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is approximately normally distributed with variance, 2 = 1000psi2. A random sample of

12 specimens has a mean compressive strength of x =3525psi.

i. Test the hypothesis that mean compressive strength is 3500psi. Use =0.01;

ii. What is the smallest level of significance at which you would be willing to reject

the null hypothesis?;

iii. Construct a 95% two-sided CI on mean compressive strength; and

iv. Construct a 99% two-sided CI on mean compressive strength. Compare the

width of this confidence interval with the width of the one in part (iii). What is your

comment?

Solution:

(b) The hypothesis Testing:

H 0 : 3500

H 1 : 3500

(c) The significance level α = 0.01

(d) The test statistics is:

Computation

x 3525, 2 1000

3525 3500

z0 2.74

1000 / 12

(e) Decision:

Reject H0 if z0 > z , where z0.005 = 2.58

Since 2.74 > 2.58, so we reject the null hypothesis and conclude the true mean is

significantly different from 3500 at α = 0.01.

x z / 2 x z / 2

n n

3525 (1.96) 1000 / 12 3525 (1.96) 1000 / 12

3507 3543

iv. A 99% two-sided lower CI on mean is

x z / 2 x z / 2

n n

3525 (2.58) 1000 / 12 3525 (2.58) 1000 / 12

3501 3549

oooOOOooo

2. One of the Cigarette Company claims that their cigarettes contain an average of only

10mg. of tar. A random sample of 25 cigarettes shows the average tar content to be

12.5mg with standard deviation of 4.5mg.

cigarettes exceeds 10mg. using the P-value approach;

ii. Construct a 95% two-sided CI on the average tar content of cigarettes.

Solution:

i.

(a) The parameter of interest is to test the true average tar content, μ.

(b) The hypothesis testing:

H 0 : 10mg vs H1 : 10mg

x 12.5 10

T 2.78

s/ n 4.5 / 25

(d) Decision:

From a t-distribution table, for a t – distribution with 24 degree of freedom, that T =2.78

is falls between two values: 2.797 for which =0.005 and 3.091 for which =0.0025. So

the P-value is: 0.0025 < P < 0.005. Since P < 0.05, thus we reject H0 and conclude that

the true mean tar content is significantly exceeds 10mg. at α = 0.05

x 12.5, s 4.5, n 25, t 0.025, 24 2.064

s s

x t / 2.,24 x t / 2, 24

n n

12.5 (2.064) 4.5 / 25 12.5 (2.064) 4.5 / 25

10.64 14.36

oooOOOooo

3. A survey done one year ago showed that 45% of the population participated in recycling

programs. In a recent poll a random sample of 1250 people showed that 588 participate

in recycling programs.

i. Test the hypothesis that the proportion of the population who participate in

recycling programs is greater than 45% was one year ago. Use a 5% significance

level.

ii. Construct a 95% two-sided CI on the proportion.

Solution:

i.

(a) The parameter of interest is test about proportion, p.

(b) The hypothesis testing:

H 0 : p 0.45

vs

H 1 : p 0.45

(c) Test statistics is:

pˆ X / n p0

z0

p0 (1 p0 ) / n

(d) Computation:

z0 1.45

(0.45)(0.55) / 1250

(e) Decision:

Reject H0 if z0 > z , where z0.05 = 1.65

(f) Result and conclusion:

Since Zo < 1.65, thus we cannot reject the H0 and conclude that more than 45% of the

population participated in recycling programs as claim is not true

pˆ z pˆ (1 pˆ ) p pˆ z pˆ (1 pˆ )

/2 n /2 n

0.47(0.53) 0.47(0.53)

0.47 (1.96) pˆ 0.47 (1.96)

1250 1250

0.44 pˆ 0.497

oooOOOooo

4. An Aerospace Engineers claim that the standard deviation of the percentage in an alloy

used in aerospace casting is greater than 0.3. 51 parts were randomly selected and the

sample standard deviation of the percentage in an alloy used in aerospace casting is

s =0.37.

ii. What is the P-value for this test?

iii. Construct a 95% two-sided CI for . What is conclusion?

Solution:

i.

(a) The parameter of interest is to test the variance of sugar content, .

(b) The hypothesis testing:

H 0 : 2 0.09 vs H1 : 2 0.09

(c) The test statistics is:

(n 1) s 2

o2

2

(d) Critical value, = 67.505

(f) Computation

50(0.1369)

o2 76.06

0.09

(g) Result and conclusion:

Since > 67.5, so we reject H0 and conclude that an Aerospace Engineers claim that

the standard deviation of the percentage in an alloy used in aerospace casting is greater

than 0.3 is true.

ii. The P-value for this test is 0.01<p<0.025. Since P-value < 0.05, then we reject H0. There

is enough evidence to support the claim that the standard deviation of the percentage

in an alloy used in aerospace casting is greater than 0.3.

(n 1) s 2 (n 1) s 2

2

/ 2, n 1

2

12 / 2, n 1

50(0.1369) 50(0.1369)

2

71.42 32.36

0.096 0.21

2

From the 95% CI, since = 09 is falls outside the interval, then we reject Ho. So the

claim that the standard deviation of the percentage in an alloy used in aerospace casting

is greater than 0.3.

oooOOOooo

5. Two machines are used to fill plastic bottles with dishwashing detergent. The standard

deviations of fill volume are known to be 10.01 and = 0.15 fluid ounce for two

machines, respectively. Two random samples of n1 = 12 bottles from machine 1 and

n2=10 bottles from machine 2 are selected, and the sample mean fill volumes are

x 1 =30.61 and x 2 =30.24 fluid ounces. Assume normality.

i. Test the hypothesis that both machines fill to the same mean volume. Use the P-

value approach;

ii. Construct a 90% two-sided CI on the mean difference in fill volume; and

iii. Construct a 95% two-sided CI on the mean difference in fills volume. Compare

and comment on the width of this interval to the width of the interval in part (ii).

Solution:

i.

(a) Hypothesis testing between two means, and variances are unknown but

large samples size.

(b) The hypothesis testing:

H 0 : 1 2 0 vs H 1 : 1 2 0

(c) The test statistics is:

( x1 x 2 ) ( 1 2 )

z0

12 22

n1 n2

30.61 30.24

7.79

0.012 0.15 2

12 10

(d) P-value = 2[1 - (7.79)] = 2[1 – 1] = 0. Since P-value < 0.05, then we have

to reject H0 and we conclude that there are difference in means at α = 0.05.

12 22 12 22

( x 1 x 2 ) z / 2 1 2 ( x 1 x 2 ) z / 2

n1 n2 n1 n2

0.012 0.15 2 2 2

(30.61 30.24) 1.65 (30.61 30.24) 1.65 0.01 0.15

12 10 1 2

12 10

0.29 1 2 0.45

iii. A 95% CI for the difference in mean and is

12 22 12 22

( x1 x 2 ) z / 2 1 2 ( x 1 x 2 ) z / 2

n1 n2 n1 n2

0.012 0.15 2 2 2

(30.61 30.24) 1.96 (30.61 30.24) 1.96 0.01 0.15

12 10 1 2

12 10

0.28 1 2 0.46

From CI, since 0 is not in the interval, so we reject H0. Strong evidence to

1 2

6. Professor A claims that a probability and statistics student can increase his or her score

on tests if the person is provided with a pre-test the week before the exam. To test her

theory she selected 16 probability and statistics students at random and gave these

students a pre-test the week before an exam. She also selected an independent random

sample of 12 students who were given the same exam but did not have access to the

pre-test. The first group had a mean score of 79.4 with standard deviation 8.8. The

second group had sample mean score 71.2 with standard deviation 7.9.

i. Do the data support Professor A claims that the mean score of students who get

a pre-test are different from the mean score of those who do not get a pre test

before an exam. Use the P-value approach and assume that their variances are

not equal.

ii. Construct a 95% two-sided CI for the difference in mean score of students who

get a pre-test and those who do not get a pre-test before an exam. Interpret this

interval.

Solution:

i.

(a) The parameter of interest is to test the different between the two means, 1and

2variance unknown but not equal.

(b) Hypothesis testing:

H 0 : 1 2 0 vs H 1 : 1 2 0

(c) Test statistics is:

( x1 x 2 ) ( 1 2 )

T

s12 s22

n1 n2

(d) Degree of freedom is:

2 2

s12 s 22 8.8 2 7.9 2

n1 n2 16 12

v 25

s12 / n2 2 s s2 / nw 2 8.8 2 2 / 15 7.9 2

2

/ 11

n1 1 n2 1 16 12

(e) Computation:

x1 79.4, x 2 71.2, s1 8.8, s 2 7.9, n1 16, n 2 12

So

(79.4 71.2)

T 2.59

8.8 2 7.9 2

16 12

From a t-distribution table, for a t – distribution with 25 degree of freedom, that T =2.59

falls between two values: 2.484 for which =0.01 and 2.612 for which =0.0075. So the

P-value is : 2( 0.0075 < P < 0.01) = 0.005<P<0.02.

Since P < 0.05 thus we reject H0 and conclude that the means are difference at =0.05.

ii. A 95% two-sided CI for the difference in mean and 2is

s12 s 22 s2 s2

( x 1 x 2 ) t / 2 ,v 1 2 ( x1 x 2 ) t / 2,v 1 2

n1 n2 n1 n2

8.8 2 7.9 2 2 2

(79.4 71.2) 2.06 1 2 (79.4 71.2) 2.06 8.8 7.9

16 12 12

16

1.67 1 2 14.73

oooOOOooo

7. The rollover rate of sport utility vehicles is a transportation safety issue. Safety

advocates claim that the manufacturer A’s vehicle has a higher rollover rate than that of

manufacturer B. One hundred crashes for each of this vehicle were examined. The

rollover rates were pA=0.35 and pB=0.25.

i. By using the P-value approach, does manufacturer A’s vehicle has a higher

rollover rate than manufacturer B’s?

ii. Construct a 95% two sided CI on the difference in the two rollover rates of the

vehicle. Interpret this interval.

Solution:

i.

(a) The parameters of interest are to test the proportion of the vehicle rollover rate

manufactured by manufacturer A, pA and manufacturer, pB

(b) Hypothesis testing:

H 0 : p A pB vs H1 : p A pB

(c) Test statistics is:

( pˆ A pˆ B ) ( p A p B ) x A xB

z0 , where pˆ

1 1 n A nB

pˆ (1 pˆ )

n A nB

(d) Computation:

nA 100, nB 100, x A 35, xB 25, pˆ A 0.35, pˆ B 0.25

0.35 0.25 35 25

z0 1.54 , where pˆ 0.3

1 1 100 100

0.3(1 0.3)

100 100

P-value=1-(1.54)=1-0.9382=0.062

Since the P-value > 0.05, thus we cannot reject the null hypothesis. There is not enough

evidence to claim that the proportion of the vehicle rollover rate manufactured by

manufacturer A, pA is greater than manufacturer, pB

ii. A 95% CI on the difference in the two proportions of the vehicle rollover rate

manufactured by manufacturer A, pA and manufacturer, pB

n A 100, nB 100, x A 35, xB 25, pˆ A 0.35, pˆ B 0.25

pˆ A (1 pˆ A ) pˆ B (1 pˆ B ) pˆ A (1 pˆ A ) pˆ B (1 pˆ B )

( pˆ A pˆ B ) z / 2 p A p B ( pˆ A pˆ B ) z / 2

nA nB nA nB

(0.35)(0.65) (0.25)(0.75)

(0.35 0.25) (1.96) p A pB

100 100

(0.35)(0.65) (0.25)(0.75)

(0.35 0.25) (1.96)

100 100

- 0.026 p A p B 0.226

A B

oooOOOooo

8. A professor wanted to study the effect of using a computer based learning (CBL) to

teach statistics. In his first class of 43 students, he used the CBL as an instructional aid

in class. In his second class of 35 students, he taught without CBL, On the common final

exam, the first class scored a mean of 78.32, with standard deviation of 8.07; while the

second class scored a mean of 80.41, with standard deviation of 8.53.

i. Test if the use of the CBL makes any difference in mean scores. Use the P-value

approach.

iii. Construct a 95% CI for the difference in mean score of students when he used

the CBL and when he did not used the CBL.

Solution:

i.

(a) Hypothesis testing between two means, mean score with CBL and mean score

without CBL:

H 0 : A B 0 vs H1 : A B 0

(b) Since the samples size are large, so the test statistics is:

( x x ) ( )

z

A B

A B

0 2 2

s s

A B

n n A B

1.11

8.07 2

8.53 2

1.89

43 35

P-value = 2[1 - (1.11)] = 2[1 – 0.8643] = 0.27.

Since P-value > 0.05, then we fail to reject H0 and we conclude that there are no

difference in means.

ii. A 95% two-sided CI for the difference in mean and 2is

s12 s 22 s2 s2

( x A x B ) z / 2 A B ( x A x B ) z / 2 A B

n1 n2 n A nB

8.07 2 8.53 2 2 2

(78.3 80.41) 1.96 A B (78.3 80.41) 1.96 8.07 8.53

43 35 35

43

- 5.83 1 2 3.92

oooOOOooo

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