - thieves a wife - wives a wolf –wolves

Note 2: Twelve nouns ending in f or fe drop the f or fe and ad ves

But:
a hoof – hooves/hoofs a safe – safes a roof – roofs a handkerchief – handkerchiefs a cliff – cliffs a belief- beliefs

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NOUN 2: Compound Nouns
1. Normally the last word is made plural
boyfriends travel agents shop windows hitch-hikers traffic wardens river banks city streets corner shops street markets spring flowers November fogs church bells college libraries driving licenses

2. But when man and woman is prefixed both parts are made plural men drivers composed of noun + preposition + noun lookers-on runners-up sisters-in-law women drivers 3. The first word is made plural with compounds formed of verb + er or compounds

NOUN 3: Quantifiers
1. Many/several/various/numerous/diverse 2. A number of/numbers of 3. (A) few 4. Fewer/ the fewest >< >< >< >< Much An amount of/amounts of (A) little Less/ the least

NOUN 4: Numbers
1. a /two/three… hundred/thousand/million/billion/trillion + Noun 2. hundreds/thousands/millions/billions + OF + Noun 3. Compound adjectives A three-year-old boy A 16,000-page book 4. one/two/three percent (no –s) of Noun ; but a/the percentage of Noun

VERB

4 (1) Subject _ Verb Agreement (2) Tenses (3) Active Transitive V + Obj (4) Form a. After modal verb + Bare inf (can, could, may, might, shall, should, must, will, would, would rather, had better, have to, ought to, be to, be supposed to) V- ing ( active/ continuous tenses) b. After ‘be’ P. P (passive) c. After ‘have’ + P. P (perfect tenses) d. Gerund >< Infinitive e. Finite Verb >< Participle ( Present Participle >< Past participle) >< Passive V + No Object /Prepositional phrase (by, in, with…)

PARALLEL STRUCTURE
1. , 2. and 3. but 4. or 5. either …or 6. neither… nor 7. not only… but also 8. both … and 9. rather than 10. 11. whether … or as well as

PRONOUN

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1. Pronoun/Noun Agreement

they >< it/he/she/we their >< its/his/her/our them>< it/him/her/us themselves><itself/himself/herself/ourselves who/whom>< which that (of ) >< those (of) (plural)

2. Which type?
a. Subjective Pronouns (I/You/He/She/It/ We/You/They) Subject of a Verb After ‘Be’ Object of a Verb Object of a Preposition Before a Noun Before a Gerund: We are surprised by their nesting in such harsh
conditions

b. Objective Pronouns (me/you/him/her/it/us/you/them)

c. Possessive Adjectives (my/your/his/her/its/our/your/their)

d. Possessive Pronouns (mine/yours/his/hers/ours/yours/theirs) e. Reflexive Pro (myself/yourself/himself/herself/itself/ourselves/yourselves/themselves)

3. Wrong spelling ( hisself/ theirselves/ ourself/ themself) 4. The >< Possessive Adjective
Ex: His snake is a reptile. He devoted the life to science.

5. Double subject/object
Ex: Black Island in Long Island Sound it is surrounded by cold, dangerous waters.

6. Unnecessary relative pronoun >< Necessary relative pronoun
Ex: Certain types of turtles that may live as long as 100 years. The woman lives next door is too nosy.

WORD FORM

general . Modify verbs: b. Modify adjectives c.6 1.look/seem/appear/sound .basic .innate >< >< >< >< possibly probably usually innately Modify the whole sentence . Adverbs a.particular .possible . Modify adverbs: f.prove/find Ex: She looks angry.be/become . d. Ex: Ted seemed extremely curious about that topic.probable . After ‘be’ and other linking verbs . Ex: A rapidly changing situation / A brightly colored dress. Modify prepositions/ clause markers: soon after / immediately after/ long before/ e.taste/feel/smell .turn/get/grow/go (= become) . . Modify participles shortly before Ex: Ann eagerly accepted the challenge.usual . generally basically particularly originally Generally. Before nouns Ex: an important meeting b. Some adjectives end in –ly: friendly/costly/cowardly/lovely/lively/ lonely/likely/ugly/early/monthly/weekly/daily/hourly/nightly/year ly/quarterly/timely/scholarly/womanly/manly/motherly/fatherly/ kindly 2. Adjectives a. c.original >< >< >< >< Ex: Ex: The accident occurred incredibly quickly.stay/remain ( = continue to be) . I like my class .

7 3. hard (adj)  hard >< hardly d. Note a. good (adj)  well (adv) VERB Differ Invent Compete Fertilize Decide Prohibit Prevent Beautify Originate Emphasize Glorify Mystify Socialize Generalize Simplify Free Construct Live NOUN Difference Invention Competition Fertilizer/fertility Decision Prohibition Prevention Beauty Origin Emphasis Glory Mystery Society Generalization Simplicity Freedom Construction Life ADJECTIVE Different Inventive Competitive Fertile Decisive Prohibitive Preventive Beautiful Original Emphatic Glorious Mysterious Social General Simple Free Constructive Live/living VERB Restrict Cultivate Empower Analyze Familiarize Popularize Classify Categorize Absent Interest Bore Fascinate Produce Necessitate Collect NOUN Restriction Culture Agriculture Power Importance Significance Analysis Familiarity Popularity Classification category Absence Interest Boredom Fascination Production Necessity Collection ADJECTIVE Restrictive Cultural Agricultural Powerful Important Significant Analytical Familiar Popular Classifiable Categorical Absent Interesting Boring Fascinating Productive Necessary Collective FIELD Music Poetry Administration Photography Athletics Philosophy Creation Law PERSON Musician Poet Administrator Photographer Athlete Philosopher Creator Lawyer FIELD Surgery Architecture Farming Biology Theory Chemistry Politics Humor PERSON Surgeon Architect Farmer Biologist Theorist Chemist Politician Humorist FIELD Dentistry Engineering Finance Physics Science Invention Crime/criminology Mathematics PERSON Dentist Engineer Financier Physicist Scientist Inventor Criminal mathematician . long (adj)  long (adv) c. high (adj)  high >< highly (figurative meaning) e. fast (adj)  fast (adv) b. early (adj)  early (adv) f.

Wrong choice of MAKE or DO 1) MAKE an agreement/ an announcement/ an attempt/an effort/ a decision/a discovery/ an offer/a profit/ a promise/ advances in/ a comparison/ a contribution/ a distinction/ a forecast/ a law/ a point/ an investment/ a plan/ a prediction/ a sound/ noise/use of/ a choice/ a loan/an appointment 2) MAKE UP OF (= be composed of ). MAKE UP (= compose) 3) DO an assignment/the dishes/ the washing-up/the shopping/ the ironing/the cooking/a favor/homework/the laundry/ a paper//research/ .History Editing Magic Forecast Training Contest Discovery Historian Editor Magician Forecaster Trainer Contestant Discoverer Biography Writing Geography Hunting Dance Beauty Carpentry Biographer Writer Geographe r Hunter Dancer Beautician Carpenter Manufacture Acting Collection Employment Competition Labor 8 Manufacturer Actor/actress Collector Employee/er Competitor Laborer NOUN VERB ADJECTIVE NOUN Heat Light Brightness Thickness Richness Humidity Flatness/flat Height Darkness/dark White/whiteness Largeness VERB Heat Lighten Brighten Thicken Enrich Humidify Flatten Heighten Darken Whiten Enlarge ADJECTIVE Hot Light Bright/brilliant Thick Rich Humid Flat High Dark White Large Strength Strengthen Strong Hardness Harden Hard Softness Soften Soft Depth Deepen Deep Ripeness Ripen Ripe Solidity Solidify Solid Length Lengthen Long Shortness Shorten Short Weight Weigh Weighty/weightless Blackness Blacken Black Fat Fatten Fat Nouns: hearing/sight/smell/taste/touch Verbs: hear/see/smell/taste/touch WORD CHOICE 1.

o/sth (as) s. such. too 1) so + adjective/adverb + that Subject + Verb 2) so + many/few + Noun (c) that Subject + Verb + much/little + Noun (u) that Subject + Verb 3) so + adjective + a/an + Noun (c. B + Verb 2) A. like/unlike B. Wrong choice of so. + Verb 3) A is like/unlike B 4) A and B are alike 5) Like + Noun 6) As + Subject +Verb Ex: My results were much like Paul’s Ex: I did my experiment just as Paul did 7) As + Noun (=in the role of) 8) serve as/ function as/ use sth as/ be used as/ be thought of as/ be referred to as 9) regard/consider/name/choose/elect/select/designate/appoint/declare/ nominate/proclaim/announce s.9 a job/ one’s work/ business with/ justice to/ wrong/ a kindness/one’s duty/harm/one’s best/a service/damage/ wonder 2. singular) that Subject + Verb 4) such + (a/an) + Noun that Subject + Verb 5) too adjective + (for someone) + to do something 6) enough + noun +( for someone) to do something 7) adjective/adverb + enough + (for someone) to do something . Wrong choice of like/ alike/like or as 1) Like/Unlike A.o/sth 3.

and the other is not. Note: each other / one another from one … to another 6. any. Wrong choice of ANOTHER or OTHER Another Adjective another + Noun (singular) Other other + Noun (plural) Determiner (the. when/while or during Adverb clause markers + S+ V • • • because although/though/even though when/while/as Preposition + Noun/NP    because of/ due to/ on account of in spite of/ despite during 5. one.10 4. one is experienced. some. Wrong choice of because or because of. Pronoun another (an additional one) Ex: Give me another. no) + other + Noun (sing) the other/the others Ex: Of the two teachers. although or in spite of /despite. Other word form problems BE CAREFUL WITH THESE PAIRS OF WORDS 1) no + noun >< not … any 2) no longer >< not … any longer/any more . every.

11 3) most + Noun most of the Noun almost all of the Noun/ almost no + Noun/almost every + Noun the most +adj/adv (superlative) 4) almost + quantifier/adjective/adverb (Word Order) 5) twice (adjective) >< double (verb) Note: be twice as… as… 6) earliest >< soonest 7) one /two/three…percent of >< a /the percentage of 8) after >< afterward (adv = after that ) 9) ago >< before 10) tell so that >< say that/say to so that Note: tell a story/a lie/lies/the truth/ a secret 11)hardly ever >< never 12)hard/hardly 13)and/but/or 14)be alive >< live + Noun 15)old > < of age 16)near (=close to) >< nearly (=almost) 17)some + Noun >< somewhat + adjective 18)affect so/sth >< effect of sth on so/sth 19)already (adv) >< be all ready ( adjective) 20)among (3 or more) >< between ( 2) 21)and (conjunction) >< also (adverb) 22)beside (=next to) >< besides (= in addition) 23)costume (=clothing) >< custom (traditional practice) 24)farther/further (distance) >< further (= more) 25)formally (=officially) >< formerly (=previously) 26)hard >< hardly 27)imaginary (= not real/fictional) >< imaginative (=creative) 28)later >< latter 29)lay lie laid lay laid lain laying +Object (= put/place) lying (= be situated/located) .

Redundancy connect together repeat again join together proceed forward advance forward only unique new innovations reread again return back same identical sufficient enough separated away from incorrect mistake progress forward important significant carefully cautiously established founded protect guard original first rarely seldom transmit send out single only around approximately chief main such as for example necessary needed Inversion .12 lie lied lied lying (= not tell the truth) 30)loose (adj) >< lose (verb) 31)no>< not>< none 32)pass (verb) >< past (adj/noun/preposition) Note: pass = go/come past 33)quiet (adj) >< quite (adv) 34)raise + object/ be raised (passive) >< rise (without an object) 35)set + object (=put/place) >< sit (without an object) 36)thorough (adj) >< through (adv) 37)out >< out of +Noun 38)away>< away from + Noun 39)out/in (preposition) >< outer/inner (adjective) 40)listen to >< hear 41)lone/live/sleeping + noun >< be alone/ alive/asleep 7.

they smash everything too On no account must this switch be touched Only by shouting was he able to make himself heard. Only in an emergency should you use this exit.13 a) Inversion of the verb after certain adverbs Hardly ever Hardly … when In no circumstances Neither/nor Never No sooner… than Not only Nowhere On no account Only by/in/ at/once/recently Only in this way Rarely Seldom Scarcely ever Scarcely …when (So) + adj or participles (Such) + be + Noun Ex: I haven’t got a ticket. Only if you study hard can you pass the final exam. Rarely did this remedy fail So suspicious did he become that … So confusing was the map that we had to ask a police officer for directions. Such is the popularity of the place that the theater is likely to be full every night. . Never before had I been asked to accept a bribe. – Neither/Nor have I. Not only do they rob you. b) The subject and verb of the second clause ( not the first clause) are inverted when the following expressions occur at the beginning of a sentence Not until Only when Only if Only because Only until Only after Ex: Not until he got home did he realize that he had lost it.

etc. off. S + V Ex: d) Across the United States. on. hang. by verbs of motion. On a perch beside him sat a blue parrot Over the wall came a shower of stone. be etc.14 c) In written English adverb phrases introduced by preposition (down.). Note: Prepositional Phrase. lie sit. over. in. In front of the museum is a statue. In the door way stood a man with a gun. Ex: If I were in his shoes … If you should require anything… If he had known … = = = Were I in his shoes … Should you require anything … Had he known… Double Comparison . out of. stand. from. up . round.) can be followed by verbs indicating position (crouch. Off the coast of California lie the Channel Islands. the general movement of air masses is from west to east. If + Subject + auxiliary can be replaced in formal English by inversion of auxiliary and subject with if omitted. Ex: From the rafters hung strings of onions.

the more he improves. the better (not the best) Ex: The more he plays.a university/ a European/ a one-parent family/a union/a unicorn/ a unique character . >< Ex: possessive adjectives • the The Ozark Mountains of Arkansas are known for the rugged beauty Note: .15 The + comparative + S + (V).an hour/ an honest man/ an honor/ an heir/ an heiress/ an MP/ an FBI . the +comparative + S + (V) Note: the worse (not the worst). Incorrect Article Choice • • • Court a Ex: >< >< >< an without a/an (uncountable noun) the A eclipse of the sun may be either total or partial a/an a/an Ex: Rose Bird was a first woman in the history of California to serve on the State Supreme • a/an/the Ex: >< without a/an/the Slag consists of waste material and impurities which rise to top of melted metals. The most asteroids are beyond the orbit of the planet Mars. the less (not the least).

) (1) Clause marker 2. in that. . as long as. additionally however. by the time. in addition. despite the fact that. likewise. in contrast. likewise for example. in spite of the fact that. whereas. in case d. Conditions: if. because. until. S + V + (Object) Conjunctions: . Time: after . for. moreover. once. Clause marker (a) S+ V(f) (b) Present P (c) Past P (d) Adjective . S+V Common clause markers: a. Concessions/Contrast: although. provided. as a result. so … that. before. yet. on the other hand. (2) Conjunction (3) conjunctive adverbs S + V + (Object) . such… that e. since. while. accordingly. Place: wherever g. Results: so that. nevertheless. now that. meanwhile similarly. in spite this therefore. - and. though. even if. since. consequently otherwise then. so. as though f. even if. even though. only if. or besides. unless (. as. except that/however c. but. for instance of Conjunctive advs - .16 1. while. when. whenever b. Reason: as. correspondingly. as soon as. Manner: as if.

17 ARTICLES A/AN 1. inventions. musical instruments. To introduce a subject that has not mentioned before Ex: I saw a tiger. Before a singular noun representative of a class of things ( usually names of animals. and parts of the body) Ex: The tiger is the largest cat The heart pumps blood The Wright brothers invented the airplane. Before singular countable nouns Ex: Australia is a continent 2. 3. With names of professions Ex: He is an engineer. . plants. a/one half a/one third a/one quarter fifty miles an/per hour ten kilometers an/per hour $10 a/per day THE 1. Please open the door. She is a doctor. With certain expressions the morning/afternoon/evening the past/present/future the front/back/center/top/bottom the beginning/middle/end the north/south/east/west 3. Only one example of the thing/person or the identity of the person or thing is clear Ex: The moon is full today. With certain expressions a dozen a couple a/one hundred/thousand/million a great many a great deal a lot of 4. 2. She plays the guitar.

.) 10.(general) The trees in this park are mostly evergreens. (general) 9.. Before a specific noun not much paper a few pictures the fifties the 1800s the sixties the twentieth century (But: Gate Three) The seventh volume (But: Volume Seven) . The coffee I had this morning was Brazilian (specific) Coffee originated in Ethiopia... Before decades and centuries Ex: the 1930s the twenty-first century 6. (general) The rice that I bought today is in the bag. (specific) Rice is a staple in many countries. Before ordinal number (Note: No article is used before expressions with cardinal numbers. (specific) Trees provide shade. Note: No article is used before the name of a language Ex: Ex: Ex: She learned to speak Vietnamese when she lived in Hanoi. Before superlative adjectives Ex: The biggest island on earth is Greenland. The + adjective (= people who are. The rich should help the poor. 7. Quantifier + of + the + noun Many/ some/all/much/most/a few/all/. Before a group of people or a nationality Ex: The Vietnamese are very hardworking The Swedish are proud of their ancestors. the Vikings.18 4.) Ex: The First World War (But: World War One) The second chapter (But: Chapter Two) The third gate 5. of the + Noun Note: These expressions can also be used without the phrase of the Ex: Many books Some water 8.

I major in literature I study American history. universities. plural names of islands g. and schools that contain the word "of" or before countries that have a plural name or an adjective in the name. plural names of lakes Ex: The Titanic The Orient Express The Browns Ex: Ex: Ex: Ex: Ex: Ex: Ex: The pacific Ocean The Black Sea The Gulf of Mexico The Nile The Appalachian Mountains (But: Mount Everest) The Hawaiian Islands (But: Manhattan Island) The Great Lakes (But: Lake Michigan) 14. Before a. planes. gulfs d.19 11. cities. seas c. The + subject + of NP Subject (used alone) --> no article Adjective + Subject --> no article Ex: But: The literature of the twentieth century The history of The United States. rivers e. plural names of mountains f. oceans: b. 12. Before names of countries. Before the names of ships. colleges. except for Great Britain Ex: The United States of America The Socialist Republic of Vietnam (but: Vietnam) The State of Florida (But: Florida) The city of Boston ( But: Boston) The University of Texas ( But: Boston University) The Netherlands/ The Philippines 13. states. trains and people's family names .

VERB + V-ING admit appreciate avoid complete consider delay deny discuss dislike enjoy finish can’t help keep mention mind postpone practice quit recall recollect resent resist risk stop suggest miss tolerate involve understand include Ex: I dislike driving long distances I can’t help worrying about it. II. VERB + TO INF afford agree appear arrange ask attempt beg care consent decide desire deserve expect fail forget hesitate hope learn manage mean need offer plan prepare pretend promise refuse seem struggle swear threaten want wish try intend Ex: Tom wants to become a doctor. David promised not to be late again. I warn you not to drive so fast. Note: advise/allow/encourage/permit/recommend (1) + object + to inf (2) + V-ing Ex: He doesn’t allow smoking in his house He doesn’t allow anyone to smoke in his house Nobody is allowed to smoke in his house III. Would you mind not smoking in this class? . Susan pretended to sleep.20 GERUND AND INFINITIVE I. VERB + OBJECT + TO INFINITIVE advise allow ask beg cause challenge convince dare encourage expect forbid force hire instruct invite order permit persuade remind require teach tell urge want warn invite recommend enable lead motivate use Ex: They begged us to come.

I am looking forward to going back to school. 2. It is very dangerous to drive in this weather. We are ready to leave now. VI. Ex: He is busy doing his homework. ADJECTIVE + PREPOSITION + V-ING afraid of interested in capable of successful in tired of be/get accustomed to fond of be/get used to Ex: She is afraid of getting married now. The book is worth reading. VERB + PREPOSITION + V-ING succeed in count on keep on think about think of depend on put off dream about look forward to object to confess to devote to dedicate to commit to approve of give up rely on insist on Ex: John gave up smoking three years ago. Note: be busy/worth + V-ing. PREPOSITION + V-ING 1.21 IV. VERB + V-ING/ TO INFINITIVE begin start continue can’t stand hate love prefer like Ex: It began to rain/ raining Note: would like/love/prefer + to infinitive Ex: I would like to play tennis today. To gets used to getting up early. ADJECTIVE / PARTICIPLE+ TO INFINITIVE anxious eager usual easy difficult hard dangerous ready willing able pleased prepared boring interesting … Ex: Tom is anxious to see his family. V. .

(= Don’t forget to post the letter) REMEMBER + V-ING: You remember doing something after you do it Ex: I clearly remember locking the door before I left. TO INFINITIVE can be used after the first. The television needs fixing/to be fixed. GO + V-ING GO boating bowling camping canoeing dancing fishing hiking hunting jogging climbing running sailing shopping sightseeing skating skiing swimming Ex: My sister went sailing yesterday 8. the last. He is the second man to be killed in this way. 7.) He stopped to smoke (He stopped doing something in order to smoke) 2. (I had my car repaired by the mechanic My parents do not let me go out late at night. REMEMBER REMEMBER + TO INF: You remember to do something before you do it Ex: Please remember to post the letter. STOP He stopped smoking (He gave up smoking. the only and sometimes after superlatives. VERBS OF PERCEPTION + V-ING/ BARE INFINITIVE see notice watch look at observe hear listen to smell feel Ex: I saw my friend running/run down the street. MAKE/LET/HAVE + OBJECT + BARE INFINITIVE Ex: Sad movies always make me cry. 3. She is always the first to come and the last to leave. 4. he is not going to smoke any more.22 VII. . the second…. TRY TRY + TO INF: make an effort to do something Ex: I was very tire. Ex: She loves parties. 6. My friend needed to learn Spanish NEED + V-ING = NEED + TO BE DONE (PASSIVE) Ex: The grass needs cutting/ to be cut. SPECIAL CASES 1. but I couldn’t. I had the mechanic repair my car. I tried to keep my eyes open. NEED NEED + TO INF (ACTIVE) Ex: John needs to paint the door. I tried taking an aspirin. 5. but it did not help. TRY + V-ING: do something as an experiment or test Ex: I’ve got a terrible headache.

catch/find/leave + Object spend/ waste + Time have fun/ a good time have trouble/difficulty have a hard time/ difficult time + + + + + V-ing V-ing V-ing V-ing V-ing . Ex: He made an effort to stand up. 10. TO INFINITIVE can be used after certain nouns ability ambition anxiety attempt decision demand desire determination eagerness effort failure offer plan promise refusal request scheme willingness wish readiness Ex: His ability to get on with people is his chief asset.23 9.

accuracy. carpentry. . accomplishment. –dom 11. passage. depth. neighborhood. scholarship. greenery. ancestry. machinery. picture. likelihood. plenty. –ure : closure. –ism : baptism. heroism. concoction. kindheartedness : excision. enhancement. freedom. –ment : importance. livelihood 12. dependence. –ship : ambassadorship. authority. ornament. health. failure. membership. patriotism. organism. treatment 6. wealth. vexation. –ion 5. embodiment. biography . conceitedness. damage. brotherhood. wisdom : childhood. 8. courtship 9. relationship. legislature. luggage. cartage. hardness. dubiety. fellowship. subsistence : bitterness. death. –(i)ty 7. cruelty. craftsmanship. treasure 13. nature. dotage. brewery. hardship. subtlety : baggage. –th 10. privacy. vicarage. criticism. theology. : abridgement. geology. –cy : bankruptcy. bakery. tonnage. –age : purity. marriage. sisterhood. –hood : bath. tillage. completion. citizenship. sufficiency. captaincy. birth. horsemanship. –nce 3. –ness 4. a notion. village. fragment. resistance. stealth. advocacy. alcoholism. pleasure. majority. expectancy. professorship. aristocracy. piracy. damnation. presidency. breadth. scenery. slavery. darkness. efficiency. oath. scripture. companionship. filth.24 WORD ENDINGS A. democracy. headship. kingdom. officialdom. –graphy : bibliography. superiority. deficiency 14. chairmanship. an action. parallelism 2. sociology. confederacy. : earldom. truth. significance. COMMON NOUN (THING) ENDINGS 1. length. falsehood. barbarism. faculty. commencement. hermitage. bravery. –(t)ry: rivalry. obstinacy. humidity. safety. garment. entrepreneurship. homage language. strength. arrogance. suggestion. dwarfism. archery 15. carriage. delicacy. honesty. growth. industry. –logy : archaeology. zoology 16. excitement. friendship. pollution. banishment.

optimist. necessary 13. accountant. devotee. classic. – ish: boorish. Marxist. ardent 2. mortician. – or : actor. physician. terrible Exceptions : rival. absentee. bluish. tireless. separable. – ent : independent. – ive 7. northerner. comfortable. talkative.25 B. 14. Exceptions: handful. – ible : arrogant. haughty. figurative. horrible. mathematician. contrary. cowardly. important. historic. arrival. absent. creator. brilliant. primary. Londoner. boyish. active. economic. tropical. ambivalent. imitative. ignorant. milky. visitor. – ist 5. – ous 8. geographer. temporary. slippery. expectant. politician. inhabitant C. musician. ferocious. legless. passive. powerful. – ic 5. sufficient. – less 6. governor. artistic. survival are nouns 10. immediate. reliable. accurate. monitor. villager. ancient. predatory. tidy. territory are nouns 12. womanish. fearless. – er 3. old-timer. – ant (10%) : assistant. chilly. – able 9. : audible. conferee. sorcerer : employee. – ee 4. foolish. pianist. dentist. withdrawal. forgetful. tobacconist. reddish . edible. promontory. : doubtless. – ory : mandatory. conqueror. rascally 15. successor. payee. grateful. significant . astrologer. solicitor. idealist. careless. hatless. abundant. economist. qualitative. airliner. proposal. mouthful. racist. : charitable. – ant 3. satisfactory Exceptions : dormitory. – al : central. apparent. cottager. viscous. mournful. glorious. happy. compressible. 6. sculptor. donor. comparative. consultant. doctor. pessimist : magician. hilarious. – y : angry. tailor. – ary : arbitrary. geologist. electrician. contestant. escapee. compulsory. faceless. considerate. statistician. tidal 11. – (r)ate (10%): temperate. – ly : beastly. messy. – ician : hatter. guarantor. demonstrative. icy. COMMON NOUN (PERSON) ENDINGS 1. New Yorker. possessive : dangerous. Darwinist. bearable. dramatist. powerless. foreigner. colossal. budgetary. refugee. general. literate 16. spoonful are nouns : civic. : beautiful. : chemist. ADJECTIVE ENDINGS 1. queenly. suitable. – ful 4. bachelor 2. countless. feverish. bookish. murderous. oral. beautician. Buddhist. helpless : authoritative. graceful.

truly. felicitate. enlighten. sideways : backward. enlarge. happily. homeward. sympathize. entrust. deepen. hourly. theorize. fossilize. skyward. agonize. – wise 3. onward. soften. separate. fully. associate. oxidize 4. idolize. authorize. Americanize. fascinate. petrify. greatly. fertilize. deservedly. firstly. inward. evacuate : characterize. endways. enable. shorten. ripen. entangle. – ify : pacify. COMMON ADVERB ENDING 1. lengthways. COMMON VERB ENDINGS 1. apologize. vaccinate. moralize. extemporize. horrify E. strengthen. lengthen. – en/ en – : listen. clockwise : edgeways.26 D. enrich 2. otherwise. hydrate. secondly 2. enslave. widen. – ate 3. carbonize. eastward . solidify. – ward : crosswise. satisfy. jeopardize. – ways 4. lengthwise. – ly : amusingly. – ize : assassinate. happen. firstly. encourage.

BASIC SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT 1. B. Singular Subject + Singular Verb 2. Either or + Subject 1 + + Subject 2 + Verb nor 3. Subject 1 + Ex: One of my friends is here. Sing Subject 1 and Sing Subject 2 + Plural Verb Ex: The actor and the singer are coming. Ex: Neither Neither John nor his friends are going to the beach . Jean and David are coming back to Australia. Growing flowers is her hobby. My friends live in Boston. Ex: Meat pie and peas is Tom’s favorite at the moment Fish and chips is my favorite food of in addition to with together with + Subject 2 + Verb along with as well as no less than like/ unlike 2. Plural Subject + Plural Verb Ex: My friend lives in Boston. phrases connected by and can be followed by singular verbs if we think of them as making up a single item. SPECIAL CASES 1. You together with Tom are responsible for this failure. Note: However.27 SUBJECT – VERB AGREEMENT A.

There + be + Noun Ex: There is a book on the shelf There are three books on the shelf 5. 6. Note: Each boy and each girl is to do this exercise. Everyone Everybody Everything Someone Somebody Something Anyone Anybody Anything No one Nobody Nothing + Singular Verb Ex: Everyone has his or her own idea. Every Each Either Neither Ex: Noun (singular) + of the Noun (plural) + Singular Verb Each boy/ each of the boys has a gift. 7.28 4. There/ Here + Verb + Noun Ex: Here comes the Queen. Here lie many unknown soldiers. .

(the team as a group) The team are going back to their homes. A/the majority of A number of A lot of + Plenty of Some of None of Half of No Ex: 29 Plural Noun + Plural Verb A number of refugees have been turned back at the border. company crowd department electorate enemy family firm generation government group jury orchestra population press public school staff team university faculty choir gang couple cabinet Singular Verb ( if they are referred to as a group) 9. The number of + Plural Noun + Singular Verb Ex: The number of books in the library has risen to over five million. None of the answers are correct. Plenty of potatoes are grown here.8. (meaning individual members of the team) . a. Any of None of The majority of A lot of Plenty of All (of) Some (of) + Uncountable Noun + Singular Verb Ex: council association audience class club college committee community All the furniture was destroyed in the fire. Plural Verb ( if they are seen as a collection of individual) Ex: The team is winning. c. b.

+ Singular Verb Ex: 13. plays. Gulliver’s Travels is a well-known children’s book. The news is alarming. money or measurement always take a singular verb Ex: Five minutes is not enough to do this exercise. always take a singular verb Ex: The Los Angeles Times is on the desk. 14. 15. The pants are in the drawer.. Thirty-five dollars is too much for this shirt.30 belongings clothes congratulations earnings goods outskirts particulars premises Ex: riches glasses savings pliers stairs pants surroundings + Plural Verb thanks scissors shorts jeans 10. news physics politics mumps economics measles statistics mathematics physics phonetics rabies diabetes gymnastics athletics linguistics 12. The titles of books. etc. . movies. Nouns stating an amount of time. police people cattle poultry Ex: + Plural Verb The police are looking for the missing child. Physics is difficult. The + Ex: Adjective + Plural Verb The poor need help. Four -hundred miles is too much to drive in one day. (A pair of pants is in the drawer) 11.

.31 16. Uncountable Noun + baggage garbage mail clothing hardware makeup coffee blood bread silver air chalk dirt confidence health justice peace violence information energy swimming soccer dew rain light Singular Verb equipment jewelry money tea butter glass oxygen corn salt courage help knowledge pride wealth … news homework traveling tennis fog sleet sunshine food junk cash milk cheese paper nitrogen dust sand education honesty laughter progress evidence work working chess hail snow electricity heat thunder fire humidity wind gravity fruit luggage change oil meat wood smoke grass flour enjoyment hospitality music recreation proof grammar furniture machinery postage soup gold wool pollution hair wheat fun importance luck sleep time slang Fluids Solids Gases Particles Abstraction water gasoline ice iron steam rice pepper beauty happiness intelligence patience truth advice space vocabulary Activities driving baseball Natural phenomena weather lightning darkness Ex: Smoking is harmful to your health.

in the nineties) year (in 2007) season ( in the summer) month ( in July) parts of the day ( in the morning. On • • date (on September 11) day (on Monday. In • • • • • • • century ( in the twenty-first century) decade ( in the 1970s. During During is used with periods of time • • It snows a lot in Montreal during the winter His company grew rapidly during the 1980s During is NOT used with dates or days of the week. in the afternoon. PREPOSITIONS OF TIME A. From ….32 PREPOSITIONS 1. in the evening) the past/ future amounts of time ( in/within an hour) • B. on Sunday morning) C. E. To/until and between … and These phrases are used with starting points and ending points . At • time of day (at 9:20) • night/ midnight/ noon /dawn/dusk/sunrise/sunset/the moment/the same time/present/ first/last D. Until Until is used with points of time to indicate that an action continues up to that point • • Helen practiced the piano until noon They won’t arrive until tomorrow F.

On • • • • earth (the origin of life on Earth) street ( on Wall Street) coast ( on the East Coast) floor ( on the second floor) C. Nolan was in charge of the sales division.33 • • From 1990 to/until 1993. In • the world continent (in Asia) country ( in China) state/province (in California. Between 1990 and 1993. Mr. Nolan was in charge of the sales division. Since/ For Since and for are generally used with a perfect tense • • • We've been waiting here since two o'clock. PREPOSITIONS OF PLACE A. We had been talking for a good half hour. The factory has been here since the 1970s. From … to and between … and • • They're building a new road between Manchester and Sheffield. in Ontario) in city ( in Munich) building (in the Empire State Building) room (in the living room) • • • • • • B. They're building a new road from Manchester to Sheffield. . G. Mr. 2. At • • • address (at 634 Sutter Street) building (at the museum) home/school/college/work D.

front of (He walked along in front of me. OTHER COMMON PREPOSITION COMBINATIONS A.) a trip (We were all going on a trip. on a plane) foot (It takes about 30 minutes on foot.) trouble (I think I'm in trouble with Dad.) danger of (The bridge was in danger of collapsing.) the rear (a passenger traveling in the rear of a car) line (The kids were standing in line waiting for their teacher.) the middle of (Jo was standing in the middle of the room.) B.34 3. on a train. On • • • • • a vehicle ( on a bus.) .) part (The failure of the project was due in part to his lack of leadership.) the process of (The company is in the process of moving to new offices.) the back of (Two men were sitting in the back of the car. In • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • clothes ( in a gray suit) language ( written in Vietnamese) book ( in the Complete Guide to TOEIC) newspaper ( in the International Herald-Tribune) magazine ( in Times) department ( in the sales department) field ( in computer science) one’s opinion (in her opinion) a car / a taxi (I've left my bag in the car.) business (She's in New York this week on business) holiday (I'm away on holiday until the 1st of June. holding the lantern. or 10 minutes by car.

) time (Jack was worried about whether he'd be able to get there on time. By is used with means of transportation and communication by car/plane/e-mail Note: in a/my car. BY  • • • • I will be home by noon. This report was written by Peter.) purpose (Fire investigators believe the fire was set on purpose.) a farm (Joe had worked on the farm all his life. With is also used to indicate the tool or instrument used to complete something He opened the door with his key. but on the other hand I want to save money.) • • the other hand (I'd like to eat out. means “no later than”. With With is used to express the idea of accompaniment or ownership • • • • I went to the restaurant with Andrea. By can mean “next to” She is standing by her friend.) (the) television/radio (Later that evening we watched it all on television again. in this case. The man with the briefcase is the vice-president.) C.35 • • • • • • • sale (These gloves were on sale for only $9. By is used after passive verbs to identify the agent of the action.) the phone (Bridget's on the phone all day long. By. on a plane Other By chance/ hand/ far/check/credit card/ means of By is used before a point of time to indicate the latest time.) the market (Handguns are freely available on the open market) schedule (The majority of holiday flights depart and arrive on schedule. D. He paid for the bill with a credit car .

the army opened fire. Don't go out without your coat. Within the space of a year. Within can mean “less than a certain distance from a particular place” • • • The invading troops came within 50 miles of Paris. . Private security firms have to work strictly within the law. Within Within can mean “during a particular period of time” • • • • We should have the test results back within 24 hours. He left without saying goodbye. We live within easy reach of (=close to) the shops. He found the place without difficulty.36 E. F. three of the town's factories have closed down. She spoke without much enthusiasm. Without Without means “ not having. You can't make an omelet without breaking eggs. Don't go without me. He had gone out without his parents' permission. The rest of the group set off without him. Adjust the driver's seat so that all the controls are within reach (=close enough to touch) Within can also mean “ inside the range or limits of something” • • • • We have to operate within a very tight budget. I don't know what I'd do without you. He fell sick and died within a matter of weeks. Within an hour of our arrival. “not in the company of someone” or “not doing the action mentioned” • • • • • • • • • • • They had gone two days without food. You can go anywhere you want within reason (=within reasonable limits) He finds it hard to live within his income. experiencing or showing something”. Suddenly and without any warning. Caroline was starting to complain.

37 G. The town centre had changed beyond all recognition. level. Expensive luxuries that are beyond the reach of ordinary people Beyond can be used to say that “something is impossible to do” • • • • Scott's equipment was damaged beyond repair. Such tasks are far beyond the scope of the average school kid. Inflation has risen beyond the 5% level. Due to circumstances beyond our control the performance has had to be cancelled. or limit” • • • • More people are choosing to work beyond retirement age. Beyond Beyond can mean “more or greater than a particular amount. Why Joan ever married such an idiot in the first place is beyond me. READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES .

38 READING STRATEGIES OVERVIEW QUESTIONS The most common overview question asks about the purpose or main topic of the passage. 1.  What does this article/the memo mainly discuss?  What is this form?  What is the purpose of this letter/announcement/notice…?  Why was this notice/letter written?  In what business is the writer of the passage?  What kind of business is Mr. ________ probably in?  Who issued/wrote this notice?  What is the author’s opinion of ______?  Who were these instructions written for?  Who would be most interested in the information in this announcement?  For whom is this advertisement/notice intended? Don’t answer the initial overview questions until you have answered the other questions . Other overview questions ask about the writer of the passage or the reader of the passage.

Negative Questions contain the words NOT. (You may have to read the sentence preceding or following that sentence as well. too general b. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------. --------------------------------. EXCEPT. ---------------------------------------------------------. word family) Carefully read the sentence in which the key words occur.A----------------------.. Skim (read very quickly) the rest of the passage for the key words that will confirm the topic and main idea. irrelevant (not mentioned) II.questions.39 Usually focus on the title and the first sentence(s) of each paragraph for the topic and main idea. incorrect d. DETAIL QUESTIONS 1. A ------------------------------------Initial position ---> usually read the previous sentence and find the noun that the referent replaces 2. also focus on the last sentence for the conclusion and a possible restatement of the topic and main idea. .” 2.) Choose the correct answer III. Information/Factual Questions often begin with the phrases “According to the passage/the author..A. or LEAST Focus on one or two key words in the question Scan the passage looking for the key words or related words (synonyms. wh. too specific (detailed) c. Read the answer choices and eliminate the distractors which may have one of these characteristics: a.. REFERENCE QUESTIONS 1.

still .for example. So. except that . VOCABULARY IN CONTEXT 1. Look for contrast . yet. Others ----> Look for Some/Many + Noun 6. Look for examples . read the previous sentence or phrase and summarize it.rather than. such as 3. Another ---> Look for One + Noun 5. even though. while. 2. The former/the later/ respectively IV. Focus on the general context and see if context clues in the sentence or in the sentences before or after can help you guess the meaning . for instance.not . in spite of this . though.but. on the other hand. instead of 4. even if. in spite of the fact that.although. in contrast. 4. Look for synonyms in the passage because the author may avoid repeating the same word.40 Middle/Final Position ---> usually read the whole sentence in which the referent occurs 3. despite the fact that. nevertheless. whereas. This/ That usually refer to the whole previous sentence or phrase.however.

suggest. LISTENING STRATEGIES . INFERENCE QUESTIONS Inference Questions usually include such words as “infer.. probably. or likely” or such phrases as “Why … mention?” “What …. relate the information in the answer choice to a synonym or paraphrase of information in the passage. imply.. is probably true?” and “ What ….Literal Meaning >< Figurative meaning Example: * He grasped my hand firmly * I don’t think you have quite grasped the seriousness of the situation.41 . understand what the question is asking and know where to find the answer passage 2. guess. all. and 3.probably do?” Answer choices to inference questions require students to 1. determine what is true and not true in the answer choices in the • Note: Answer choices that contain such words as always. and only are usually NOT correct. never. V. to do next?” “Which of these ….

If you are previewing a photograph that involves a person or people.42 PART 1: Strategies for sentences about photographs 1. a purse. If you are previewing a photograph of an object. Don’t wait for the statement that says. a pair of glasses. “Now look at photograph number ______” 2. Always complete each item as quickly as possible so that you can preview the photograph for the next item. ask yourself these questions What is it? What is it made of? What is it used for? . a tie or anything else that differentiates the people?)  What do the people’s expressions tell you? (Do they look happy? Unhappy? Excited? Bored? Upset?) 3. ask yourself these questions  What are the people doing?  Where are they?  Who are they? (Is there a uniform or a piece of equipment or anything else that indicates their profession or role?)  What distinguishes them? (Is there a hat. a mustache.

at… Last Wednesday. If you change your mind and hear a sentence that you think is better. stop looking at and thinking about the photograph and move on to the next item. Try to eliminate choices with problems in Sound Meaning Sound & Meaning 7. I If you are previewing a photograph of a scene.43 Where is it? 4. year)/ this morning… at + time/ tomorrow/next/ in …/ this afternoon/ on (date) for/since/ over …. At two o’clock sharp. In 1953. Don’t mark an answer until you have heard all four choices. perhaps. Never leave any blanks. rest your pencil on that oval on your answer sheet. move your pencil to that choice. Once you have heard all four sentences. On March 3. (This technique helps you remember which choice you think is best. For another hour. When you hear a choice that you think is correct. ask yourself these questions Where is it? What is in the foreground (the front of the picture)? What – if anything – is happening? What is in the background (the distant part of the picture)? 5. due / be… V-ing/ can How long What time When did Christopher arrive? When will the advertising seminar begin? When is Maria’s birthday? When was Mr. Gustavson predict the construction of the building will be finished? How long will this session last? - Words you might hear in the answers yesterday/ last/ ago/ in (month. Chen born? When will my laundry be ready? When does Mr. 8. - - - . As soon as you have finished marking the answer. PART II: Strategies for Questions/Responses 1. When will/ is/ is …expected. Always guess before going on to the next item. mark the oval that your pencil is resting on. Identifying time Words you might hear in the questions When did …. In about a month.) 6. In about two hours.

. Possessive case (It’s + name’s) Ms. I was wondering where I left it! It’s Fran’s. about 20 percent. an action or idea Words you might hear in the questions What …? What kind/type of What do you think I should wear to the party What is the fine for overdue books? What was that loud noise I just heard? What kind of work does Ms. She’s a computer programmer. I can do it when I’ve finished typing this letter. Identifying people Words you might hear in the questions Who Whose Who will go with you on the business trip? Who’s the new chef at the Fontaine’s bakery? Who did Mrs. I think it’s called All Points Travel. Optimistically speaking. Over 1000 units a week. I was planning to. - - 3. Work for my father. 2. Preston A man who worked at the Central Pastry Shop. I prefer adventure stories. It’s ten cents a day. A young intern from the marketing department was chosen.44 How long has the photocopying machine been out of order? What time does your flight leave? What time is the news on television? - Since 10:00 this morning. Identifying a thing. Garcia do? What kind of novel do you like? What’s the name of the travel agency this company uses? What are your total production figures for this factory? What do you plan to do when school is finished? What do you estimate your firm’s profit will be in December? Words you might hear in the answers  Something (…)  I don’t know - - - A suit and a tie. At 7:30. I don’t know. It’s on at 11. Wantanabe for me? Who’s going to pick him up at the station? Whose coffee cup is this on my desk? Whose scarf is this? - Words you might hear in the answers Name/ Occupation title A man/woman … who …. Martelli pick to fill the position? Who can deliver this memo to Mr.

I think. It’s terrific. but my husband didn’t.? Words you might hear in the answers  Adjectives: great/ good/ terrific/ excellent / wonderful/ happy/ busy/ terrible/ boring…  Verbs: love/like/enjoy/prefer/believe/  Expressions: It’s a good/great idea - How did you like that new movie? What do you think of Scott Graham’s latest novel? What do you think of your new supervisor? - I enjoyed it. Either one is fine with me. Neither one. she has been doing a lot of paintings. A or B? ….Lately. come with me please. In the morning.? What do you think of ….45 4. prefer? … like better? Words you might hear in the answers  A/B will be repeated in the answer choice  Neither one/Both. please  Either one - Which does that artist produce more of – paintings or sculptures? Will you arrive in the morning or the evening? Do you want milk or sugar in your coffee? Should I wait here at the counter or follow you back to the warehouse? What do you think. . It’s scheduled for this building. Oh. I don’t know her well enough to say. Identifying a choice Words you might hear in the questions …. Identifying an opinion Words you might hear in the questions How What’s your opinion of …? Do you think Tom will …. 5. plain or patterned carpet in the waiting room? Will the conference be held here or at the Note: The speaker can offer a third option .

I’ve already made plans/ I have other plans. I’ll have them ready for you in a minute. but ……( turn down the offer) We’d love to – thanks! - Would you like to join us for a game of tennis? Would you like to order a calendar for next year? Shall we send you a reminder for your next dental appointment? Why don’t we go out this evening? Why don’t we take the earlier train home? How about a movie when we finish up here? Would you mind opening you bag so I can inspect it.? Shouldn’t we/ Shall we …? Would/Wouldn’t you like me to …. sir? Don’t you want to go to the reception for Miss Gunther? I was wondering if you’d like to join us for dinner this evening? Couldn’t you stop at the post office today? What about visiting the flower show over the weekend? - . . request Words you might hear in the questions Why don’t we …? Why don’t you…? Don’t you want to. I’ve already made plans . that would be helpful.? Can I…? Couldn’t you …?           Words you might hear in the answers OK I’d love to! Of course Sure That sounds like fun/ That’s a good idea/ Great. Chan to do it? - I think it looks good where it is.Great. I’ll take it. . but I’m not feeling well. Let’s …. or should I ask Mr.Thanks.? I was wondering if you’d like to …. … Yes. please (accept the offer) No. . . What/How about ….. .Yes. Identifying an invitation.Sorry.Sorry. offer. I have other plans. …( turn down the offer) Sorry.Not at all . (turn down the offer) Thank you. thanks ….46 headquarters? Should they move the file cabinet to the right or over by the copy machine? Shall I put this file on your desk or back in the filing cabinet? Can you locate the files on the merger.Sorry. but …( turn down the offer) Sorry.I might have time after lunch. . I’m exhausted. 6.That’s a good idea. . but I already have one .Wednesday afternoon would be better for me.

Identifying manner or a method Words you might hear in the questions How will/can.I couldn’t find a phone. - Why is this train running late? Why didn’t you let us know you’d be late? Why did the board of directors change its policy? Why did the meeting begin so early? Why didn’t Mr.There’s a problem with the shipment. Danforth bring the situation to the attention of his supervisor? Why didn’t you get to work on time? Why does Ms.? - Words you might hear in the answers By ( a means of transport …) . 8. Identifying a description Words you might hear in the questions What is … like? What does …. .Everyone was in a hurry.He though he could handle it himself .. . .The traffic was terrible.I think there are mechanical problems. Ortiz want to see the invoices? .There had been too many complaints. . Identifying a reason Words you might hear in the questions Why Words you might hear in the answers  To do sth  Because/ Because of Note: An implied reason ( usually a certain problem) can be given .47 7.look like? What are your new co-workers like? What’s the weather like here in the winter? - Words you might hear in the answers an adjective or adjectives They seem very pleasant It’s cool and often rainy - 9.

Garcia’s mailbox. Mike showed him everything works. Yes/No Questions & Tag Questions Words you might hear in the answers Yes /No/ Not Yes. it was quite a surprise. At the Grand Hotel.48 With … I’ll get my car back from the mechanic. Yes. he had an appointment. It’s about 10-minute walk. - - . McKay in the stockroom. - How far …? Where should we meet so we can all go to the game together? Where are you staying ion Paris? Where did Maria leave the Oceanview contract? How far would you say Conrad Park is from here? - - - 11. Identifying a location Words you might hear in the questions Where…? - Words you might hear in the answers Names of the places Prepositions of places (in/ next to/ near/ beside/ under/ over/ on/ on top of/ at/ from/ behind/ right/ left/ downtown / at the end of… … minutes away/ walk/drive … km Let’s meet at the stadium entrance. it’s here. Contact Ms.? Don’t/ Doesn’t/ Didn’t …? Have they delivered our lunch yet? Has the director already left? the copier? - - Didn’t anyone train the new employee to use Did you ask them what time their flight would arrive? Your managing director resigned yesterday. I send out this pamphlet. No. Yes. Words you might hear in the questions Do/Does/Did/ Have…. - How will you get to work tomorrow? How can we be sure that the order will arrive on time? How can I get more letterhead and envelopes? How do you handle inquiries? - 10. I didn’t think of it. Express service is very reliable. She put it in Ms.

don’t you? You don’t want to start a new project this late in the day.49 didn’t he? - Wilma gets reimbursed for the cost of driving her car to the meting. I would appreciate it I still have time - Part 3: Short Conversations I. doesn’t she? This new product should sell well. That means there are twenty-four seconds between each conversation. . Strategies 1. Between each question is an eight-second pause. but she has to submit a claim form. While listening to each conversation. keep your eyes on the corresponding set of three questions and answer choices. do you? Yes. You can accomplish quite a bit during this time. You need to mark your answers for the three questions and then preview the next three questions and answer choices. Try to evaluate the four choices as you are listening. shouldn’t it? You want me to retype this document. Don't close your eyes or look away. 2. Yes. They tell you what to listen for. it is priced fairly.

4. Overview questions B. Questions about topic Question Words Where. If more than one answer choice is left. Overview Questions Types of over view questions 1. Is it still possible for us to get a table for two? F: You’re in luck — a party of two just canceled their reservations. Don't choose an answer just because you hear a word or two from the answer in the conversation. Remember that distractors are sometimes mentioned in the conversations but are not answers to the question. Question types A.? Who…? What …doing? What…talking about? 1. If you are not sure. Questions about locations 2. Inference question A. try to eliminate answer choices that seem to be incorrect. Questions about occupations 3. M: Great! I was worried.Stage/cast/scene/box office/  Theater . Never leave any answers blank. Questions about activities 4.Rolls/cake/bread  Bakery . take a guess.Chain/ring/necklace/bracelet  Jewelry store . We can seat you in about fifteen or twenty minutes. Mark your answers as quickly as possible so that you can preview the next item. always guess. II.Menu/terminal/keyboard  Computer .50 3. . 5. Detail questions C. If the correct answer is not obvious. Questions about locations Questions Where are they? Where are the speakers? Where is the man/woman? • Where is the conversation taking place? Tactics Listen for vocabulary that is associated with a certain location Examples M: We don’t have any reservations.Terminal /carousel/check-in/departure lounge/ gate/ hangar /run-way  Airport . 6..

This whole building needs rewiring. M1: But that will cost a fortune! Who is the man/woman? Who are they? What is he/she? What are they? • What is the man/woman’s profession / occupation/jon? .Bulldozer/hard hat/crane  Construction site . Questions about occupations Questions Tactics Listen for vocabulary that is associated with a certain occupation Examples M1: There’s something wrong with this switch.Account/balance/statement /checkbook / deposit/credit/loan/ interest rates  Bank . At a theater B.Surf/towel/umbrella/wave/sunbathe  Beach . Can you fix it? M2: It’s not just the switch.Waiter/waitress/bill/menu/order/table/ seat/ reservation  Restaurant 2. I’m afraid.Lawyer/judge/witness/defendant/plaintiff/ jury  Courtroom .51 store but I guess this is our lucky night! Where are they? A.Pen/envelopes/letterhead/postcard  Post office .Kitchen/pot/knife  Cook .Class/exam/student  Teacher .Dryer/hangars/detergent  Laundromat .Lane/driver/exit  Freeway .Spectators/ cheer/ clap/ match/ player  Stadium .Parking tickets/law/illegal/fine  Police officer . At a restaurant . At an airport D.Software/keyboard/monitor  Computer programmer .Suite/front desk/reservation/ room/ receptionist/room service/ housekeeper  Hotel . At a party C.

Instrument/orchestra/note  Musician . How often do the buses come? W: One stops here every twenty minutes M: Good. coffee break . then. screen.Wood/furniture/ saw/ plane/ chisels/ F: I asked him. popcorn .Switch/rewiring/ fix  Electrician . Questions about activities Questions What are they doing? • What is happening now? • What is the man doing? • What is going to happen? Tactics Listen for vocabulary that is associated with a certain activity Examples M: I’ve been waiting here 15 minutes. but he’s hammer/nail  Carpenter working on a new construction job.52 . letter.Runner/training/game  Athlete . stamps. postal clerk.Newspaper/write/report/article  Journalist . cream. . we only have five minutes to wait.Money/deposit/withdrawal  Bank teller Who is the second speaker? An electrician A banker An engineer A jeweler F: I want to put a new deck on the back of my house.Passenger/Fare/Tip  Taxi driver . Who is Tomas? A sailor A mechanic A plumber A carpenter 3.Watching a movie: film. Do you know anyone who does that kind of work? M: Why don’t you ask Thomas? He did a great job repairing the wooden .Order/tip/guests  Waiter .Stage/drama/theater  Actor .Drinking coffee: cup.Medicine/nurse/hospital/patient  Doctor .Cash register/change/receipt  Sales clerk . spoon. package . theater.Going to the post office: mail. .Pipe/sink/faucet/leak/drip/fix  Plumber stairway in my house. sugar.

pages. dial. it’s pretty formal then. Questions about topics Questions • What/ whom are they discussing? • What are they referring to? • What is the topic of the conversation? • What are they talking about? • What is the conversation about? • What is the subject of the conversation - Tactics Listen for vocabulary that is associated topic.Driving a car: 4. waitress. table.Buying clothes: suit. drink . W: Oh. The answer choices will be four plausible topics. but most of the men wear coats and ties. skirt. jeans. and the women wear dresses or suits. answer. cover. pants.Reading a book: novel. hang up .Making a telephone call: number.53 .Ordering food at a restaurant: menu. monitor. character What are the speakers doing? Getting on a bus Waiting for a bus Taking a taxi Paying a fare .Using a computer: keyboard.Parking a car: . crash . . receiver.Eating dinner: . waiter. dressing room .Waiting for a bus: .Moving furniture: . screen. dress.Buying a plane ticket: . software. Incorrect answers may include details that are mentioned in the conversation but that are not the main subject of the with a certain Examples W: Is there a dress code at your company? M: No.

Questions about time • When…. man attended A social event that the Where to buy clothes for A new outfit that the woman B. Detail Questions Types of over view questions 1. How people dress at the man’s company C.54 conversation What are they discussing A. is wearing B. work D.? • How often…? When does Claudia want to go to the play? Question Words Examples .

I’ll need some form of identification or a major credit card. 4. Why is Mrs. Pay by check C. Monday B. Saturday W1: I need to call the theater to order tickets for Wednesday. Wednesday C. To start her own business C. Kim worried about? A. M: I’ll wonder if they’ll appoint her as their new marketing 3. Sompong leaving? A. Whether she returned the book on labor . Fill out a form has been D. To have a break from working M: Do you hear about Mrs. Thursday D. Questions about reasons Thursday.55 • At what time…? • How long…? A. Sell the camera planning/going to do? is the B. Sompong’s resignation? W: Yes. W2: Why don’t you see the play over the weekend Claudia? W1: It runs only Monday through 2. Questions about problems • What is the matter with …? • What is the problem here? • What’s wrong with • What is the man/woman concerned/ worried about? What is Ms. Write her name on the card plan to do next? • What does the man/woman • What plan suggested? • What does the man/woman M: And how would you like to pay for the camera? plan to do? W: Could I write you a check? M: Certainly. To join another company B. Our competitors made her an offer she couldn’t resist. Questions about plans • Why did … happen…? • Why is the man/woman going to…? • Why does the man/woman want to…? • Why is the man/woman upset/ happy/ puzzled…? • Why did … not happen? • Why does the man/woman not want to…? • What manager? man/woman What is the woman going to do? A. B. Whether she has enough money for her vacation. To enter a race D.

but now I’m waiting to see if the airline we’ve booked our return flight on will go out on strike that day. M: I guess you’re right. 5. Ms. Give a shorter report M: I’ll never get this report finished before the weekend. C. Whether her union will get higher wages. Dan. make a better work schedule B. Kim? W: Yes. D. M: Oh yes. The company claims it has no money to meet the union’s demands. I head that’s a possibility. Walk to the office C. M: Are you all set for your vacation on Friday.56 • What is the man/woman’s problem? • What is bothering the man/woman? dispute. W: You’ve got to allocate your time more carefully. (See the strategies for part 2) . Whether the airline will be operating or not. Turn on the lights D. Questions about opinions • What does the man/ woman think of/ about …? • What is the man/woman’s opinion of …? • How does the man/woman 6. Questions about advice feel about …? • What is the man/woman’s What does Martha advise Dan to do? suggestion? • What does the man/woman advise … to do? • What is the man/woman suggesting? • What is the man/woman’s advice? A. I’ll probably wind up working at the office all night again.

Read the question carefully and focus on one or two key words Listen for key words that help you make a logical conclusion M: I’ve heard nothing but praise for that new health food restaurant.57 C. Let’s check it out for lunch Examples What are they likely to eat out for lunch? A. Sandwiches D. Hamburgers - • What is the man/woman saying about …? • What can be said about…? • What is known about …? • What can be inferred from the conversation? • What does the man/woman mean? • What is probably true about? • What are they likely to…? . Salad C. W: Same here. Inference Questions Questions • What does the man/woman imply? Tactics The answers for inference questions are not directly stated in the conversations. get one free. Instead you have to draw a conclusion based on the information that is presented by the speakers. Soup B. M: I’m always looking to save some money. And I’ve got a coupon for the salad bar – buy one.

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