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KHADGA LAKSHANAM

(An Introduction Of swords metallic properties ) BY:- BOBADE BHUJANG RAMRAO

English Translation

B.R.BOBADE
DIRECTOR, MANUSCRIPT DEPT 1

DECCAN ARCHEOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER HYDRABAD

HYDERABAD-2010

EPILOGUE
“There will never be a nation, which understood separate types of swords and their names, than the inhabitants of India” Al-Beruni (973-1048 AD) The above statement emphasis the need to take up a study on swords which resulted to bring out book ‘Khadga Lakshana Siiromani’ The Telugu poetic work ‘Khadga Lakshana Siromani’ provides valuable information on a wide verity of swords manufactured in wootz steel. Deals on various swords with measurements, shades and symbols find place in this book. The Telugu manuscript‘ Khadga Lakshana Siromani’ contains 79 poems with two prose passages.. The long prose passage enumerated 32 kinds of weapons; those generally described in the contemporary Telugu texts. This long prose passage as well provides the names of 140 swords, classifies them into eight categories. The author dealt extensively on words therefore, he called it as ‘Asi Sastra (science of the swords). . As there is no English translation to the entire work, I have attempted this work in the larger interest of the scholars, researchers and readers. This work is a hidden treasure of medieval technical expertise on swords, in Telugu literature. The science of swords is only one of its kinds in Telugu literature and it is quite fascinating. The author Navanappa, belongs to the artisan community and received patronage of the Pudukkotai rulers (Tamilnadu) in late 18th Century. The author and his family were engaged in manufacturing swords. Therefore, he paid tributes and reverences to the elders Smiths in eighth verse. He states ‘it is not exhaustive still there are several kinds of swords on this earth so the clever will know those.’ The 11 th verse states that ‘the great task like constructing a bridge against the great river, tying to cut to tie up in together an elephants 2

in rut, the different characters and different verities of great swords, enquired with known people expressed in verse.’ The author well versed with the theory of art of sword making. As it is of technical nature, the description had failed to create an impact of literary vehemence and rhetoric eloquence. The two reasons attributed to that, most of the words found in the text were of ‘desi’ and mixed current composite culture. Most of the sword, names are popularly known in Arabic and Persian. Measurements are given in the contemporary usage. The measurements are given in the inches and feet. The author mentions in 77 th verse that ‘experts of sword fighting will recognize all varieties of swords. They recognize all characters and categories by measuring with their own hands and fingers. With deep sense of gratitude, I express my sincere thanks to Dr. K.B.Patil, Vice chanceller North Maharashatra University , Jalgaon , Dr. M. V. Baride, Resistar, N.M.U. JALGAON to go through the manuscript and offered valuable suggestions. I express my gratitude and thanks to my friends and to my beloved students who have extended their wholehearted support to carrying out my field research. I also express my sincere thanks to the DR. Raja Reddy, DR. E. Shivanagi Reddy, Prof. Prashant Deshmukh sir Baburao for their heartly help. I am grateful to the DR. Omshiva Ligade sir for inspirate to me from my college period. I would like to place on record my sincere thanks to DECCAN ARCHEOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL RESEARCH CENTER, HYDRABAD for giving me all governmental supports. I extend my heartfelt thanks to Mr. K. Jithendra Babu, epigraphist, scholar and historian, by profession an Advocate in AP High Court. I also thank the computer experts who helped in its page making and to the press people. for according me permission for its translation and publication. I also thanks to my friends Mr. Jadhav Maroti Kishanrao and Shinde Sidharth

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INTRODUCTION Weapon a sign of authority and symbol of command, offers protection, confidence, and right. G. N. Panth says, “Weapons were the best friends of the brave, the symbol of authority and the token of command, the visible sign of force, strength and domination.”1 Man was always in need of implements and weapons for acquiring food and defending himself against enemy respectively and eventually developed different types of weapons. Human history is replete with several instances of wars. The sovereignty, survival and glory of kingdoms entirely depended upon the capability of their military. Consequently, advancement of weapons attained supreme importance in Medieval period. Further introduction of artillery revolutionized the strategies of war and style of fort construction during this period. Innumerable manufacturing and marketing centers of arms were located in Deccan during the medieval period. Arms and armor used in the medieval period in the country were alike and similar barring a few regional differences. Evidently, Deccan was not different from the rest of the country in terms of arms and armor but always ahead in developing, introducing and adopting new techniques in weaponry when compared to the rest of the country. These new techniques were assimilated into the indigenous technologies from foreigners who came to India. The credit of first use of gunpowder and cannons in India was attributed to the Vijayanagara and Bahamani Kingdoms in the Deccan. The kingdoms in the Deccan were small but offered tough resistance to the Delhi Sultans and the Great Mughals owing to their strong and effective military build up.2 Armies used swords and shields, bows and arrows, spears, lances, maces, war clubs, battle-axes, daggers, knives, coat of mail, quilted tunics, armguards, and knuckle guards during the medieval period. Armies used not only different kinds of horse and elephant armor but also various kinds of artillery pieces like matchlock guns, flint guns, harquebusiers, wheel lock guns and cannon balls of different sizes made of metal and stones. Weapons were used for the fighting purpose as well as for ceremonial purposes, which were highly ornamented, decorated, and hence used for gifting purpose. The sword has been the symbol of war and the badge of honor and courage among fighting men since the days when iron was first hammered into blade. The right to carry a sword has usually been a mark of rank. The warriors of the world consider it as 4

most romantic weapon to carry. The sword is a weapon of self-defense and used mostly in single combat fighting. It is used for cutting, slashing and thrusting propose. Sword was the most common weapon used by the infantry and the cavalry in the wars throughout the world. The people of Indus valley civilization did not know iron and sword. Aryans seldom used it. However, it became the principal weapon of Indians since Vedic Period. This weapon gained supreme importance in the progress of human life. This became sign of security, progress and protection of one’s own life, family and clan. “The swords are made of metal blades varying in length, breadth and configuration. It is longer than a dagger, fitted with a hilt or handle and equipped with a guard.”
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The word ‘Asi’

mentioned in Telugu literature to denote sword. The generic name of sword was Khadga (in Sanskrit) ‘Tegha’ (In Arabic) ‘Shamsheer’ (In Persian) and ‘Talwar’ (In Hindi and Urdu). People of India popularly used ‘Talwar’. The Sanskrit word ‘Khadga’ means a sword with broad blade. The ‘Khadgamu’ in Telugu is derived from Sanskrit word ‘Khadga’. The skill of fencing or fighting with a sword is practiced in all parts of the world for many centuries. Men fought battles with many different types of swords. Some were trained seriously for the deadly combat of the duel. Several people practiced sword since it was a survival for them to get employment to earn their bread. Much information on swords is available in Sanskrit literature. The ‘Agnipurana’, ‘Mahabharata’ ‘Brhatsamhita’, ‘Sukraniti’, ‘Manasollasa’, ‘Veeramitrodayam’, and ‘Sivatatvaratnakara’. contain only scant information regarding swords. However, scientific or technical description such as exact measurements, identity marks or any composition of metal or material are not at all discussed. There was no scientific treatise available on swords until 18th century.

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Khadga Laksana Siroman", by Navanappa (18th Century) provides rich information on swords. The author named it as Khadga Laksana Shiromani or "Asi Purana" which is a treatise in verse and described various kinds of swords made with wootz steel. Though it is a small book, it gives the main characteristic details and varieties of swords, which were in use during the period. Khadga Laksana Siromani a manuscript in Telugu available at Government Oriental Manuscript Library Madras (Chennai) contains 77 poems and 2 prose passages out of which one is short and another is long. The long prose passage enumerated 32 kinds of weapons and enumerated nearly 140 kinds of swords to identify by its name. In this book author extensively dealt with the description of swords and therefore, he called it as ‘Asi’ Sastra (science of swords).4 Generally, weapons were classified into three categories in Ancient times. 1. ‘Muktha’ (Dischargeable) 2. ‘Amuktha’ (Non-dischargeable) and 3. ‘Mukthhamuktha’ (Having both the qualities of dischargeable and non- dischargeable). 5 These three categories are enumerated into 32 kinds of weapons. The prose passage No.13 in this text also enumerates 32 kinds weapons were mentioned in several medieval Telugu literary texts.
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Different varieties of swords were used in ancient and

medieval periods. These differences pertain to their place of origin, make or manufacture the size, shape, length, breadth, sharpness, weight, civil use, and ceremonial use. The method to identify these swords by their difference in size, symbols and names are described in Khadgalaksanamu. It mentions 149 names of the swords with their description and identification. The names given to the swords depended upon the manufacture of the place, shape of the sword or names of great personalities.7 The eight different varieties of swords are described in the long prose passage 13th and 14th poem. The metal from where it was extracted judged the quality and the shades on the sword. The wootz steel quality of a sword depended on its length, breadth, sides, pointed endings, proportional thickness, edges, side slopes, lines, marks, bent, strips, shades of the steel, surface, cripple ness, lightness and crookedness. However, the swordsmen were expected to be conversant with the qualities, measurements, its constituent metals, the place of its manufacture and its configuration. It was customary to assign fanciful names to the swords, which were named after places, and persons of great reputation. The quality of sword was judged by its life, length, 6

breadth, sides, pointed ends, proportion, thickness, edges, side slopes, lines, marks, bent, stripes, shades, surface, etc .The sharpness and fineness of the weapon was widely appreciated in the literature.8 People were able to infer its place of manufacture by mere observation of the shades on the sword blade. India was famous for its wootz steel. The quality of sword depended upon the purity and character of the wootz-steel. The superiority was assessed by its razor edge, sharpness and curvature of the blade. Native wootz steel ingots were exported to Damascus and from there fine varieties of Damascened, watered blades were imported to this country. Damascened steel blades were high in demand in the country and around the world. The Deccan wootz steel exported to Damascus, Middle East and Europe. Fakhr -i-Mudabbir considered that “the Indian swords were the best” and it says, “The Damascened swords (maujdarya) was the rarest and fetched the highest price.” 9 The Dutch Company exported iron and steel from their factories in India to their native country. “During the 1660’s the Dutch were active in developing the iron industry in the Godavari delta. They were in such an urgent need of pig iron, iron bands, iron bars and cannon balls, that they organized manufacturing system of production of these items in their factories.” 10 This fact conformed by the traveler William Havert, who visited these Dutch factories in 1667 AD.11 European swords and sword blades imported into this country by the Vijayanagara kings of Deccan, because of their Portuguese trade interaction in the later period. Dutch East India Company sold the arms to the Qutb-Shahi- kings. In Northern Telangana, there were good number of iron producing and wootz making centers prevalent since times immemorial. The measurement or pramana of a sword with 50 inches in length was the best or Srestha. The sword of 40 inches in length as Madhyama or the better and the sword of 36 inches in length as ‘Kanista’ the inferior.12 The use of a sword of good quality could result into the supremacy of the swordsman who would emerge victorious in the war. There were certain superior quality of swords claimed as superior to the thunderbolt of Indra and he would become the king of the kings by its use.13 The use of bad quality of sword could result into death of the swordsman or even the destruction of his lineage. It could lead to suspension of the swordsmen and could create poverty, spoil his reputation, ruin his career, imparting an ugly appearance. A high quality of sword carried a lustrous character resembling castor oil seed and lines on a secret script or beautiful hair of the female. If the lines resembled Conch (shanku), disk (chakra), arch (torana), flag, fish (machha) tortoise (kurma) were considered inauspicious. Those were with the marks of 7

epithet emblem of Shiva, garuda with an enclosure, Swan and Lotus were regarded as honorable swords. The sword was evaluated and adjudged by taking into account all of these factors and qualities.14 The sword blades had different colors depending on the metal from which soil it was made. The soil from which iron was made imparted the tint, shade and shining color to the sword blades. The shining shades of colors distinct on its surface or background known as dugalamu. A gradation of color passes from its lightest to its darkest shade. This tint and luster resembles like castor oil seeds or the hair of a female. Some times the tint of lines resembles like secret script or beautiful hair of the female. There were many kinds of cast roil seed verities. Every castor oil seed bears different shining tint. The tin reflects only in the damascened sword blades. This work practiced in Damascus, Syria, Isafan and other central Asian cities. The author describes the shine in comparison to the tint of castor oil seeds. The metal used for making the swords and the place where the metal is available causes the color or the tint and the shades of the sword blade can enable us to identify the place of its origin as described below: Country 1. Jangalaksetra 2. Anupa 3. Sadarana 4. Kalinga 5. Kambhoja 6. Nilagiri 7. Ghurjara 8. Maharashtra 9. Karnata Name Panjara Krishna Panjara Suvarna Panjara Nirasara Krishnasara Sewtasara Madika Marks Linga and Prakkara Oil seed colour New and Plough Prayangu Tree Mark f oil drops Sapphire Creepers White Round Prakara 15

Enumeration of all swords with critical analysis is a very difficult task. It needs expertise to evaluate the subject. In the medieval period, all people carried swords. Sword making engaged the attention of good number of artisan communities. The swords were highly decorated and ornamented especially the blades inscribed with the names of makers and some times users and inlaying work with gold and silver, hilts studded with gems and precious stones and sheaths covered with velvet and designed with golden thread. There were number of ceremonial swords, which were made and well studded with precious stones, jewels, gold and silver. All kinds of swords that were used are given with a specific name to identify it. The names were given after the place of manufacture of sword, great personalities, great nations and reputed places in the country. An interesting 8

factor of this Khadgalakshana Shiromani is that the author narrates the names of the swords native, Persian and European revealing the influence of Islam and Europeans on the Andhra Desa. Author described about eight categories of swords with their names and methods of identification. In the first category of swords author described most important ceremonial type, which have very important characteristic features. Khadga Lakshana Shiromani is a treatise in verse relating to description of various characteristics of swords. This is only one of its kinds in Telugu literature though apparently it is a small one. The work is valuable as technical work relating to the unsurveyed field of scientific literature in Telugu. This sort of work is scanty. It was written at Podukkota in Tamilnadu state under the patronage of well-known Thondaman dynasty which ruled from 1686-1886 and they were well known for their patronage of Telugu literature. It is based on single, manuscript No-D-2667 which was only available in the Government Oriental Manuscript Library, Madras (Chennai). The poet Navanappa son of Nallapichayya, patronized by Raja Raghunatha, Raja Tirumala and Raja Vijayaraghunatha Tondaman, authored this work. Navanappa mentioned that he wrote the book in prosperous times of three kings who ruled Podukkotai “Between” 1730-1807 A.D. Since the author mentioned three kings, the composition of the work assigned to the same period. No other work of author is available to us. In the first eight verses, author pays tribute to four persons who were skilled in smithy and the science of sword. They gave the necessary and authentic information to author of this work for writing this book. They gave him all the secrets of their respective artisanship and various aspects of the science of swords. The author well versed with the theory and art of sword making. It presumed that the author also must have belonged to the class of sword makers and it was due to this reason perhaps that he might have mentioned the names, which were not hither to, mentioned in literary works. As it is of a technical nature the author’s description has failed to create an impact of literary vehemence and rhetoric eloquence. The two reasons that, the most of the words were of deshi and mixed contemporary, composite culture. Besides most of the weapon names, especially swords, popularly known in Arabic and Persian. All the measurements given in the book are in contemporary usage. It posed difficulty in assessing exact measurements of various swords. Swords were used with waist belts and covered with sheaths. Those sheaths were padded with velvet or soft leather inside. The outside of the sheath was covered with soft cloth or velvet, decorated and ornamented with various kinds of precious stones and metals. Enamel and painting were also adapted to it. Every sword was used only with the 9

sheath. The swords maintenance was a special and careful job. The sharpness and luster of swords regularly maintained. Thevenot says, “the swords made by Indians are very brittle but the English furnished them with good ones brought from England” and all the ordinary sort of people in Indians carry them commonly in their hand, or upon their shoulders like Musket”.16 “Swords men must be conversant with measurements (`pramana’) good character (`guna’ or `rekha’) and bad qualities (`dosha’). Measurements of swords: Sword of 50 inches considered as the best (sreastha) Sword of 40 inches considered as the better (madhyama) Sword of 30 inches considered as of inferior quality (kanista) Good qualities (gunas): 1. Swords shone like castor oil seed and whose lines resembled the secret script appears like a kethaki fruit and hair of the women. 2. Conch (sankah) Disk (chakra) Arch (thorana), Fan made with animal hair Chore (chamara) Banner (dwaja) Fish (matsya) and Tortoise (kurma). 3. Mark of a linga. 4. Mark of Eagle (garuda) Swan (hamsa) Lotus (padma) was considered as good qualities of sword blade. 17 Bad qualities: The qualities of sword evoked widespread poverty, brought ill reputation, induced qualities. 18 The swords were well maintained to preserve their sharpness and luster preventing from rust by applying castor oil to blades. The fencing swords used for regular practice and exercise in sword fighting, known as sana katti in Telugu. 19 Sword hilts with gold, silver, jade stone and ivory with fine grip were used by the kings and princely people. There are many exhibits on display in various Museums in the country. Swords were decorated and designed with Kofthgari or inlay work in gold and silver inscribing the names of the makers and users. There are many exhibits on display in the Museums. “Swords with golden hilts were studded with precious stones. The daggers were also made in the same fashion” 20 “The last king of Golkonda, Abul Hasan Tanshah, had a costly dagger worth of half million rupees. It was all covered with 10 beliefs associated with them. It lineage, created believed that carrying sword of bad quality caused death, destroyed

fear and imparted an ugly appearance to the

holder. Khadga- lakshanas described 18 characteristics to ascertain the good and bad

valuable jewels”.21 There were several references in contemporary literature as regards to the costly swords usually presented as gifts.

Parts of sword blade22
1. Dumala = tongue 2. Khajana Tegha = blade, Rica so 3. Nal or Nabhah = furors on the blade or groves or channels on the blade 4. Mang = ribs 5. Peta = cutting edge 6. Pipala = curvature 7. Tonak = point or tip of the lower most part of blade 8. Penaka = back or opposite to the sharp edge

Parts of sword Hilt or qebzah
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Mougra = tong button Katori = pommel Narahe = langet Putla = grip Zaban = tongue or re csso fix Knuckle guard The descriptions of various kinds of swords are as follows.

Abbasi: Abbasi is a curved Persian sword generally having even curve and sharp
edge. The same is described in the Khadgalaksanamu. These Swords possessed a length of the blade that varied from 30 to 34 inches and 2 to 3 inches breadth and bent like bow with fine side slopes. There is no much deference between talwar and abbasi. 23

Tegha: It was an ordinary sword, Blade with a curved and little broadening along a
swelling groove. The average length of the blade in this class of swords were between 30 to 32 inches, 3 to 4 inches breadth, with little increase, of about half an inch at the curve ending in convex, thin sharp edge s. Upper edge of the blade was made thicker in order to provide strength to the blade. Blades made from fine wootz steel and lustrous quality. 24

Dhup: This was a straight sword adopted from Deccen. It had a broad blade, four
feet long and a cross hilt. It is considered as emblem of sovereignty and high dignity. “Dhoup, a Straight blade was used by most Deccanies.”40 Khanda was identical with Dhup. It is a long strait sword with a length4 to 5 feet. 25 11

Sailaba: A special Hyderabad sword that had elongated curved blade with sharp
edge on the concave side. Average length of the blade varied from 26 to 32, inches watered blade with fine finishing. It was a Deccan sword. 26

Patta: A straight sword is Patta, known as pattisa in Telugu. A long straight rapier
and double edged, sword that had tapering blade with a long gauntlet hilt that reached up to the elbow. The length of the hilt varied from 12 to 15 inches and which gave a firm grip on the weapon protecting the hand from blows. Inside hilt lined with velvet or cotton pads to protect the hand from injury and looks highly decorated. The length of the blade was about 36 to 40 inches and breadth of the blade 2 to 4 inches. Some blades were having uprooted furrow tapering towards edges and some dented with saw on both sides. 27

Khanda: Contemporary Telugu literary sources described it as a big sword. It was
a straight and long sword with a constant breadth ending like a tongue. It was a single edged blade and upper edge was thick and reinforced with support up to the middle from the hilt. The average length of the blade varied from 40 to 42 inches. Breadth was about 3 to 4 inches. It was studded with basket hilt, which was identical to ‘dhup’ described by Irvine. He said, “this straight sword adopted from Deccan and this was used by the Deccanies.41b As per the description there is no much difference between ‘Dhup’ and ‘Khanda’ swords. ‘Dhup’ sword has a double edge. Irvine gives that ‘Dhup’ had broad blade, four feet long and a cross hilt. It was considered as an Emblem of Sovereignty and high dignity. There fore it was displayed on the occasions of state festivals. ‘Description in Rayavachakamu’ gives that Rumi Khanda or ‘rumetthi khandamu’ was so powerful that it would cut down the trunks of a tree with a single blow. ‘Chandrika Parinayamu’ also describes the use of Khanda sword. 28

Talwar: Talwar or phirangu sword was the most common weapon carried by the
infantry and the cavalry in Medieval Deccan. These swords were tied-up on the left side to the waist belt. Sometimes the horseman wore it over his shoulders as a matter of convenience.”
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Since these sword blades were mostly imported from Europe.

Europeans were known as ‘firangees’ because it was believed that they have brought the cannons to this country. The cannons called as firangi in Hindi and Telugu. The sword had cut and thrust blade mounted with basket hilt”.30 Because of purity of steel and tempered metal it was preferred by most of the people. The length of the blade ranged from 36 to 45 inches and ended in crescent shape. Breadth varied from 2 to 4

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inches with thickness of the blade. Occasionally the blade ended in a curve like that of a crocodile tail with thinness and sharp convex edge. 31 Critical enumeration of all swords is a difficult task. It calls for a special expertise to evaluate the sword. In the medieval period, warriors carried swords. The ceremonial swords were highly decorated and ornamented at the hilts and sheaths. The blades were inscribed with the names and its maker in gold and silver. The ceremonial swords were well studded with precious stones, jewels, in gold and silver. The daggers and swords that were presented on certain occasions were meant for only ‘Jashan’ days but not for regular use.

Daggers: Dagger was a popular weapon among Indians through the ages and
used for self-security. Those were of many kinds and each one had a specified use. G.N.Paths says, “The most used and dependable weapon of Indians, who used them generally for thrusting and stabbing.32 Thevonot says that `It is their custom also to carry a dagger by their sides. The blade was nearly a foot long, and above four fingers broad at the Handle.’
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Those were of various kinds each of which had a

separate name and purpose. The most popular daggers throughout the medieval period in the Deccan were katar, Peshkabz, Quma, Jambia, Khanjar, Bank and Bichhawa.

Katar: A dagger with ‘H’ shaped hilt and forked blade. The blade was very thick
with two cutting edges and its breadth varied from three to five inches at the hilt and a solid point of about one inch in triangle. The blade is so stiff that nothing would stop it a cuirass. 34 The hilt made up of two square bars of iron, one finger broad; and about a foot long. which were parallel’ and four inches distant one from another encircling round they join together at the upper part of the blade and have cross bars of two little rods, two inches distance from one another.35 Different kinds of blades were fixed to it. The length of the blades would be about 6 to 15 inches and hilts length varied from 4 to 10 inches, groove in the middle of the blade, which had double-edged sharpness with pointed end and made up of thick tensioned steel.

Pashkabz: This is a broad single edged dagger with a pointed end possessed a thick
straight back edge with a steep gradation towards the point. Handles were of two kinds .One is with a guard and another was simple without a guard. The guard handle gave good grip over the weapon. The pointed ends were of two kinds. One was sharp and simple and another one is forked. The length of the blade varied from 8 to 12 inches and the hilt about 4 to 6 inches and with a watered blade. 36 13

Quma: This is a double-edged hunting knife with a tapering and slope narrowing
towards edges. In the middle of the blade, there was deep furrow like lines. It was like a small sword with different kinds of hilts. The length of the blade was about 12 to 20 inches and length of hilt was about 4 to 8 inches. Hilts were made up of horn or ivory. 37 Some were inlayed with gold on it and inscribed with name of the place of manufacture or of person to whom it belonged.

Jambia: This is a very popular dagger with a curved double-edged blade with mid
rib. The dagger had a short blade and single curve with pointed end. Mid rib on both sides added to the thickness of blade.. The length of the blade was about 8 to 10 inches and the hilt was about 4 to 6 inches. The breadth of blade varied. 38

Khanjara: This was an Arabic curved dagger. It had one or two curves on the
blade-resembling snake. It was with a sword hilt. The decorated pommels were of various designs. Some were with knuckle guards. The length of the blade was about 8 to 10 inches and the hilt was about 4 to 6 inches. Its curve extended the length of the blade and the hilt. 39

Bank: Known as Baku in Telugu or ‘Pedibaku’ and its use was mentioned ed in the
medieval Telugu literature. A dagger with a crescent shaped blade. Generally, hilt was a curved one and some hilts arranged with knuckle guards. “The curved shaped of this weapon makes it deadly as it causes very deep wounds when it was thrust;” The average length of the blade was about 6 to 8 inches and the hilt about 4 to 6 inches long. 40

Bichhawa: The name of this dagger derived from its tail end resembled tail e of
scorpion. It was a small double-edged dagger with one or two curves with fine sharpness. The one shown in the catalogue had the blade that is forked.41

Marau: It had two daggers joined in a single hilt in opposite direction. The two
blades were marked at the end. “It was used to rescue soldiers who were cornered (surrounded) by the enemies.” It mentioned in the catalogue that it belonged to 18th century. Its length was 69 cams. 42 It was about 28 inches and measuring each dagger length was about 14 inches from the centre. All daggers had sheaths to cover. All were highly decorated with metals and materials. Most of the hilts were made of horn, ivory, jade, and agate, stone and metals like steel and bronze. They were decorated with precious stones, gold, and silver in laying work, lacquer designs with enamel paintings, hilts covered with 14

various animal, bird heads and floral patterns. Daggers were presented as a symbol of honor and it was also used as ceremonial and decorative piece.

References
1. G N Pant, Indian Archery, p. 1 2. Deccan expeditions of Delhi Sultans and Moughul Deccan wars, that took considerable time for their supremacy over the region. 3. Encyclopedia of Britannica, vole-X, 1973. 4. Khadgalaksanasiromani, ed. and pub. N.Venkat Rao, Government Oriental manuscript library, Madras (Chennai), 1950. 5. Sukranithi, p. 127. 6. Hamsavimshathi, verse from 205 to 206, cento-1, pp. 45-47. .Rayavachkamu, p. 37. Krishnarayavijayamu, verse 27, cento-3, p. 57. 32 kind of weapons mentioned in Kuvalayashwachrita, Thapathisamvarana’ and Chandrikaparinayamu. 7. ‘Sanghrahandhra Vigyana Koshamu’ -Vol-VI, p. 229. 8. Kuvalayashwa Charitra -Poem-46 Cento-I, p. 45. 9. Fakhr-i-Mudabbir, this treatise on the Custom and rules connected with the wars. In this book, it described on the training, drilling, and organization of troops in the war field. 10. Ishrat Alam, Iron Manufacturing in Golkonda in 17th Century - Dutch Records of Danial Havert, published in Indian History Congress, 1988 Proceedings p. 246. 11. Ishrat Alam, Iron Manufacturing, p. 246. 12. Khadgalakshana Shiromani, p. xiv. 13. Khadgalakshana Shiromani, p. xiv. 14. Khadgalakshana Shiromani, p. xv. 15. Khadgalakshana Shiromani, p. xv. 16. ‘Indian Travels of Thevenot and Careri’ tr. and edit. S.N.Sen, p. 61. 17. Khadgalakshana Shiromani, pp. xiv-xv, verse 15 to 18. Andhra Vignana koshamu –3 Voles, p. 229. Yukthi Kalpatharuvu, Art of War in Medieval India, JNSarkar, p.118. 18. Khadgalakshana Shiromani, 14 verse, p. 5. It identifies these characteristics 1) Old 2) Now 3) Length 4) Breadth 5) Sides 6) Pointed ends 7) Thickness 8) Edge 9) Side-slope 10) Lines 11) Mark 12) Bent 13) Strips 14) Shades 15) Surface 16) Cripple ness 17) Lightness 19) Crookedness. This work contains not only the various dimensions of the swords but also gives pictorial descriptions of the marks on the sword. 20. Storia do Mogor, Munucci, 2 Vole. p. 335. Armor, p. 35. M.L.Nigam: Catalogue of Arms and

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21. Storia do Mogor- 3Vole, p. 221 M.L.Nigam: Catalogue of Arms and Armor, p. 35. . Irvine William, Army of the Indian Mughals, p. 76. 22. Article published by BK Apte: Medieval weapons of War-p112, in Deccan College Bulleten, Pune. Edged Arms in Salarjung Museum, GN Pant No’s 125 to 225-LIV-A, p. 63. 23. Edged Arms in Salarjung Museum, GN Pant, and p. 61. Apte’s Weapons of war, p. 112. Hussain.SMA, Kalimat-i-Aurangze- a case of Aurangazeb reign” Article. - Journal of Islamic Studies. 24. Edged Arms in Salarjung Museum, GN Pant, p. 30, and Catalogue No’s 200 to 208, pp. 82-85. M.L.Nigam: Catalogue of Arms and Armor, p. 61 25. Edged Arms in Salarjung Museum, GN Pant, and p. 40. Apte’s Weapons of war-P.110. Sarkar’s Art of War-p117. Pant’s Catalogue - p28-No. p. 7. Irvine William, Army of the Indian Mughals, pp. 76-77. - There is no much difference between ‘Dhup’ and ‘Khanda’ swords. ‘Dhup’ as a double edged. Irvine gives that ‘Dhup’ it had broad blade, four feet long and a cross hilt. It considered an Emblem of Sovereignty and high dignity, and therefore displayed on state occasions. Description in Rayavachakamu, gives that Rumi Khanda Sword was so powerful, with a single blow that it would cut the trunks of a tree. ‘Chandrika Parinayamu’ also describes the use of Khanda sword.PP54-5 42. Khadgalakshana Shiromani, Verse from 22 to 24, p. 20. ‘Phirangi’ generally used for a canon in Telugu, Europeans known as ‘Phirangies’ in Hindi ‘Parasulu’ in Telugu. As such, the blades imported from Europeans known as Phirangis, the swords brought by them are called as firangu swords. It describes five Phirangie swords. Talwar description given by Apte Weapons of War’- P112 & Irvin: Army, P75. 26. M.L.Nigam, Catalogue of Arms and Armor, Sl.No.128 to 154, p. 36. 27. M.L.Nigam, Catalogue of Arms and Armor, -Sl.No.155 to 160, p. 40. Pant’s Catalogue - p30-No.-12. 28. M.L.Nigam, Catalogue of Arms and Armor, -Sl.No.167 to 170, p. 40. Pant’s Catalogue - p29-No.8. 29. Khadgalakshana Shiromani, Verse from 22 to 24, p. 20. ‘Phirangi’ generally used for a canon in Telugu, Europeans known as ‘Phirangies’ in Hindi ‘Parasulu’ in Telugu. As such, the blades imported from Europe were known as Phirangi swords. It describes five Phirangie swords. Talwar description given by Apte’s Weapons of war, P112 &. Irvine William, Army of the Indian Mughals, p. 75. Pant’s Catalogue - p30-No.16. 30. M.L.Nigam, Catalogue of Arms and Armor, p.1. Panth.G.N; ‘Studies in Indian Weapon and Warfare.’ P3. 16

31. Thevenot - Indian Travels, P61 & Apte’s Weapons of war, P112. 32. Pant G.N; ‘Studies in Indian Weapon and War fare’, P3. 33. Thevenot - Indian Travels p. 61 34. Irvine William, Army of the Indian Mughals, p. 85. 35 Thevenot - Indian Travels, P61. - ‘Ain’ - Plate XII, Vol.I-P17. . Irvine William, Army of the Indian Mughals, p. 85. 36. Apte’s Weapons of war, P111. - Two kinds of pointed ends described in Irvine William, Army of the Indian Mughals, p. 88. M.L.Nigam, Catalogue of Arms and Armor, p. 58. 37. M.L.Nigam, Catalogue of Arms and Armor, p. 62. 38. M.L.Nigam, Catalogue of Arms and Armor, p. 64. . Irvine William, Army of the Indian Mughals, p. 87. 39. ‘Ain’- Plate-XII- Sl.No. 6&7 Vol.I- P17. Nigam’s Catalogue, P66 “Khanjar and Khapwa” looks the same - . Irvine William, Army of the Indian Mughals, p. 80. 40. Apte’s Weapons of war, P111. - Two kinds of pointed end described in. Irvine William, Army of the Indian Mughals, p. 88. Nigam’s Catalogue, P58. 41. Irvine William, Army of the Indian Mughals, p. 87. ‘this belongs to the class of Khanjar’. M.L.Nigam, Catalogue of Arms and Armor, p. 80. 42. Irvine William, Army of the Indian Mughals, p. 87. ‘This belongs to the class of Khanjar’. M.L.Nigam, Catalogue of Arms and Armor, p. 80.

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KHADGA LAKSHANAM [Text]
Verse 1: I pray heart fully the God Lord Siva, the chief of Kailasa, keeping in mind that He enshrines with Goddess Gauri and fulfils all the desires and requirements. Verse 2: Oh Lord with your grace, I learned propitiously the science of sword. Now I am inclined to write to get the appreciations from the people, so as let remain the goddess of speech in my words. Verse 3 : O lord! Shiva Let this composition comes very clearly for the benefit of desired people (The swords men). You bring leprosy, bushes and all the hardships to the world. Verse 4: I am interested to write this science of sword to get the universal fame; Oh Lord, the lover of poets, gives me life until the accomplishment of this work. Verse 5: O lord Vignesha! I pry for the knowledge be given to the ignorant people to understand this poetry. Passage 6: This way the author prayed the tutelary Gods. Verse 7: The scholarly kings Raya Raghunatha Thiumala his son Vijay Raghunatha and their minister who ordered to write this science of sword. Verse 8: Thirumala Chidambara; an excellent erudite and superior to Vishwa Karma (God of Arts), Chiligi Laxmaa Rama Sheela; a knowledgeable and well versed in sword making, Shanki Sumalu; a friendly person, specialized and superior to all the workers, Aakushye; a well respected on this earth for conducting the tests to the swords. This successful worker Subabhaktha is a son of Jangamaiah. All the expert smiths reveled the secrets and hidden truth of sword making. They described the salient features of weapons particularly the sword. Verse 9: A brave and trustworthy; a man of flavor, son of Nalla Pichaiah; who well appreciated by the king Sri Raya Raghunatha, Navanappa (the author of this book) 18

delivered in a poetic work by hearing from the above mentioned expert sword makers. The Lord Shiva may bless with wealth, health, children, name, and fame in the family and live everlasting. Verse 10: I am writing this Khadga Laksana Siromani with satisfying expression with the blessings of the Lord Shiva, Who showers love, and kindness and also the permission and appreciations of the poets. . Verse 11: The great task like constructing a bridge against the great river, tying to cut to tie up in together an elephants in rut, the different characters and different verities of great swords, enquired with known people expressed in verse. The good poets on this earth may correct the mistakes in this. It is not exhaustive still there are several kinds of swords on this earth so the claver will know those. I sought the blessings and divine gifts from the kindness of Lord Siva. Verse 12: O poets of the world; I am your follower so treat me as your son and kindly correct the mistakes in this text. Passage 13: In this beautiful ‘Prabandh’, first I am going to describe the weapons with the kindness of Lord Sri Ramachandra. The God of Arts (visvakarma) expressed the basic construction of thirty-two kinds of weapons described as fundamental science for the benefit of all of Sura (Gods), Asura (Demons) and Manavas (Humans) different weapons. 1. ‘Asi’ - The sword - Author dealt with its characteristics in this work 2. Musala - The first five weapons belong to the class of mace Alternatively war clubs. A solid ball with or Spikes made up of both iron and wood. Musala was a pestle like club, 3. Mudgara 4. Thomara 5. Gada 6. Kanaya - A club - An iron club, - Gada an iron rod With100 spikes - These five weapons belonged to the class of spears. Kanaya was a short spear, which was a metallic rod decorated with hand7. Kunta 8. Sabala - Kunta a lance with a long wooden shaft and a pointed steel head. - Sabala is a short spear. 19

9. Yeti 10. Trishula 11. Kodanda 12. Narasa 13. Bhindivala 14. Inupakola 15. Vajra Musti 16. Parasu 17. Pattisa 18. Karavala 19. Kathari 20. Vankini 21. Selakatti 22. Kampani 23. Chakra 24. Nakhara 25. Kohana 26. Sillu 27. Bhallataka 28. Apudi 29. Angala 30. Antaka 31. Prakurma

- A sharp pointed weapon like a dart or spear. - A Trident - A bow (Persian Kaman) - A metallic bow propellant of fire missiles. Arrow shaped pure iron drat. - A slander arrow – a long iron draft, with a large head - An arrow made up of iron - An arrow with constitution of flint. - A battle-axe had single edge, concave blade with an iron handle. - A kind of axe with a steel blade and wooden alternatively, iron handle. Spear mentioned in the epics - A sword- a knife like sword. - A cross-hilted dagger. - A kind of dagger. - A kind of knife. - A brush of thorn. - A disk - Armed with clowned. - Saw like arrow (Rampamu) (khohala - Helmet) - A hook on wooden shaft. - A kind of spear or a kind arrow. - Not known - A fire arrow. - A killer weapons an epithet of Shiva. - A disk

32. Mayura Danda - Small iron drat “I am going to describe in detail in Telugu, among these thirty-two kinds, the excellent weapon sword that described with all its characteristics and titles of various kinds of swords based on the book Laxminarayana Samvadamu. The first category Patta swords are five kinds Hasta, Makara, Javabala, Makkai and Vajalal. The second category Phiranhgu swords are five kinds Kiray Mani Phirangu, Thura Phirangu, Yekkalaphirangu, Doryaphirangu and Kuski Phirangu. 20

Third category of swords was Saiph Portuguese Saiph, Nukka Saiph, Markarab Saiph, Rukammi Saiph, Isupath Saiph, Malayavari Saiph, Ulandha Saiph, Jagjna Saiph, Putanka Saiph, Kushki Saiph and Isupathu Saiph. (The fourth category of swords was Bandar. Chabdu Bandar, Muhammad Bandar, Nat Bandar, France Bandar, Putankesi Bandar, Laimani Bandar, Tinabhi Bandar, Pamu Bandar, Battali Bandar, English Bandar, Goa Bandar, Bel Bandar, Ara Bandar, Jgna Bandar, Yena Bandar, Monabhi Bandar, Vure.Bandar, Dyalu Bandar, Kayante Bandar and Mohamed Bandar. The fifth category of swords was Surai, Hindustani Surai, Marata Surai, Bhujaka Surai, Rajasha Surai, Kanchaka Surai, Pappasha Surai, Ambabagi Surai, Vasikuni Surai, Sadalagurbural Surai, Suddadaula Surai, Kattasuka Surai, Siddotkuka Surai, Suratani Surai and Kaliyakerat Surai. The sixth category swords was Tyaga swords, Brindavan Tyaga, Pyaham Tyaga, Ambari Tyaga, Rumi Tyaga, Gujarat Tyaga, Bandyasi Tyaga, Hiraki Tyaga, Varakusil Tyaga, Abdala Tyaga, Jahasa Tyaga, Muttan Tyaga, Bagda Tyaga, Bahori Tyaga, Lahuri Tyaga, Akrupari Tyaga, Avarangajapi Tyaga, Niravari Tyaga, Buvan Tyaga, Ahajja Tyaga, Mauvala Tyaga, Jikara Tyaga, Depagadi Chandra Tyaga, Banngali Tyaga, Patna Tyaga, Hyderabad Tyaga, Musudhabha Tyaga, Shahjapur Tyaga, Sencha Tyaga, Siddhoutu Tyaga, Kachchan Tyaga, Dalmankan Tyaga, Chengaman Tyaga, Alangiri Tyaga. The seventh category swords described from verse 69 to 72) Sikander, Vastadimir, Sumahir, Mahamandabasi, Viladi, Abbasi, Bhuratisani Abbasi, Saluvala, Khanda, Dundumayevan, Modasu and Misri. The last and eighth category swords were Guruda swords. (32 kinds); Makarabhura, Jabbirida, Mukkaiguruda, Halabguruda, Turaguruda, Makki Guruda, Donyuryoguruda, Rumma Guruda, Gujara Guruda, Andabadi Guruda, Bandu Guruda, Gosa Guruda, Tunkaharu Guruda, Bel Guruda, Nal Guruda, Arua Guruda, Alayamani Guruda, France Guruda, Gigna Guruda, Pratankan Guruda, Yekanabhi Guruda, Mohamed Guruda, Bandar Avemani Guruda, Donabhi Guruda, Tikabhi Guruda, Vyulanda Guruda, Pamu Guruda, Kandal Guruda, Battavi Guruda, Kamal Guruda, English Guruda, Yekal Guruda. In all these categories old, new, length, width, shade, sharpness, blunt side, pointed end, strips on he sword, impressions or symbols, shades and gold armlet like all characteristics of sword are described in the fallowing.

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Verse 14: New or old, length, width, shade, edge, back, sharp end, marks, printing of symbol, slops, gold armlet, transplantation these are applicable to all kinds of swords. The main characteristics described here under. Verse 15 : ‘Hastha’ types of swords are very special in quality and make. The kings who ever do the elegant prayers will possess this sword. He can rule the state decisively for long time. These swords having width of four fingers at the expansion a seal of ‘Durgee beejam’ (the fruit or seed of Asclepias gigantea or Calotropis gigantea) Verse 16: The strips on the swords called ‘doryamu’ will have five impressions of bow, diamond, horse, gold shining and saint ‘Augasthya’ (saint ‘Augasthya’ who wrote the book on Archery called ‘Dhanur Veda’). These inflexible swords give death knell even to the great enemy. Verse 17: The good quality of ‘Hastha’ type’s sword can easily identify among thousands of swords. If it hit on the ground it pierce deep in to the earth like an arrow. The hilt also shines like a lamp on the hill in the nights. Verse 18: These shining swords are like Thunderbolt of Lord Indra and epithet of Lord Shiva. It is very difficult to find this type of sword. If at all any one finds this sword would became ceaseless king of kings. (The below verse is replete with the description of Makara sword. According to the author, this sword) Verse 19: Makara sword has great resistance and hardness, its about three fingers breadth five janalu (at about 5”) length, without any side slope and had a fine sharp single edge. It had the flexibility and malleability that of a horse gram pod with three strips on it. It had the mark of two crescents with the black colour .with black hare like shining looks like fly legs. Verse 20: The fascinating Makara sword about the same length (at about 45”) and two fingers width, with two strips and glittering and reflected shades of a small caster oil seed with a fly mark on it. (Hala is another kind of sword that was not mentioned in this category, but author gave the description) Verse 21: Makkai sword differed from Makara sword. It had a side slope, which had little bent. It had dugulamu like caste roil seed with a little curve. Hala a little bent sword at the side slope, which had a naval in between and was about the same length of a Makara sword.

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Five kinds of Phiranhgi swords described in three verses, from 22 to 24, in the second category. The Phirangu sword was a European type of sword. Generally, the Europeans called as Phiranhgi, used for the cannon in Telugu. The word applied here for a sword. The sword that have cut and thrust blades mounted with basket hilt. Generally, this is called as Talwar, most common weapon carried by the infantry and cavalry. The author mentioned five categories and names in the composed passage but described only two. He has mentioned three names; they are Gurudala Virruya, Makkai, and Jinnadhi Phirangu. The 22nd verse provides us with the description of two kinds of swords namely Gurudala Virriya and Kiraimanu Phirangu. In the long prose, Gurudala Virriya not mentioned in this category but the description is given.) Verse 22: Gurudala Virriya sword had a length of four janalu (about 3 feet) and slightly bent at its back with the curves like a snake at the side slope, with seals of Gurudalu of its own. Kiraimani Phirangu-its width that of sharikona and had a length about five janalu (3’9”).on its one side slope it had three ridges (katlu) Douglas were thin bent like a crocodile tail. Verse 23: It had a description of a Thura Phirangu. According to author, Thura Piano was of good length with two fingers width and had no stripes at its side slope. It had a mark of Gaddi bud with slight bent at its end. Verse 24: Makkai sword having an expanded end and other characteristics resembled that of a Jinachhi Phirangu. (The name is not given in this category of swords.) (From 25 to 33 Verses given the descriptions of third category of swords were Saiph. They were about eleven. Saiph occasionally used for long straight Arabic sword. It is a Straight Sword like Patta Sword. One Isupath Saiph was repeated twice instead of Banthai Saiph) Verse 25: Purtikal Saiph (this named after Portuguese) had a length of four janalu (about 3’ feet) and width of three quarter fingers (about 3”). triangle with a shikhara form. . Verse 26: This verse provided with description of Makarab Saiph Sword. This sword had a length of four and half Janalu (about 40 ½ inches) and width about four fingers (about 4”). It shines like caster oil seed with thickness and bent with Makka seed (Maize Seed) on it and it was replete with Makara character. This verse also described about yet another sword called Rukammi Saiph. It had a resemblance of Purthikal Saiph excepting new characters that of Dugalamu like red caster oil seed and light dunta mark seen on it (dunta-he buffalo). 23 It had double-edged sharpness, with angular point at the end. It had a little thickness and had dots arranged in

Verse 27: This verse provided with description of Isupath Saiph. This sword had a length of four and half Janalu (about 40 ½ inches) and had width of two and half inches. It had a straightness and little bent at the end. It had a mark of Purthikal Saiph on it at its neck. This verse also described about Malayavari Saiph (Maleshiyen Saiph). It had a length of four and half Janalu (about 40 ½ inches) and with a good width, with a sharp pointed edge at about three and half fingers. It was of neeruthelupu colour (shines like water) with no strips and seals on it. Verse 28: Author described about Thurasaiph, which was just like Rukammi Saiph. Curved like strips on it and a seal of curved bud on it. This verse also described about Banthai Saiph. It had a length of four and half janalu (about 40 ½ inches) was beautiful like Bandar Sword and wide. It had dugalamu (shining on surface of the sword) like Kanakaduntati, breadth of one finger, would glitter, and did not have any mark or seal on it. Verse 29: This verse described about three varieties of Saiphs. Malayavari Saiph had a length of four Janalu (about 3 feet) widths of two and half fingers. Ulanda Saiph had a length of four Janalu (about 3 feet) widths of three fingers. It had teeth like projections and had a slope on which there were seals of disk (Chakra). Kushiki Saiph had a length of four and three quarters Janalu (about 43 ¾ inches) and width of three and half fingers and all characters reflect with new sword. Verse 30: In this verse, author described about Vahiga type of sword, with a length of four and quarter Janalu (about 33 inches), width of two fingers and one deep small stripe with ‘bindukonamu’ mark on it. Verse 31: In this verse, description of Jagjna Saiph which had a length of four Janalu (about 3 feet) and width of two fingers. It was a curved sword with a seal of fish and disk (chakra). It also had one stripe of one Janalu (about 9 inches). Verse 32: In this verse, author describes that Purthakil Saiph (Portages Saiph). It had a length of four Janalu and width of four fingers with a navel (naabhi) in between shines like Tegha sword. It will bend a little extent. Verse 33: In this verse, Yekkala Jathi swords described. These look same and can handle like Phirangu swords. The fourth categories of swords were Bandar, described from verse 34 to 46. They were about twenty kinds as mentioned in the prose verse 13. However, in the description author describes more than twenty. They were

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Verse 34: Chand Bandar had a length of four Janalu (about 3 feet) and width of three fingers. Dugulamu like mango seed colour and with a sharpness and stiffness resembles in it. The other edge was soft blunt and had little curves. It had three teeth like projection with three stripes on it and a seal of sun, moon up above the stripes and three was a beautiful Avisha flower. Goa bandar length of four and half Janalu (about 40 ½ inches) width of three fingers a seal of (varayamudra) curved width three fingers with a stripes. It is Dugulamu like a caster oil seed and shines with sharpness with in it. Verse 35: In this verse, author described Mohammed Bandar, which was a curved sword with a length of quarter less four Janalu (about 34 inches) width at the beginning of the hilt was about one finger and at the end three fingers. It had two stripes like curved mango seed. Dugalamu the watered color shines like caster oil seed. Curves on two sides with stiffness, pointed and like that of Tyaga some swords would had seals and some did not. Verse 36: This verse described two Bandar swords. They were Bale Bandar, and Nat Bandar. Bale Bandar had width of three fingers length four and half janalu (about 40 inches), with two stripes. Dugalamu double the caster oil seed. Curve exists with vollika, with total thick side slopes and increased sharpness with seal of creeping snakes. Nat or Natu Bandar had a length of four janalu (about 3 feet) and width three fingers. Thin side slopes with three stripes on it and with a sharp curve. Black colour dagger seal and Dugalamu like caster oil seed. Verse 37: In this verse, poet described two types of swords. They were Ara Bandar and Alayamanu Bandar. Ara Bandar is of width three fingers length four and quarter janalu (about 38 inches) width at the ends two fingers with one stripe. Rough sides with hardness and a ridge on the pointed end (says sides are not so important. Dugalamu like being Jokaga with little bent like neck). Alayamanu Bandar is of length four janalu (about 4 feet) width three tipped fingers. At the hilt, it would be thick, at the tip think, and sharp. It had a black stripe. Dugalamu shines like caster oil seed. It is a flexible sword. Verse 38: In this verse, Author described second variety of Alayaman Bandar and France Bandar. Alayamanu Bandar has a length of four and half janalu (40 inches) width about three fingers and one lengthy stripe on it and very sharp curved edge with flexibility. Dugalamu shines like lustrous white and Vankalu Pollyundu.

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France Bandar having a length of four janalu (about 3 feet) width two fingers shade like little caster oil seed with one small stripe and a big stripe. It had a curved side slope with decreasing thickness and a black disk seal. Verse 39: In this verse, author described Jana Bandar, which had a length of three and half janalu (about 32 inches) width of two and half fingers. It is a curved sword with a shining sharp edge and with a seal of Maytha. Verse 40: In this verse, author described three Bandar swords. They were Portuguese Bandar, Mohammed Bandar and Laimani Bandar. Portuguese were called as Budathakeesulu in Telugu country. The sword, which had a length of four 36” janalu, width of two, fingers other edge with thickness and one small stripe and a big stripe with a beautiful seal of disk. Mohammad Bandar had a length of three and half janalu (about 30 inches) and back curved side slope with two fingers width and a navel with a stripe. Though it is, a new sword surface would be black. Laimani Bandar had a length of four and half janalu (about 40 inches), width three fingers with long pointed tip and it was a think sword with flexibility. It had thick dugalamu. Verse 41: It is an incomplete verse in which author described three kinds of swords. They were Donabhi Bandar Theenabhi Bandar and Lantta sword. Donabhi Bandar length not mentioned; width of two and half fingers Dugalamu think.Theenabhi Bandar had a length of four and half janalu (about 40 inches), width three fingers with three stripes and had no seal. Dugalamu was colorless. It was a curved sword with a sharp pointed tip. Lantta sword looks with a beautiful gold seal on the surface. It consist navel in the middle of the blade and having lengthy sharp tip and above the navel two stripes seen on the surface. Verse 42: Author described three swords in this verse; they were Pamu Bandar, Dyalu Bandar and Battavi Bandar. Pamu Bandar had a beautiful length of four and half janalu (about 40 inches) and width of four fingers. Dugalamu shines like that a snake’s ventral surface with a seal of a snake. Dyalu Bandar length four and half janalu (about 40 inches) and width of three fingers and Dugalamu with thick shade and it is a sword without curve and with a seal of lotus flower. Battali Bandar had a length of three janalu and width of four fingers with one stripe. Experts would be recognizing it by its sharp edge. Verse 43: Kayante Bandar had a length of four janalu, one thumb (one inch) width and had four black stripes, seals of a lotus flower and crescent on it. It is a black colored watered blade. 26

Verse 44: English Bandar having a length of four janalu (36” inches), width three fingers (3”). Sword with sharp edge sharp tip with two or three crescent seals. One stripe on the surface and it is a watered blade the shining ‘Dugulamu’ like fly legs, Verse 45: Old Bantavi Bandar sword having a length four janalu or some times it may be three janalu, width four fingers with three stripes on the surface of the blade near the hilt. Dugalamu looks very thin and surface swells very little and a mark with round seal. (The fifth category of swords was Surai described from verse 46 to 49. Surai name derived from Syria in West Asia. Author mentioned about fifteen kinds in the prose verse No.13. They were all straight swords.) Verse 46: Hindustani Surai, length of three and half janalu (about 32 inches) width of three fingers, tip studded with beautiful Gold nil. It was a straight double-edged sword. In the middle of blade, there would be a straight furrow. It had white shades shining like a new rupee coin. Marata Surai length of three and half janalu, width of three fingers, light furrow in the middle of the blade with double-edged sharpness. Verse 47: In this, verse four Surai swords, Bhujaka Surai, Rajasha Surai, Kachhi Surai and Pappasha Surai described. Bhujaka Surai, length of four and half janalu (about 40 inches) width of three fingers, tip ends with crescent shape. Rajasha Surai, length of four (36 inches) janalu and width of four and half fingers, shape is like Avisaaku (Avisha leaf) and in the middle, a light furrow runs all along the blade and ends with golden stripes. Kachhi Surai (Kanchuka Surai) length of three and half janalu (about 32 inches) width of three fingers and a light furrow rounds in the middle of the blade. Pappasha Surai, length of quarterlies four janalu (about 3 feet) width of three fingers. At the tip of the sword there would be a crescent shape with fine sharpness dugalamu would be dark shining. Verse 48: Ambabagi Surai expanded cripple ness, having a length of quarterlies four janalu, (about 34 inches) width of three fingers, straight, double-edged sword with dark dugalamu and fine sharpness. Vasikuni Surai had a length of quarterlies four 34 inches janalu land width of four fingers and with saw like teeth on both edges. In the middle of the blade, a sproted stripe thick dugalamu. It had a seal of crescents like nail impressions. Sindotku Surai (Siddavatamu in A.P.) Surai had a length of three and half janalu (about 32 inches), width of three fingers with dugulamu. Verse 49: They were Suratanisayi Surai (Sulthanshah Surai) and Kaliyakarat

(Kaliyakarat Surai). Suratani Sayi Surai (Sulthan Shah Surai) length of three and half janalu (about 32 inches) width of three fingers was a straight sword. It had a nail deep 27

stripe unto the tip and not a white shining. Saw like edge on one side, the other side ends with line like edge. Kaliyakarat Surai, length of four janalu (about 3 feet) width of three fingers and with cripple ness and a heavy one. Thickness reduces gradually at the tip and sharp double-edged sword with a curve at the tip. (Sixth category swords were Tyaga swords. It is an Arabic Sword. Author mentions about 33 kinds in the prose verse No.13, but describe only few from verses 50 to 68. These kinds of swords were very popular in this country. Almost all the people in the country carried it. Tegha sword is a curved sword with a blade broadening at the end. It is an ordinary sword.) Verse 50: Bandavan Tyaga, length of three and half janalu (about 32 inches) width of at the beginning three fingers, three and half fingers width at the curve ending (author mentioned as Keith). It had Gajupallu, Pantu and sharp edge with fine curve Dugalamu of the falling water. At the hilt, square seal in between the squire ‘Napashwa’ letters seen on this. (Author described only one Tyaga Sword in this verse) Verse 51: Pyaham Tyaga having length of three and half janalu (about 3 feet ) three fingers width and width in the Kethi (where ii curves) three and quarter fingers. The curved sword had thin and sharp edge. It would be with Gajupallu lightly catches the Tyaga. It shines like black water with softness. A seal of lizard eyes where in Varapashin letters seen. Verse 52: Ambari Tyaga having a length of three and half janalu (about 32 inches), width three fingers and at Kethi, width little expands a quarter fingers (1/4 of an inch). It has considerable sharpness and thickness. It had gajupallu and Pantu with Lyaga up to the tip. It shades like sannatyaha. Vertically gold studded mar on it, round seal resembling closed eyes. Verse 53: Rumi Tyaga had a length of three and half janalu (about 32 inches) width three and half fingers. Width in the Kethi expands four fingers with little curve. On the blunt side of the swords edge near the hilt, it will have a seal of Chinni Kasulu, shade like Shibthiramu. Gujarat Tyaga, length of quarterlies four janalu (about 34 inches) width of three fingers and width in Kethi three and half fingers and big caster oil like dugalamu. It had lyaga pallu and had a seal of fly. Verse 54: This verse describes Bandyasi Tyaga, having a length of three and half janalu (about 32 inches) and width of three fingers. At Kethi width three and quarter fingers. It had dark ash color (Gabbidusu), Lyaga Pallu and Pantu with a seal of quill and a navel. Hiraki Tyaga, length of 3 and half janalu (about 32 inches), width of 3 fingers. It

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had vertical polli in the back with lyaga and pantu. It was sharp and beautiful with a seal of chadaye. Verse 55: Hiraki Tyaga had a length of three and half janalu (about 32 inches) width of three fingers and width in Kethi 3 and half fingers and bent like chappeta. Dugalamu like waves and shines well. It would be with Pallu and Pantu with a seal. Varakusil Tyaga, length of three and quarter janalu (about 30 inches), width of two and half fingers and in Kethi width three fingers and its bow like curve. It had polli on the side slope is a lightweight sword with a seal of Daye. (The second variety of Hiraki Tyaga described in this verse. ) Verse 56: Abdala Tyaga having a length of four janalu (about 3 feet), width of the blade three and half fingers and width in the Kethi expands four fingers. Its surface looks black in color. On the backside edge, it had a small stripe width of four fingers. Dugulamu (the shade on the surface of the sword blade) looks like Jasmine garland. With a ring seal near the hilt, where in name of the sword would be there. Verse 57: Jhasa Tyaga having length of three and half janalu (32 inches) width two and half fingers and Kethi expands 1/2 inch. It bent like a bow with surface thickness. Dugalamu (shade on the surface of the sword blade) looks with a shade like caster oil seed and having a mark of beautiful 'polli' on blunt edge and having sharpness at the end of the tip. It looks with the Badaya Seal near the hilt. Verse 58: Bagda Tyaga, length of there and half janalu (about 32 inches) width two and half fingers and Kethi expands ½ inch. A flat curve with thick dugalamu side slope looks with chappeta with Polli. It had a sharp edge with a seal of Vahi Chowka Book like Square. Lahuri Tyaga, length of three and half janalu width of two and quarter fingers and width in the Kethi quarterlies three fingers. It had stiffness with black colour and lesser dugalamu with a seal of Badaye. Verse 59: Akupari Tyaga (Akbar Tyaga), having a length of three and half janalu, width quarter less three fingers and with expansion at Khethi three fingers. It had thick and strong with pelli on the side slope, little curve and gajupallu pantu with total sharpness. Seal of square on it. Avarangajapi Tyaga (Aurangazeb Tyaga) looks similar to the Jahasa Tyaga with exception in thickness. Verse 60: Niravari Tyaga having a length of three and half janalu, width of quarterlies three fingers and width in Kethi three and half fingers with a seal of ring. Buvan Tyaga length about three janalu (about 27 inches) and width of quarterlies three 29

fingers and width in Kethi three and half fingers. It had a curve and shade like Tyagapollu on the side slope and chappeta like sides with a seal of ring. In this verse, fourth and last two lines are missing. Verse 61: Ashajja Tyaga had a length of three and half janalu, (about 32 inches) width of three fingers and width in the Kethi three and half fingers. It was sharp and had shade seal of lion. Verse 62: The Mauvala Tyaga having a length of quarterlies four janalu, (about 34 inches), width of three fingers, at expands (Kethi) width four fingers. It looks that its sides pressed like a stripe and polli on the side slope thick dugalamu. This is a very hard and sharp weapon with a seal of black spot. Bidari Tyaga had a length of three and half janalu (about 32 inches) width of three fingers and width in Kethi three and half fingers. Side slope had curves, chappetalu, and having without firoper dugalamu. It had sharp edge and would not have any seal. Verse 63: In this verse, author described three Tyaga swords. Desperado Chanda Tyaga resembles Bagdad Tyaga excepting curve and dugalamu. It had extensive curve and dugalamu with light stripe. Bengali Tyaga is as if Naravari Tyaga (No.17) excepting little width dugalamu land would not have sharpness at the tip. Patna Tyaga had lengthy pollu on the side and one stripe in the middle of the blade and had a crescent seal, accepting these, if resembles Aurangazeb Tyaga (No.16). Verse 64: Hyderabad Tyaga looks same as Aurangazeb Tyaga with lesser shining (dugalamu) and seals of rings. Masudhabha Tyaga having elegant four fingers stripe at the end of the sharp edge, very thin dugalamu excepting these specialties looks like Bagda Tyaga. Its lighter weight, inferior in quality and without a seal, it can be recognized. Verse 65: Sahajapur Tyaga had a length of three and half janalu (about 32 inches), width of two and half fingers and width in khethi three fingers. Pollu on the side slope and had very light shade. Sencha Tyaga had a length of three and half janalu (about 32 inches) width of quarter less three fingers and width in the Kethi three fingers with a sharp edge. Seals of zero marks impression on it, with a curved guruda. Siddhoutu Tyaga, length of three Janalu, (about 30 inches) width of 3 fingers and width in the Kethi three and half fingers. It had a little curve with a sharp edge and thick surface. Verse 66: Kanchana Tyaga had a length of four janalu and width of three quarter fingers and width in the Kethi three and half fingers. A strong sword, hard in the Kethi with seal of footsteps and light black colour sword. Dalmankhan Tyaga had a length of 30

three and half janalu (32 inches) width of three fingers and in the Kethi width of three quarter fingers. A lengthy stripe in the middle of the blade with a sharp edge and thin dugalamu. On the blade, crescent seals seen. Verse 67: Chengaman Tyaga had a length of three and half janalu (32 inches) width of quarter less three fingers in the Kethi width of three fingers with hard surface. In the middle of the side slope, crescent seal seen. Verse 68: Alangiri Tyaga (Aurangazeb Tyaga), having a length of three and half janalu (about 32 inches) width of two and half fingers and width in the Kethi three fingers. On the side slope, exists a big stripe and it is a heavy and hard sword. (In the below verse, author described five above category swords.) Verse 69: They were Sikandar, Vastadimir, Sumahir, Mohaman dabasi and last one had not been given in the list that was Badshah Sultan. These sword measurements and other things are alike. Length three and half Janalu (32 inches) width two and half fingers. It had a little curve like Bellakettela Vamu. Back like Chappetalu with a fine. Side slope with lesser weight. Its shade like Beerakayapeechu with strangest and had gold seals. Verse 70: (In this verse author described Vilati, Abbasi, Bhurasan Abbasi and Misri swords of 7th Category.) Vilayati and Abbasi had bent like a bow and different seals excepting these all characters resemble Mahamadhabasi. Bhuratisani Abbasi, sword without a seal and all characters are like Abbasi. Misri sword had a length of quarter less four Janalu (about 33 ½ inches) width of three fingers with a thick back. On the side slope there was four fingers length beautiful stripe at the end of the tip. Verse 71: This verse describes Saluvala sword, length of quarter less four Janalu (about 34 inches 4 feet), and width two fingers. Side slope to the end of the tip. Kore like bent and colour dark black. Khanda sword length of quarter less four Janalu (about 34 inches), width of three fingers and crescent like curve at the tip. Three stripes on the blade and seal of rings from top to bottom same length and width. Light side slope to the end, with gajupantu. Dugalamu like a black big caster oil seed. Verse 72: Dandumayevan sword had a length of a four janalu (about 3 foot) and width of two fingers. A stripe in the middle of the blade and colour white like water with a bent. It had a pride and if it were to be devoid of stripes, it would have shone. (The last category swords were Guruda swords. They were 32 kinds. Though author mentioned good number of Guruda swords in the prose passage, He described only three in this category. 31

These were short swords or daggers. They were lyaga had to end of the trip. Stiff side slope on lengthy stripe on it and another stripe divided into three parts seal on the side slope would be a nail impression.) Verse 73: Rummi Guruda had a length of one and half janalu (about 14 inches) width of three fingers. It is a curved and water colored blade width at Kethi, three and half fingers with sharp edge. Color like caster oil seed. On the surface, slightly curve with gajupallu and lyaga at the end of the tip. It has stiff side slopes with along strip on it. Another stripe fallowed with three breaks. It is marked with crescent impression of a fingernail. Verse 74: Amdabadi Guruda described with a length of quarter less one Janalu (about 7 inches) width of two fingers. Along stripe, a short stripe, and another stripe in the middle, these were on the side slope. These daggers having watered blade with thin dugalamu and beautiful guruda seal on. Tip is curves like crescent. Verse 75: Gujarathi Guruda, length of one-quarter janalu (about 1 foot) width at beginning three fingers, at the end two quarter fingers and in the Kethi, two fingers width. There would be three stripes in the middle of the blade, one short stripe, with three fingers length at the side slope. It had gajupallu and pantu and dugalamu like fly legs with thin surface and seal of a creeper. Verse 76: To the extent, all the swords and all varieties on this earth are equally measure the swords with their own fingertips the warriors. Every one how uses the sword, certainly measure with their fingers. Verse 77: Experts of sword fighting will recognize all varieties of swords. They

recognize all characters and categories by measuring with their own hands and fingers. Verse 78: By cleaning sword, it would be easy to know the shades of the swords. On the side slope, in the edge, at the hilt and at the sharp point tip only shades would indicate the quality. Verse 79: Shades are important to recognize the swords. It would be difficult to know the good or bad quality of swords. Experts who possess the good quality swords had won many wars and they got good reputation.

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Glossary
asi - A Sword asi-patramu - The blade of the sword asi putri - Dagger asi dhara -Edge of a sword asi prabandhamu - Treatise on swords asi sastramu - Science of swords Bandar - The port place generally called as Bandar. (The place Bandar in the Gulf was a famous sword-making centre) batuvu - Ring Chayalu - Shades charalu - Stripes on sword chimital - Near the hilt chhaya - Shadow, Reflected image chowkamu - Square churi - a knife with Pointed end dalamu - Thickness dhara - Sharpness (denotes sword blade) dora - Bent doryalu - Stripes (Long narrow bond or texturedryamu usually the same breadth on the surface, different in color) dugulamu gitalu - Lines guruda - A small sword or a dagger jauhar -Luster jihwar - Crookedness kadi - Thickness kandu - Black kanista - The least kanjiru - Cripple ness kappu - Surface katti -Sword khadgamu - A sword or scimitar krotta - New laghuvu - Lightness lakshanamu - A rule of art or science lyaga 33

madhyama - Better mudralu - Marks or seals nabh -Furrows on the blade nabhi - Middle or navel nalla kappu - Black surface neeru katti -Watered blade nidivi - Length patta - Straight sword penaka - Side slop (back side) or joint phiring - An European make (A kind of sword) prakkalu - Sides prata - Old saiph - Arabic straight sword samu katti( sana katti) -Fencing Sword sreshta - The best Surai - The Syria sword Ttyaga - The Arabic sword (The ordinary Indian sword) Vayeda - Edge Vayudara - Edge Vedalpu - Breadth Visva-karma - The Artisan God (The term applicable to the Smiths in South India, there is five artisans worki.e. Iron smithy, Bronze smithy, Gold smithy, Carpenter and Sculpture, these are also called as ‘panchannam vaeru’) Yenalu - The centric fiber in the sword

The Approximate Measurements
Jana Four Janalu Ara Jana Velu or Vrelu Betta or bettedu Naalugu Vrellu Kaalu Ara Kaalu Mukkalu - A Span, a length of nine inches or 9” - One yard - half span or 4½” - width of a finger or one inch - four inches - width of four fingers or 4 inches - a leg or a foot or a quarter or fourth part - two quarters, half, or ½ - Three quarters or ¾

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Bibliography
1. Abul Fazal Allaim, ‘Ain-i-Akberi’ (1598) 2 Vole, Bloch man, Oriental Books Reprint Corporation, New Delhi, 1962. 2. Mubarak shah, (known as) ‘Fakhr-i-Mudabbir’, Ablab al harb wa’l shaja’ah (12101236) (A treatise on the Custom and rules connected with the wars. Notes on Technical side of drilling of troops and their organization.) 3. Thevenot, ‘Indian Travels of Thevonot’, tr. and ed. S.N.Sen, the National Archives of India, New Delhi- 1949 (Indian Record Series). 4. Nicolao Manucci, Storia do Magor, (1656-1712), tr. W. Irvine, 4 Voles, originally Published in London, 1907-8, reprint Editions India, Calcutta, 1967. 5. Kumara Dhurjhati, Krishnaraya vijayam, a Telugu Classic of 18th Century, ed. Dr.C.V.Ramchander Rao, Andhra Pradesh Sahitya Academy, Hyderabad, 1981. 6. Kashi Vishwanatha Nayaiah Vaari Sthanapati, Raya vachakam, a Telugu prose work, (16th Century) ed. Dr.C.V.Ramchander Rao Andhra Pradesh Sahitya Academy, Hyderabad, 1982. 7. Ayyalaraju Narayanaamathya, Hamsa vimshathi, a Telugu classical text,(18th Century), ed. C.V.Subbanna Shatavadhani, Andhra Pradesh Sahitya Academy, Hyderabad, 1977. 8. Savaram China Narayana, Kuvalayasva charitramu, a Telugu classic (17th Century), ed. Dr .D. Chinni Krishnaiah, Andhra Pradesh Sahitya Academy, Hyderabad, 1982. 9. Navanappa, Khadgalakshana shiromani, a Telugu treatise on swords, (18th Century), ed. Venkat Rao, Govt. Oriental manuscript Library – 1950. 10. Addanki Gangadara kavi, Tapati samvaranopakhyanamu, ed. Patibanda Madhava Shrama, Parameshwara publications, Hderabad, 1972. 11. Surabhi Madhavarayalu, Chandrika Parinayamu, a Telugu classical work (17th Century), ed. Keshavapanthula Narasimha Sastry, Andhra Pradesh Sahitya Academy, Hyderabad, 1982. 12. Sangrahandhra Vignanakoshamu, 3rd, 6th and 7th Vole, Sangrahandhra Vignanakosha Samithi, Hyderabad – 1970. 13. Nigam M.L, A catalogue of Arms and Armour in the State Museum, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh Museum Series No.13, A.P. Govt. publications, 1976. 14. Dr. G.N Pant, Catalogue of Edged Arms and Armor in the Salarjung Museum, Salarjung Museum, Hyderabad – 1989. 15. Irvine William, Army of the Indian Mughals, Europia publishing House private ltd, London, 1903. 16. Dr. G.N Pant, Indian Archery, Agam Kala Prakasham, Delhi, 1978. 17. Dr. G.N Pant, Studies in Indian Weapons and Warfare, Army Educational stores, New Delhi, 1970. 18. Jagdish Narayan Sarkar, The Art of War in Medieval India, Munshiram Manhoralal Publishers Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 1984. 19. Maratha Weapons of War, by B.K Apte, Bulletin of Deccan College, Pune, Vol.22, 1958-59.

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