You are on page 1of 12

Carbon: bonds and hybrization

Matter and sustainability

Carbon

A black sphere means carbon in organic chemistry

Valence e-: 4

Up to four covalent bonds

Tetrahedral structure

sphere means carbon in organic chemistry  Valence e-: 4  Up to four covalent bonds
sphere means carbon in organic chemistry  Valence e-: 4  Up to four covalent bonds
sphere means carbon in organic chemistry  Valence e-: 4  Up to four covalent bonds
sphere means carbon in organic chemistry  Valence e-: 4  Up to four covalent bonds

Concatenation

Concatenation
Concatenation
Concatenation

Hydrogen

A white sphere means hydrogen in organic chemistry

Group 1A

A single valence e-, up to one covalent bond

 A white sphere means hydrogen in organic chemistry  Group 1A  A single valence

Group 5A

Group 5A Nitrogen  Blue sphere  5 valence e-  3 bonds Phosphorous  Orange

Nitrogen Blue sphere

5 valence e-

3 bonds

Phosphorous Orange sphere

5 valence e-

3 bonds

 Orange sphere  5 valence e-  3 bonds Compounds of this group can enter

Compounds of this group can enter a state in which they are able to make 5 bonds

Group 6A

Oxygen Red sphere

6 valence e-

2 bonds

Sulfur Yellow sphere

6 valence e-

2 bonds

 Yellow sphere  6 valence e-  2 bonds Compounds of this group can enter

Compounds of this group can enter a state in which they are able to make 6 bonds

Halogens (Group 7A)

Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine

Represented by a green sphere

All have 7 valence e-

1 bond

7A)  Fluorine, Chlorine, Bromine, Iodine  Represented by a green sphere  All have 7

Building Carbon structures

1.One carbon and only hydrogen 2.Two carbons, one sulfur and the rest hydrogen 3.Three carbons, one phosphorous, three bromines, the rest hydrogen 4.Four carbons, one nitrogen, two chlorines, two oxygens and the rest hydrogen

Useful videos

Hybrid orbitals

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vHXViZTxLXo

Orbitals

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ewf7RlVNBSA

The Organic Chemistry Tutor

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=otYj92d7rB0

Why hybridization occurs

https://www.brightstorm.com/science/chemistry/chemical-

bonds/hybridization/

 Why hybridization occurs  https://www.brightstorm.com/science/chemistry/chemical- bonds/hybridization/
 Why hybridization occurs  https://www.brightstorm.com/science/chemistry/chemical- bonds/hybridization/