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asdCHAPTER 7

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PROBLEM 7.2
For the given state of stress, determine the normal and shearing stresses
exerted on the oblique face of the shaded triangular element shown. Use a
method of analysis based on the equilibrium of that element, as was done in the
derivations of Sec. 7.2.
SOLUTION
Stresses Areas Forces
SF = 0:
s A - 80A cos55� cos55� + 40A sin 55� sin 55� = 0
s = 80 cos2 55� - 40sin2 55� s = -0.521MPa ??
SF = 0: ?
? t A - 80A cos 55� sin 55� - 40A sin 55�cos 55�?
t = 120 cos 55� sin 55� t = 56.4MPa ??
?
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PROBLEM 7.5
For the given state of stress, determine (a) the principal planes, (b) the
principal
stresses.
SOLUTION
s x = -60 MPa s y = -40 MPa t xy = 35 MPa
(a)
2 (2) (35) tan 2 3.50
60 40
xy
p
x y
t
?
s s
= = =-
- - +
2? p = -74.05� ? p = -37.0�, 53.0� ?
(b)
2
2
max, min
2
2
2 2
60 40 60 40 (35)
2 2
50 36.4 MPa
x y x y
xy
s s s s
s t
+ ? - ?
= � ? ? +
? ?
= - - � ? - + ? + ? ?
? ?
= - �
s max = -13.60 MPa ?
s min = -86.4 MPa ??
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PROBLEM 7.12
For the given state of stress, determine (a) the orientation of the planes of
maximum
in-plane shearing stress, (b) the maximum in-plane shearing stress, (c) the
corresponding normal stress.
SOLUTION
s x = -8 ksi s y = 12 ksi t xy = 5 ksi
(a) tan 2 8 12 2.0
2 2(5)
x y
s
xy
s s
?
t
- - - = - = - =+
2 63.435 s
? = � 31.7 , 121.7 s
? = � � ??
(b)
2
2
max 2
x y
xy
s s
t t
? - ?
= ? ? +
? ?
?
?
2
8 12 (5)2
2
= ? - - ? + ? ?
? ?
? t max = 11.18 ksi ?
(c) ave 2
s s
s s
+
'= = x y
8 12
2
= - + s ' = 2.00 ksi ??
?
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PROBLEM 7.16
For the given state of stress, determine the normal and shearing stresses after the
element
shown has been rotated through (a) 25� clockwise, (b) 10� counterclockwise.
SOLUTION
0 80 MPa 50 MPa
40 MPa 40 MPa
2 2
cos 2 sin 2
2 2
sin 2 + cos 2
2
cos 2 sin 2
2 2
x y xy
x y x y
x y x y
x xy
x y
x y xy
x y x y
y xy
s s t
s s s s
s s s s
s ?t ?
s s
t ? t ?
s s s s
s ?t ?
'
' '
'
= =- =-
+ -
= - =
+ -
= + +
-
= -
+ -
= - -
(a) ? = -25� 2? = -50�
s x' = -40 + 40 cos (-50�) - 50 sin (-50�) s x' = 24.0 MPa ?
t x'y' = -40 sin (-50�) - 50 cos (-50�) t x'y' = -1.5 MPa ?
s y' = -40 - 40 cos (-50�) + 50 sin (-50�) s y' = -104.0 MPa ??
(b) ? =10� 2? = 20�
s x' = -40 + 40 cos (20�) - 50 sin (20�) s x' = -19.5 MPa ?
t x'y' = -40 sin (20�) - 50 cos (20�) t x'y' = -60.7 MPa ?
s y' = -40 - 40 cos (20�) + 50 sin (20�) s y' = -60.5 MPa ??
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PROBLEM 7.20
Two members of uniform cross section 50 � 80 mm are glued together along
plane a-a that forms an angle of 25� with the horizontal. Knowing that the
allowable
stresses for the glued joint are s = 800 kPa and t = 600 kPa, determine the largest
centric load P that can be applied.
SOLUTION
For plane a-a, ? = 65�.
2 2 2
3 3 3
3
2 2
2 2
3
0, 0,
cos sin 2 sin cos 0 sin 65 0
(50 10 )(80 10 )(800 10 ) 3.90 10 N
sin 65 sin 65
( )sin cos (cos sin ) sin 65 cos65 0
(50 10 )(8
sin 65 cos 65
x xy y
x y xy
x y xy
P
A
P
A
P A
P
A
P A
s t s
s s ? s ? t ? ?
s
t s s ? ? t ? ?
t
- -
-
= = =
= + + = + � +
= = � � � = �
� �
= - - + - = � �+
= = �
� �
3 3
0 10 )(600 10 ) 6.27 103N
sin 65 cos65
� - � = �
� �
Allowable value of P is the smaller one. P = 3.90 kN ??
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PROBLEM 7.26
The axle of an automobile is acted upon by the forces and couple
shown. Knowing that the diameter of the solid axle is 32 mm,
determine (a) the principal planes and principal stresses at point H
located on top of the axle, (b) the maximum shearing stress at the
same point.
SOLUTION
1 1 (32) 16 mm 16 10 3m
2 2
c = d = = = � -
Torsion: 6
3 3 3
2 2(350Nm) 54.399 10 Pa 54.399 MPa
(16 10 m)
Tc T
J c
t
p p -
= = = � = � =

Bending: 4 34 9 4
3
3
6
9
(16 10 ) 51.472 10 m
4 4
(0.15m)(3 10 N) 450 N m
(450)(16 10 ) 139.882 10 Pa 139.882 MPa
51.472 10
I c
M
My
I
p p
s
- -
-
-
= = � = �
= � = �
= - = - � = - � = -

Top view: Stresses:
ave
2
2 2 2
139.882 MPa 0 54.399 MPa
1 ( ) 1 ( 139.882 0) 69.941MPa
2 2
( 69.941) ( 54.399) 88.606 MPa
2
x y xy
x y
x y
R xy
s s t
s s s
s s
t
= - = = -
= + = - + =-
? - ?
= ? ? + = - + - =
? ?
(a) s max = s ave + R = -69.941 + 88.606 s max = 18.67 MPa ?
s min = s ave - R = -69.941 - 88.606 s min = -158.5MPa ?
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PROBLEM 7.26 (Continued)
2 tan 2 (2)( 54.399) 0.77778 2 37.88
139.882
xy
p p
x y
t
? ?
s s
= = - = = �
- -
? p = 18.9� and 108.9� ??
(b) t max = R = 88.6MPa t max = 88.6MPa ?
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PROBLEM 7.32
Solve Probs 7.7 and 7.11, using Mohr�s circle.
PROBLEM 7.5 through 7.8 For the given state of stress, determine (a) the
principal planes, (b) the principal stresses.
PROBLEM 7.9 through 7.12 For the given state of stress, determine (a) the
orientation of the planes of maximum in-plane shearing stress, (b) the maximum
inplane
shearing stress, (c) the corresponding normal stress.
SOLUTION
ave
4 ksi,
12 ksi,
15 ksi
4 ksi
2
x
y
xy
x y
s
s
t
s s
s
=
= -
= -
+
= =-
Plotted points for Mohr�s circle:
ave
: ( , ) (4 ksi, 15 ksi)
: ( , ) ( 12 ksi, 15 ksi)
: ( , 0) ( 4 ksi, 0)
x xy
y xy
X
Y
C
s t
s t
s
- =
= - -
= -
(a) tan 15 1.875
8
FX
CF
a= = =
61.93
1 30.96
a 2
a
? a
= �
= - = - � ? a = -31.0� ?
180 118.07
1 59.04
b 2
� a
? �
= �- = �
= = � ?b = 59.0� ?
R = (CF)2 + (FX )2 = (8)2 + (15)2 =17 ksi
(b) s a =s max =s ave + R = -4 +17 s max =13.00 ksi ?
s min =s min =s ave - R = -4 -17 s min = -21.0 ksi ?
(a') ? d =? a + 45� =14.04� ? d =14.0� ?
45 104.04 e b ? ? = + � = � 104.0 e
? = � ?
t max = R t max =17.00 ksi ?
(b') s ' =s ave s ' = -4.00 ksi ?
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PROBLEM 7.41
Solve Prob. 7.19, using Mohr�s circle.
PROBLEM 7.19 A steel pipe of 12-in. outer diameter is fabricated from
1
4 -in.-thick plate by welding along a helix which forms an angle of 22.5� with
a plane perpendicular to the axis of the pipe. Knowing that a 40-kip axial force
P and an 80-kip � in. torque T, each directed as shown, are applied to the pipe,
determine s and t in directions, respectively, normal and tangential to the
weld.
SOLUTION
( )
( )
2 2 2
1 2
2 2 2 2 2
2 1
4 4 4 4 4
2 1
12 in. 1 6 in., 0.25 in.
2
5.75 in.
(6 5.75 ) 9.2284 in
(6 5.75 ) 318.67 in
2 2
d c d t
c c t
A c c
J c c
p p
p p
= = = =
= - =
= - = - =
= - = - =
Stresses:
2
40 4.3344 ksi
9.2284
(80)(6) 1.5063 ksi
318.67
x 0, y 4.3344 ksi, xy 1.5063 ksi
P
A
Tc
J
s
t
s s t
= - = - = -
= - = - =
= =- =
Draw the Mohr�s circle.
: (0, 1.5063 ksi)
: ( 4.3344 ksi, 1.5063 ksi)
: ( 2.1672 ksi, 0)
X
Y
C
-
-
-
2 2
tan 1.5063 0.69504 34.8
2.1672
(2)(22.5 ) 10.8
R (2.1672) (1.5063) 2.6393 ksi
a a
� a
= = = �
= �- = �
= + =
s w = -2.1672 - 2.6393 cos 10.8� s w = -4.76 ksi ?
t w = -2.6393sin10.2� t w = -0.467 ksi ??
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PROBLEM 7.44
Solve Prob. 7.22, using Mohr�s circle.
PROBLEM 7.22 Two steel plates of uniform cross section 10 � 80 mm
are welded together as shown. Knowing that centric 100-kN forces are
applied to the welded plates and that the in-plane shearing stress parallel
to the weld is 30 MPa, determine (a) the angle �, (b) the corresponding
normal stress perpendicular to the weld.
SOLUTION
3
6
3 3
100 10 125 10 Pa 125MPa
x (10 10 )(80 10 )
P
A
s - -
= = � = � =
� �
s y = 0 t xy = 0
From Mohr�s circle:
(a) sin 2 30 0.48
62.5
� = = � = 14.3� ?
(b) s = 62.5+ 62.5cos 2�
s = 117.3 MPa ??
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PROBLEM 7.45
Solve Prob. 7.23, using Mohr�s circle.
PROBLEM 7.23 A 400-lb vertical force is applied at D to a gear
attached to the solid 1-in.-diameter shaft AB. Determine the principal
stresses and the maximum shearing stress at point H located as shown
on top of the shaft.
SOLUTION
Equivalent force-couple system at center of shaft in section at point H:
V = 400 lb M = (400)(6) = 2400 lb � in
T = (400)(2) = 800 lb � in
Shaft cross section 1in. 1 0.5 in.
2
d = c = d =
4 0.098175 in4 1 0.049087 in4
2 2
J = p c = I = J =
Torsion: (800)(0.5) 4.074 103 psi 4.074 ksi
0.098175
Tc
J
t = = = � =
Bending: (2400)(0.5) 24.446 103 psi 24.446 ksi
0.049087
Mc
I
s= = = � =
Transverse shear: Stress at point H is zero.
Resultant stresses:
ave
2
2
2 2
24.446 ksi, 0, 4.074 ksi
1 ( ) 12.223 ksi
2
2
(12.223) (4.074) 12.884 ksi
x y xy
x y
x y
R xy
s s t
s s s
s s
t
= = =
= + =
? - ?
= ? ? +
? ?
= + =
s a = s ave + R s a = 25.107 ksi ?
s b = s ave - R s b = -0.661 ksi ??
? t max = R? t max = 12.88 ksi ?
?
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PROBLEM 7.47
Solve Prob. 7.25, using Mohr�s circle.
PROBLEM 7.25 The steel pipe AB has a 102-mm outer diameter
and a 6-mm wall thickness. Knowing that arm CD is rigidly
attached to the pipe, determine the principal stresses and the
maximum shearing stress at point K.
SOLUTION
102 51mm 45 mm
2 2
o
o i o
r = d = = r = r - t =
( 4 4 ) 4.1855 106 mm4 4.1855 10 6 m4
2 o i J = p r - r = � = � -
1 2.0927 10 6m4
2
I = J = � -
Force-couple system at center of tube in the plane containing points H and K:
3
3 3
3 3
10 10 N
(10 10 )(200 10 ) 2000 N m
(10 10 )(150 10 ) 1500 N m
x
y
z
F
M
M
-
-
= �
= � � = �
= - � � = - �
Torsion:
3
3
6
2000 N m
51 10 m
(2000)(51 10 ) 24.37 MPa
4.1855 10
y
o
xy
T M
c r
Tc
J
t
-
-
-
= = �
= = �
= = � =

Note that the local x-axis is taken along a negative global z-direction.
Transverse shear: Stress due to V = Fx is zero at point K.
Bending:
3
6
(1500)(51 10 ) 36.56 MPa
2.0927 10
z
y
M c
I
s
-
-
= = � =

Point K lies on compression side of neutral axis. s y = -36.56 MPa
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PROBLEM 7.47 (Continued)
Total stresses at point K: s x = 0, s y = -36.56MPa, t xy = 24.37 MPa
ave
1 ( ) 18.28 MPa
2 x y s = s + s = -
2
2 30.46MPa
2
x y
R xy
s s
t
? - ?
= ? ? + =
? ?
s max = s ave + R = -18.28 + 30.46
s max = 12.18 MPa ??
? s min = s ave - R = -18.28 - 30.46
s min = -48.74MPa ?
t max = R t max = 30.46MPa ?
?
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PROBLEM 7.61
For the element shown, determine the range of values of t xy for which the
maximum tensile stress is equal to or less than 60 MPa.
SOLUTION
ave
20 MPa 120 MPa
1( ) 70 MPa
2
x y
x y
s s
s s s
= - = -
= + =-
Set max ave
max ave
60 MPa
130 MPa
R
R
s s
s s
= = +
= - =
But
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
130 50
120 MPa
x x
xy
x x
xy
R
R
s s
t
s s
t
? - ? = ? ? +
? ?
? - ? = -? ?
? ?
= -
=
Range of t xy : -120 MPa = t xy = 120 MPa ??
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PROBLEM 7.66
For the state of plane stress shown, determine the maximum shearing
stress when (a) s x = 6 ksi and s y =18 ksi , (b) s x =14 ksi and
s y = 2 ksi . (Hint: Consider both in-plane and out-of-plane shearing
stresses.)
SOLUTION
(a)
ave
6ksi, 18 ksi, 8 ksi
1 ( ) 12 ksi
2
x y xy
x y
s s t
s s s
= = =
= + =
2
2
2 2
2
6 8 10 ksi
x y
R xy
s s
t
? - ?
= ? ? +
? ?
= + =
ave
ave
12 10 22 ksi (max)
12 10 2 ksi
0 (min)
a
b
c
R
R
s s
s s
s
= + = + =
= - = - =
=
t max(in-plane) = R = 10 ksi
max max min
1( )
2
t = s -s t max = 11 ksi ?
(b)
2
2
2 2
14 ksi, 2 ksi, 8 ksi
1 ( ) 8 ksi
2
= Q = 38.4 kips ?