i . The simple fombar linlrnge shown is configured i n lo 5. A 94 N force is applied t o a 50 nnn lo ng spring made
the open position. Link L is 0.57 111 lo11g, l i 11k 2 is 0.21 m of 2 mm sleel wire (shear mod11l11s of 80 G Pa ) . The
lo ng , link 3 is OA5 111 lo ng, and link tJ is 0.36 m long . spring has 7 active coils and a mean diameter of
Ta ki ng link I ns t.he reference l ink, the angle that li11k 2 1 2 mm. Tho spri ng ends arf' rlosed. Whal is wost nearly
wakes with the reference link , 02 , is 62°. the spring constant?
y
(A) 2.5 N/ uu11
(Il) 13 N/mm
(C) 27 N/mm
(D) 36 N/mm
3. A joint with a j oint coefficient of 0. ltJ e xper i 8. A sha� has an u pper deviation of 0.011 mm and a
lower ci evi a t. i on of 0.019 n nn . \;\lhat is most nearly the
bol ted
ences a 26 k N tension . The bolt is initially preloaded to
7.5 kN. What is mosL nearly the ma,ximum bolt load '! tolerance of the shaft?
(A) 1 1 kN ( A) 0.008 mm
(B) 24 kN (B) 0.008 mm
(C) 32 kN (C) 0.01 mm
(D) 43 kN (0) 0.02 null
4. A bol t has a 11 1ajordiameter area of 123 nm12 ;:rnd a 9. A particular roller bea ring has a life of 3000 h when
load of 9.5 kN and rotating
at 500 rpm. What is most. nearly t he predicted life i f the
tensile stress mca of 88 2
nun . The t.hreaded lengt h is carrying ru1 equivalent rad ial
14 mm. The modulus of elasticity is no
beru·ing is loaded to 12 kN at. the same rotal.ional speed?
GPa. Wl1at is
most nearly the stiffneR5 of the threaded lengt.h of the bolt'?
(A) 980 kN/nun (A) 1000 h
P P I • YI W W . tl P l 2 p a s s . c o m
DE XI2 F E M t; c M A N I c A I. R i:; v I E w M A N u A L
!!.
t.wo gears?
{( j 0.57 111
(A) l lO m  1 = =
a 0.21 m
1
(B) 140 111 = 2.714
(C) 180 rn  1 Calculate 1(2 .
Calculate K1
a2  b2 + + d2
1(J = ''
c"l
(0.21 m)  (0.45 m) 2 + (0.36 w ) 2 + (0.57 m)
2a c
2 2
(2)(0.21 m)(0.36 m)
= 1 . 958
Calculate the value of A.
A = cosB2  K1  K2 cosf]i + 1(3
= cos 62°  2.714  1.583 cos 62° + 1 .958
=  1 .030
Calculate the value of B.
B =  2 sin B2 =  2 sin 62°
=  1 .766
Calculate t.he value of C.
C = K1  ( 1<2 + I )cosB2 + K3
= 2.714  (1.583 + l )cos62° + 1.958
= 3A60
For the open position, the value of angle 84 is
84 = 2 arctan 
(
B  JB2  1JAC
2A
)
 (  1 .766)
(  1 .766)2
 (4) (  1 .030)(3.460)
= 2 arctan
(2) (  1 .030)
= 98.77° (99° )
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
D I A G N 0 s T I c E x A M : M E c H /\ N I c /\ L D E s I G N A N D A N /\ L v s I s DE :Kl3
=
8 . The tolerance of t.he shaft is
lc5u  c5d
Tile answer Is (BJ.
=
D. J
3. The 1J1axi111un1 bolt load is I0.011 mm  0 . 0 1 9 m m !
= 0.008 llllll
=P
unchanged. The bearing life equat.ion is
4. The st. iffncss of the bolt is
C
l/u p l/n
I LI = 2 lJ:l
A.il1 + A11.i
( ��:)
kb = A,1A1E The life, L, usually has units of revol ut ions but at. any ,
( )
given speed, the dmation is proportional to t.he number
( 1 23 111n12)(88 mm2)(230 CPa) lOG of revolutions. So, th.is can be written in terms of time, /.
/.2 = ti (Pi)"
�����
10/3 for roller bearings.
(
=  �
)
a=
( )
mm 2 p2
x 1000
h) �
11 l
l' r: 1 N IU/3
= 1 L146 kN/mrn (HOO kN/mm) = (3000
1 2 kN
The answer Is (CJ. = 1377 h (1400 h)
=
k
£t1 G
( t;J
1 0. The diamet.ral pitch is the number of teeth per unit
8 D3 N length.
=
( mm) 2
,,...
(2 mm)� (80 GPa) 109 Ni + N2
 . ,. di + d2 p p 
P=
, + 2  
2
I
(8)( 1 2 llllll )
:i
(7) 1000  2
( )
Ni + N2
111
( )
, 2T = ( 2 ) ( 1300 N · m m ) = 2 1 1 .9 IllI (210 m 1 )
W =
1 1
d ( 2. 3 cm) 1 0 11 11 The answer is (DJ.
=
cm
1 1 3.0 N
=
The rad i al force ii:;
W,. = 11' / tan </> ( 1 1 3.0 N)tan 37°
= 85.18 N (85 N)
The answer Is (C).
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
I . lnt;rorhirt.ion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1121 d cl i n rnetcr ( major) or uuthrea<led slia11J<
2. Dolts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l e effective
3. J1iveL and Bolt Connedions . . . . . <122
. . . . . . . . . iudex or initial ( prelo ad)
4. Bolt Preload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 111 material, mean, or member
5. Bolt. Torque to Obtain Preload . . .. . 426 . . . . . . 111ax 111axi111u111
6. Eccentrically Loaded I3olted Collnect.ions . 427 . min minimtm1
7. Fillet. Welds . . . . . . . . .
. . .. . ..
. . . . . . . 428 . . . . . . p proof
8. Eccentrically Loaded Welded r rnngn
Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . s sepmatiou
s<'p SPpnrntion
Nome11clatu1·e t tensile. tl1readed shank. or torsional
2
A area Ill
1' torque
A conslnnt 11 vertical
b constant
b width Ill
L
I lengt.h m
length m ble of independent operation. There are severnl kinds of
shear stress Pa
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
422 F E M E C H fl N I C A L R E V I E \V M A N U I\ L
ISOinch standard) is widely nsPcl in Lhe U11ited StatPs. Figure 42. 1 Tension Lap Join/
DIN fasteners are widely; available and broadly
accepted.3 ISO metric fast.e1 ers arc used in large voluni'c
by U.S. car manufacturers. The Emopea 11 Co11111ut.t.ee
for Standardization (CEN) sla11dards promulgaled by y
t.he Europea11 Union (EU) have essentially adopted the
d
ISO standards.
An Ameriran National ( U1 1ifiecl) thread is spccificu by
t.hc sequence of parnmeters S(xL)NFA(HE), where •
r
ance), and H and E arc the optional hand a11d engage A
y
ment lcngt.h designations. The letter R can be added lo
the thread pitch family to indicate that. the t hread roots
tt
2 2
3. RIVET AND BOLT CONNECTIONS
Figure 112.1 illust.rates a lc11siou lap joint connection
using rivet or bolt connectors.6 U nless the plate material
is very thick, the effects of eccentricity are disregarded.
A connect.ion of t.his type can fail in shear, tension, or
bearing. A common design procedme is to determine the
check the bearing and tensile stresses.
number of connectors based on shear stress and then lo
r
Equation 42. 1 : Failure by Pure (Single) Shear
T = F/A 42. 1
'1To add to the confusion, many DIN standards arc identical to ISO
standards. with only slight rliffcrenrcs in the tolerance ranges. llow 7"Do111Jlr· st.ear" is not the sarnt' ns "double ri\·et" or "double hntt."
e\•cr, the standards are not intcrchnngcablc in C\'ef)' cnse. Do11blc s/ienr means that thc1c arc two shear planes in one rivet.
1Threads nrc generally rolled, not cut, into a holt. Do11ble 1·iuct means that there arc l\rn ri\·ets along the force path.
r'The l!J/lP. of a structural bolt shonlcl not be confused with the .IJrnde of
>
Do11ule b 11 tt refers lo the use or two backing plates {i.e., "scnbs") 11s!'<I
a st1 nctnrnl rh•el. 011 cit her side to mnke n tc·11!'io11 connection bet ween two plnte�.
Gllivets arc 11 0 longer used in b11ilcling constructiun, but they are slill Si1 1 1ilmly, sin,qle bull rc fe 1s to the use of a single backing pinto to lllakc
extensively used in rnnnufncl 111 ing. a tension connect ion het 11·cc 11 two plates.
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
F A S T E N E R S 423
The plate can also fail by shear lcarouL, as illust.rated in 4. BOLT PRELOAD9
Fig. 42.3. The Lhidrness of the piece experiencing tear
out. is /. It is not. necessary for both assc111ulcd pieces to Consider tlic ungasketcd co1111ection shown in Fig. 42.G.
fail simultaneously in shear learout.. The shear stress on The load varies from P11.;11 to P111ax· If t.he bolt is i11itially
sides of t.he plug is snug but without initial tensiou, the force iu the bolt.
also will vary [rom P111;11 to Prnax· Tf the bolt is tightened
so that. there is an initial [Jl'e/oncl force, F;, greater thau
r= F = F  P111ax in addjtiou to t.he applied load, the bolt will be
2A 21.L placed in tension and the parts held together will be in
romprel'sion. 10 \Vhen a load is applied, t.he bolt tension
will increase cve11 more, but. Lhe compression in the parts
Figure 42.3 Silear TearOut will decrease.
d
Figure 42.6 Bolled Tension Joint l'li/h Varying Load
i 1
L
p
a = fi'/A 42.2 a
p
Description
The stress in a bolt that would cause it. t.o rnpture is
found from Eq. 42.2. (See Pig. 42.4.) F is the shear load,
and A is the net crosssectional area of the fastener's
t.hi1111est rnember (for rupture) or is the projected area of
a connector (for crushing).
a
[u t.he analysis of co1111cclor foilure modes, the NCEES Hmulbook
previously used the varialJlc F t o represent the externally applied load.
tn the following sections covering connector prcloading 1rnd eccentri
cally loaded connections, the variable P is used to represent externally
applied loads. The variable F si used to represent. internal prcload force
8 or forces aswciated with the connectors.
Altbough t h e NCEES Hnntlbook mentions "t ivets" i n its description,
the applicat.ion is not cxdusivc to rivets. This equation can be used 1 0Uthe init.ial preload force is less than P"'"" the bolt may still carry R
with bolts and pins. portion of the applied load.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
424 F E M E C M A N I C II L R E V I E W M A N U I\ L
For stat.ic loading, recommended amounts of prcloa<ling tlu·eads 11s11ally are ignored, so the art'a is based 011 the
oflen <'Ire specified as a perceutage of the proof load (or major (nominal) diameter.
proof strenylli), 81,, in �vi Pa. For bolls, l he proof load is
11
slightly less than t.he yield strength. Trad it ional\y, prc
load lrns been specified co11servat.ively as 75% of proof
for reusable connectors, and 90% of proof for oneuse
connectors. 1 2 Connectors with some d11ct.ility r11n safely
A siwple (linear, elastic;) st.iffness, k (also referred to
be used beyond the .vield point, an<l 100% is now in
•
as the st.iff11ess conslc111/, spri11r1 co11sto11t, spring rote,
widespread use. 1 3 \\1hen understood, advantages of prc
and rigidity), can he ralcnlnted rrorn basic; engineering
loading to I 00% of proof load often out. weigh the principles for a single co111pone11t (<".g., bolt. or
disadvantages. 1•1
damped plate).
If the applied lo11cl varies, the forces in t.hc boll. and parts
will also vary. In that case, the preload m11st he deter = f_ = _f_ = A E
k
mined from an analysis of the Goo<lmau line. r5 FL L
Tightening of a tension bolt. will induce a torsional st ress AE
in t.hc boll. 11: ; Where t he bolt is to be locked in place, t.he
torsional st ress ran be removed without greatly affecting The crosssectionnl area in tension for a bolt is well
l he preload by slightly backing off the bolt. If t.he bolt. is
dcfincd. However, the crosssect.ional area of a
subject to cyclic loading, t.he boll will probably slip hark clamped plate t hat. cont.ribulcs to stiffuess is difficult.
by ilsulf, and it is reasonable to neglect the effects of lo define and usually must be assumed. The simplest
torsion in t.he bolt altogether. (This is the reason t.hat. Ftss11mpt.ion is t.hat. t.hc effective area in compression is
welldesigned connect.ions allow for a loss of 5 LO% of an a11nular cylinder with inside diameter equal Lo I.Le
t.he init.ial preload dttring routiue use.) bolt. diameter and an outside diameter equal to 2.5
=
possible, as 11w1111fllly running up bolts to 100% proof will result in
42.5
mnny broken bolts. (b) Bolts should not be reused, as some will hnve k,, A ,1 A 1E
yielded . (c) The highrststrength bolts do not exhibit much plnslic 42.6
AJl1 + A , !,,
clongiil ion nml ordi narily should not be run up to 100% proof lond.
1s
· A11 nrg11111r11t for the conservative 75% of proof lond preloncl limit is k,,, = dEAPh( d/ I) 42.7
lhnt lhe 1 esitlual torsio11al stress will increase the bolt st ress to !JO% or
higher n11ywa,1·, and the additional 10% needed to b ring t h e preload up a,. = CP/2A1 42.B
lo 100% probably won't improve economic pe1 fon11n11cc 11111ch. a,,, = a., + F;/ A 1 42.9
ll lSt ress co mx'nt ;ations are frequent l,1· neglected for slatic landing.
P P I • w w w . 1> p i 2 p a s s . c o m
l' A S T E PJ E R S 425
s
2A1
s t eel 0.78715 U.62873
nl11mi1111rn U.79G70 0 . 63 81 6 The range s/.ress is defined as t.wice the alternal.iug
copper 0.7!J568 0.63553 st.ress i e stress excursion
au<l represen t tl1c cut.r between
gray cnsl iron 0.77871 t).()161()
Clrna_x and arnin·
Description
The force tarried by t.he bolt , Fb, and cmriecl by the
mcwlJcrs, F1111 i11 a l. h readed connect.ion an' rnlculated The mean stress is a fnnct.ion of the bolt preload mid the
from E<]. 42.3 am! Eq. 42.4, respect.ively. 1 7 F; is tile bolt
cj
average applied load.
preload.
s ,
Equatio11 42.5 calculates th oi n l coefficient, C, 18 from · + Prnax  Prni11
FI
the rat.io of the bolt s ti ffne s J.:0, Eq . 42.6, to the su m of <l111 =  "
' 
2
ucsses.1!J
st.iffoess of two or more members connected by a bo l t
or rivet a s long a s all members are of t h e same material,
Example
A bol ted joint with a joint coefficient. of 0 . 2 experiences
an alternat.ing external tension from () kN to 5 kN. The
and the length used is the sum of the mc1nbcr thick
Common values of A a nd b are given in
20 bolt i s initially preloaded t.o 10 k N . What. is most nearly
Table 42 . 1 .
the maxim11m tensile force in t.he bolt?
\:Vhen 1:tn externally applied load varies over a range of (A) 5 . 0 kN
P111i11 and P,nrL·o t he altenrnling stress, a,,, and mean
( C)
stress, a,,,, are found from Eq. 42.8 and Eq. 42.!J. These (B) 11 k N
arc shown on Pig. 42.6 for a si nuso i dal l oading. In 1 2 kN
Eq. 42.8, C is the fraction of the load, P, carried by
(D) 15 kN
Solution
1 7The NCEES llandbook qualifies Eq. 42.3 and Eq. 42.4 with the lahC'I 42.3, the maximum boll. load i s
Fb.111ax = GP + F, = (0.2)(5 k N )
"Fm < 0." The meaujng of this label is uncertain. In sl 1 ucturnl n11<1ly
sis, a compressive force or stress s +
10 k N
//andbook probably intends "Fn, < O" to indicate lhal lire force iu l hc
clamped memben; is a compressive force. However, a nrgative value of = 11 kN
Fm is inconsistent with and caunot be der ived fro111 Eq. 42.4, since
both F; and P are tensile (positive) forces . Al a 111i11i1n111n, the label
seems to be incompatible with Eq. 42.4. Tile answer is (8).
18(1) The NCEES Hn11dbook uscs the tcnn "joint coefficient" to
de:;cribe the relative sliffm� of the connector (i.e., bolt.). While this
term is consistent with the ll'mr inology used in Shig/ey's, the joint Equation 42.10 and Eq. 42.1 1 : Threaded
coefficient is ac tually the rcfoli11c slif/11r.ss of lhe connector (i.e., the Fastener Design Factors
frn1;t ion of the load I hal is carried hy the connec tor) . What the
NCEES Handbook characlcrizcs ns a "joint" property is ac l11ally a
property of the connec tor in the conncdor111c1nbcr assembly. (2) This nb = (S1.A t  F;)/ CP 42. 10
parameter i.s so111eti111es referred lo as lire 1·e/alive rigidity, 1·elotive
rigidity rntio, loud s/ia1'i119 rntiu, food fnctur, and preloud efficirncy n,, = F,/[P(l  C)] 42. 1 1
factor by at.her authorities. J\llhough the sym bol C is w;erl in Shigley's
and occasionally elsewhere, ¢ and .P arc also co1111 1 1on symbols. Description
s
10Thc NCEES H1111dbook usC'S 11 as a m11sta11l in Eq. 42.7 while also
tilling A in Eq. 42.6 to designate "nre>a." These two quantities are not There arc t\"vo requirements for the assembly to be sat.is
the same, and the A in Eq. 42.7 is not lllt are>a. factorily designed: ( 1 ) The s tress in t.he bolt. must be less
20(1) As already mentioned, it is difficult lo de>finc the compm<;sion
area of clamped parts, and, therefore, il is diftlcnlt to define the than some max i mum stress, a nd (2) the a sembly must
stiffness of those parts. Equation 42.7 circu11wcnts t liC'SC difficulties not separate. Two ratios, nb and 11", one for each require
by presenting a conven ient correlation. The correlation is (presum ment, can be defined wit.h the requirement. that each must
ably) based on obsen•ation and curYe fitting, but it rn1111ot be derived be greater tlim1 or equal to 1.0 for satisfactory operation .
from engineering fundamentals. (2) The NCEES Ha111/book presents
the correlation constants in Table 42.l without bad;gro1 111d theory,
qualificat ion, limitation, or source authority. Thew values are for lhc n0 > 1; 118 > 1 [satisfactory operation]
rnn,·enience of the FE exam and are not for design use.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
426 FE M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E VI M A I'� U I\ L
(<1) ( 1  0.4)
14 kN
boll. is CP, the ratio of force margin to acLual load is
given by Eq. 42. 1 0 . The Jm·cc margin ratio is� 1
= 5.83 kN/boJt,
The design vessel pressme is
F  Pn

 11
p
rr ( 25 crn ) 2
preload, and if a separating force equal to the preload
is applied to the members, separation will occur. A t
separation, the bolt canies the entire applierl load, 4
and assembly stiffness equals Lhe bolt stiffness. The
joint separal.io11 ratio is defined as the ratio of the = 0.95 MPa
external load that would cause separati011, Pscpi to
the actual load. 22 This is the b asis of Eq. 4 2 . 1 J . The
The answer is (B).
joint scparntion ratio is
5. BOLT TORQUE TO OBTAIN PRELOAD
· · · · · · · · · ·············· , . ... . . . . . . .. . ... . ,
························· . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .... . .. .
F;
During 11ssembly, the preloacl tension is not monitored
P(l  C) directly. R ather, the torque required to tighten the bolt
is nsed to determine when the µroper preloacl has been
reached. tlfot.110ds of obtaining the required preloacl
include the standard torque wrench, the nwofthcnut
2 1 This book refC'rs lo 11b in Eq. 42. L O m; the "force margin ratio." The
method (e.g., turning the bolt some specific angle past
NCEES Handbook refers lo llb as lhe "bolt. load factor." That name is snugging torque), dirccttc11sio11 indicating (DTI)
consistent. with Shiglcy's but is inappropriate. ln bolted joints, lhe washers, and computerized automatic assem bly.
term "bolt loarl facto1'' gcnc·rally rcfcrn lo the relati\'e stiffness ratio,
which tbe NCEES Tfo111/book mils the "joint coefficient," C (which is The standard 1mwual torque wrench does not provide
also u Shigley's c:o1l\'c11lio11). The way that llb is calculated has been precise, reliable preloacls, since the fractiou of the torque
definerl specifically by t.hu source document, not by engineering fu11da going into bolt. tension is variable. 2a Torque, angle,
mentals. Hm1•e1•cr, c1·cn t.hc source do�ument, Shi,qley's, dearly ir1di
and timemonitoring cquipruent, usually part of an
cates tbal lhc 113111c has been concocted by the aut hors hy saying
"llere we have callc<l u a load factor. . . ." Unless the name is clarifir'll automated assembly operation, is essential to obtaining
as ". . . thP load factor as defined by Shigley's. . . ," the tem1 "loacl factor" precise prcloads on a consistent basis. It automatically
cannot be rccoguizc<l as referring to Eq. 42.10. Outside of S/iiyley's, l he applies the snugging torque and specified rotation, then
"load factor" 111eans :;omething else.
checks the results with torque and rotation sensors. The
22(1) This book refers to 11, in Eq. 42.11 as the "joint separation ratio,"
follows Shiglcy's. ln this case, however, the NCEES Ha11dbook uses the
not. n facto r of safety. (2) Tlie derivation of 11.. pre.<;cnted here ogai1 1
computer warns of outofspec conditions.
is lost in lhrend friction, and only the remaining 10% gO!'S into tension
term "factor of safety" instead of Shigley 's "load factor," prohnbly lo nEven witb good lubrication, about 50% of the torque goes into
avoid the ambiguity of having two quantities with the same name, overcoming friction bet.ween the ltrarl nml collar/nange, anotlwr 40%
"load factor." (2) There is no significance lo the use of square brackets
in Eq. 42.11. ing the connector.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
F A S T E N E R S 427
Example
The initial bolt tension on a 16 mm steel bolt is 45 kN.
'\'hat is most nearly the approximate torque required to
t.ighten the bolt?
(A) 85 kN·mm The n10111cnt (or torque) on the conucctor b'Toup due to
a force, P, acting with an eccentricity, e, is
(B) 1 1 0 kN·mm
(C) 140 kN·mm Al = Pe
(D) 180 k1'1J llllll
·
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
428 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L
L A ,:r,
If The total shear force on a fastener is t.he vector sLun of
iL= I A;
"P = 
of the direct :;hear, P, and is calculated from Eq. t12.15. If
_ _ 42. 13
"
all of Lhe connectors have the same area, A , the area term
y = i=lL,,A,!J; needed, and the shear force, F2 , due to the moment, 1\1, is
It
42. 14 fotmd from Eq. 42.16. l f a line is drawn from the fastener
L: A; group centroid to the center of a given fastener, the
, .., , torsional shear force will act perpendicular to that Linc.
I F !il =
p 42. 15
ll
7. FILLET WELDS
The common fillet. weld is shown in Fig. 42.9. Such welds
42 . 1 6
2�(1) Subscripts "l" nncl "2" nrc nscd in t he NCEES Hrmdbook tu weld size, y, by
represent the two componP11ts of cccc11 liic connector group
force"direct shear" and "torsional shenr," rcspccth·cly. The sub
scripts do not. refer lo connectors l nnd 2. (2) As used by thr NCEES
Handbook, the absolute \•nluc bats i n Eq. 42.15 a11d Eq. 42.16 arc
confusing nnd mnt l1c1nnt icnlly incorrect for the following reasons:
(n) As shown in Fig. 42.8, whcthC'r the direct aml torsio11nl shears
llarulbook shows
ndd or subtract depends 011 the fastcnC'r. So, u11lC'ss thes(• t.wo equations 29(1) Figure 42.8 shows the applied force, P, applied with au eccen
arc li111itcd to use at the criticnl fastener where both vnluC>s add, the tricit.y with respect. to the fastener KfOUp centroid. 1n its equivalent.
signs MC important. Aud, even then, the rt'Sulting forces may be figme, the NCEES the applied force, P, acting
directed in tlic ncgat h·c direct.ion. (b) !\lathc111atically, because of the through the centroid of the fastener group, which would be unable to
k nlso
nbsolutc valucs, the lefthand sides of thl'SC equations arc always generate the momentrelated forces shown. (2) The fasteners in
positive, wliile the signs of the righthand sides are derived from the Fig. •12.8 are numbered l through ,l. Rather tlw11 using more descrip
signs of P and M and may be negative. Therefore, depending 011 the tive letters or sy111hols, the NCEES Handboo uses n11mcricnl
fastener, the eqnat.ious could represent "positive = Degat.ive." If the subscripts I nnd 2 to <lesignnte the type o( rcnction generated (i.e.,
intent is to have only positi,·e values of F1 and F2, the absolute vnlue I = dirC'Ct shcnr, and 2 = torsional shear). This can l end to consitlcr
of the righthand sides should be taken. To eliminate any nmbiguit)', nblc confusion when trying to determine the 111cnning of such a111big
the absolute value of both sides shoulcl he taken. uous variables as F12 and F21 •
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
F A S T E N E R S 429
Figure 42.9 Fillet Lap Weld and Symbol 8. IECCENTRICALLY LOADED WIELDED
CONNECTIONS
t/
The traditional elast.ic analysis of au ecce11t.rically
loaded welded com1cct.ioH is virtually the smne as for a
boltPd connection, with the additio11al complication of
I
haviug to determi1w t.he polar moment of inertia of the
welcls This call be douc eit.her by taking t.he \VPlds as
.. m
lines by assuming each weld has au aruit.rary thick
or
F
1" = 
&lc
\Veld (filler) met.al should have a strength equal to or
greater thau t.he base rnatcrial. Properties of filler
metals are readily available from their manufacturers
nnd, for staudnrd rated welding rods, from engineering
handbooks.
30Sted
eccentric n
building design does not use an elastic a alysis to design
brackets, eit her bolled or welded. The design methodology
is higl tly prucedurnlized and codified.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
c
L.,1i
1. Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 f, length 111
2. Spring �vlat.erials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 length of line of act.ion 111
3. Allowable Spring St.rcsses: Static Loading . . 432 Ill module UlJU
4. Helical Compression Springs: Static m,. velocity ratio
N
Loading . . . . . . . . .. ..........
. . . . . . . . . . 432 11 rotat ional speed rev /min
5. Helical Colllpression Springs: Design . . . . . . 1136 number
6. Helical Torsion Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43G p cin:ttlar pitch mm
7. Flat and Leaf Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437 p spring pitch Ill
8. Spm Gear Terminology . . . . ... .. . . . . . . . . . 437 P diametral pitch 1 / 1 11
D. Gear Train Terminology .. . ... . . . . . . . . . . . 439 P force or load N
10. Gear Sets and Gear Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113D P power k\V
11. Mesh Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4310 r ratl ius Ill
12. Force Analysis of Spur Gears . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4310 RVR relative velocity ratio
13. Design of Gear Trains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1 1 S strength Pa
14. Epicyclic Gear Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . •1311 T torque Nm
15. Analysis of Simple Epicyclic Gear Sets . . . . <13 1 2 v velocity m/s
16. Ball, Roller, and Needle Benrings . . . . . . . . . •1313 I' rolling element bearing factor
17. Bearing Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4314 VR velocity ratio
18. Rolling Element Bearing Life . .. . . . . . . . . . . t1311J w width 111111
19. Power Screws and Screw Jacks . . . . . . . . . . . 43 1 5 II' force Pa
20. FourBar Linkages . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4316 II' Wah l correct.ion factor
x deOection m
X radial load t.hrnst factor
Y axial load thrust. factor
Nomenclature
a life adjustment factor
A allowance Symbols
2
c basic bearing load rating N a angular acceleration rad/s
c centertocenter tlistauce Ill 1/ efficiency
c spring index 0 augle deg
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
432 F E M E C H A N I C I\ L R E V I E \'/ M A N U A L
h
(I
I tangent.in!, tensile, or total B 1 59), and, lo n lesser degree, type302 staiukss steel
(ASTM A 3 1 3 ) . Shotpee11i11g (sl.resspeP.ning) is one of [.he
'1' torque
bl'st methods for iucreasi11g a spring's fatigue life.
ll ult irnale
v velocity
w working
3. ALLOWABLE SPRING STRESSES: STATIC
!I yield
LOADING
Helical compression and extension springs experience
torsional shear stresses. The yield st.reugth in shear is
siliconbronze) .
n iclrnlhnsed alloys (e.g., iJ1co11cl), a11d copperbased alloys unavoidable. 5
(e.g., phosphorbronze and "Superalloys"
2. Select.ing t h e allowable stress based on the yield
are used for hightcrnpernttll'e and highly corrosive envi
strength iu shear i s probably the most theoretically
rmunents. Spring rate, fatigue st.rength, tcmpcrattll'c rigorous method. The yield slrengt.h in shear can be
range, corrosion resistance, magnetic properties, and rost
calculated from the tensile yield strength using either
1ue all c.:onside.rations.
Lhe maximum shear sLrcss or the distort.ion energy
6
Springs man11factmed from prchardenc<l materials are theory. If called for, a factor of safety of approxi
generally strrssrnUeved i n a lowtemper at ure process by mately 1 . 5 is appropriate for ferrous springs.
heating to between 200°0 and 430°C after forming.
3. Some specificat.ions limit the torsional shear stress to
Springs with intricate shapes mnst be ma n u fac tmed frolll a percentage of the tensile yield strength.
am1ealed ma le.ria ls and be subsequently strengthened i n
hightemperature processes. They are first quenched t.o Some springs (e.g., Oat leaf springs and helical torsion
full hardness and then tempered. Agehardenable materi springs) experience a be11di11g stress. Such springs arc
als (e.g., beryllium copper) can be strengthened simply l i1nited by t.he tensile yield strength of the spring
by heating aft.er forming. material.
1
Thc NCEb'S Jlamlbook does not ,
say so but, tho equal ions and values
4
for b']Jring design are spccifiC'ally li111ilctl lo spriugs manufactured from These methods apply to h elical compression and extension springs.
round wire. Reconunended percentnges are di feren t for other types of springs.
f
5
3,\ spring can be perfectly el ast ic even though it does 110! follow For highly precise springs wit h minimum hysteresis, creep, aud drift,
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
M J\ C H I N E D E S I G U 433
Figure 13. 1 End Treatment of Helical Compression Springs Numbe. of Active Coils
©©©©
The 11umhPr of ncl.iue coils (i.e., "turns") in n helical
spring is less titan or PCJltal to the Lolnl number of coils,
depe11diug on t.he metlto<l of finishing �he cuds. When a
hclkal compression spring has plnin ends (i.e., neither
squared nor ground), all of the coils contribute to spri11g
force. lu t.hal. case, the total 11umber of coils, N1, is equal
to t.he number of active coils, N. However, most desig11s
call for squaring and/or grim.ling the ends iu order t o
The lie/ix direction for siugle springs cau be either right Equ ation 43. 1 : Spring Index
hand or left haud. If the spriug works over a threaded
member, the winding direction should be opposite of the C = D/ d 43. 1
thread direction. 'Vit.h two nested springs (i.e., one
spring inside the other), the winding directions must
he opposite to prevent intermeshing. Also for nested Description
2/J of the total load. The solid and free heights of both
springs, t.he outer spring should support approximately The spring index, C, is the rat.io of the mean coil diam
eter, D, to the wire diameter, d.8 (Sec Fig. 43.2.) The
springs should be approximately the same. mean coil diameter can be calculated from the avernge
7The NCEES J/a11dbook uses "length" to dC'Scribe the free, Lu, nn<I 8This sect i on is only for liclicnl compression :;prings manufactured
solid, £,., hrights of the 8pring, ns found from Table 43.l. Other sources from round wire. Springs can also he manufactured fro111 wire with n
re[er to thrsc dimensions a.5 the free and solid height, h1 and Ii.. , square or rcctangnlar cross section. The design equations nre different
respectively. in that ca:;e.
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
434 F E M E C M A N I C A L A E V I E VI M A N U A L
d1 G
k= . 43.2
8D1 N
Variations
k
F Fi  F2
 [Hooke's law]
:i: x ,  :i:
2
Example G= E
\\1hat is most 11early the spring index of the spring 2(1 + v)
shown?
Do  Di
(8)(10 mm) 3(6) ( 1000 n;�11)
C = D/ d =
(2 111111)4(80 GPa) 106

d
= 26.67 kN/m
= 1 2 mm 2 mm
2 mm (27 kN/m)
=5
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
M A C H I N E D E S I G N 435
T = J(, 
and Eq. 43.6 using the ultimate tensile strength, 5',,1.
8FD (These equal ions apply t.o static applications only.) From
ttd'.1 ?\ I Pa, is calcu
I(, = (2C + J )/(2G')
43.3
Eq. 43.7, the minimum tensile strength, in
43. 4 lated from t he wire di ai ncter, d, in mi llimeters, ancl two
constants, m and A, determined from Table 4 3 .2 . 10
Description Examp le
The shear st.rrss, T, is calculated from Lhe force applied What is most uearly the shear yield strengt.11 for L 111m
( A ) 330 M Pa
diameter, D, and from
t.hc spring index, C' (see Eq. 43.1 ) , and Eq. 43.4.
The 11 1ax.inmtnshear stress occurs a t the inner face of ( 13) 680 r"1Pa
t.he wire coil where the torsional and direct shear
st.resses are additive. The factor !(5 is known as t. hc (C) 730 M Pa
lra11suerse shear fact.or. TL is not. a tnte stress concent.ra (D) 750 ?vIPa
tion factor, but rather, represents the theoretical ratio of
9
the rna..U mum and average st.resses.
Solution
[ ]
(1 n11n) ·
SS\' = T = 0.455'111 (t\227, A228. m1J A22!l)
43.5
liardenf'<I 11 nd tPrnpned
5'.y = T = Q.5QS11 1 carhon mod lownlloy strels 43.6
(A23:.! and A401) w( I) The NCEES Handbook presents Eq. !3.5 and Eq. 43.6 as fact..
The rclation�hips between yield and ult.imate strengths presented in
the NCEES Ha11dboo/; arc not derived from basic principles and should
Sui = A/d"' 43.7
has been incorporntccl in to the value (e.g., T., = Sy,/FS ) . Equation 43.5
the actual strel's hy a subscript (e.g., "a," "al," or "all"). (3) The term
chrome silico11 A110l 0.091 1 960 "allowuble," us used in desigu, i1nplicilly tneans that a factor of safety
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
436 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L
43. 9
5. HELICAL COMPRESSION SPRINGS:
DESIGN
Couvcut.ional spring design is an iterative procedure. Description
One or more parameters are varied until the rcquirc The spring constant., k, for a helical torsion spring is
meuts arc sat.isfi cd . OfLcn one or more parameters are calculaLed from Eq. 43.9. Since the wire is stressed in
unknown and must be assumed to complete the clesigu. bending (not shear), Eq. •13.9 uses the modulus of elas
An important decision is whether tile allowable stress is ticity, E ( 11ol. the shear rnodulus, G). The spring con
comparaulc to the maximum working stres.5 or t.he stress stant. has units of N·m/rad.
when the spring is compressed solid. Siuce most llelical
compression springs will be compressed solid sometime
in their lives, it seems logical to use t,he solid height
stress. In the absence of guidance, either interpretation Equation 43. 1 0 and Eq. 43. 1 1 : Torsional
would apply. Spring Bending Stress
rr = I<,f32Fr/(rrrl3)] 43 . 1 0
6. HELICAL TORSION SPRINGS
·· · ·· ·· · · ··· · ··· · · ···· ·· ··· · ······ ·· · ·· · · ························
Helicnl torsion springs manufactured from round wire I<; = (4C2  C  l )/f4 C(C  l )] 43. 1 1
arc essentially round cant.ilever beams. 1 1 Loading pro
duces a bending stress. Most torsion springs operate Variation
over au arbor. A clearance of about 10% between the
arbor and spring is generally adequate to prevent bind 4C2 + C  1
=
ing. The bendiug stress is largest at the inner radius of K,, 1JC( C + l)
the spring. (S ee Fig. 43.3.)
Description
The bending stress at t.he inner face of a helical torsion
Figure 43.3 Helical Torsion Spring
12( I) When a c111 ved beam bends, its neutral axis shifts toward the
center of cm\•atnre, result.ing in a higher compressive stress at the
Equation 43.8: Angular Deflection in11rr face. (Depending on the configuration and loadin�, such as a
Uboll heing pried open, the stresses at the inner and outer faces may
be reversed.) The maxinH1m tensile stress occms at the outer face. Jn
Fr = kB 43.8 Eq. 4:3.IO, the location of the stress and its sign (compression or
tc11sile) is not idcHtifie<I by subscript (i.e., ai) in the NCEES llr111dbook.
However, tho variable [(i i1nplics that it is associatPd with the inner
face of the spri11g, a11d in fact, that is what Eq. 43.10 calcnlates.
1 1 There are two basic types of torsion springs: the flat. coil spring (also (2) There is no significance to the use of square brackets in the
known as a powff spring or clock spring) and the helical torsion spring. denominator of Eq. 43. l l. (3) EquatioH 43. l I is the ll'olil correclion
Fial coil spt ings nrc designed differently and not covered in this factor that accounts for curvature i11 helical torsion springs. It is
8CC"tioll. specifically limited to round wires.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
M A C H I N I! D E S I G N 437
Equation 43.1 2 and Eq. 43. 1 3: Allowable Figure 43.4 Spur Gear Terminology
[ ]
Stress
top land
(sudace)
[ l
n1l.ld1awu cach1111 ,1 1·<'1
,, =
43 12
(J\227. ,\228. aiod A22!l)
pitch
workin g circle addendum
.'i� 0.8781 1,
l111 rdf'11Pcl aml LPU1p1·1t•d ncrhun n11d
 depth circle
low11ilrl\' :<H1·<'1 ( A2:l2 mod ,\ IO I )
43. 13 dedendum
Description
[consistrnt units]
Leaf springs ( leaf SPl), as commonly used in cars, consist
of several flat springs, each atop another. The capacity v, = rcdllrpm
of a leaf set. is t.he sum of the capacities of all sp rings
The springs slide longitudinally over one another. The The 11dtle11tlw11 is the radial distance fro111 the pitch
.
111e11t s (sro Ftn. 10) nppl�· to both sets of ec111nt ions. Basically , tllC'
(i.e., le.,,; than ii f<.'11' perce nt of the length) and I hat the load remains
perpendicular to llll' hrnm al all times. yenern/.ing line) is a line passiug lhrough the pitch point.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
43·8 F E M E C 14 A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L
_.!_
lral pitch is !.he sauw for all mesh i ng tPet.h.
(a.Joo known as l he c1119lc of obliquif.y). This involute is
caUcd a "¢0 involute." In t.he Ullilcd St ates , 20°, 22 1/1°,
and 25° presswe angles are in common use. The onct.
used 14 1/2° JXPssure angle has essentially become obsolete
'
=�=
N
P= [cii11mcl.n1l pilrh]
as it produces huger gears. d p m
,
The module, 111, of a gear is the rat.io of t.he pitch
diameter, d, to the number of t eet h, N, as shown in
addendum circle
pitch circle
base circle Eq. 43.16. Therefore the module is l.he reciprocal of
dedendum circle
the diametral pitch. The module (with units of mm per
tooth) is the conrn1011 SI index of tooth size.
N
d =  = mN [pitrh di11111eler]
p
The pressure angle is proportional lo the centertocenter Not every cliamet.ral pitch is available. To be economi
distance of the gears, but a small deviation (i.e., error ) in cal, designs should make use of l.hc standard dimnetral
centertocenter d ista nce will cha nge the pressme angle pitches. Conunon "coarse" series diametral pitches
slightly. However, chm1ges i n centertocenter spaci11g i11clude 1, 1 1/� , 1 1/2 , 1 3/.1 , 2, 21/.1, 2 1/2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 1 2 ,
and backlash don't. change the velocity ratio or the gen and 1 6 L eeth/ i n . Conunon "fine" series diamet.ral pitches
eral pPrformance of gear sets with involute gears. This is include 20, 24, 32, 40, 48, 80, 96, 120, 150, and
Lhe main reason t hat i nvolute geari ng i s w idely used. 200 teeth/in.
Figure 43.5 also illustrates the length of the l i ne of
contact bet ween teeth on meshing gears. Line B Il is Example
tl1c section of the line of action between the points where A gear has 15 teeth and a pi tc h diameter of 5 cn 1. �What
it crosses the two addenda circles. This is sometimes is most nearly t.hc circular pitch of the gear?
caUed the length of the line of action. The l ength of the
li n e of action is designated Lah· (A) 1.1 mm
(B) 3.3 mm
(C) 11 mm
Equation 43. 1 4 Through Eq. 43.16: Spur Gear (D) 52 mm
Parameters
Solution
)
JI. = red/ N [circular pitch] 43. 14
(
pi, = p,.. cos</> [b11se pitch] 43. 1 5
From Eq. 43. 14, the circular pitch is
111 = d/N [module] 43. 1 6
mm
n(5 cm) 10
Variations cm
p,.. = p = n m
Pc = nd/N =
15
p
= 10.47 mm
7{
[circular pitch] ( 1 1 m111)
=
1
ni = [module]
n p The answer is (C).
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
M A C H I N E D E S I G tJ 439
D
frorn the axis of rotation, compared to an i11/emal
year, whose teeth point. in toward the axis or rotation.
I I 1111
Figure 43.G shows both an external and an internal
0
gear.
1111 1 1 1 1 1 1 1111
Fig11re 43.6 External and Internal Gears
external
gear
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
43 1 0 F E M t: C II A N I C A L n E V I E \'/ M /\ t4 U /\ L
Wuu t i respect ively, an� known. 1 " The velocity n1Lio is also In rea lit y , eac:h gPnr se t will dissipate somr of t.hc iuput.
k1town the speed ratio, mP.s/i ratio, year rnlio, lrnns
as powpr. This is accounted for by l he cfficirncy of the ge a 1 ·
111issio11 mtio, and 11w uc 111 c n l. ratio. Its l'eciprocal is ll'ain (i.e., t he meslt efficiency), 1711,..,,1,.
known as l he lrnil1 ua / 11 P. .
w2 T1
111,. =  = 
ltlt T2
I
1 2. FORCE ANALYSIS OF SPUR GEARS
..
   · ·· · ······ .....
.
.. . ..... ·  · . . . ....... ... ......
.
. .. . . . . . . . . . . ..
1t1 r = 
m'"
Equation 43.20 Through Eq. 43.22: Forces on
Straight Spur Gears
Equation 43. 1 8 gives the velocity rntio for a t wogea r
train. In a t.wogear /min, l.be output and in pu L gears
rotate in opposite directions, which is represented by the '2 T ·J 7'
II', =  = ....::::...._ 43.20
negat.ivc sign in Eq. 43. l8. N is t.he mnnber of tee th on d 111N
the input gear, N;11, and out pu t gear, N0111 , respectively.
The vel oc i l.y ratio for a compou nd gear train
211 211
II', = = 43.21
is given by dw 111 1Vw
Eq. 43.19. A compound year train has aL least one shaft
that ca rr i es l. wo or more gears, which rot.ate at t.he same II', = 11' 1 lan 4> 43.22
speed .
�
1 ( 1 ) The variable 111,. usc:d by the NCEES H1111clbouk Cur the \·elocit.1·
The pitch circle diameter, d, can be found from t. h e
module as defined in Eq. 43.16. A ny convenient set of
units can be used. This is the basis of Eq. 43.20.
ratio is unrelated to the 111odule of the geais, 111 . (2) The v11riahles used
by ANSI/AGi\IA ( GC<lr Nomenclature, Df'fit1itio11 of Tc n11s witIt Sy111
bo/s (ANSl/AGi\IA 1012C05) and F1md11111wtal Rating Factors n11t/
11' , r = 11'1d = 1 1 mN
Culculotion Mtlltods for bwolrde Sp11r and Hrlical Gear Teeth (ANSI/ 1'
ACi\IA 2001004)) for p;enr sp<>cd rnlio are me, nlwnys a pnsiti\'C' T =
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
M A C H I N E D E S I G N 43 1 1
� w, c= 1'1 + 1"2 =
p p
N1
 1
2
N2
Description
The ce11lerloce11ter distnnce, C, is the average or t.IIP
pitch diameters, d. C cau also be calculated as the s1n11
of the two pitch circle radii, r1 and r1, as showu i11 the
variat.ion equation. Equation 113.23 cau be written for all
pairs of meshing gears and solved for unknown qua11ti
ties. I<nowleclge of vario11s gea. r ratios between I.he
meshing gears can be used lo si111plify t.he simultaneous
Since power, P, of a force, F, moving al. velocity, v, is equations.
P = F\r, t.hc torque can also be found from t he trans
u1itlcd power. This is t he basis of Eq. 43.2 1 . rn
W,,.;d IV1wtnN
P = IV1v1 = 1,1/ 1 (..,.• , . _
_
_
_
should have
1 3. DESIGN OF GEAR TRAINS shafts, 1 1 1 ay be easier to l11bric:ate, and me generally less
PX pensive.
Finding the number of Leeth tha t. each gear
in order to achieve a particular I.rain ratio is time con The simplest. type of epicyclic gear set is shown in
suming, as a trialanderror solution may be needed. A Fig. 43.10. It consists of a sun gear, ring gear (also
particularly desired gear rat.io may not Pxactly be k110w11 as an cmmilus gear), and one or more planet
achievable, since each gear must contai11 an integral gears (also rPferred to as plw1ets, planet. pinions, and
uumber of teeth. Other coustrai..nts may be placed on spide1' gcan;). The rotating bent yoke that connects the
NI N2
=
d, d2
43.23 The pla11cts rotate about their own axes and revolve
around the sun gear. Duri11g rotation, a poinL on a
16( I ) The NCEHS Handbook USC'S mt iable JI to represent trn11.s111ittrd planet gear traces out epicyclic curves, hence the name.
pOll'<'r in gear sets. This v�riablc is l'Ollsistent with Shiglcy's and is not There arc generally one to fom planets. The number of
u11k11ow11 in SI clocumentation, hut it is not normal anrl customary in planets does not affect t he output speed, but. the max
U.S. c11gi11ce1ing practice. It is 11ot thr sytnbol adopted for tiammtittcd
imum power transm ission is essentially proportional l.o
po\\'l•r by ANSl/AGi\IA in ANSl/AC:i\IA 2001001 and ANSl/AC:i\IA
l 0 1 2C:05. ('..! ) Ontside of the subject of gear sets, the NCEES l/andbook t.hc number of planets. The number of planets is limited
uses oth�r vmiHlil�s to designate tron.sntittcd powC'r. by spf\ce so that. the pla11cts do not. "overlap." Either the
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s • c o n1
4312 F E ME c I I A tn c J\ I. nE v I E w M A N u J\ L
ring gear or the crirrier ca 11 be fixed. If onf' is fixed, then t.he ring gPar is an internal gear. So, a conve1 1ie11t rule is
t.he other umst rotate. l 1 1aL RVR is always negative wit.b internal ring gears.
sun gear is fixf'd rind Lhe input is the ring genr, Lhc Nring (lrua)
syslern is caUe<l a solar gear set.
Fifth and finally, a second equal.ion for t he RVR is
written in t erms of the rotational speeds or l he first
15. ANALYSIS OF SIMPLE EPICYCLIC GEAR gear, last gear, and arm. Any w1lrnowu vah1Ps can be
( A ) '/J
Win to the numher of teeth 01 1 t.he sun gear?
Pourth, the ratio of numbers of teeth, N, on the last gear Choose clockwise as the positive direction. The sun gear
and first gear is calculated. This value is also the 1·e/atiue is the input gear. The output element is the arm. The
velocity ratio (RV R)the rat.io of velocities of the ring
and sun gears when the arm is held sLationary. 1 7 The
111"
sign of the RVH depends Oil the directions of the first
and last gears. If the first (sun) and last, (ring) gears 10
NCEES Ha11tlbook Eq. 113.24
is misleading, because is not the gear
turn in opposite directions when the arm is held station set \•elocity ratio defined in Eq. 43.17. The quantit�· represented by 111"
ary, R V R i:; negative. This will always be the case when (11\111 in this book) is quite di fferc 1 1t. from the ratio of gear set output
an<l input velocities (Vfl in this book), as the example illustrates i n
Eq. 43.2•1. (a) Since the ;m11 11ngular velocity i s subtrnct<.'<1 frorn both
the last aml fir:;t gear angular velocities, m" in Eq. 43.24
is dl'arly the
ratio of last and fii"st ge;ir <lngi.1lar velocities relath·r (with respect) to
17The NCEES lfa11dbook usrs the term "is grounded." This is syno11y the m m when the ann is held stntionfil)'· (b) m" ill Eq. 43.24 always
111ous with "is held stnt io11nry" <rnd "is fo.:ed." There is no rlrctrital bas the snme absolute value, regardless of whet her lhc gc•<1 r sci s i speed
connotation to "is grounded." red11ri 1 1g or spc('(I augmenting.
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
M /\ C H I N E D E S I G N 43� 1 3
= 1/3 ,
)
reducing gear :;et lias a velocity ratio of VR so the Figure 43. 1 1 Rolling Element Bearings
speed of the outpnl arm is
0
rev _ 333_3 rev
ill.i n min
rev 333.3 rev radial cylindrical spherical
1000 
min min
1
2
k
Nriug 11

Nsun
=  =  = 2
RVR
The answer is (D).
tapered needle· roller
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
43 14 F E ME C M A N I C A l R E V I E W M A N U A l
Y
F
\IFu ,
Benrings nre specified by both their static and dynamic
1 7. BEARING CAPACITY ·· ···· · ·
as defined by the following equation, the values of X and
are given in l ltc values section.
.
c [low
load capacities. Bearings are selected (i.e., as from a <
X Y
ma11ufact.urcr's catalog) so that the equivalent. bearing 
/:;
the applied or de8ign load (i.e., the cat aloged capacity),
P. Slalic capacity can be used if rot.ational speed is slow, tion, = 0.56, and is calcnlat.ed from Eq. 43.27.
i11tennitte11t, and/or subject lo shocks. Dyuamie capac
ity is used i f the rotational speed is smooth and rcla > e [high axial loadi11gj
t.ively constnnL. r
X VF(F+)u.Y2F,:1<i.
Equivalent Radial Load
(B) 9.7 kN
( D) 1 2 kN
\I = l
' = 0.5 1 3 _,.
( 43.26
Co
1·)
��)  n. Solution
( 217
X\IF,. + YF0
Y = O.S•W !Fn l \I F, > 43.27 i f the inner ring rolatcs. From Eq. 113.25,
F,,
Lubrication of bearings is provided for the common
Description reasons: (a) reduce friction by separating the surfaces
in contact, (b) dissipate heat, (c) prevent corrosion, and
When a bearing is subjected to both a radial loading,
(cl) remove dirt and contamination. Bearing life is
and an axial (thrust) load, F,,, an equivalent radial load,
affected by proper lubricatiou. Bearing life (bearing
Pe<J• must be calculated i n order to select bearings or to fatigue l'ifc) is a measure of how long a bearing can be
calculate bearing life. rn (The term equivalent implies
expected to last under staudard operating conditions.
that. radial and axial loads have been combined into a
Bearing life depends primarily on the loading, although
::;ingle radial parameter.) For a singlerow ball bearing,
\/, X,
care, cleaning, and lubrication are significant external
the equivalent radial load can be calculated as shown i n
i11fluence8 on life. The bearing is assumed 8erviceable as
Eq. 43.25.
long as 90% of the rolling elements are functional, and
and }' arc factors that are best. supplied by the the parameter t.hat predicts when 10%
of the rolling
manufacturer, but can be determined from accepted elements have2 failed is designated £ 1 0 and referred to
met.hods. X is the rndial load thrnsl faclor, and }1 is as "Lten." 0
t.he axial load thrust faclor. C0 i8 the basic static load
X Y
rating from the manufacturer's catalog. \I = 1 when the
outer ring (raceway) is ::>tationary and the inner ring Equation 43.28: Minimum Required Basic
rotate.;; \I= 1 .2 when the inner ring is 8tationary and
Load Rating
the outer ring rotate::>. nnd depend on the relative
C = PL''"
ratio of the axial and radial forces. For low axial loading
43.28
1 9Tlm NCEES J/a111lb11ok llS<'S F to represent. the tLx.ial and rndial
components of the co111hincd (equivalent, resultant, total, etc.) lond
thal is clesignnlt'd hy ll diffcrc11t \'ltriable, P. 20t11 other countries, the rlesignntio11 Bin 111ny be u�cd in place of Lw.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
M A C U I H E D E S I G N 43 1 5
p
hPnring type
1i
ll
10/:1
ball 3
roller
Description
ThP e
1nini11111111 r quirnd bnsic C, is t he load
load mlin,q,
under which 90% of the bearings will smvive one million
revol utions. P is t,110 design radial load, L is L.he dPsign
fl
life in 111 illions of revolntious, and is a const ant equal
a square thread
to 3 for a single row of ball bearings and I 0/3 for
st. r igh t roller bearings, as shown iu t.hc vah1Ps sectiou. 24> p
Example
Whflt ii; most. nearly the mjnimuw required bfli>ic load
rating for a single row of ball bearings wit.It au equiva
l en t. radial load of 22 kN and a design life of
311() 000 rcvol11t.ions?
( A ) 15 kN
(13) JG kN
Acme thread
(C) 22 kN
Equation 43.29 and Eq. 43.30: Required
(D) 33 kN Torque
)
 
is 3 for a bearings. The rrrlm  11/
2 2
rev i /a
i = Prim (rr11rl11,  ) + Fp,.d, '
( Fd,,, ) ( tan
C=
1
Variation
15.355 kN ( 15 kN)
= ]
=
n B + ft )
2 11 Lan B
[no collar friclion
)
T
(F d111) ( /I 
T/1e answer is (A).
]
1..�.�.. .P..9�_1::.����.::�.S...!\.������w. �!\9..��
_ tan B
2 1 + p lan 0
'/ ' ,, _
[no collar friction
'·
fl s
changes rotary mot.ion into traversing Description
motion). The can be horizontal ( as
in vices and lathes ) or
linear positioning The torque required t.o Lurn a square i;crcw in mot.ion
vcrLical, as in jacks. Cross sec fl " i n t an axial force (i.e., "misc" the load)
2
is given in
tions of square and Acme threads, both commonly used
F
Eq. <13.29. 2
0
1
in power screws, are i;hown in Fig. 43.13.2 For square
</J, is zero. t.o
turn the screw in mot.io11 in the
e , d1 1 ,
threads, the thread angle, The torque required
direction o f the appliedaxial force (i.e., "lower" the load)
Square power screws arc designated by the rncan diame is given by Eq. 43.30. If the torque is zero or negative ( as
t r pitcu, and
p, 0. The
lead angle, is the pitch, p, it would he if the lead was large or friction was low) ,
distance between corresponding poi nts 0 1 1 a thread. The then the screw is not. selflocking and tltc load will lower
lead,I, is the distance the screw advances each revolutiou. by itself causing the screw to spin ( i.e., will "overhaul").
Often, double and tripkthrcaded screws arc used. The
lead, /, is one, two, or three times the pit.ch for i>ingle,
The screw will be selflocking when tau 0 _:::;; /t.
double, and triplethreaded screws, respect.ively.
Example
mm
I=
A lubricated power screw is used to lower a 1000 N load.
rr d1 1 tan 0 The screw has a major diameter of 40 mm, a 111can
diameter of 37.5 1111111 and a lead of 7 . The coeffi
21Thc IU0 modified thread is t�nl ially equivalent to lht' square cient of friction is 0.15.
thread, bul it is more economiwl to 111an11facl11re than the square
I hread . 22The relatio11�lrip is tlifiNenl for Acme and ot hrr threads.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
4316 F E M E C H A N I C A L 11 E V I l: \'/ M A N U I\ L
ti
load
applied for one revolution is
Wuctuol = TO = 2rr '1'
motion
The ratio of the ideal to actual work h�rms is the basis of
handle
Eq. 43.31.
The torque calrnlat.ed in Eq. 43.29 and Eq. 113.30 is
required Lo overcome t.hread frict.ion and Lo raise the
load (i.e., a.'.'ially cornpress the screw). Typically, only
103 to 15% of the torque goes into axial compression of
the screw. The remainder is used to overcome friction.
The n1echanical efficiency of the screw is the rat.io of
torque without friction t� t.he torque with fricl.ion. The
torque without friction can be calculated from the two
Neglect.ing collar frict.ion, what. is wost. nearly the torque previous equations (dependiug on the travel direction)
required to lower tlie load? using 11 = 0.
(A) 1 .7 N·m
(B) 2�j N·m
(C) 160 N·m
In t.he absence of an ant.ifrict.ion ring, an additional
(D) 2200 N·m Lorquc will be required to overcome friction in the collar.
Since t.he collar is generally flat, the normal force is the
Solution jack load, F, for t.he purpose of calculating the frict.ional
force. (Sec Fig. 113.14.)
Use Eq. 4�1.30 . Since collar friction cnn be 11eglecte<l, the
rrd11 + µ
( )
TL = Figure 43. 14 Screl'I Wilh Collar
)
( 1 000 N)(37.5 mm)
( rrrr(0.15)(37.5
(2) ( iooo
111111
x
mm)  7
Ill
) mm
( 1 .7 N·m )
(37.5 mrn) (0.15)(7 nui1)
+
= 1 .683 N·111
thrust
collar
nut
Equation 43.31 : Power Screw Efficiency
11 = Fl/2nT 43.31
F/2 F/2
as the ratio of t.hc ideal work required to raise the jack The fourbar linkage is a simple mechanism comprising
against the load to the actual work performed. The ideal four links (bars) t.hat are linked by joints. The linkage is
work is calculated as force x distance. The distance the able to rotate within Lhc plane of the mechanism. Four
screw moves for each revolution is the lead, /. The ideal bar linkages arc conm1011 components in machine design,
work is and many diverse 111ccltm1isms can be analyzed as four
bar linkages. A simple fombar linkage is shown in
Fig. ,13.15.
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
M A C ll l N E D E S I G N 43 17
The fourbar linkage in fi'ig. 43. 1 5 has a reference link, Figure 43. 15 FourBar Linkages
link l ; a crank li11k (also known as an input link), li11k 2;
a coupler link, link 3; and a11 output. link, link 4. The
v
reference liuk is t.y pically fixed (grmmdcd) aml is 11sm1 lly
taken to coincide wit.It the :N1xis. The links arcjoi11ed by
four pivots: two moving pivots, A and B, and l wo fixed
pivots, 02 and 04•23
..... ..... �
while link 1 is length d. link 1
,/"
\
04 x
/( I = !!_Ii
Equation 43.32 Through Eq. 43.44: Position
Analysis 25• 26
;
43.43
( ) K;; = 
a2  Ii�
2ab
c1  rP 
43.44
= 2 arctan  B v'
± B  <I A C
( )
43.32
2
n,u
(  B  VB1  4AC)
2 Variations
 E + VE  4DF
041,2 = 2 arcta n
O:i11 = 2 Hrctau  43.33
F
"
43.40
/(i = 
a
43.41
c E2  4D
[closed position]
2a r
2 + c2 + rF 2D
= 
a2  b
f("J 43.42
23
//a111/book IL�l'S t he tc•n11 "pivot" to descr i be what is tion) of links with respect Lo each other. Typically, the
lengths of the links are known. If angle 02 is known,
Thc NCJ::ES
typically referred t o as a "joint," "pi11," or "hinge." The tt'<'h11ical 1 1 a1 11c
fur a pin joint is revo/ute. angle O� can be calculate<l from Eq. 4 3.32 . Equa
24Alt hough the NCEES J/andbook llSl.'S numbers to designate the li11k�, tion 43.32 can be rewrit ten for either open or crossed
the NCEES Handbook also uses n 1 11 1 1hcrs i11 a second level of s11hsc1 ipts
position configurations as shown by the variation
equations.
S<·cl ("2") positions. So, OJ, refers lo
to dc�ig11ate the open ("l") mul cros.
the u11glc of the crossed position of li11k 3. The seco11cl 1111111crical
subscript is unrelated lo a li11k 11111 11bcr .
2"Thc fundamental engineering principles and theorems used to ;11 1a
If angle 02 is known, t. he angle 03 can be calculatc<l from
ly:w fourbar linkages are obscured by these equations. The fr1urhar Eq. 43.33. Equation 113.33 can be rewritten for either
li11kugc equat ions presente<l i11 the NCEES Handbook cn n he 1 1scd lo open or crossed position configurations as shown by the
clclcrmine position, velocity, n11cl accderntion, but the pl1 1ga11dchug
variation equations.
calculations do not re<111irc or demonstrate engineering knowledge.
Other than being aware of their existence and locnlio11, there are no
f'11gineering fundamental� to lcM11 from these equations. Example
the open posit.ion. The values of 02 , I<1 , /(2 , and /(1 arc
w
The fourbar linkage system shown is configured into
Thc NC££S llandbook nSf'S "A," "B," "C," and "D" to drsig11atc two
different concepts: the four joi11ts and four interrncdiale rnkulut ions i n
Eq. 43.32 through Eq. 4J.39. There s i n o co1111cctio11 between the
common drsignat ions. 65°, 0.58, 0.68, and 1.2, respectively.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
43 1 8 F E M E C 11 A N I C A L R E V I E I/I M fl N U A L
siu(02 Oa)
c si11(0 1  O: )
i
y
W1 =
111;;1  43.4G

Prom Eq. 43.34, component of velocit.y is v = v 1 si.n 0 = lw sin B, and the
ycomponcnt is v11 = v 1 cos B = /..u cos B.
A = cos fJ2 
:r
= 0.755
J( I
= cos 65°  0.58  0.68 cos 65° + 1.2 calculntecl from Eq. 43.45 and Eq. 43.46, respectively,
using I.he angular velocity of link 2, w2. Clockwise and
counterclockwise rotational angular velocit.ies and accel
From Eq. 43.35, erations are distinguished by opposite signs. The most
common assumption is that clockwise rotation is posi
B = 2 sin02 = 2 sinG5° tive, but this is an arbitrary decision. Once I.he angular
velocities of all links are known, the velocity in a direc
=  1 .81 t.ion parallel to an ax.is is calculated as shown in
From Eq. 43.3£), Eq. 43.47 t.IU"ough Eq. 43.52. Although the pivot points
of links 2 and 4 are fixed (i.e., st<it.ionary), Lhe location
 (K2 + l)cosfh + ](3

C= of t.he pivot. poi11t for link 3 changes as t.he linkage
moves. So, the linear velocity of link 3 can be specified
r<,
= 0.58 (0.68 + 1)cos65° + 1.2 with respect to either its (moving) pivot point or wilh
= 1.07 respect to the stationary �cy plane. The velocity of a
point. with respect lo another point is designated by a
(B  JB2  4 A C)
From Eq. 43.32, for the open position, double subscript. For exa i nple, "BA i s the velocity of
point B with respect Lo point A .
8.1 = 2 arctan
2A
What are most uca rly t.he angular velocities of li11k 3, w3,
Example
( 1 .8 1 )
(( 1 81)  ; 2 l and li11k 4, (J.i , of the fourbar 111echa11ism shown?
 2 a1ctan
· "
. \  (4 ) (0.755)(1 .07)
B
(2)(0.755)
,,
A ,
�v�\02 =
= !J2.G5° (93°)
�"' __ _._
w = 3 rad/s ;r'
\ ::;,' " J.
45°
02
Tf1e answer is (A). •
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
M A C II I N E D E S I G N 43 19
Solution Description
fJ.1 = 1 80°  o = 180°  00° = 120°. Calrulat c Ll1c angu A cce/cration analysis determinPs l.hc a11gular accelera
lar velocity of link 3 from Eq. 43A5. tion Of links WIH'll the accelcratiOll of OllC liuk, typically
mv2 si11(0.1  01)
the crank link, is !mown. The t a ngential arrPlerat.ion of
.
n wheel of radius , rotating about a fixed point is a 1 =
W3 = 
b sin(O:i  0 1 )
of a link of length I rotating about a point is a 1 = /a . If 0
m , and similarly, the tangential acceleration of the end
CD  AF 43.53
o :i =
A E  BD
CE  BF 43.54
f\ i =
A E  BD
;\ = csin II� 43.55
n = bsiu 8:1
1w2 sin (h + r1w2 C'OS 02 + lw:j cos 8:1 
43.56
1
C= rll.J 1 r·os (}�
2 2
43.57
D = c cos B� 43.58
? . 0 ' ? . (:) 2 . (}
E = bcos B:i

43.59
F = f/0. 2 cos (J2  aw2 Slll 2 �
..V
j Sill 3 + cw, Siil
·
I
43.60
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
.. . . .. . .
... . .. . ..
. . . .. .. . . . .... .. .. ······ .... .. .. . . . . . .... .. . .
...... . . . . . . ., , . . . ........... . .. ···
L
3. Hydraulic Flui<ls . .. ... . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '142 /( coustaul various various
ll. Designations of Hydraulic Oils . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1 2
1 lmgt h ft Ill
8. Burst Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. Pressure Rating of Pipe and Tubing . . . . . . 444 II polytropic exponent
444 11 rotational speed rpm rpm
9 . Fluid Power Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 444 p pressure lbr/fL 2 Pa
\V
1 0. Elecl.ric Motors .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445 pf power factor
1 2. Accu111ulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 1 . Strainers and Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4'15 p power hp (ftlbf/sec)
445 Q flow rate (ljquids) gal/min 1113/min
13. Linear Actuators and Cylinders . . . . . . . . . . . 446 Q flow rate (gases) fL3/sec m:i/s
1'1. P11cu1J1at.ic Syste11Ls .. . . 446 R electrical resistance n n
15. Modeling Hydraulic and Pneumal.ic
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
v v
\I capacity or volume 1113
B bulk modulus lbf/ft2 Pa ft 3
\I effective (nus) line
c capacit ance F F
v v
c corrosion allowauce in mm voltage
\I voltage
discharge coefficient
\1
Cd
c, hydraulic compliance ft5/!bf m5/N volumetric flow rate fta /sec m:J/s
D
d inside diameter ft 111 x distance fL Ill
J=l
Symbols
head loss due t o friction
(J
"1 ft Ill
compressibility ft �/lbf l/Pa
imagiuary operator,
I] efficieucy
effect.ive (nns) liue current A A Pa·s
/l absolute viscosity lbfsec/ ft2
I incrtancc (inductance) lhf/ft.4 N/rn4
p density lbm/ft3 kg/m3
f1 hydraulic iuertance lbfsec2/ft5 N·s2/ni'�
1
(kg/nf )
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
442 F E M E C 11 A N I C A L R E V I E W M I\ N U A L
1 . INTRODUCTION TO FLUID POWER to reduce friction and prevent wPar), viscosity, visrosity
inclex,u pour point, fo1sh point, rust resistance, oxidation
Fluid power (hydraulic pn111eror 11n111er liydra1ilic) r:q1dp resistance, and foaming resistance. Hclat.ivc lo petro
111c11l is hydra11lica tl,\' opernti1 1g equip11 1e11t t.ltal gcacr leum oils, fire resistance is usually achieved to the detri
alcs hydraulic pressure al. one point in order to perform rneut of the other properties.
11sefnl t;;islrn at Rnother. The eqnipment typically con
sists of a power source (i.e., an electric 11tolor or iutcrual \\Tateroil emulsions are the lowestcost fireresistant
combustion engine), pump, actuator cylinders or rotRry fluids. They get 1erally perform as well as, or better t.han,
fluid motors, control valves highpressure tubing or most petroleum flnids.
hose, Duid reservoir, and hydraulic fluid. (Sec Fig. 44 . l . )
During operation, the powPr somce pressmizes t.llf' Due to their simi!Rrity to standard ant.ifreeze solutions,
hydraulic fluid, and the control valves direct the fluid waterglycol mixtures arc a good choice for low
Lo I.he cylinders or hydraulic motors. 1.emperat.ure use. Periodic checking is required to moni
tor alkalinity alld water evaporatiot1. The water content
should not. be a lloweJ to drop below approximately 353
Figure 44.1 Typical Fluid Po\'/er Circuit
t.o 503.
doubleacting, singlerod cylinder Synthetic hydraulic Onids are the most costly of tl. ie fire
resistanl. Ouids. They liave higl1 lubricity. Special for
mulations may he needed for lowtemperature use, and
electrohydraulic fourway, their viscosity indexes arc gc1 1 erally lower tha11 those of
threeposition, solenoidactuated
petroleum oils. A significant. factor is that they are not.
servo valve, neither control actuated
chumically consistent with tlic seal materials in use for
nonreturn valve petroleun� oils.7 Therefore, synthetics cannot he 11sed in
all existing systems.
adjustable pressure reducing valve The temperature of the hydraulic fluid entering tltc
pump is typically l 00°F lo l 20°F (38°C to 49°C). The
temperature is commonly limited by most specifications
shutoff valve
Lo 1 20°F (49°C) for waterbased fluids and 130°F
tubing (54°C) for all other fluids.
7Sornc �f the senl rnlllcrioL� thnt ore snit nl il e for use with synthetics
lrss with \'ntintimLq i n tP111perntme limn thosP of fluids wi l li low
In addition lo cost, the properties most relevant. in
viscosity i1 1dcxrs.
selecting hydraulic fluids are lubricity (i.e., the ability i11d11dc butyl rnhlwr, cthyleucprnpylcnc rnhhPr, si l i con e, Tefio11n1,
and nylon.
�Refer to ANSI Y32. I O an<l ISO 1 2 1!J. �Irr the Urritcd Stat rs, oils ari' nlsu ck'sigrratNI by their nlilillll'y perfor
5An er11ulsio11 of water in oil (ns opposed lo oil in
ilwcrl emulsion.
wnl�·r) is known ns n11 111t111cc 11ur 11hers (e.g., ll !LLPfiP87257).
�'The drsignnt ion "\\r' in SA F, grade;; slnncls for "winter," not weight .
P P I • w \'I w . p p i 2 p a s s • c o m
Ii V D R A U L I C A N D P N I! U M A T I C M E C H A N I S M S 443
The fSO 11iscosily grndP (VG) clesignation is similar in A illl'eeway c;o11/.n1l ualvc (si11ylcacli11,q value) is com
purpose aud i s recoguizcd i11ternat.iom11ly. Desig11at.iorn; monly 11sed to control a singleacting circuiL. A fourway
32, 46, a11d 68 are common spccilica lio11s for hydraulic valve ( du11bleacti11g valve) is t.ypically used t o control a
applications with vane. piston, and geartype pumps. Ai; doubleacting circuit. There arc several ways t hat. a
show11 i 1 1 Taulc 4 4 . 1 , a11 ISO 32 oil is equivalent to m t co11t.rol valve in i t s neut.ml position can be dcsigucd t o
SAE I OW oil. An I S O GS oil i s equivalent t o an function. A n upc11ce11lcr valve ( landemcenler urdne) is
SAE 20\V oil. t.ypi<'ally used with a fixecl clisplacc1ne11t. puwp. Iu the
neutral posit.ion, it allows hydra11lic fluid to free flow
hark lo the la11k. Shifti11g t.hc spool position directs
Table t14. 1 Typical Properties of ISO Hyc/raulic Oils hydraulic tluid to the selected port. Au 011e11ce11lcf'
... x
abwlutc (J�'Ilaruic) l'i.scosity
powerbeyund value (hiyhpf'essure ca n·yover 11al11e) is
ISO
similar t o an opencen ter valve except. that i11 the neu
rey1 1 w�
t.rat position, hydra11lic fluid flows t o t.he downstream
(<·St) (lhf·>e<'/i111) de11:.ity
..
circuit instead of t.o Lhc I.au.le A c/oseclce11ler 11alve is
typically used with a variabledisplacement pump.
�r o..:;ity
vi. e.:1uimknt
g"ule SAG grade 40,c 100°C l04°F 212'F (kr;/111") (lb111/f1 "J Hydraulic fluid is blocked at the valve until the spool
:52 IU\\'
is moved out of the neutral position.
;j2 5.1 ·I ll.6 8fi7 5�.G
�ti 20 4U Ci.8 5.7 0.8 SGL ;,3,7 I n the neutral posit.ion, a mo/.orsponl valve (jf'ccf/uw
(ili 10\V liS 8.7 �.fJ I.I SG5 51.1
valve) allows hydraulic fluid to flow back to the tank.
The operator is able t o rnn a hydraulic mot.or under load
100 30 LOO llA 12.G IA 86!1 54.:3
and, when the valve is shifted back to neutral, the motor
IBO .10 1 50 15 rn l.S 872 5 1..J is allowed to coast. t o a stop. A cyliwle1·spool ualvc
220 50 220 Hl.4 27.7 2.4 87i'i 5U.i should uc used in applications where a load is Lo be
rtjs1·c")
raised and held aloft with a hydraulic cylinder. W i t h a
Control valves are described according to t.heir number There are u u merous types of llexihle hose. i\fost. are rein
of ports, their normal configuration, and their munbcr of forced wit.h steel wire, steel braid, or other high strength
posit.ions. The "way" of a control valve is equal t o the fiuer. Fluid compatibility, bend radius, and opcratiug
11umber of ports. Thus, a threeway valve will have one pressure arc sclectiou criteria. The internal diameter of
port for pre:o;surized fluid and two possible discharge flexible hose i s t.he hose's nominal size. Wheu pressurized
ports. A fourway valve will have two ports for pressur to l l 10l'C thcu1 250 psi ( 1 .7 MPa), the working pressure or
ized fluid and two discharge ports. I r a valve prevents hose is taken as 25% of t.hc burst pressure.
throughflow when deenergized (i.e., when off), it is
designated as "normally closed" or "NC." If the valve JUCopper pipe may react with some hydraulic fluids and is rnrdy used.
1 1The "grade" of a steel is usuall_I' its tensile slrenglh in ksi. For
permits throughtlow when deenergized, it is designated
<'Xample, the tensile strength of A51G grade 60 st<'d is 60 ksi. T111.·
as "normally open" or "NO."
tions for the carbon steel tL5Cd in pip!.'s nrnl l. 1 tl )('s. Tl1e gra<lu of thu
111alerials, gTades, specifications, cla<;.'><'s , an<l t.yp!.'s of SIC<'! pipe's irncl
tubes are easily coufuse<l. A285, A515. nnd A516 ar(' c01 n111 011 drsig1111
In some valves, the fluid can he infinitely split between
two discharge ports. In others, there arc two distinct materinl may relate lo its tensile strength, dudilit,v, or other property.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
444 FE ME CHAN I CAL n EV I EW MAN U A L

that for pressure pipin� i n other types of power piping
1
 
systems. 2 The max.imum working pressure is
2y(l' C)
2S(t! C) closures the pressures calculated from tlie given equa
Pmax = D
t.ions must. be reduced for t.he effect of water han 1mcr.
The amount. of reduct.ion for water hanmier is calculated
In the given equation, S is the maxinrnm allowable stress.
38 C)
fro111 t.he waler hammer fac/01', WHF the rat.io of pres
The maxinnun allowable stress depcuds 011 the 1uctal 11
sme (in psi) to flow rate (in gpm). 1 The clerating iu
composition and tempernt.me, but since most, fluid power working stress clue to water hammer is
systems nm at approximately 100°F (: ° , the lll<LX
imum stress corresponding to that temperatme should be
used. Dy convention, the max.imum allowable stress is
desig n fo c to r) of 3
calculated as the ult.imale tensile strcngt.h divided by a
factor of safety �referred t.o ris a or, The working pressmc after water hauuuer may be
occasionally, 4.1 Values of 12,500 psi am! 17,000 psi further reduced for connections and fittings. The
(86.1 lvIPa and 1 1 7 MPa) are commonly used for initial a111ou11t of the reduction is approximately 25%.
studies for A285 carbon steel pipes aud tubes, and these
values conespond to approx.imate factors of snfety over
D
variatimL'
>, corrosion, threading, and variatimrn in mech
anical slrengt.h. A value of C = 0.05 in ( 1 .27 nun) is
appropriate for tlueaded steel tnbes up to 3/s in
2S11t t
(!J.525 uun) diameter. For larger threaded stc.'Cl tubes, C
is equal to the depth of the thread in inches ( mi llimeters).
C= 0.05 in
(1.27 nun) for uuthrca<lcd steel tubes up to
0.5 in (12.7 mm). C = 0.065 in (l.G51 mm) for nntlueaded 9. FLUID POWER PUMPS
y = 0.5.
pumps. Rotary and reciprocating designs are both used.
common to fluid power systems, up to 900°F (480°C). For
All of the standard formulns for pump performance
operation at !J50°F (510°0), For 1000°F (540°C
1 (horsepower, torque, etc.) apply. For example, the
aud above) , y = 0.7. �
horsepower needed to drive the pump is given by tlte
The given equation is a codebased approach to calcu following equation. l)purnp is commonly taken HS 0.85.
lating the working pressure. Three other theoretical
Jlpsi Qgpm
met.hods are also used, primarily with steel hydraulic
tubing co11nected with flared fittings, to calculate the
1 Ph p _

working pressure. 5 Di mensi011s used in the Barlow, l 71 4 1/p11111p
Boardman, and Lame formulas are nominal, tabulated
( )
values. The Barlow fommla is the standard thinwall
The torque OH the pump shaft is
cylinder formula.
2St. in:i
Ppsi 211:
p=v displacement i n
rev
'1'inlbf =

llrpm

The Boardman fomwln is
2Sl
p= D
0. 8 1,
12J\SJ\ B3 l .J.J 1 �111rl11ding an allow1wrc for wntc•r hn111111C'f sho11lcl he hascd on I ht'
13Thc nbhrcviations SHYS and S/ll'TS stand for "standard 111ini111u111 t.ypc of fluid systc111, nutjnst 011 the material 11.scd for the pipe or tube.
yicl<l strength" und "standard 111ini111u111 tensile strength," fl'SpC\:t ivcly. So111c somccs suggest tht1t the allowance r11r wilt('r hnm111cr should be
1
�Valurs of C and y arc spl'<"ific<l by Part 2 of AS/IIE's Code for Powc1· included only with rnsliro11 pipl's. While it is l rue that 111ost. rnsl irons
Piping (J\S/llE 831.1). C'xpcricncc brit.tlc (not duct.ilc) failure, 01njtting the prc:;surc increase
1
5Tubing must nn1for 111 tu SAE J524, J525, an<l J356. with ductile pipes denil.'S that water hammer actually otcurs.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
H V 0 n I\ U L I C A N 0 P N E U M A T I C M E C II A N I S M S 445
The !low raLe in pumps is related to t.he di:;plm:emeut Table 44.2 Electric Motor Variables'
per revolution by furr 1 1 ulB
11 ,P'"
( clisplacenwut i11
inJ
rev
) fin<l
ju111p'\
g,iven
P1,.,
singlephm;e
74 G P1 ip
threepha;;c
7• 1GP""
Q = '� 1'17(pf) ,/3 \117(pf)
!;I'"' 2 :n
la1111'" Pkw lOOOPk11· lOOOPk11•
To prevent cavitation, the flow velocity in suctiou lines
l'(pf) J3 l'(pf)
1
/i\rllp3
is generally limited by specification to rt/sec to 5 rt./sec lOOOPw,1 lOOOPk\'A
PkVA
(0.3 111/s to 1 . 5 m/s). The now velocity in discharge lines \I
Pkw
17 J3 v
is limited to 10 ft/sec t.o 1 5 ft/sec (3 m/s lo 4.5 m/s).
The actual fluid velocity can easily b e calculated from l l'(pf) /3T \/(pf)
( )( )
systems may be nble to use a 25 11rn fil ter.
1e = (ratec1 1·1 1e
r)
:l A filter installed in the suction line will protect all
rated speed rated pressure
lir components !Jut wilJ coutributc to suction pressure loss.
nctual speed actual pressure
For that reason, it is common practice to _ i nstall the
filter after the pump, protcctiug all components except
Bearing life predictions for pump applications arc I.he
t.he pump. The pump is protected by a coarse screen in
same as for other applications.
t.he suction Ii ue.
1 2. ACCUMULAYORS
.............................................................................. ........................... ............. ........
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
446 F E M E C H /\. N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L
P = pAv = p Tl
changes is complicated uy the speed of the process, sincP
the gm; may heat or cool during the volume cliangc.
atmosphere) directly without needing to have lluid lo Q = /( $µ is usually expected. However, for simpli
return systems. Unlike hydraulic Ouid applications that city in fluid power analyses, the relationships arc ofte11
operate between 1000 psig and 10,000 psig (G.9 tvlPa assumed to be linear over small variat. ions in pressure.
and G9 M Pa), 1nosL industrial pneumatic applications This assumption is valid in lami11ar flow (as iu flow
operate with ga::; pressmes between 80 psig and 1000 psig
(550 kPa and 690 kPa). Due to the gas compressibility,
t. hrough capillary tubes), but i t is a convenient. simplifi
cation otherwise.
pneumatic systems operate more slowly t.han liquid
basecl systems using liquid . Since hydraulic tluid is essentially incompressible, Ouid
power �yst.c m component and sy�tem models are hnsed
l<inet.ic energy (incrtancc, imluctauce) terms are negli on the volumetric flow rate, Q. 2" Gases in pneumatic
· rrD 1
I' =  f; p
12811L
t;p l 281i/, 2!'Lowercase 'I is nlso rncrnmterc:'d the variable for volu111ctric now
jr
= =
HS
R
I nlY rate in n11irl pOll'Pl' appJirnliOllS.
PPI • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
H Y D R A U L I C /\ t,1 0 P N E U M /\ T I C M E C H A N I S M S 447
1 6. FLUID RESISTANCE
. . .. . . · ··· · ··
1 8. FLUID COMPLIANCE
. . .. . .
························ . ···.. . .. .
. .. .
Dissipatio11 of energy in l lw form of heat occurs lo some Fluid complicmce (fluid capacilance} of a pipe, tauk,
extent in all nuid syste111s. Fluid resislcwce ( hydraulic uct.ualor, or at.her sys l em is tllf' ratio of dwuge in slored
resislonce) represculs lhc cnergyrlissipation aspect of a volume (for hydraulic systerns) or n1nss (lo p11Pumatir
system, corresponding to friction and clcdric11l resis system!:i) to clrnuge i11 pressure. The units of hydraulic.:
tance in mechanical and elcclrical systems?G Analogow; compliance, C1, :ire ft5/lbf (1115/N). For a hydraulic
to electrical systc111s ( \I 1  V2 = IR), t.he driving force component. t.he fluid cornpliance is defined by
� �!!.!.
iu hydraulic systems is a pressmc difference, and flow,
Q, is resisted by hydraulic resistance, R1 . The units of
hydraulic resistance ore lbfsec/ft5 ( N·s/11/1). cf = = =
Q ill
i/JI dI cl[l rip
= fl = [JII L
B
to gm; flow. The unils of pneumatic resis tance arc l b fse<:/ \I AL
C,/.comprc,.,iuility =
lbmft.2 (N·s/kg·111'1).
f3 = J_
B
The compliance of an open tank or r0servoir with ver
1 7. FLUID FLOW THROUGH AN ORIFICE tical walls and crosssectional area, A, whose liquid
contents are allowed to change in depth is
J\ valve or other flow restrictiou iu a hydraulic system
can be modelled as an orifice.27 Plow through orifices is
highly turbulent., and the mass flow rate depends 011 an
experimentally detern1incd discharge coefficient, C.i, to
account for geometric and frictional effects. The product The energy stored ill a hydraulic capacitance by virtue
of the discharge coefficient and the orifice area, Ci1A, is of lluid pressurization is
known as the effec/.iue crosssectional area. The com
mon formula for discharge of an incompressible fluid
through an orifice is28
For a pneumatic compo11cnt wit.Ii a fixed volume, V,
holding a gas with density, p, the pne11111atic compli
<Wce, C9, is defined i n terms of the mass, not volume.
The compressibility of gases introduces substantial com
pliance iuto a syslem, which adds to the inechanical
compliance from variablevolume components such as
·20 air bags, Lellows, springloaded accumulators, and rub
Althuugh the tC'n11 "n 11 i d resistance'' is used, both thcco111po11r11t and
the fluid contribute to rl·�istancr.
ber hoses. The compliance is a function of the gas prop
27
lt will uc 11c<:C'&mry to determine the discharge coefficic11 t u11d/or e1'ties and process, as well as the component. geometry.
effective area, C.,A, of the vah·c rxperimentaJJy.
28
This iti the rn111111011 To,.,.icelli equation derived fro111 l'llrrgy
2� E\'en incompressible nu ids 111ay C'xhibit substantial complia11c" if
relationships. t hey Cll\'itate or contain gati bubbles.
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p n s s . c o m
448 F E M E C N fl t..I I C fl L R E V I E W M A N U A L
1 
I _ Pi P2
c!Q
[hydraulic]
dt
The density change depends m1 t.he nature of the pro
cess. The compliance of n sysle1n where a perfect gas in a Pi  P2
Pi  P2  
llxedvolurne syslen1 experiences a polyt.ropic process is I   [pnrnmat.icJ
Tt
a  d1i1  d(l it
given by the equa t.ion below. For a eonst ant pressure di.
process where n = 0, p11cu rnat.ic compliance is infinite.
f"or a constant volume process where 11 = oo, pneumatic
compliance is zero.
20. FLUID IMPEDANCE
==
' m m l' \I Fluid impedance, Z, is a complex quantit.y having both a
C q,COllllll "'ihilil\'
• \f =
· · np np 11 R 1' magnitude aud a phase angle derived from the fluid
k \I Vfl resistance and fluid reaclance, X_ In fluid power sys
tems, the impedance acts in a complicated manner t o
n a2 np
convert changes in pressure to changes i n flow rate. The
magnitude portion of t.he impedance affects the quantity
Energy, U9, stored in a pneumatic capacitance by virtue of flui<l flow, while the phase angle affects the Liming of
of pressurization is the fluid flow. For example, t.he volume of fluid flowing
011t of an orifice depends on the orifice's rcsistauce, while
changes in the flow rat.e depend on the phase angle and
do not. instantaneously rorrespond to changes in
pressure.
Figme 44 .2 illustrates a simple elast.ic bellows of constant.
crosssectional area, A, t.hal expands in the longitudinal,
Z := ZL<p := R + iX
:i:, direct.ion. The rneclamical compliance is 11ou)jnear an<l
dp = R T = R T
\I A�:
Cg.11a•:i1>1nimi = d111 information about. [.he nature (period icity , waveform,
etc.) of t.he applied pressure variations, the fluid reac
taucc cannot be evaluated. For fluid power systems t.hat
are dominated by fluid resistance (in comparison to fluid
Figure 44.2 Pneumatic Bellows compliance and inerta11cc), the magnitude of impedance
is simply the fluid resis tance, R1 or Ry · Therefore, in all
hut (.he most rigorous, complex, and esoteric analyses,
the term "resistance" can be substituted for "impedance"
in descriptions of fluid power.3 1
cross
sectional 30L is thr c0111111011 symbol for inrl11cta11ce. Tu fluid and pneumatic
area, A systems, the sy1nhul [ is bm;ecl on the synonym, incrlall('C.
valve, orifice 31 lt will
be clear whru "impedance" L5 not synOll)'lllOlls with "resis
or restriction tance." Rigorous, co111plex, and esoteric nnn]yS('S arc those that involve
bellows concepts such as transfer functions, differential equations, Laplace
t rnusfonns, transient ana lysis, nnrl frequency response curves.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
H Y D R A U L I C A N D P N E U M A T I C M E C H A N I S M S 449
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
1l
s D
15. Flat Unslayed Heads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.55 Pressure vessels must be permanently marked with
16. Flanged Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455 information abo11L their co11st.rucLion and Lype of ser
17. Pressure Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 456 vice. This i11format.io11 may he stamped on the vessel in a
18. Pressnre Relief DevicPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457 conspicno11s location (e.g., nenr an opening or manway)
or rnay be 011 a permanently attached nameplatf' as
Nomenclat.u1·e
shown in Fig. 45. l .
d dia111eter in mm
D inside diameter in mm
Figure 45.1 Typical Nameplate
E efficie11cy
/1 depth of head in mm
CERTfflED BY
h (; gasket moment arm ill llllll
[, crown radius in nun ALPHA TANK CO.
p pre&;ure2·3 lbf/ i112 Pa
. SER.JAL NO: 1433
, radius in mm
R inside radius in 1n111 l'vllN. TEMP. 20°F AT250 PSI
USER
thickness Ill 11llll \VL RT I
BUILT: 20 1 3
HT
Symbol
a onesided taper angle deg <leg
( hnlf of apPx angle)
A nameplate describing a pressure vessel is attached
Subscripts
h head
directly to the shell.4 The nameplate of a pressure vessel
k knuc.kle
designed and constructed in accordance with the BPVC
will contain Lhe ofl1cial "U" stamp a11d all of the follow
ing: manufacturer's name (listed after the words "certi
1 . INTRODUCTION fied by"), vessel serial munbcr, year built., max..imum
The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) allowable working pressure and corresponding tempera
established its Boiler aud Pressure Vessel Committee in ture, and minimum design metal temperature and cor
1911 . The Committee establishes rules governing the responding pressure.5 For pressure vessels that. arc
iutended for service below 20°F (29°C), the mini
A
1 lt hough the topic of "Pressme ves;els" is included in the NCEES mum allowable temperature is also listed.
�lecha.nicaJ CUT exam specifications, there is no content associated with
this �11bject in the NCEES FE Reference lla11dbook (NCEES llandbook). 1Duplicate nameplates on supports or at other locations 1m1St be
P. A
2The variable for pressure in t he ASME lloiler a11d Pressure \lcsscl marked "Duplicate."
Code s i uppercase lowercase p is tISed i.n this chapter for consis "It has been common in some metric count ries to specify pressme in
lenc1· wi t h the rest of this book. either bars or kilograms per squarn cm {kg/cm2). ,\lnltiply lbf/in2 by
0.00895 to obtain bars. ll lnlt iply lhf/in2 by 0.07031 t o ohtnin kg/c1 n1.
0
�All presstues expressed in this chapter are gage pressmes.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
452 F I! fll E C II A N I C A L R E V I E \'/ M A N U A L
racliographed; llT4, radiographed but o t.her categories ternperntnres tlwse mnterials can be used. To ensure
not applicable; HT, postweld heat treated; PHT, or
co patibi l ity in welding, rnaterial eat. egoriet> are l si g
m < e
use<l for steam generation, or are subject to direct firing. above 800°F (426°C), ma t er ia ls must be selected cmcfully.
11
depth
of head
opening �
inspection
· nozzle
I longitudinal joint �
'°"'"' h .. . overlap
torispherical head
L = crown
C<
_/ ioint
ellipsoidal circumferential
head
R = radius
of shell
connection
skirt length
h
Reproduced fron 1 R. Chusc and S. Eber, Pressure Vessels, sixth ed., copyright © 1984, with permission of the publisher, McGrawIliU.
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o m
P n � s s u n f! V E S S E L S 453
A SME
kuuckle radius, r1: , and head th.iclmess, t,,. These va.riables
by their inside di;m1eter, D, crow n (cUsll) radjus, L, secondary stresses. Shakedown is not a failme mode,
although it does justify using fa t i gue curve dat a .
a.re shown in Fig. <15.3. An flanged and dished head
P a ra p hrasing, rat.cheling is a progressive , incremental,
of I.he inside crown radius. 2:1 ellipsoidal heads have a
is a torispherical head for which the knuckle raditt5 is 6% inelastic deformation or strai11 that. occurs at a point
s11bjected to cycles of thermal stress or cycles of 111ccli
eco1101 1dca l tlt a11 deeper hemispherica.l heads.
radius t.Jmt is twice the height. (projection) aud arc more a11ical stress s11peri mposed 011 a l1lea11 stress, or both.
( Th erm a l slress rntcheting is pn r tly or wliolly cau::;ed by
\Vhen a head is no t hicker tlrnn its shell, the head docs thermal stress.) Rat.chcti11g is produced by a s11staincd
not need a flauge and rnay be bnt.twelded to the shell. load acting over t.he full cross sedion at that point, in
In prac t. i ce , however, most nonhc1njspherical beads have combination with a straincontrolled cycl ic load or tem
stmighl fla11gcs (i.e., straight longitudinal necks) . perature distribution t.hat is alternately applied and
removed . Ratcheti ng causes cyclic straining of the watc
Figure 45.3 Head Shapes rial, which can result in failure by fatigue and, at the
same time, produces cyclic incremental growth of a fail
�
i  ' ' 1
growth in gross dimensions.
stress
11
h = Q4 stress
strain strain
na
( c ) co ic l (d) torispherical
8. MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE WORKING
PRESSURE
The maxim·um allowable worki11g 71rcssure (:rvJA WP) is
specified by the manufactmer. It is Lhe maximum pres
sure permissible at the toµ of tbe vessel in its normal
operati11g position and temperature, in corroded condi
tion, and while under the effects of other expected load
ings {e.g., wind and external prcssure) .6 :M A WP is
(e) circular flat calculated for different parts of the pressure vessel based
011 IlPVC equations adjusted for static head. The over
all MA WP is the smallest of the adjusted values. The
P P I • w w w . r> p l 2 p a s s . c o m
454 r: E M E C II A N I C A L RE V I E VJ M A N U A l.
1 0. CORROSION ALLOWANCE
An optional corrosion allowance compensates for any
wall thinning expectecJ over the l i fetime of the vessel.
The BPVC does not provicle guidance in determin ing
the allowance.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
P R E S S U R E V E S S E L S 455
effic:iem:y is ta ken 11s 1.0 or 0.9; (2) all but l wekls joi11cd 15. FLAT UNSTAYED HEADS
by clecl rogas welding with any single pass greater t hnn
1 1/t in (38 mm) and all dccLrogas welds; (3) with some Flat surfaces appear cxtcusively in pressure vessels. Cir
exceptions, all butt welds
where the maleria 1 t.hickness cular surfaces iue most com111011, alt hough ot.her shapes
may he used. J\ f t surface used
la as
the cud closme or
exceeds 1 1/2 in (38 rnm); (rl) all hut.t wPlds in the head head of a prPssure vessel way be an integrnl a
p rt of the
and shells of nnfired slea1n
boilers wit.ii desig11 pressures vessel (when forme<l with the cylimlrical shell or welded
(38 mm ) .
may connect the vessel to other parts of the
piping net (510 mm) o r when the nangc thickness 1 1/2 i u exceeds
work, or it mRy he normally closed o[. Ha11dlwles an d
larger mcm ways arc 1 1ozzles that are opened for inspec The three main types of bolted naugcs are the ring
t.ion, cleaning, Rnd repair. 1 3 A n ozz e typicaUy
l at a cuds flange, the tapered hub (also known welding neck) as
l d fhu1gc l
bo t e p ate. The cylindrical section between a naugc, da1 1 the lapjoint nange, shown in Fig. 45.7. The
pressure vessel and the Oangc is the nozzle neck. lapjoint flange is used for lowpressme, lowcost pres
sure vessels. Joints may be or hubbed hubless. Advan
12Ultrnsonic e.xnminntion may be substitukd fur radiography for the
tages of this flange type are low cost and ease of bolt
final closure seam of a pl1.'&�urc vessel if tho co11slructiu11 of the ws,;el
1�
does not pe1 mit intcrpretnhlc rndiogniphs in m:ronlauce with the BPVC. A toroidal knurkl e with a flat head s
i nn ex 11 111plc of 1111 in tegral flat
A dauit (davit lll'm) is n swinging support construclcd ;is pa r t uf the
1� plntc hC"nd .
vessel, suppo1ting the 1111111w11y cover whC'n it is unbolted am! moved ir.IJP\I(.; Sec. VHI, Div. 3, Fig. UG34 shows nil of the accept able
n.<idc. str111clnrd dC'Sigru;.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
45M6 I= E M E C H /\ N I C A L R E V I E W M /\ N U A L
1 7. PRESSURE TESTING According to the ASME Code Sec. Vill , Div. 1 , the
Pressure vessels under internal pressure arc normally hydrostati c test pressure is 130% of the l\•IA \.VP multiplied
by the ratio of the allowable stress at the test temperature
to the allowable stress at the design temperature. \.Vhen
tested hy<lrostatically with water. 1 7 However, vessels
that cannot sa fel y be filled with water, that can110L be
dried, or that cannot tolerate traces of the test liquid hydrotest.i11 g, it is recommended that the metal tempera
ca11 be tested pneumatically with air. ture is at least 30°F ( l 7°C) above t.he MDMT, but. not
gTeatcr thau 120°F (48°C), to minimize the risk of brittle
·Most testing is not ca rried out at the operating teu1pcr fracture. For pneumatic tests, tlte !.L)8t pressme is 1 L O% of
ature. Since m aterial strengths decrease a t higher tem the :MA WP multiplied by the ratio of the allowable stress
peratures , the test, pressure is increased according to the at the tesl temperature to the aJlowable stress at the
ratio of the allowable stress at the test tcmpei·ature Lo design temperat ure. The mclal temperature during a
the allowable stress at the design temperature. pnew natic test must be at least 30°F (l 7°C) a bove the
MDMT to minimize the risk of brittle fractme.
•Grn fullfnce gaskets, the material outside of the bolt ring is not For castiron pressure vessels, the test pressure is 2003
effective in scnling. of the �...r A\;\,'P unless the design working pressure is less
than 30 psig (207 kPa), i n which case, the test pressure
17
Evcn prcs.
sme vessels that. are normally under internal pressure n1ny
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
P R E S S U ll l< V E S S E L S 457
Following t hP appliC'nl.ion of hydrostatic aud pncumatie Figure 45.8 Overpressure and Accumulation
pressures, all joints and connections must he visually
inspected. Leakage is 11ot allowed, except for 01wnjngs pressure
accumulation
pressure
i11te11ded for weklPd f'onnPf't.ions and at lcrnporary test
PIW
closures. Additionally, for pnPnmatirnlly tested vPssels, pressure
oveqJressure
MAWP
t.JJP full length or all welds arouuc.l openings and attaC'h at rated
/(' PRV)
ment welds having a t.hroat. grealer llian 1/1 i11 (G 111111) capacity
___ _
must. be exa111i11cd. closes
_\PRV___
Special rules apply to prPssme vessels whose operating setpoint
pressure is li111it.cd by llange strength that lrnve n11dt.i
or
pressure '
ple C'ham11Prn, are subject Lo external pressure, or oper ''
ate at. belowatmospheric pressures. opens
(burst
disk)
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
aoo
D
3. Vaine Engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 ti shaft
4. Rcliabilit.y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462 bole
5. Preventative i'vlaintenanre . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 F f11nr lfl 111ental
6. Replacurncnt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 inner
7. Parilities Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463 lower
8. Assembly Line I3ala11<.:i11g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 llHL\: rn axi m1 1rn
!J. Quality Control Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 111i11 1 ni11i111um
Limits and JC i l s . . . . . . . . ; . . . . . , . ; . ; . . . . . . .
HJ. Quality Acceptam:e Sampling . . . . . . . . . 465 outside
4(i5
. . . I)
11. r radial
12. Fits and Tolerances for Shafts and Holes . . 466 upper
Press/Shrink Fi t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
II
13. �lci ximurn and Least Material Conditions . . '168 1 . MANAGEMENT SCIENCE
14. 468 Mmwqemen/. science, also k11ow11 as 1Jlla11titaliue business
Nomenclature analysis, 071cratio11s research, and mmwgemen/. syslems
(: number of failures (defects) modeling, is used to develop mathemat.ieal models of
G' circumference m realworld sit11ations. This chapter prcse11ts various
ti shaft. d ia 1 1 1et er Ill quantitat.ive business a11aly�is techniques nsed to model
D hole diameter m and analyze manufacturing and industrial enviro1m1c11ts.
B mod11l11s of elast.ieity Pa A ccordingly, this chapter is more concernerl wit.h solu
F force N tions to problems than with explaining why the prolilerns
I lengl.h Ill need to be solved or with lii;ting advantages anrl disad
i\ITBF mean time belwecn faih11·rs various vantages of solutions. Though they may seem to be
va r io11 s
!IITBFO 111e311 t.ime before failure outage various obscure, all of the techniques presented in this chapter
i\ITTF mean t.ime to failurP are commonly taught. in opcrat.ious research (OR), indus
!IITTH mea11 time tu repair various trial e11gineering (IE), and MBA cnrric.ula. 2
N
ll sample size A delermi11islic model is a mathematical model t.hat is
lot size built around a set of fixed rules such LhaL any give11 input
/I press me Pa always results i11 a specific output. If an input ran produce
l i me
I' radius m a variety of ontputs determined by rnlcs of probability,
t s the 111odcl i s lrnow11 as a probabilistic or stocliaslic model.
objedi \'e ft mcl. ion
T torque N·m
A common aspect of most mauagement science techniqneR
z
is the goal of arriving at. an optilmun solution (regardless
Sy mbol;; of wl1cthcr the goal is actually realized in practice). The
l
fJ deviation
proce� of optimizing is unique to eacli type of problem.
/
1 t. i me
£
optimization by hand is possible with simple problems.
,\ fa il me ra tP.
/
/l coefficient of friction 20pcrnt ions r<'Sfmd1 dcvdopcd as a field of its own dm"iug World
/l mean sen•ice (repair) rate 1 t. i 1 11e \Vnr II wlu'n opli111izing modeling techniques were used to determine
/I Poisson's ratio the brst way ror a sub1m11inc lo patrol a specific re!\"ion.
�One ohvimL� rxccption is how the Ct'Onomic order quantity is calcu
(}" st.ress Pa
lntccl. The ccono111ie order quantity (EOQ) formul a is derived by
taking the derivative of lite Iota! t'Ost function.
1
i not clear whet.her the topic of "Quality" included in the NCEES
It s !Some manage1ncnt scit'm:c lccl111iqul's, !hough inleresling, are too
Mechanical CUT exam specifications incorporates lhe NCEES FE obt 11sc, t imc co11s11111i11g, or complex for solving by hand. Subjects that
Reference lla11dbook (NCt:ES llandbook) material on slatistical q11al luwe been 0111illc<l front or given only a mere mention in this book
H1111d
it.y control (SQC). SQC is genernlly considered to he a11 ind11strial i11d11clc 11011li11car programmjng, d_l'namic programn1ing, and integer
engineering subject. Similarly, the topic of "Reliability" s i specifically progra1111ni11g. l"urtlwnnore, most 111anagemenl science subjects have
incl11dcd in the "lnd11strial Engine<>ri11g" sect ion of t he NCEES 11mny tumplicated variations that are omitted from this chnplcr.
book. The content of these two industrinl c11gincc:ri11g topics is only Simple forecasting and the EOQ model are also trnditio11nl mnnagc
hrirny cmwcd in this cl1npter. ment science subjects.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
462 F E M E C H A N I C /\ L Fl E V I E VJ M A N U A L
Some maHagement :;cieuce method:; at.tempt. to optimize done by eliminating unnecessary, rccluuclauL, or super
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
M A N U F /\ C T U R A B I L l 7 V , Q U /\ L I T V , A N D R � L I A B I L I T V 45 .. 3
hi sou1c cases, failed units arc repaired online. The s PM is only useful wheu its cost is less t.hau the cost of
avernge rep:;iir time is the mPan f.ime f.o repair, MTTR, the brenkdown. In the absence of cosL infonuatio11,
an<l is the reeiproeal of t.ltc repair rate, p. Tile 111ea11 li111e PM is usef11l when the average PM time is lPss than
tu fuilul"e, l'l'fTTF, is Lhe average Lime a unit operates Lhe average repair ti1ue.
before failing. The nwrn lime between failures, MTI3F,
o PM is morn applicable when there is little or no inven
is t.he length of t.i111c between when the original a11d
repaired units stnrt. tory of t.he item produced by t.he brokcu uiaclti11e.
The followi11g guidcliues should be considered when deteriorate with use). If the conditional probability of
establishing Pi'vf policies, particularly for single machines. fail me decreases or remai11S constant over time, operating
\�/hen there 1ue several identical machi11es opernt.iug iu items should never be replaced prior to failure.
parallel, the problem more closely resembles a waiting
line (queuing) problem. Breakdowns are comp1uable to
arrivals in the line, aud repair stat.ions (repair crews) arc 7. FACILITIES LAYOUT
the stations. The optimum solution takes into considera Facilities layoul (plcwl layout) problems are numerous
tion the costs of idle 111aiutenance crews. in variety and complexity. Laying out facilities involves
• PM is more applicable when the timetobreakdown locating departments and/or operations with respect to
distribution bas low variability because the Lime one anot.her. In Lraditio11al process layout, machi11es
before a breHkdown can be more accurately predicted. with the same function are grouped together. In product
layout (productoriented layout), the layout depends on
11
l( t.lie machine does not operate 24 hours per clu.1• or 365 days per the sequencing of product.ion operations. If the same
yenr, the number of hours will be accordingl,1· reduced. equipment is used at two di fferent times, it is duplicated
12�Iaintenance to correct disrepair is known ru; 1·emedial mai11tc11a11cc. iu a product layout.
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
464 r E M E C H A N I C /\ L R E V I E \'I M A N U A L
So111e co111pul erized nwt hocls exist for exJ 1 a 1 1 sti vel y eval prf'sentf'd and iucorporated inlo th<:> solutio11 vary frolll
uating a l tern at i ves. Mauual layout techniques a1:e Pven case to case.
more limited. Ofleu, paperculling is comhinPd with
i11l uiLio11 lo come 11p with a layout. DeparL 111culs are
sizPd to cl particular scale au<l arc cut oul of paper. The
pieces uf pa pe r arc sl i< l around until a layout "works." Linc balancing d<>termines which lasks will be performed
8xcept. for the artificial case of a SllJall llUll lber or p rogressively a t 1 mdt.iple assembly stat ious. Souse tasks
equally sized, equally shaped clepart.ments or operations 1 nust. precede ot. lwrs; somf' tasks can be performed at
whose local.ions :we limitPd to a rectaug ula r grid, it is any point in the asse111bly; sorne lasks (e.g., inst.allat.iou
unlikPly t h a t . all possible layouts will be co11siderecl.
t�1 of fasteuers am! finnl t. ightf'ning) cau be split bet.ween
The "op Li 1 1 1 u1 1 1" layout. may actually be merely the bes[. st.at.ions. Line hHl:rncing ca11 a lso delcrn1ine how many
that. could be found given the mnouut. of time available. st al.ions are needed aud which tnsks will he perforllled in
p:ua l l eJ to i nc rease t.hro11gh p11t.
An alternate uiauual met.hod is to constrnct a graph
whose "verl.icPs" (nodes) are the departlllcnts ur opera Sfondrml li111cs l o perform the vm"ious statiou tasks are
t ions. The "edges" ( l i u e seg111c11ls) are drawn betwf'en used in t.he balancing process. However, except for robot
two vertices if adjacPnt associated depart.meuts arc operators �wd machinecontrolled lines, task times are
desired. The edges may ue weighted lo indicate th<> lev<:>I actually random. Somet imes tasks take longer ; sometimes
of traffic betwec11 Lite departments. The goal is to rcar t hey take less tune. This im pl ies that almost every line
rnnge the vertices so that uo edges cross. If this can be will be unavoidably nnbala nced . If t he work is rigirlly
do1 1c 1 then the layout can be planar. If the departmeuts paced to the cycle time (as it would be if the work were
are s01newhat. flexible in terms of size a11d shape, il is penmu1e11t.ly at.laclwd to the conveyaucc system), some
possible to have the desired adjacencies. work pieces might be left unfin ished if t.he previous pmt
reqnired more t.itne than ns1 1 a l . This sce11ario iut.roduces
Certain simplifying assumptions are usually 111a<le wit.h what. is probably one uf the n1osl. important. req 1 t i remeu ts
both computerized aud wanual met.hods. f.'or example, for maxintizi11g the line t.hronghput : statio11 iuvcntory.
all layouts may be required to be two di111e11sio11al.
Departments lllay be assullled lo be square or rectangH Line t.hrougltput. will be maximized if each slat.ion has a
lar. When the locations of spec i fic pieces of cquip111ent backlog of unfinished work. Iii In I. h is Pase, the convey
within t.he depart.mcut arc unknown, i t is nss1uned that ance system is used merely to bri11g work Lo stations
all 1novement. i11to <llld out. of the department origi11aLes rat.her than to pace the slat. ions. tr a statio11 is busy
and terminates a t the ce11troid of the <lepart.mentnl area. when a new piece of work arrives, the staLio11 operat�r
Also, only highly repetitive movements be t.wce1 1 depart merely places that piece i11lo his or her inveutory of
ments are considered. 011cei11awhilc travel is excluded unfinished work. Jr all tasks are fi11ished early, before a
frolll the analysis. new piece of work arrives, the operator begins on a piece
from the iuventory. The station is never idle.
Almost all facility layout proceduresmanual and com
puterized, exact., trialanderror, and heurist.icattompL
to minimize the trnm;portatiou cost, sometimes referrPd 9. QUALITY CONTROL CHARTS
to as 111uueme11l. 1 •1 In simple cases, this may 1 1 1 ea1 1 mi11i
Statistical quality cunlrol, SQC, also known as stutislica/
mizing t.he product. of trips betwec11 depart.men ls and the
process cm1/,rol, SPC, uses several tccl111i4ucs Lo ensure
d ist a nces between their centroids. In more complex cases,
the product of trips and <listm1ces lllay also be mul tipl i ed that. a minimum quality level is consistently obtaiirecl
by voltrn1cs, weights, and labor rates. from product.ion process<>s. Typical SQC tasks incl11de
routine monitoring of process out.put, sampling incom
Nonquantitative factors also need to be considered. ing raw materials, and testing finished work.
So111eti111es, as when eq11ip1m�nt, recorrls, ur personnel
are shared, it is absolutely necessary that departments l\fonituring process out.put and charting the results Hre
be located 11ext lo each other. Jn other cases, as when often t.he most visible aspects of SQC. Snr n l l samples of
safety is compromised, it may be absolutely essential t o work are tested al regular or random iutervals, and the
17
results are shown gTaphically. The graphs are knowu
separate departmc11ts. In most. cases, t.lw nearness pri
ol'il ie::; characterize t.he adjacency requiremeuts between as control cha rts or Shcwlwrt control cl1m1s because
being absolutely necessary they show, in aclclit.ion to the measured values, the r.011
' an<l being absolutely undesir
• • 1
1 r:
able. " The ways that nonq111mtitative factors arc
trol limits (i.e., tlw lirnils or accept a b le va l ues) . 8 (Sec
Fig. 116.1 . )
1"Tltc 11111nlwr of layout \'lliialions, including mirror i111agcs, wit 11 /1
Hl
equally sizNI sq11nn' <lepai t ments s i 11!. i\lemmrnblc im:reascs in l i 1 1r out pnt have beeu reported by sl'k<'tivcly
/o r llSC'S 1 1 1 11.'S of l l1111nb lo deri,•e an ans\\'er. Neil l tcr is a11 upl i111iz
14
A lri11l1111do·ror 111elltod depends on iru;ight , i11luitio11, 1111cl i11gc>1111 unbalancing the li11e atHI rnsnring that each station has a harklog of
ily lv c·o111t• 11p with n solu t ion . A heuristic method follows a proc:c·ch1rc• work.
17
a 1 1c l The graphs arc ofl<'ll l'01t�pir1101L•ly posted at l h t· t•nlrnnrffi ol
i11g trt"l111iq111·. dt>partments.
1�
15Thc M11tltr r 1ieo1 llt>S< /H iorilies (developed b�· Hid111rd i\(ut ht·r i11 tl1t' Control limib havt· 1 1ot l i i1 1g lo do with spccifico lio11 li111ils. Specifi
I 050.>) itrC' ( I ) nhsol11l rl.1· necP��ary. (2) very important. (3) i111pu1 t n 1 1 l , cation limits deten11i11r if I hC' prod11rl i.� acceptable tu the custmnrr.
(.J) Of< (u1di11a»y i111pr 1 1 t r 1 1 1cr), (5) 11nimportant, and ( G ) undesirable. Control limits de ten ninc if the pror<'J<.� is stntislimll�· iu co11trol.
P P I • w w w . p p l 2 11 a s s . c o m
M /\ N U F A C T U R A l3 1 L I T V , Q U A L I T Y , A N D R E L I A B I L l "( V 465
Figure 4G. 1 Interpretation of SPC Cl1ar/s acceptance risk) versus the lot. 111utlit.y (i.f'., t.he t.rue
fract.ion or percentage defecl.i vc). 1 0 Poiuls ou tlie OC
curve arc dctcnn.iued from the binomial or, more pref
erably, from the Poisson approximation to the bino
��)/__
(a) in control (d) trends
mial. In practice, however, accept.a11cc plans are
generally desiglll:<l by referring to tables of predeLer
mined plans.
�
= 5%
95%  ('(
(b) out of control (e) stratification Q)
 I1 t
0
c: I
"'
I
0. I
Q)
0 I
0
I
0
"'
50% __ L ____
I
.? I
:0 I
(c) shifts (f) mixture "' I
.0 I
ii
0 I
I I
10%  1     ,    
13 = 10%
��'��
Control charts can be prepared for the average value of AOL POC LTPD
sorne process variable (t.he :i:ucu· cha1·t), for t.he ra11gc or lot quality
other measures of dispersion (Rchorf., schart, or
achart), and for the fraction defet:tive (pclwd.), the
nnmher of defects per unit. ( ccharl), or any combination
thereof. Charts that require a measurement of a process
variable are known as 110.riaule charts. The 7>chart and 1 1 . LIMITS AND FITS
cchart arc examples of attribute cha rts, where 011. ly the
Exact precision in 1nanufacturiug is impossible to
conclition of an item needs lo he determined.
achieve. l'vlinimum and maximum values of deviat.ion
It is a basic assumption that random effects are present from the design value, known as limits, are bo11ndarif's
in every process. Variation within certain limits is inevi wit.l1in which a measmement must lie to operate as
table, am! if the magnit.udes of t.he limits or the varia intended. The lolem11ce for a dimension is the t.otal
tion are unacceptable, they must be reduced by changes permissible variation or difference between the accept.
in manufacturing or product design. If the magnitudes able limits. The t.olcrnncc for a dimension can he speci
are accept.able, then corrections are required only when fied i n two ways: eit.her as a general rule in the title
the results exceed t.he magnitude expected on the basis block (e.g., ±0.001 i n unless otherwise specified) or as
of random effects. specific limits that are given with each dimension (e.g.,
2.575 in ± 0.005 i11).
A
The fil. describes t.ltc assembly of the hole and shaft. A
clearance fit results in dimensions that assure clcanrncc
ccept.o.nce sampling is the testing of samples taken bet.ween mating parts. An i.n/.e1Jere11ce fit. (also known
from a lot (batch or process) in order to determine if as a force fit and shrink fit) results in dimensi011s that
t.he entire lot should be accepted or rejected. Acceptance do not, have clearance bet.ween mating parts. Por
sampling is appropriate when testing is destructive or example, the shaft diameter will always be larger than
when 100% LcsLing would be too expensive. To design an the hole through which the shaft must. pass. The effect
acceptance plan (also known as a DodgeRnmig plan), of an interference fit is an almost permanent assembly
the number in the sample and the acceptance 1111111bcr for two assembled parts. A l.rnnsilion fit. might be
(i.e., the maximum allowable 11lllnber of defects in the either a clearance or interference fit.. For example, a
:;ample) must be specified. shaft may he either larger or smaller than the hole i u
In single a cr:ept.ance plans, a sample of size n out. of a t.hc mating part.
total lot size of N is tested. If the uumber of defects is
equal to or less Lhan c, the lot is accept.eel. The plan can
be described gTaphically by an OJIP.T<tling r:harar:l.erist.ir: 1 �0pernting diarnctrristic: c;11n•es urc actu<•lly a herie; of discontinuous
(OC) curne (sec Fig. 46.2), which µlots the prouauilit.y points since l o t ilc111s Hr<' f'inite am! discrete. However, they are never
of acceptance (also known as the producer's drawn i11 I hat 11u11u1t'r.
P P I • w w w . p 11 i 2 p a s s . c o m
466 F E M E C H A N I C fl. L R E V I E W M fl. N U A L
ThP most. common standard of limits and fits is t he 1 2. FITS AND TOLERANCES FOR SHAFTS
Internatioual Organization for Stanrlardization (ISO) AND HOLES20
Sta ndard 28G, which gives tolerance classes for a wide
nrngP of tolerance. Some preferred fits, alo11g with t hPir The nomenclat.nre m;ed to dl'scribc llt parameters
ISO !tole and shaft tolerances, arP given in Tahle '16. l . related to circular mc111bcr and circulnr mat.ing holes is
illust.rnlcd in fo'ig. 46.3.2 1 The basic .size ( ba.sic dimen
Tobie 46. 1 Some Preferrecl his
t
sion) is he dimension to which t.Jic minimum and ma,x:
irnum tolerances arc applicd. 22 The hasic :,;ize of Lile hole
wwcl to i dent i fy
lSO lioh·/
is Lite basis all calculations. 23 Uppercase letters are
for parainetcrs
shaft associated with the hole,
type of fit fit 1kscriplio11 tolerance while lowercase letters are used for the shaft. The 110111 
dl'mlt11<'<' fits free running fit: good for large HlJ/dlJ
basic
i 1 1 al (basic) size, D, is the
minimum am! maximum limits are applied.
din1ension to which the
lempcrnlurc v;irinlio11s, higli
figure 46.3 Limits ancl f'lts
ru1111i11g spt•cds, n11d hcm·.v
jo11111al lands; not used when
n high level of accuracy is
required
1=.
.,/ii/i11g fit: 11se<l where pruts do 117/p,6
11ot 1110\'e freely, but need lo
move and tum. and lorntc
c
ac urately
2 1 Fig urc 46.3 cloc'� not show the basic dimensio11 of the sha ft , ti, that is
requiring rigidity and
Handbook arc found in the npp cnclices of t he standards.
alignment with prime accuracy
used i11 subscqu('nl equal ions. If required (as in Eq. 46.6), l he basic size
of locntion; part:; du nul have
22( I) The t e r1 11 "size" L5 synonymous with "di111c11sio11." (2) The NCEES
=
of the sh a ft is lnkrn as the basi c size of the hole (i.e., d D).
:;p<·ci<l I bore pre"Surc
rl'quircmcnls Huridbook parent hel ically indicates that "ba:;ic size" and "nominal size"
arc sy11011y111011s terms. However, there is a t·o111111on, incompatible
medium clriue fit: for onli11ary H7/sG usage uf the tcnn "nominal dimension." A nominal cli111e1 1si on is com
sled parts or shrink fits on mo11ly stated without an attempt to be exact, 11mki11g "nominal"
light sections; tightest fit :;ynuny111ous with "approximate." For exa mple, a sh a ft with an actual
usnhle on cast iron diai11ctcr of29.7 111111 may he referred to as a "30 1 111 11 nu1ni11al diameter
:;haft." This u�age, howe,·er, is inconsistent with Eq. 46.2, which makes
farce fit: suit able for parts H7/u6 the nominal dirncnsio11 mi absolute 111inimum. For that rcaso11, the
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
M A N U F A C T U R A B I L I T Y , Q U A L I T V , A N 0 R E L I A B I L I T V 467
The to/errmcc of the shaft <liau1eter, ti.11, is t.lie absolute E xam ple
value of the difference between the npper deviation, Ou, A hole has a nominal size of 1 1 mm and a mincimum size
and Lhe lower deviation, 61• The International Tolerance of 11.016 mm. What arc most nearly the tolerance aud
(IT ) grades are g,ive11 iu Table 46.2. Upper and lower the minimum diameter of the hole, respecti vely?
deviations are found from Table tl6.3.
(A) 0.010 11m1; 5.0 mm
(B) 0.012 mm; 7.0 mm
(C) 0.014 mm; 9.0 mm
' (D) 0.0 1 6 mm; 1 1 mm
Table 46.2 International Tolerance (IT) Grades
0.043
t1o = D111ax  D
1 018 0.011 0.018
Equation 46.1 and Eq. 46.2: Minimum and Equation 46.3 and Eq. 46.4: Shaft with
Maximum Hole Sizes Clearance Fits
"All values in mm
iiowcr limil < basic size S upper limit
Source: Prcfc1nd Metric Limits anti Fits, ANSI/ASl\IE 13•1.21978 (H2009)
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
468 F E M E C H A N I C A l R E V I E W M A N U A l
Equation 46.5 and Eq. 46.6: Shaft with The loosest i nterference is
Transition or Interference Fits
6max = cl11ru1  D1 11:Lx = 25.048 111111  25.021 llUU
ti + bp
if,.,,,' = rl111in + 11,t 16.5 = 0.027 mm
d.,,j 11 = 46.6
The l ightest. iHterferencP is
dmax  Duuu
Desctlpllon
b,..,,x = = 25.0CH mm  25.000 mm
Equation <W.G and Eq. 46.5 arc useJ to calculate t.he
maximulll an<l 1uinimum nominal sizes, respecLively, of a = 0.061 mm
shaft with a transiLion or iu tcrference fit k, ]J, s, or 11. Por
iulcrfcrcucc fits, the fundamental deviation, 81.., is the Tl1e answer is (C).
upper deviaLio11, 811 , in Table '16.3.
Solution
( clearance)
The fiL is specified as "25H7 / u6," whicb dcscriucs a force
interference fiL with a 11outinal hole size of 25.000 mm. The minimum amount of space that can
Since the hole basis is specified, from Eq. 46.2, the exist between the hole and the shaft is
mi11inrnm hole diameter i s
Donin = D = 25.000 mm
From Table 46.2, the hole t oleran ce for an IT grade 7 is �.�.�...F.'.��.�.!\91.�.� �.1 .�.� ..�r�.�···
110 = 0.021 11un. From Eq. 46. 1 , t.he maxiumm hole
\Vhen assembling t.wo pieces, i nterference fit.t.ing is often
diameter is
into tension ) an<l will compress the inner cyli nder. The
ference the fundamental deviation is the lower
fits,
between them will expand it
Jeviatio11, Op = 61 = 0.048 mm. From Eq. 116.6, the
minimum shaft, diameter is
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m
M A N U F A C T U R A B I L l l· v , Q U A L I T Y , A N D R E L I A D l l. I T V 469
The outer cylinder is designated as t.be hub; the inner and equal Lo the contact lengt h , /. Eq11allength compo
have di fferen t moduli of elasticity and Poisso11's ratios.
cylindP.r is designatPd 11s t.he shaft. 1f thP shaft is solid. nents are seldom [,Jie case, as the shah is generally
11se 1 ·1,shnft = 0. longer than the huh. 'Vith unequallength parts, the
press ure is i 1tcreased at ead1 end (near each exterior
If the t\VO cylinders have the same length, the tLickwall face) of the hub. A stress conce11tratiou fader generally
cyliuder equal.ions can be used. The malerials used for accouuts for this condition. The value or Lhe concentra
t.he t.wo cylinders do not need to be the same. Since tion factor depends upon the contact pressme and the
there is 110 1011gitudi11al stress frow au iulerfcrence fit, design ol' the hub, but it.s theoretical value is seldom
and since the radial stress is negative, t.he strain is greater tha11 2.0.
r
lid li C li r
f: =  =  = Example
d C
lTe  LllT 1 A solid shaft has a radius o f 5 cm at. room ten.tperature,
E but a rad ius of 4.950 cm when cooled. The cooled shart
is inserted into a hub having an i11si<le radius of
The maximum assembly force required l o overcome 4.954 cw. After the pmt:> come to room temperature,
fr ict ion during a press fi t t i ng operation is given by the shaft radius ai1cl !tub inside radius are each 4.956 cm,
alld the outside radius of the hub is 10 cm. The radial
interference is 0.002 cm. The mo dulus of elasticity and
Poisso11's ratio of the shah and hub are 2 1 0 k I\lfm m2
and 0.3, resp ect ively. \.\'hat is most nearly the pressure
This r clat.io n sl t ip
is approximate because t.he coefficient at the i n terface of the hub and shafL?
of frict.ion is not known with certainty, and the a:ssembly
force a ffec ts the prcssmc, p, t.Ju·ough Poisson's raLio. The (A) 0.98 kN/cm2
ra11ge of 0.030.33 have been repor ted. In t he absence of (B) 1 . 9 kN/cm2
coefficient of friction, /l, is highly variable. Valnes in the
experimental data, it. is reasonable to use 0.12 for lightly (C) 2.5 kN/cm2
oiled co1111ect.ions and 0.15 for dry assemblies.
( D) 5.3 kN/cm2
:Most interfcrc11ce fits arc designed to keep the conlacl.
)0.5b
failme theory.
(( )
2
) )
,. 
(0.5)(0.002 cm)
. ( 0.56
(
)(
4.956 cm
,.2
/! =
r1  ,.2(
/'2 + ,.·1
+ + _I_
.
+ 1
/'2 ,.2
46.7
E
_
_ 
210 10
I 1'  LIu II'
(
kN nnn) 2
)
E" r'l/J  _,, ,
(( )
x
pressure, contact pressure, radial pl'cssurc, and inter
The interface pressure, p ( also known as the inte1facial (10 cm) ('1.956 cm)9
2
)(
4.95G cm
kl\/
lated from Eq. 46. 7. 1'; is the inside radius of the inner +
( )
llllll)2
+ 0. 3
,
modulus), and v is Poisson's rntio.
(11.956 cm)  (0 cm)
x 2
2
2"
· The NCEES Jlall!ibook <lelines r as the "nominal interference radins."
Since the "interference radius" is ambiguous, this deftnit ion shonJ<l be = UJ kN/cm2
interpreted ns the "nominal rndius nl the point of n i terference." The
11orni11al rndi11S is 11s11ally referred lo ns th<' lr1111silio11 radius or common
r11di11s. The answer is (B).
P P I w w w . p p l 2 p a s s . c o 111
4610 F E M E C H A N I C A L R E V I E W M A N U A L
= 2 2cm
The radius of the shaft, r, is
!!_
46.B
Description r = = l cm
2
The maximum torque thrit the pressfitted joint can
withstand or trans1nit is fouud Erorn t.lie leugth of the Use Eq. ,16.8 to calculate the maximum torque that. crin
hub engagement, I, and the coefficient of friction at the be transmitted.
interface, /I., as shown in Eq. 46.8.
�) (3 cm)
Example T = 2m·2ppl
(100 cm) 3
A 2 cm diameter solid steel shah is pressed into a 3 cm 2rr(l c.:m) 2 (0.6)(70 MPa) ( 10°
long hub. Given an interface pressure of 70 l\•lPa and a
coefficient of friction of 0.6, what is most nearly the
maximum torque that cau be trans1n.itted from the shaft 111
to the hub? = 792 N·tn (790 N·m)
(A) 550 N·m
(B) 630 N·m The answer is (CJ.
(C) 790 N·m
(D) 880 N·m
P P I • w w w . p p i 2 p a s s . c o m