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UNIVERSIDADE FEDERAL DE OURO PRETO ESCOLA DE MINAS CURSO DE PÓS-GRADUAÇÃO EM ENGENHARIA CIVIL

Dissertação de Mestrado

AVALIAÇÃO COMPORTAMENTAL DE JUNTAS SOLDADAS DE UM AÇO ESTRUTURAL DO TIPO SAC 50 SOB FADIGA

Autor: José Geraldo Araújo Silva

Orientador: Luiz Cláudio Cândido

Setembro de 2001

José Geraldo Araújo Silva

AVALIAÇÃO COMPORTAMENTAL DE JUNTAS SOLDADAS DE UM AÇO ESTRUTURAL DO TIPO SAC 50 SOB FADIGA

Dissertação de Mestrado apresentada ao Curso de Pós-Graduação em Estrutura Metálica

do Departamento de Engenharia Civil, da Escola de Minas, da Universidade Federal de

Ouro Preto

Área de concentração: Estruturas Metálicas

Orientador: Prof. Luiz Cláudio Cândido

Ouro Preto

2001

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AGRADECIMENTOS

A Deus, por todas as pessoas que Ele colocou no meu caminho.

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RESUMO

Este trabalho apresenta o estudo do comportamento de juntas soldadas de um aço estrutural, do tipo SAC 50, sob fadiga. O material foi soldado através do emprego do processo ao arco elétrico com eletrodo revestido. Além dos ensaios mecânicos tradicionais, aplicou-se metodologias da Mecânica de Fratura, através de ensaios de tenacidade à fratura (COD e Integral J), e ensaios de propagação de trincas por fadiga. Avaliou-se as características comportamentais das três regiões do material: zona fundida, zona termicamente afetada e metal base. Verificou-se, em termos de tenacidade, que as três regiões do material, pelo efeito da soldagem, apresentaram comportamento semelhante. Correlacionou-se os valores obtidos nos ensaios de tenacidade com ensaios de impacto Charpy. A zona fundida apresentou valor de COD, δ m , maior que a zona termicamente afetada e o metal base, o que significa maior resistência à propagação de trincas. O efeito do fator R não influenciou significativamente o posicionamento das curvas de propagação de trinca por fadiga na região II. No entanto, para R = 0,7, o valor limiar (threshold), K th , sofreu uma alteração significativa, diminuindo para o caso do metal base. Pôde-se verificar, também, que para o ensaio de propagação de trinca por fadiga, o valor limiar, para o metal base foi inferior às outras regiões do CP, caracterizando um pior desempenho. A partir do ensaio de Integral J pôde-se estimar um valor de J Q para o metal base. E ainda, fez-se análises microfractográficas dos CPs ensaiados. Verificou-se o aspecto dúctil das fraturas do material, através de “dimples”. No entanto, para ensaios de impacto Charpy, em ‘baixas” temperaturas, o material apresentou o aspecto frágil das fraturas através da presença de facetas de clivagem.

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ABSTRACT

This work studied the behavior of welded joints of structural steel type “SAC 50” under fatigue. The material was welded using the process of electric arc with coated electrodes. Besides using the traditional mechanical tests, methods of fractures mechanics were applied through tests of fracture resistance (COD and J integral) and of the fatigue crack propagation. The behavioral features of three areas of interest (cast zone, heat affected zone and base metal) were determined. In terms of strength, the conclusions were that the three areas presented similar behavior considering the welding effect. The values obtained from resistance tests were later related to those from Charpy impact tests. The cast zone presented a higher COD value than the base metal i.e. higher fracture toughness. The effect of the R factor did not present a strong influence in the position of the fatigue crack propagation curves caused by fatigue. However, for R = 0.7, the threshold value (K th ), was slightly altered, being reduced in the case of the base metal. For the fatigue crack propagation test, the threshold value for the base metal was lower than that in the another areas of the specimens, indicating a worse performance. Considering the J integral test, it is possible to estimate a J Q value for the base metal. Also, microfractography analyses of specimen were made. The ductile aspect of the material fractures was revealed by the existence of dimples, although, for the Charpy impact test performed under low temperature, the brittle aspect was revealed by cleavage.

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SUMÁRIO

1. INTRODUÇÃO

1

2. OBJETIVOS

3

3. RELEVÂNCIA DO TRABALHO

4

4. REVISÃO BILIOGRÁFICA

5

4.1 – Introdução à Soldagem

5

4.1.1 – Definição/Caracterização

5

4.1.2 – Histórico

6

4.2 – Principais Processos Convencionais de Soldagem

9

4.2.1 – Soldagem com eletrodo revestido

9

4.2.2 – Soldagem com proteção gasosa

12

4.2.3 – Soldagem por arco submerso

15

4.3 – Aço Estrutural

16

4.3.1 – Histórico

20

4.3.2 – Aços patináveis

21

4.4 – Fundamentos da Fadiga

25

4.4.1 – Histórico

26

4.4.2 – Aspectos básicos da fadiga

27

4.4.3 – O processo de fadiga

32

4.4.3.1 Início do processo de fadiga

33

4.4.3.2 Propagação da trinca de fadiga

35

4.5 – Fundamentos da Mecânica de Fratura

36

4.5.1 Histórico

36

4.5.2 – Generalidades

40

4.5.3 – Fator de intensidade de tensão

42

4.5.4 – Tenacidade à fratura (K IC .)

46

4.5.5 – Estado plano de deformação versus estado plano de

tensão

48

4.5.6 – Integral J

49

4.5.7 – Abertura de trinca (CTOD)

51

4.5.8 - Aplicação da Mecânica de Fratura em fadiga

52

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5.

MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS

56

5.1 – Materiais

56

5.2 – Métodos

61

5.2.1 – Soldagem do material

62

5.2.2 – Obtenção da pré-trinca de fadiga

63

5.2.3 – Ensaios de propagação de trinca por fadiga

(da/dN) x K

63

5.2.4 – Ensaios de impacto Charpy

63

5.2.5 – Ensaios de K c e δδδδ m

64

5.2.6 – Ensaios de integral J

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5.2.7 – Análise de falhas

65

6. RESULTADOS E DISCUSSÃO

66

6.1 – Ensaios de tração

66

6.2 – Ensaios de impacto Charpy

66

6.3 – Ensaios de microdureza

69

6.4 - Ensaios de tenacidade à fratura

70

6.5 – Ensaios de integral J

73

6.6 – Ensaios de propagação de trincas (fadiga)

76

6.7 – Análise de fraturas

78

6.7.1 – Microfractografias de CPS ensaiados em impacto Charpy

79

6.7.2 – Microfractografias de CPs ensaiados em tenacidade à fratura

81

6.7.3 - Microfractografias de CPs ensaiados à fadiga

85

7. CONCLUSÕES

86

8. SUGESTÕES PARA FUTUROS TRABALHOS

87

9. REFERÊNCIAS BIBLIOGRÁFICAS

88

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LISTA DE FIGURAS

Figura 4.1 – Evolução dos processos de soldagem ao longo do tempo

9

Figura 4.2 – Soldagem por eletrodo revestido

10

Figura 4.3 – Processo de soldagem TIG

13

Figura 4.4 – Processo de soldagem MIG/MAG

14

Figura 4.5 – Processo de soldagem por arco submerso

15

Figura 4.6 – Curvas tensão x deformação para diferentes classes de aços

17

Figura 4.7 – Perda de espessura em ambiente industrial agressivo

22

Figura 4.8 – Prefeitura de Salvador/BA; aço do tipo SAC 41, sem pintura

24

Figura 4.9 – Escola de Minas – Campus UFOP/ Ouro Preto

25

Figura 4.10 – Representação esquemática de uma superfície de fratura por fadiga;

1- fratura instável final; 2 - marcas de praia; 3 - região de início

28

Figura 4.11 – Tipos de tensões cíclicas

29

Figura 4.12 – Curva de Wöhler

30

Figura 4.13 – Esquema de ensaio de uma viga em escala real

33

Figura 4.14 – Montagem de um corpo-de-prova do tipo tração-compacto

34

Figura 4.15 – Resultado típico do ensaio fadiga S-N mostrando o limite de fadiga

35

Figura 4.16 – Propagação para uma trinca de fadiga

36

Figura 4.17 – Navio Liberty rompido por fratura frágil

41

Figura 4.18 – Placa infinita com uma trinca de largura 2a

42

Figura 4.19 – Sistema de coordenadas

42

Figura 4.20 – Estado de tensão na vizinhança de uma trinca

43

Figura 4.21 – Modos de deformação

44

Figura 4.22 – Linhas de força de uma barra entalhada ensaiada à tração

46

Figura 4.23 – Variação do fator de intensidade de tensão versus espessura

47

Figura 4.24 – Origens dos efeitos de constrição

48

Figura 4.25 – Figura 4.25 – Ilustração do embotamento na ponta da trinca

52

Figura 4.26 – Tipo de corpo-de-prova (a); dados de ensaio (b); curva da/dN x K (c) 53

54

Figura 5.1 – Fotomicrografias das três zonas estabelecidas na soldagem (ataque com

Figura 4.27 – Comportamento do crescimento de trincas em metais

nital 3%, aumento de 100X)

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58

Figura 5.2 – Fotomicrografias do material estudado: zona fundida (a), zona termicamnte afetada (b) e metal base (c). Ataque com nital 3%; aumento de 500X 59 Figura 5.3 – Representação esquemática de como os CPs foram retirados para ensaio .60

Figura 5.4 – Corpo-de-prova utilizado (tipo tração-compacto, ASTM E 399/90)

Figura 5.5 – Máquina de eletro-erosão para confecção dos entalhes nos CPs para ensaios

60

de fadiga

61

Figura 5.6 – Vista geral da máquina servohidráulica, MTS 10t, para ensaios de

tenacidade à fratura e fadiga

62

Figura 5.7 – Posicionamento dos entalhes em corpo-de-prova para enaios Charpy; (a)

entalhe ao longo da espessura (orientação T-S); (b) entalhe ao longo do cordão de solda (orientação T-L). As setas indicam a direção da espessura;

dimensões do CP (em mm): 10 x 10 x 55

64

Figura 5.8 – Posicionamento de clipe gage para medição de CTOD

64

Figura 6.1 – Curva de energia absorvida em ensaio de impacto na região da ZTA;

entalhe ao longo da espessura (MARTINS et alli, 2001)

67

Figura 6.2 – Curva de energia absorvida em ensaio de impacto na região da ZTA com entalhe ao longo do cordão de solda. (MARTINS et alli, 2001) 67

Figura 6.3 – Figura 6.3 – Perfil de microdureza do material ensaiado (MARTINS et alli,

2001)

69

Figura 6.4 – Localização dos pontos para ensaio de microdureza (MARTINS et alli,

70

Figura 6.5 – Ensaio de tenacidade à fratura, corpo-de-prova com orientação T-L,

2001)

entalhe no metal de base

71

Figura 6.6 – Ensaio de tenacidade à fratura, CP com orientação T-L, entalhe na zona fun-

dida (metal de solda)

71

Figura 6.7 – Ensaio de tenacidade à fratura, CP com orientação T-L, entalhe na zona

termicamente afetada

72

Figura 6.8 – Curva de carga versus COD para o metal base

74

Figura 6.9 – Curva de integral J para o metal base

75

Figura 6.10 – Curva da/dN versus K para metal de base, zona termicamente

afetada e zona fundida; R = 0,3; f = 30 Hz

76

Figura 6.11 – Curva da/dN versus K para metal de base, zona termicamente afetada

e zona fundida; R = 0,7; f = 30 Hz

x

77

Figura 6.12 – Curva da/dN versus K para metal de base, zona termicamente afetada e

zona fundida; R = 0,7 e 0,3; f = 30 Hz

77

Figura 6.13 – Microfractografia do material na região da ZTA; entalhe ao longo do cordão de solda; -197 o C; facetas de clivagem; aumento de 750X (MEV) 79

Figura 6.14 – Idem à Figura 6.13; aumento de 1500X (MEV)

79

Figura 6.15 – Microfractografia do material na região da ZTA; entalhe ao longo do cordão de solda; 0 o C; fratura semi-frágil; aumento de 750X (MEV)

79

Figura 6.16 – Idem à Figura 6.15; 1 - dimples; 2 - facetas de clivagem; aumento de

2000X (MEV)

79

Figura 6.17 – Microfractografia do material na região da ZTA; entalhe ao longo da espessura; -85 o C; fratura semi-frágil; aumento de 750X (MEV)

79

Figura 6.18 – Idem à Figura 6.17; aumento de 1500X (MEV)

80

Figura 6.19 – Microfractografia do material na região da ZTA; entalhe ao longo da

espessura; -5 o C; fratura semi-frágil; aumento de 750X (MEV)

80

Figura 6.20 – Idem à Figura 6.17; aumento de 1500X (MEV)

80

Figura 6.21 – Microfractografia de CP empregado no ensaio de tenacidade; entalhe na

ZF; região da pré-trinca de fadiga; aumento de 1000X (MEV)

81

Figura 6.22 – Microfractografia de CP empregado no ensaio de tenacidade; entalhe na

ZF; fratura dúctil; aumento de 1000X ( MEV)

81

Figura 6.23 – Detalhe da Figura 6.22, presença de partícula, caracterizando um dimple;

aumento de 5000X (MEV)

81

Figura 6.24 – Microfractografia de CP ensaiado em tenacidade à fratura; entalhe na

ZTA; região da pré-trinca de fadiga; aumento de 1000X (MEV)

82

Figura 6.25 – Microfractografia de CP ensaiado em tenacidade à fratura; entalhe na ZTA; região de transição entre a pré-trinca de fadiga e a fratura; aumento

de 200X (MEV)

82

Figura 6.26 – Microfractografia de CP ensaiado em tenacidade à fratura; entalhe na

ZTA; região de fratura; aumento de 100X (MEV)

82

Figura 6.27 – Microfractografia de CP ensaiado em tenacidade à fratura; entalhe na

ZTA; fratura dúctil; aumento de 1000X (MEV)

83

Figura 6.28 - Detalhe da Figura 6.27; presença de partícula; aumento de 1500X

(MEV) 83

xi

Figura 6.29 - Microfractografia de CP ensaiado em tenacidade à fratura; entalhe no MB;

região da pré-trinca de fadiga; aumento de 1000X (MEV)

83

Figura 6.30 – Microfractografia de CP ensaiado em tenacidade à fratura; entalhe no

MB; região de transição entre a pré-trinca de fadiga e a fratura; aumento

83

Figura 6.31 – Microfractografia de CP ensaiado em tenacidade à fratura; entalhe no MB;

84

de 200X

região da fratura; aumento de 100X (MEV)

Figura 6.32 – Microfractografia de CP ensaiado em tenacidade à fratura; entalhe no MB;

84

Figura 6.33 – Detalhe da Figura 6.30; presença de partícula; aumento de 1500X (MEV) 84

Figura 6.34 – Microfractografia de CP ensaiado à fadiga; entalhe no MB; região de

fratura dúctil; aumento de 1000X (MEV)

fratura do CP; aumento de 500X (MEV)

85

Figura 6.35 – Microfractografia de CP ensaiado à fadiga; entalhe na ZTA; região de

fratura do CP; aumento de 500X (MEV)

85

Figura 6.36 – Microfractografia de CP ensaiados à fadiga; entalhe na ZF; região de

fratura do CP; aumento de 500X (MEV)

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85

LISTA DE TABELAS

Tabela 4.1 – Resultados típicos para um aço estrutural submetido a ensaio de fadiga com

inversão de carregamento, R = - 1 Tabela 5.1 – Propriedades mecânicas do aço tipo SAC-50

inversão de carregamento, R = - 1 Tabela 5.1 – Propriedades mecânicas do aço tipo SAC-50

34

56

Tabela 5.2 – Composição química do aço tipo SAC-50 (% do peso) - USIMINAS

(1999)

56

Tabela 5.3 – Composição química nominal do eletrodo E7018 (% do peso)

57

Tabela 5.4 – Composição química da zona fundida (% do peso)

57

Tabela 5.5 – Propriedades mecânicas do aço tipo SAC-50

57

Tabela 5.6 – Parâmetros utilizados na abertura da pré-trinca e ensaio de propagação de trinca

63

Tabela 6.1 – Energia absorvida em ensaios de impacto, Charpy, a 25 o C

68

Tabela 6.2 – Valores aproximados de tenacidade à fratura K C (orientação T-L)

70

Tabela 6.3 – Tenacidade à fratura δ m (orientação T-L)

xiii

73

NOMENCLATURA E ABREVIATURAS

A: Área a: Comprimento de trinca a o : Comprimento inicial de trinca

AASHTO: American Association of State Highway of Transportation Officials AISC: American Institute of Steel Construction ASME: American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM: American Society Testing Materials AWS: American Welding Society B: Espessura do corpo-de-prova CDTN: Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear CNEN: Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear COD: Crack open displacement CP: Corpo-de-prova CTOD: Crack tip opening displacement

C VN : Energia absorvida em CP entalhado

da/dN: Taxa de crescimento de trinca por fadiga E: Módulo de elasticidade (Young) EPD: Estado plano de deformação EPT: Estado plano de tensão

I: Corrente de soldagem

J: Integral J J i : Integral J para início de crescimento estável da trinca J IC : Valor crítico da integral J para modo I J e : Integral J avaliada na região elástica J p : Integral J avaliada na região plástica K: Fator de intensidade de tensão

K

IC : Fator de intensidade de tensão crítico para modo I, no EPD

K

JC : Fator de intensidade de tensão crítico para modo I, calculado a partir de J IC

K

I : Fator de intensidade de tensão para o modo I

xiv

K min : Valor limiar para tenacidade à fratura L: Comprimento do corpo-de-prova MAG: Metal active gas MB: Metal base MEV: Microscópio eletrônico de varredura MIG: Metal inert gas MLEF: Mecânica linear elástica de fratura MPa: Mega Pascal, unidade de tensão MTS: Metal testing system R: Relação entre tensões σ mín e σ máx SAC: Soldável anticorrosivo TIG: Tungsten inert gas ZF: Zona fundida W: Largura do corpo-de-prova ZTA: Zona termicamente afetada ν: Coeficiente de Poisson

σ ys : Limite de escoamento

σ máx : Tensão máxima

σ mín : Tensão mínima

σ av : Tensão média

σ sr : Amplitude de tensões

δ: Valor do COD

δ i : Valor do COD no início de crescimento estável da trinca

ε: Deformação (%)

K th : Valor limiar de K

σ x : Tensão normal na direção do eixo x

σ y : Tensão normal na direção do eixo y

σ z : Tensão normal na direção do eixo z

τ xy : Tensão cisalhante paralela ao plano xy

xv

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2. OBJETIVOS

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J)('(-.(G#($(#',.&)$/$2/%3/)'&%(-'/$%(2;-*2/$.($,%$&5/$(#'),',)&17$./$'*3/$REH$YO7

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3. RELEVÂNCIA DO TRABALHO

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4. REVISÃO BIBLIOGRÁFICA

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E$ #(9,*)$ #()@$ 4(*'&$ ,%&$ )(B*#0/$ C*C1*/9)@4*2&$ )(4()(-'($ &/#$ '(%&#$ (-B/1B*./#$ -(#'(

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4.1 -$ Introdução à Soldagem

H/%$&$(B/1,50/$'K2-*2&$($&$4&C)*2&50/$.($&5/#$.($%(18/)$+,&1*.&.($(%$(#2&1&$*-.,#')*&17

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E',&1%(-'(7$ &$ #/1.&9(%$ K$ &%31&%(-'($ (%3)(9&.&$ -/#$ %&*#$ .*B()#/#$ 2&%3/#$ .&#

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,'*1*I&50/$.&$#/1.&9(%7$3/*#$(1&$(#'@$3)(#(-'($.(#.($,%$#*%31(#$(+,*3&%(-'/$2*)h)9*2/

&'K$%(#%/$-&#$B*&9(-#$(#3&2*&*#>

4.1.1 - Definição/Caracterização

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4.1.2 - Histórico

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4.2 -$ Principais Processos Convencionais de Soldagem

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4.2.1 - Soldagem com eletrodo revestido

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56

Serão descritos neste item os materiais e a metodologia utilizados para a realização dos ensaios.

!./"#"$01234045

A partir das chapas de aço estrutural anticorrosivo do tipo SAC-50, com 12 mm de

espessura, soldou-se ao arco elétrico com eletrodo revestido (E-7018) para avaliar as características do material através do ensaio de fadiga. Realizou-se a caracterização química e mecânica onde os valores encontram-se nas Tabelas 5.1-5.4 e 5.5 respectivamente.

A Tabela 5.1 apresenta a composição química do material utilizado, obtida no laboratório da empresa VDL (Valadares Diesel Ltda) de Itabirito/MG.

Tabela 5.1 - Composição química do aço tipo SAC-50 (% peso)

ElementoC

 

Mn

Si

P

S

Ni

Cr

Composição

0,14

1,15

0,37

0,04

0,02

0,18

0,39

A Tabela 5.2 mostra a composição química nominal do material, segundo o catálogo da

USIMINAS (1999).

Tabela 5.2 - Composição química do aço tipo SAC-50 (% do peso) - USIMINAS (1999)

ElementoC

 

Mn

Si

P

S

Ti

Cr