..
Topic V I : Statics
1. A 100 kg block rests on an incline. The t:oefficient or \�'hat. is most ucarly the horizontal frictimrn I force
stali c frit:tio11 between t.he block a11d the rmnp is 0.2. between the ladder and floor?
The rnnss of the cable is negligible, and the pu lley a t
(A) 180 N
point C i s frictionless.
(8) 220 N
frictionless (C) 270 N
(D) 320 N
10 N�
3. A 100 kg block rests on a frictionless iucline. Forces
arP applied to the block as shown.
40 m
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
DE VI2 F E M EcHA N 1cAL nE v 1 E w M A N u r. L
5. W h at. are tLe :ir. nnrl yeoordinalcs of t. he cf'ntroi<l of 7. A sign li as n mass of 150 kg. The sign is aL.t aC'hed tu
the area shown'? t hewall by a pin at. point B a11d is s11pportcd by a cable
hetweeu poin t s A ;ind C.
 �0 A
2 Ill
�
y 41
zz
8 cm
�
zz
"q
ov�
z� B
1.5 m
5 cm
z��
c D
��
0
�
��
�
150 kg
cm 4 cm 6 cm x �
��
2
� 4m
�I
(A) (2.5 cm, 3.4 cm)
(B) (2.8 cm, 3.3 cm) Determine L.he approxin1ate force in the cable .
500 cm
600000 N
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
D I A G N 0 s T I c E x A M : s T A T I c s DE VI3
� + (0.2) (�))
moving is
L Fv = O
= Cy  800 N
C'y = 800 N
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
DE VI4 F E ,,., E c H A tJ I c I\ L A E v I E \'I M /\ N u A L
b
 h 7m_
= 0.87 111
= Fu cos 1 °  FA co 30°
5 s
Sum moments about point. A.
L MA = O
FA = F'B (
cos 15° )
cos300

= J . 1 2Fu
L F11 = 0
= (800 N ) d  C 11 a + CrLsin 70°
( )
= (800 N)(0.87 m)  (800 N)(3.4 2
= Fn sin 1 5° + FA si 30°  (7.5 kg) 9.81 2
m)
(
Ill
+ Cr( 10 m)sin 70°
n
m) (800 N)(0.87 m)
s
.r (800 N)(3.42  ( 10.0 kg) 9.81
C = ��)

( I 0 m)siu 70°
= Fn sin 15° + l . 12Fn sin 30°  1 72 N
= 2 1 6.!J N ( 220 N)
= 0.816Fn  172 N
( Cr < Jl·sN since motion is not. impen<liug. )
The reaction force at point B if the system is in equilib
T/1e answer is (8). rium is
Fn = 210.3 N (210 N)
3. Choose coordiuate axes that are parallel a n<l perpen
dicular to the incline.
The answer is (C).
5. Divide the shape into regions. Calculate the area and
locate the centroid for each region.
B ern
5 cm
mg
2 cm + 4 cm 3
I >wt; = o
=
:i;c
2
= cm = (600 000 N)(800 cm)  CF(:rno cm)
8 = cmC!U
,, = 
.J r
2
ti CP = (600000300N)(800 cm
cm)
A = G) (2 cw)(8 cm) = 8
For region (triangular),
ill
= 1 600 000 N ( 1.6 !vlN)
:Cr = 4 cm + G) (2 cm) = 4. 6 7 cm
The answer is (C).
cm2
LXc,i A i
x I
I
. M
= =
ny
:c, . T L:Ai
cm)(lO cm2 ) (3 cm)(16 cm2 )
(1 +
+ (tl.67 cm)(8 cm2 )
+
10 cm2 16 cm2 + 8 cm2
= 2.80 cm (2.8 cm) Find the length of the cable.
M = °"'Yc i i A LAc = j( l.5 (2 m2) 1112) +
Yc = �
A i L..,LA
, 'i = 2.5 ll1
(1 . 5 ) FAc
cm)(lO cm2 ) + (4 cm)(16 cm2)
(2.5 The verticalcomponent of in the cable
the force is
+ (2.67 cm)(8 cm2)
10 cm2 + 16 cm2 + 8 crn2 FAc • =
111
2 .5
• .1 
= 0.GFAc
Tl1e answer ls (8). Sum moments about point B.
6. Dra\v the freebody diagram for the truss. L:Mo = my(2 m) FAc,y(2 m)
D
'
'
=0
 (0.6)FAc(2 m)
FA c =
f600000 N
. 
. 11112
= 2,152.5 N (2500 N)
Equilibrium
CD and DF ofarcpin D requires that the forces in members
zero. The answer is (8).
PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
DE VI6 F E M IE c u A N I c A L R E v I E w M A N u A L
8. Draw t.he rreebody <liagram. 9. The angle of contact must be expref;.•:;ed ill radia11s.
(300°)2rr
B=
3G0°
= 5.24 rad
F1 = F2e110
rlg F2 = .fl
el'/)
1000 N
= e(0.3)(1i.2� ind)
= 208 N (210 N)
LFy = 0 LAD =
= N  F cos B  mg = J(10 m) 2 + (5 m)2 + (2.5 m) 2
N = F cosB + mg = 11.456 Ill
L Fr = O
= Fsin B  Ff The :1;.componenL of force in member AD is fou nd from
Ll1c :t:direct.ion cosine.
= Fsill 0  µ. N
= Fsin ()
Ps � (LADXA )
( 1 .456
A Dr = AD
Fsin ()
Fcos O + mg =
I
 lO
Ill
) (5950 N)
(�) + mg
= 5194 N
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
1. Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 J Equation 22.2 and Eq. 22.3: Resultant of
2. Moments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 TwoDimensional Forces
3. Systems of Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Nomenclatu1·e
F � + (t. F,. . ' '' 22 2
F
d distance Ill
force N
ill moment N·m
I' dista11ce Ill
,
. radius Ill
H resultant N Description
1 . FORCES
Statics is the study of rigid bodies that are stationary.
Equation 22.4 Through Eq. 22.9:
To be stationary, a rigid body must be in static equilib
Components of Force
rium. In the language of statics, a statio11ary rigid body
has no u11bala11cecl fol'ces acting on it. F, = F cos0.1: 22.4
Force is a push or a pull t.hat one body exerts on F,1 = F cosB,1 22.5
another, including gm vitational, electrostatic, magnetic, Fz = FcosfJ, 22.6
and contact influences. Force is a vector quantity, hav cosO:r = F, / F 22.7
ing a magnitude, direction, and point of application.
cos Uy = Fu/ F 22.8
Strictly speaking, act.ions of other bodies 011 a rigid body cosO, = F,/ F 22.9
are known as external forces. If twbalanced, an external
force will cause motion of the body. Internal fol'ces are Description
the forces that hold together parts of a rigid body.
Although internal forces can cause deformation of a The components of a two or threedimensio11al force
body, motion is never caused by internal forces. can be found from its direction cosines, t.he cosines of
the true angles made by the force vector with the :ir , y ,
Forces arc frequently represented i n terms of unit vec and zaxes. {See Fig. 22. 1 . )
tors and force components. A unil vector is a vector of
unit length directed along a coordinate axis. Unit vec
tors arc used in vector equations to indicate direction Figure 22. 1 Components and Direction Angles of a Force
k.
without affecting magnitude. In the rectangular coordi
nate system, there are three unit vectors, i, j, and
/ ,.... _ _  
 
1   
// Fy 
Equation 22.1 : Vector Form of a Two·  line of action
1
/
/
I
Dimensional Force of force F
I
22. 1 I
Description
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
222 FE ME C H A N I C A L R EVI E \'I M A N U ft. L
Example Description
\�I hat. is mos!. nearly the '.i:componenl. of the 300 N force y,
\Vhen the ;i;, aud z components of a force are knowu,
aL point D on the member shown? tlte re1mlt:rnt force is given by Eq. 22. L O .
Example
Two forres of 20 N aml ao N act at right a11gles.
\.300 N
8m
4m (C) 50
150 N
(D) 75
(A) 120 N Solution
(B) 130 N
(C) 180 N
Define the xaxis parallel to force F1•From Eq. 22.10,
the magnitude of the resultant force is
(D) 240 N
R = Jx2 + y2 + z2 = V(20 N)2 + (30 N)2 + (0 N)2
Solution
= 36
U:;e the Pythagorean t.heorem to calculate the hypote
nuse of the iuclined force triangle. ( Alternatively, recog
Tiie answer is (B).
nize that this is a 51213
triangle.)
PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
S Y S T E M S 0 F F 0 R C ES A N D M0 M E NT S 223
Equation 22. 1 4: Moment Vector Lhe projection of 1110 onto lhe .Taxis, which is t.he clol
product operatio11.
l11 = r x F 22. 14 Mo,r = i·Mo
Variation = (1 rn)(60 N) + (0 m)(70 N) + (0 m)(50 N)
Mo = !Mo / = / r/ I F /sin 0 = tl/F/ [O :::; 180°]
= GO N·m
(A )
acting at the point (2, 1, 1 )
with coorciinates in meters? Figure 22.2 RightHand Rufe
(B) 40 N  m
30 Nm line of action
of moment
( C ) 50 N·m
(D) GO N·m
Solution
Mo = r x F
= (ryF,  r,Fy)i + (r,F:r  r:rF,)j Equation 22. 1 5 Through Eq. 22. 1 7:
+ (rLFy  ryFr)k Components of a Moment
Variations
+ ( (2 m)(20 N)  (1 m )( lO N)) k
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
224 F J:: M E C t1 A t� I C A L AEV I EW M A tJ U A L
M= MJ.2 + J\!2
y + i\!l
2
Example
What is most. nearly the maguitucle of the moment. about
the xaxis produced by a force of F= lOi  20j + 40k N
3. SYSTEMS OF FORCES
Any collect.ion of forces aud moments in three
acting at t.he point (2, 1 , 1 ) with coordinates in meters? dimensional space is statically equivalent to ;:i single
(A) 30 N·m resultant force vector plus a single resultant moment
vector. ( Eit.licr or bot.h of these res ul t an t s can be zero.)
(B) 40 N·m
(C) 50 N·m Equation 22. 1 8 and Eq. 22. 1 9 1
(D) 60 N·m
 "<\'
F ''F " 22. 18
Solulion
M = L(r,, x F,,)
This is the same as the previons examµle. Use Eq. 22. l[).
22. 19
Description
Mr = yF,  zFy
The �,' , y, and zcomponents of the result.ant force,
= ( I m)(40 N)  (1 m)(20 N) given by Eq. 22.18 are the sums of the :ir , y, and z
= 60 N·rn componenls of the individual forces, respectively.
The answer is (D). The resultant moment vector, given by Eq. 22.19 is
more complex. It includes the moments of all system
forces around the reference axes pins the components
Couples of all system moments.
Any pair of equal, opposite, and parallel forces consti Variations
tutes a couple. A couple is equivalent to a single moment
vector. Since the two forces are opposite in sign, the :z.' , y,
three ]
and zcomponents of the forces cancel out. Therefore, a
body is induced to rotate without. tra11slation. A couple
JI 11 II
Mo = 2rFsinB = Fd
If a force, F, is moved a distance, d, from the original
point of application, a couple, M, of magnitude Fd
must be added to counteract the induced co11ple. The
combination of the moved force and the couple is 1Thc NC;;ES
J. FE Refel'e.11cc Handbook (NCEES Ha11dbook) uses both
known as a fo1'cecouple system. Alternatively, a 11 1111d i for sununation \'Oriabl«?S. Though i is tradiliormlly used to
PPI • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
S Y S T E M S O F F O R C E S A N O M O M E t� T S 225
Equation 22.20 and Eq. 22.21 : Equilibrium Two· and ThreeForce Members
Requirements
l\lc1 nbers limited to loading by two or Lhree forces in the
s11me plane are special cases of eq11ilibri11m. A twoforce
Lhe same line of art.ion ( i.e., arc collinear ) and are equal
m e mbe l cau be in equilibrium only if Lhe two forces have
.l)J,. = 0
_LF., = 0 22.20 '
22.21
bnt opposite.
Description J 11 most cases, twoforce mcwbers are loaded axially,
An object is static when it is st.atio11ary. To be station and the line of action coiacides with Lhe member's lon
ary, all of L.he forces aud rno111cnl.s on the object m11st be gitu<liual <Lxis. By choosing the coordinate sysLern so
in equilibrium. For an object to be in equilibriu111, l.lte Lhat. one axis coincides with the liuc of action, only one
rcsultaut force and moment vectors musL boLh ht� zero. equilibrium equation is needed.
The following equat.ions follmv directly fro1n Eq. 22.20 A threeforce member can be ill equilibrium only if the
and Eq. 22.2 1 . three forces are coucmrent or par::illel. Stat.eel auother
way, the force polygon of a threeforce 1nember in equi
libri11m must close Oil itself. If the member is in equilib
riuui and two of the thrf'e forces arc lmow11, Lhe third
can he determined.
4. PROBLEM·SOLVING APPROACHES
Determinacy
When the equations of equilibrium are independent, a
rigid body force system is said to be slat ically delermi
nat.e. A statically determinate system can be solved for
all unlrnowns, which are 11s11ally reactio11s supporting
Lhe body. Examples of delenninate beam types are illus
trated iu Fig. 22.4.
Concurrent Forces
(b) overhanging beam
A concurrent. fon;e system is a category of force systems
�
where all of the forces act at the same point.
If the forces on a body are all coacurrent forcf's, then
only force equilibrium is necessary to ensure cornplet.e
cqui Ii briu m. �I
�t.::::::::::::::::::::::::::�
�
� (c) cantilever beam
In two dimensions,
When Lhe body has more supports than are nece1>Sary
for equilibrium, the force system is said to be stalical/y
i11de/.ermi11ale. In a statically indeterminate system, one
or more of the supports or members can be removed or
reduced in restraint without affecting the equilihri11m
position. Those supports alld members are knowu as
In tluec dimensions, redundant supports and redundant. members. The num
_L Fr = O
ber of redundant members is known as the degree of
indeterminacy. Figure 22.5 illustrates several common
indeterminate structures.
_L Fl = O
equations to supplement the equilibriwn equations. The
additional equatiom; typically involve deflections and
depend on mechanical properties of the body or supports.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
226 F E M E C II /\ N I C A L R E V I E W M A t� U A L
�
Figure 22.5 Examples ol Indeterminate Systems arc co1u.:cpt1mlly rP111oved 111ust be replaced by the forcPs
;md nwme11ts those port.ions impart to thP body. Typi
cally, the body is isolated from its physical suppor t s in
order to lielp eval1 1 a l e t.hc reaction forces. In ot.her cases,
(a) beam with multiple supports t.he body 111ay be sectioned (i.e., cul) iu order t o deter
111i11e the forces a l Lhe scdion.
�
Reactions
The first step in solvi11g most statics problems, after
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
S Y S T E M S O F F O R C E S A N D M O M E N T S 227
Tal.Jlc 22. 1 Types of Two·Dimensional Supports �lep 6: Write the equilibrium equation for t.he forcPs in
reactions and number or the vcrt.iotl directio11. Usucilly, t. his equation will
type of support have t.wo 1 1 11know11 vert.ical reactions.
moments unknowns'
simple, roller, rocker, step 1: Subst.iLute the lmown vertic<ll reactiou from
ball, or frictionless step 5 into the equilibrium equal.ion from step 6.
This wi11 delerminP the second verticl'l I reactio11.
~ reaction normal to
surface, no moment
I
slep 8: VVrite the equilibrium equatioH for Lhc forces in
the horizontal direct.ion. Since I.here is a mini
mum of one 1mlu1own react.ion co111po!lcnl. in the
horizontal direction, t.hi:; step will determine
JLL
that component.
step 9: If necessary, combine Lhc verLical and horizonLal
cable in tension,
force cornpone11ts al. t.he pinned con11cction into
or link a resultant. reaction.
~ reaction in line
with cable or link,
no moment
1
L:;;
frictionless
guide o r collar
I >
��
reaction normal to 1
?//////&
rail, no moment
�
builtin, fixed
l=�
support
�
�
two reaction 3
���
components,
one moment
frictionless hinge,
pin connection, or
�
rough surface
reaction in any 2
direction,
J2 �
no moment
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
s
joint
Fink roof truss
(with cambered
end post bottom chord)
.....
I� .. 1
panel web scissors roof truss
members
/VV'\Z'\
length
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
232 F E M E C H A N I C A L n E V I E \V M A N U /\ L
A t.hjJd 11ic111ber frnming i11Lo a joint. already com1ect.ing Most nearly, what arc reactions F1 aml F2 for t.he truss
two collinear members C'fltTies no internal force unless shown?
there is a load applied at that joint. Similarly, hot.It
members forming an apex of the truss arc zeroforce
members unless there is a load applied at the apex.
(Sec Fig. 23.3.)
Figure 23.3 Zero.force Members
Sm Sm Sm Sm
LM,, = 0 23.2
tionally, the met.hod begins by fimling the reactions
supporting the truss. Next the joint at. one of the reac
tions is evaluated, which determines all [.he member
Description forces framing into the joint. Then, knowing one or more
A plane truss is statically dctcnninate if t.hc truss reac of the member forces from the previous step, an adjacent
tions and member forces can be determined using the joint is analyzed. The proces.5 is repeated until all the
equations of equilibrium. If not, the truss is considered unknown quantities are dctermjned.
statically indeterminate. AL a joint, there may be up to two unknown Jllcmber
1Thcan<l for summatio1 variables. Though is traditionallyusesusedbothto
NCEES FE Reference l/andbook (NCEES l/andbook)
forces, each of which can have dependent and �; J.r
11 i i
components. Since there arc two equilibrium equations,
indicateto summati on, thesummntion is O\'asC'r althesummati
11 appears to he nse<I orces1 vnriablalelin the two unknown forces can be determined. Even
order indicntcvectors
that l of i
11 he fo and 11 though clctenuirrnte, however, the sense of a force will
uf the position that up the system (i.C'., to
11rnkc i= J )
11 . often be unknown. If the sense cannot be determined by
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
T R U S S E S 233
logic, a11 arbil rary decision can be made. If the i 11correcl Solution
dircclion is chosen, the force will be ucgat.ive.
C11t the t rnss as shown.
Occasionally, Lhere will be three u 111rnown 111embPr
forces. ln that. case, an additional equat.ion must be
c D
derived fro111 an adjacent. joint.
'' 25 m
N N N N �
E · F G
� 20 � 20 � 20 � 20
I
forces in a ny truss member. This met.hod is convP.nient 20 m rn rn rn rn
when only a few truss 111ember forces are unknown.
As wiLh t.he previow; method, the firnl. slep i s to find the 5000 N 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 N 5000 N
support reactious. Then a cuL is made through the l:russ,
passing t.hrough the unknown member. (Know i n g where
Draw t.he free body.
Lo cut the trnss is the key part. of this method. Such
lrnowlcdge is developed only by repeated p ractice . ) BC
Finally, all thJ"ee conditions of equilibrium a re applied
as needed to t. he remaining trnss portion. Si11ce there arc
N
t.hree equi l i bri um equations, the cut cannot pass
through more than t.hree members i n which the forces
arc unknown.
5000 N 2000 N 2000
c D
IMA = 0
(2000 N)(20 m) + (2000 N)(40 m)
CE(40 m) = 0
CE = 3000 N
5000 N N N
� 20 m '
2000 2000
20 m ���
2000 N 2000 N N N
2000 5000
The answer is (C).
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 1> a s s . c o m
1 . P ulleys . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Figure 24. 1 Mechanical Advantage of RopeOperated Machines
2. Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nomenclature
d inside diameter Ill
F force N
[/ gravilatio11al acceleration, 9.81 m/s2
Ill mass kg
M moment N·m
1l number
N normal force N
JI pilch 111
p power w
,. radius Ill
T torque N·m
w w w
v velocit.y 111/s 2 n
IV weight N
Symbols
Q pit.ch angle deg equal to the number of ropes coming to and going from
T] efficiency t.he loadcarrying pulley, The diameters of the pulleys
8 angle of wrap radians arc not factors iu calculating the pulley advantage.
µ coefficient of frict.ion
tf; a11gle deg
2. CABLES
Subscripts An ideal cable is assumed to be completely flexible,
f friction massless, and incapable of elongation; it acts as an axial
k kinetic tension member between points of concentrated loading.
m mechanical The term tension or tensile force is conuno11ly used in
s slal.ic place of member force when dealing with cables.
tangential
The methods of joints and sect.ions used in truss analysis
working together ( known as a block and tackle) can also All cables will be found to be in tension, and ( with
direction of an applied tensile force. A series of pulleys useful to sum moments about one of the reaction points.
provide pulley advantage ( i.e., mechanical advantage). vertical loads only ) the horizontal tension component
( See Fig. 24. 1 . ) will be the same in all cable segments. Unlike the case of
a rope passing over a series of pulleys, however, ihe total
If the pulley is attached by a bracket to a fixed location, tension in the cable will not be the same in every cable
it is said to be a fi�ced pulley. If the pulley is attached to a segment.
load, or if t.he pulley is free to move, it. is known as a free
pulley.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
24M2 I" J1l M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U I\ L
[slip occurring]
F = of irnpeudiug slip) 24.3
= (0.3) ((35 kg) (9.81 ��)cos30°)
F= /LA.N 24.4
= 89.2 N (89 N)
Values
T/1e answer is (C).
· ·· ·· · ·
···· ·
· · ·· · ·
· · · · · · · ·· · · · · ·
· · · ··· ·· · · ·
· · · · · ·· ··········· · · . .... ..................
· ·
4. BELT FRICTION
· · ··· · ·
· ·  ·
. ..
· · ·
Description
· · ·
· · ·· ·· · · ·· · · ··
·
.
The actual magnitude of the frictional force depends on Friction between a belt, rope, or band wrapped around
the normal force, N, and the coefficient of friction, ft, a pulley or sheave is responsible for the transfer of
between the body and the surface. The coefficient of torque. Except when stationary, one side of the belt
kinetic friction, /Lk, is approxi mately 753
of the coeffi (the tight side) will have a higher tension than the
cient of static friction, µ,. other (t.he slack side). (Sec Fig. 24.3.)
Equation 24.1
is a general ex pression of the laws of Figure 24.3 Belt Friction
frictio11. Several specific cases exist depending Oil
whether slip is occurring or impending. Use Eq. 24.2
when no slip is occurring. Equation 24.3
is valid at the
point of impending slip (or slippage) , and Eq. is 24.4
valid when slip is occurring.
F2 (loose)
For a body resting on a horizontal surface, the normal
force is t.he weight of the body. F1 (tight)
Description
N = mg cos</>
The basic relationship between the belt tensions and t.he
coefficient of friction neglects centrifugal effects and is
given by Eq. F1 is the tension on the tight side 24.5.
1 Allhough the NCEES FE Reference Handbook (NCEES Handbook) (direction of movement); F2 is the tension on the other
uses bold, Eq. 24.2 through Eq. 24.4 arc not vector equations. side. The angle of wrap, 0, must be expressed in radians .
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
P U L L E Y S , C A B L E S , A N D l= R I C T I O N 243
Example
A rope passes over a fixed sheave, as shown. The Lwo A square screw thread is designated by a 111ean radius, r,
rope ends are parallel. A fixed load on one encl of the pitch, p, and pitch angle, The 7Jitch, p, is t.he dislance
o: .
rope is supported by a constant force on the other encl. between corresponding points on a thread. The lead is
=
The coefCicient. of frict.ion between the rope and the the distance the screw advances each revolution. Often,
sheave is 0. 30. double and triplethreaded 8Crews are used. The lead is
one, two, or three times the pitch for single, double,
P = 2rrr tana
fixed
µ 0.30 and tripletlueadecl 8Crews, respectively.
sheave
Pr lan(a ± /J)r
(A) l . l
(B) 1.2 lvl = 24.7
(C) 1.6
Description
(D) 2.6
The coefficient of friction, µ, between the threads CRn be
Solulion
designated directly or by way of a thread friction angle, ¢.
The torque or external moment, �M. required to turn a
(2 ra<l)
The angle of wrap, B, is 180°, but it. must. be expressed in square screw iu motion against an axial force, P (i.e.,
radians. "raise" the load), is found from Eq. 24.7.
(J = ( 180° ) 3 0 = rr rad r is the mean tlu·ead radius, Mis the torque on the screw,
rr
Either side could be the tight side. Therefore, t.he when the load force is opposite in direct.ion of the screw
restraining force could be 2.6 times smaller or larger movement). The "" is nsed for screw loosening (i.e.,
than the load tension. when the load force is in the same direction as the screw
movement). If the torque is zero or negat.ive (as it would
Tl1e answer is (D). be if the lead is large or friction is low), then the screw is
not selflocking and the load will lower by itself, causing
the screw to spin (i.e, it, will "overhaul"). The screw will
5. SQUARE SCREW THREADS
. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. ... . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .... . . .. . . ... ..... . . ... . . .. .. .... . ... .. .. . ..... ... ......... .. ... .
be selflocking when tan :S IL. L\'
A power screw changes angular position into linear The torque calculated in Eq. 24.7 is required to over
position (i.e., changes rotary motion into traversing come thread friction and Lo raise the load (i.e., axially
motion). The linear positioning can be horizontal (as compress the screw). Typically, only 1015% of the
in vices and lathes) or vertical (as in a jack). Square, torque goes into axial compression of the screw. The
Acme, and 10degree modified 8Crew threads are com remainder is used to overcome friction. The mechanical
monly used in power screws. A square screw thread is efficiency of the screw is the ratio of torque wit.bout
shown in Fig. 24.4. friction to the torque with friction. The torque without
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
244 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L
friction can be calculated from Eq. 24.7 (or the variation Solu/io11
cquat.ion, depending on t.he Lravcl direction) using c/> 0.
M1=0
=
= 5.7 1°
11,,, = � ¢ = arctan 11 = arctan 0. 10
lvl
total torque in this application) contributes to the ten
P=
jack load for the pmpose of calculatiug the frictional sile force in the bolt. Tl1e force in t.he bolt is
force.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
1 . Centroids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 Equation 25.1 and Eq. 25.2: First Moment of
2. l'vlomenL of Inertia . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 12 an Area in the X·Y Plane 1
L::r,, a ,,
Nomenclature
a subarea ui2 1\[ n11 = 25. 1
a Ieng! h or radius 111
A area rn2
b base 111 25.2
Ill
d distance 111
It
J x dA
height
T moment of inertia 1111 Variations
4
l, y product of inertia 111
J polar 1110111ent of iuertia ·I
111 My = = L :i;;A;
leuglh Ill
total lengt.h 111
Mr = J yd.A = LY;A;
f.,
m mass kg
!If stfltical moment 1113
Description
1· radius or radius of gyrat.ion Ill
II vol ume Ill� L:�c,, a,,
The quantity is known as the first moment. of the
Similarly, L Yn a " is known as the firsl moment of the
v vol u me m
�
area firsl area moment
or with respect to the ya."<is.
Symbols area with respect to the :vaxis. Equation 25.l and
B angle deg Eq. 25.2 apply to regular shapes with subareas a,..
The two primary applications of the first moment are
Subscripts
determining centroidal locations and shear stress distri
a area butions. In the latter application, the first moment of
c ccntroidal the area is known as t.he statical moment.
deg degrees
I line Centroid of Line Segments in the x·y Plane
o origin
polar For a composite line of total length L, the location of the
j x dL
p
rad radians centroid of a line is defined by the following equatio11s.
u vol ume
= L
 =
1 . CENTROIDS Xe
L:x;L;
The cent.roid
of an area is often described as the point at L L;
L Y; L;
whjch a thi11, homogeneous plate would balance. This
J y dL
Yc = L =
definition, however, combines the definitions of centroid
and center of gravity, and implies gravity is required to
identify the cent.raid, which is not true. Nonetheless, L L;
this definition provides some intuitive understanding of
the centroid. 1
The NCEES FE llefe1·ence Ha11dbuok (NCEES lla11dbook) deviates
from conventional notation in several ways. Q is the most common
Cent.mids of continuous functions can be found by the symbol for the fir.;! area 11 101 11c11t (then referred to as the statical
methods of integral calcuh1s. For most engineering 111ome11t), although symbols S and Al arc also cnco11nlered. To avoid
applications, though, the functions to be integrated are confusion witIi the moment of a force, l he subscript a is used lo
regular shapes such as the rect.angular, circular, or com drsignatc the moment of an area. The NGEES Hn11dbook llS<'S n low
ercase a to designate the area of a subar<'a (instead of 11 ;) . The NCEES
posite rectangular shapes of beams. For these shapes, Hnndbook uses 11 as a sununation variable (instead of i), probably to
simple formulas are readily available and should be indicate that the moment hns to be calculat<xl from all 11 of the
used. subareas that 111akc up l he total nren .
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
252 FE M E C H A t� I C A L fl E V I E \'/ M II N U A L
Using t.he NC'EES Jlandbook notation, lhe equations Equation 25.3 Through Eq. 25.S: Centroid of
would be written ns an Area in the xy Plane 2
25.3
25.4
M,, /A = "L,y,,a,J A
LYrt lll
Ytc = 
L !10, = 25.5
Example
Variations
Find the approxiuiatc and ycoorclinales of the cen
t.raid of wire ABC.
:Ii
A J y dA
Ye = J
\
Description
10 m
Example
{A) 0.43 m; 1.3 m What. are the approximate �� and ycoordinates of t.hc
(B) 0.64 m; 2.8 m centroid of the area shown?
{C) 2.7 m; 1 .5 m
{D) 3.3 m; 2.7 111 y
B ern
5 cm
Solution
The total length of the line is 4 cm
diameter
"L,L; = 12 m + 10 m = 22 m
"L,:i: ;L;
;
7 cm
:i;c =
c
"L,L;
 1 2 n sin 3 0° ) {12 m) + (¥)( lo m)
t:.1
l cm
x
22 Ill
1 cm
= 0.64 Ill
LY; L ;
Ye = � (A) 3.tl cm; 5.6 cm
(
L,, L;
{ 1 2 m)cos 30°
2
)
(12 m) + (0 m){lO m)
(B) 3.5 cm; 5.5 cm
(C) 3.9 cm; 4.4 cm
= '  '      
22 Ill (D) 3.9 cm; 4.8 cm
= 2.83 m (2.8 m) 2111 Eq. 25.4 and Eq. 25.5, the subscript a is used to designate the
cent roid of an area, but this co11ve11tio11 is largely omitte<l thro11ghout
Tile answer is (B). tltc rl'Sl of the NCEES fla11dbook.
PPI • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
C E N T n 0 I D S A N D M 0 M E N T S 0 F I N E R T I A 253
Solution Description
Calculate the total area. The centroid of a volume V composed of subvolumes u,,
(see Eq. 25.6) is located using Eq. 2G.7 through Eq. 25.9,
which are analogous to Lhe equatio11s used for cent.raids
of areas aud l i nes .
rr(4 cm) 2
= (8 cm)(lO cm)  A solid body will have both a cent.er of gravity and a
4
centroid, huL the local.ions of these two points will not
 (2 c111)(2 cm) necessarily coincide. The earth's attractive force, which
= 63.43 cm2 is called weight, can be as:;umed to act through the
ce11ter of gravity (also known as the ce11ter of mass).
Find the first moments ahout. the :vaxis and yaxis. Only when the body is homogeneous will the cen troid of
a uolume coincide with the ce11ter of gravity.
+ (  (2 cm)(4 cm2 ) )
Example
= (5 cm)(80 cm2) +
The structure shown is formed of three separale solid
aluminum cylindrical rods, each wit h a 1 cm diameter.
= 304.03 cm3
1\1!ay = L;xua,.
(4 cm)(80 cm2) + ( (5 cm) G) (4 cm)2)
+ (  (2 cm)(4 cm 2 ) )
=
10 cm
= 249. 1 7 cm3
lvlayI A =
24 cm
249.17 cm3
Xe = 2 = 3.93 cm (3.9 cm) x
63.43 cm
(L::r,. 1111)/ \I
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
254 F E M E C M A N I C A L A E V I E W M A N U A L
+(
24 cm ) (20A2 c 3 ) bL
1 x
2 m
b
47 . 12 cm3 a rea. and centroid
= 14.0 cm
A = bh/2 25.23
(The rr/4 and area terms all cancel and could have been .t:< = b/3 25.24
omi t.ted.)
Ye = h/3 25.25
The answer is (A).
area moment of 'inertia
f.r, = blt3/36 25.26
Equation 25. 1 0 Through Eq. 25.50: Centroid
and Area Moments of Inertia for Right I = b:3 h/36
Y
. 25.27
y Iy = IPh/12
I/C
25.29
I
I
/J
( radius of gyration)2
x x T''l.
.t,
= h2/18 25.30
y�
Iu, = b311/36 25. 14
ly = b3 lt/4 25. 16
b
:c(" = ( a + b)/3
r2x, = h2/18 25. 1 7 A = bh/2 25.36
25.37
r2y, = b2/18 25. 18
Ye = h/3 25.38
r; = h2 /6 25. 19
a rea moment of inertia
r2y = b2/2 25.20
Ir, = bh3 /36 25.39
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
C E N T R 0 I D S A N D M 0 M E N T S 0 F I N E A T I A 255
( tadius of gyration) '/. From Eq. 25.45, the radius of gyration about. the :v
a.xis is
/ '2r, = /i2/J8 25.43
25.44
r; =
= 3.266 cm
112/G 25.45
1.,11 = [Alt(2a + b)J/ 12 25.49 Equation 25.51 Through Eq. 25.62: Centroid
and Area Moments of Inertia for Rectangles
25.50
Description •C
x x
Equation 25.10
to Eq. 25.50
give the areas, centroids,
and moments of inertia for triangles.
,___
_ ___,
b
The traditional moments of inertia, I,, and 111 (i.e., the area and cent.raid
second moments of the area), arc always positive. How
ever, the product of inertia, Ir,y,, listed i n Eq.
negative. Since the product of inertia is calculated as
is 25.34, A = bh 25.51
lzy = L:xiyiA;, where the :ri and Y; are distances from Xt = b/2 25.52
Example
1J = bli3 /3 25.54
r2 b2/3= 25.59
Solution !I
From Eq.
location is
25.38, the ycomponent of the ccntroidal 25.60
prod11ct of inertia
Ye = h/3 = 83cm fr,y,= 0 25. 6 1
= 2.667 cm 25.62
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
256 F E M E C H /\ N I C A L R E V I E \'I M A N U A L
Description Description
Equation 25.5 1 lo Eq. 25.62 give the area, centroids, Equation 25.63 through Eq. 25.68 give the area, cen
and moments of inertia for rectangles. t.mids, and moments of inertia for t.rapezoids.
Example
Example
\Vhat are most nearly Lhc area and theycoorclinate,
A 1 2 cm wide x 8 cm high rectangle is placed such t.hat respectively, of e tr i of the t.rapezoicl shown?
the c n o d
its centroid is located at the origin, (0, 0). What Lhe
is
ll'�D10 om
pe ent g change in the product
rc a e i e ti if the
i rotated 90° co n er
tangle s u t clockw e about rec
is
of u r a
the origin?
(A) 32% ( d ecrease)
(B) 0%
I I x
(C) 32 % ( in crease ) 1 2 cm
(0) 64% (increase) (A) 95 cm2; 4.6 cm
(Il) 1 10 cnl; 5.4 cm
Solution
(C) 120 cm2; 6. 1 cm
The product of inertia is zero whenever one or more of (D) 140 cm2; 7.2 cm
the reference axes arc Lines of symmetry. In this case,
both axes are lines of symmetry before aud after the
r otati on . From Eq. 25.61, Ir, y, = 0. Solution
The answer is (8). The area of the trapezoid is
/�
J
=� h(2a + b)
Yc = 3(a + b)
cm)
x
( 10 cm)((2)(7 cm) + 1 2
(3)(7 cm + 12 cm)
= 4.56 cm
area and centroid
=
h(2a + b)
!Jr
The answer is (A).
25.64
3(o + b)
_ h3(3a + b) c.
Ir  25.66
12
b
( radius of gyration)2
=_
area and centroid
h2 (a2 + 4ab + b2)
A = ab sin 8
2 .;,__18(a + b) '
____
r
,., 25.67 25.69
2 = ,.  
�i;,. = ( b + a cos 0)/2 25.70
lt2(3a + b),
Yt = (a sin 0)/2
r 25.68
r 6( a + b) 25.71
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
C E N T A 0 I D S A N D M 0 M E N T S 0 F I N E A T I A 257
25.72 .2 = r2 = a 2/4
, r, Yt
25.87
l,1 = [absiu O(b + a cos0)2 ]/3  (a21l si n O cosB)/6 ,.2Ji = a2/2 25.89
25.75
prod11ct of inertia
( radius of gyration)2
lr,y, = 0
= (a sin 0)2 /12
25.90
r;, 25.76
product, of inertia
x
25.80
area and centroid
Description 25.92
Equation 25.69 through Eq. 25.80 give the area, cen =a 25.93
troids, and moments of inertia for rhomboids.
x,.
y,. = a 25.94
�
� x
25.95
YI
Ix 
 I11  rr a2b2  .!!____
urta·I
r:  b'I
x  25.96
4 4
J = n (r�  ri)/2
I
25.97
m'ea and centroid
Ye = a 25.83
25.99
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
258 F E M E C W A N I C A L R E V I E W MANUAL
Solution
The product. of inertia of a circle can be a positive value,
�
� x
y�
1v, = rra4 /8 25. 108
1 !1 = 5rra4/8 25. 1 10
B
A = 010 25. 1 1 7
a2(9rr2  64)
25. 1 1 1
:G" = 2Ja sin
f) 25. 1 18
36rr2
Yc = 0 25. 1 19
r2 = a 2 /4 25. 1 12
;
y,
sin B cos B) / 4
area moment of inertia
=a
r = o2/4
r� = 5 n2/4
25. 1 13
a'1(B 
I,,y, = 0 25. 1 15 r2
'=
a2 (B  s i n O co s B)
'' 25. 122
4 f)
lr11 = 2a� /3 25. 1 1 6
2 a2 (0 + si n 0 cos0)
rv = 4
0
25. 123
Description
product of inertia
Equation 25.81 to Eq. 25. 1 1 6 give the area, centroids,
and moments of inertia for circles. 25. 124
25. 125
Example
(A )
its smallest absolute value? order to incorporate fJ into the calculations, as is done
for some of the circular sector equations, the angle must
3 cm be expressed in radians.
(B) 4 cm
(C) 5 cm
(D) 7 cm
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
C E N T Fl 0 I D S A N D M 0 M E N T S 0 F I N E R T I A 259
(radius of gyral.ion) 2
e
Example
A grassy parcel of laud shaped like a rhombus has
adjaceut sides measuring 50 m and 1 20 m with a 65° 2
r:r
o2 1
=4 [

2 sin3 cos e
38  3 siu B cos B ] 25. 131
[i ]
included angle. A small, straight creek runs between the
opposing acute corners. A goat is humanely tied to the
bank of the creek at one of the acute corners by a 110 m 2
r =
a2 + 2 siu3 rJ cos (J 25. 132
long rope. \Vithout crossing the creek, most nearly, on !I
4 0  sin O cos O
what area of grass can the goat graze?
(A) 450 m2 ]Jl'oducl of inertia
(B) 710 m2 25. 133
Description
Solution
( ) (�)
Equation 25.126 through Eq. 25. 1311 give the area, cen
The creek bisects the 65° angle. The goat sweeps out a
troids, and moments of inertia for circular segments .
circular sector wit.h a 40 m radius.
65°
swept angle 2 Equation 25. 1 35 Through Eq. 25.145:
0= = = 0.2 836 rad
2 2 360° Centroid and Area Moments of Inertia for
Parabolas
Use Eq. 25. 1 1 7. The swept area is
Ye =
y
0 25. 137
c
area moment of inertia
''
x I,., = I,. = 4ab3/15 25. 138
'
[e ;�
ly, = 1 6a:1b/175
4aa bI7
25.139
area and centroid
ly = 25. 140
si1 2
A = a2 _
25. 126
e
(radius of gyration)2
Ye = 0 25.128 r� = 12a2/175
,
25. 142
e
[
25. 143
!,. = 
Aa2
4
2 sin3 BcosB
30  3 sin cos e
1  
J 25. 129 vrodttct of ·inertia
l:r,y, = 0
e  sm l;cy = 0
25. 144
. e cos e
J
A a2 [ + 2 sin3 BcosB
.=
I ,, 1 25.130
4 25.145
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
2510 F E M E C H I\ N I C I\ L R E V I E W M A N U A L
, ; = 1,2
paraboli
famous c arch and a 200 hei g ht.
/5
h. e citytheillusionist con(, actsbehind
the ciatycurtai
with na draped
plan to clown
make . 25. 151
r� = a2 /7
tfrom diarch.
sappear from
1f theng,drape spans theandentirereinwidth and 3 25. 152
pl'Ochicf, of ineitia
height
ihow
ncrease of the openi and if scams forcement
by 15%, most nearly,
muchthedrapery
materialfabri
requic wirements
l be needed?
(A) 3700 m2 lr,1 = Aab/4 a2b2
= 25. 153
(B) 4300 m2
(C) 7500 m2 Description
(D) 8600 ni2
Solution troids, and25.moments
Equation 146 through Eq. 25.for153scmigivpearabol
of inertia the area,
as. cen
b is half of the width of the arch. Example
.\'hat is most nearly the area of the shaded section
\above
b = 282111 = 14 m the parabolic curve shown?
y 7 cm
Eq. 25.135.theIncluding
reiUsenforcement, requiredtheareaalliowance
s for seams all(!
A = (1 + allowance) 4ab3
= (1+0.15) ((4) (200 3m) 14 m))
3 cm
( x
=4293 m2 4300 m2) ( (A) 7 cm2
(B) 9 cm2
The answer Is (B). (C) 11 cm2
(D) 14 cm2
Equation 25.1 46 Through Eq. 25.153:
Solution
Centroid and Area Moments of Inertia for
Semiparabolas
From isEq. 25.146, the semiparabolic area below the
curve
A  2ab/3  (2)(3 cm)(7
3 cm)
_
= 14
_
below
cm2
area and centroid The shaded area above the parabolic curve is
A= 2ab/3 25. 146 Anbovc = A  Abctow = (7 cm)(3 cm)  14 crn2
Xe = 3a/5 25. 147 7 cm2
=
( 1) ( ) =
n+
v
(3 cm)
3+ 1
Xe = b= 2.4 cm
n+2 3+2
A = bh/( 11 + 1)

= 7.714 cm (7.7 cm)
25. 1 54
n+l
·c  b 25. 155 The answer is (DJ.
. ,. 11 + 2
y =h n+l
25.156
,. 2 211 + 1
Equation 25.1 61 Through Eq. 25.167:

Centroids and Area Moments of Inertia for
area mom en/. of inertia
nth Degree Parabolas
bh 3

I  25.157 v = (11/bl/n)xlln
r  3(3n + 1 ) V
f, = h b
3
25. 158
n+3
x
y
b
(radius of gyration) 2
r =  .;____
__ _
area and centroid
2
A =  bh
2 h (n + l)
11 + 1
25. 159
r 3(3n + l ) n
25. 161
,.
2 = 11 + 1 b2 25. 160
n+l
Y n+3 X = b 25. 162
e 2n + 1
11 + 1
Description Y = h 25. 163
r 2(n + 2)
..
Equation 25.154 through Eq. 25.160 give the area, cen
troids, and moments of inertia for general spandrels. area moment of inertia
n
Example I = bh3 25. 164
3(11 + 3)
nates of the centroid of the shaded area between x = 0
For the curve y= x3 , what are the approximate coordi
I = _1_ 1 b3 h 25. 165
and x = 3 cm? Y 3n + l
( radius of gyration)2
,:z
= 7l + 1
h2 25. 166
.i: 3(n + 1)
3 cm x r2 = n + 1 b2 25. 167
Y 3n+ 1
(A) 1.6 cm; 7.8 cm
(B) 1.8 cm; 5.8 cm Description
(C) 2.0 cm; 18 cm
Equation 25.161 through Eq. 25.167 give the area, cen
(D) 2.4 cm; 7.7 cm troids, and moments of inertia for nth degree parabolas.
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
25 12 F E M E C II A N I C A L n E V I E \'I M A N U A L
Equation 25.168: Centroid of a Volume Eq. 25.170, it. is apparent why the moment of inertia is
also known as the second m0111ent of the area or second
al"ea momenl.
Descript ion
Equation 25. 1 71 and Eq. 25.1 72:
Equation 25.168 provides a convenient met.hod of locat Perpendicular Axis Theorem
ing the centroid of an object that consists of several
isolated component. masses. The masses do 11ot have to
be contiguous and ca11 be distributed throughout space.
[t is implicit that the vectors that terminate at t.hc
I z = .J = f,1 + I,  J (.1:2 + J/)dA 25. 1 7 1
Descript ion
2. MOMENT OF INERTIA Tbe polar momenl of 'inel"lia, J or I., is required in
torsional shear stress calculations. It can be thought of
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... ..., _ , , ,................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,
Description
Integration can be used to calculate the moment of
inertia of a function that is bounded by the :v and y
axes and a curve y=J(x). From Eq. 25.169 and
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
C E N T fl 0 I 0 S A N D M 0 M E N T S 0 F I N E R T I A 2513
x' x'
Equation 25. 1 73 and Eq. 25.1 74: Parallel
Axis Theorem \Vhat. is most nearly t.he moment of iuertia about the
cent.roidal axis?
25. 1 74
(B) 7.4 x lff1 cm'1
(C) 2.0 1055x cm1
Description
If the moment of inertia is kJ1owJJ with respect to one
(D) G.4 10 x cm4
 u;A
areas that are composed of two or more basic shapes. d
is the distance between the centroidal axis and the
cm

The second term iu Eq. 25.173
and Eq.
much larger than the first term in each equation, since
25. 1 74
is often
= cm,1 ( cm cm
2
areas close to the centroidal ax.is do not affect the
moment of inertia considerably. This principle is
exploited in the design of strnctural steel shapes that
= 24 400 10
cm'1 (2.4 x '1 cm'1)
/f;JA
axis
 
centroidal ___ _ r11 25. 176
=
JJTA
rr = 25. 1 77
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
25 14 F E M E C M A N I C A L A E V I E W M A N U A L
x
Equation 25.178 and Eq. 25. 1 79: Product of
Inertia
b
l:ry = J xydA 25. 178
The radius of gyration, r, is given by Eq. and 25.175
Eq. The analogous quantity in the polar system
25.176.
is calculated using Eq. 25.177. 25. 1 79
yl
57.9 the area may be in one of the negative quadrants, and
the product of inertia may be negative.
l� :J: l 2 cm
6 cm
The transfer theorem for products of inertia is given by
��
IE
Eq. 25. 1 79.(Both axes are allowed to move to new
F
positions.) dz and dy are the distances to the centroid
i n the new coordinate system, and Ix' Ye is the centroidal
product of inertia in the old system.
11 x
2 cm
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
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