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EDUCATION IN EUROPE,

TRUSTEES

OF TUS

LEGE FOR ORPHANS.

BY

ALEX. DALLAS BACHE, LL.D.

PRESIDENT OF THE COLLEGE.

2^^s/ryoFi^

PHILADELPHIA:

PRINTED BY LYDIA R. BAILEY, 26 NORTH FIFTH STREET.

1839.

'

^,

EvmLXD, according to the Act of Congress, in the year 1839, by

A. D. BACHE,

(ui6aai/o/fA« Trustee* of the Girard College fvr Orphans,)

k Iht C3ark*s Office of the District Court of the United States, in and for the

District of Pennsylvania.

PREFACE,

The origin and nature of the following Report, which has

been ordered to be printed by the Trustees of the Girard Col-

lege for Orphans, will be best explained by prefixing to it the

instructions directing the tour, during which the information

embodied in it was collected.

These instructions were drawn

up by the Committee on Scholastic Education,* who were

charged with this duty by the Board of Trustees.

Board of TVustees of the Girard College for Orphans^

A. D. Bache, Esq.,

September 19, 1836.

Preaident of the Girard College for Orphans^

Philadelphia.

Dear Sir:I enclose a copy of a resolution, passed by this

Board on

the 19th July last, authorizing you to visit Europe,

under the instructions of the Committee on Scholastic Educa-

tion.

I also enclose, in quadruplicate, a commission from the

Board, certified

by the Mayor of Philadelphia, stating the

objects of your mission, and asking the aid of all friends of

science to facilitate your inquiries.

The financial arrange-

ments for your salary and expenses are, as you know, com-

* Consisting of Nicholas Biddle, Chairman, W. M. Meredith, J. M. Keagy,

J.C. Biddle, S. V. Merrick, and W. W. Haly, Esq'rs.

The Board of Trustees has

since had to regret the decease of Dr. J. M. Keagy and J. C. Biddle, Esq., two

of its most attentive and efficient niembers.

104631

IV

PREFACE.

pleted.

It remains only for the Committee to add their instruc-

tions for your government.

Your familiarity with the subject of education, and youi' per-

sonal acquaintance with the views of the Board, of which you

were a member, supersede the necessity of any detailed ex-

planations in regard to the purposes of your voyage, or the best means of accomplishing them ; and the Committee will, there- fore, confine themselves to such general instructions as may

regulate the course of your movements and inquiries.

The Board of Trustees are charged by the City of Philadel- phia to prepare a system of instruction for the Girard College

for Orphans.

For this purpose they are anxious to have the

most accurate information of the best means used for the same

purpose elsewhere, and you have been selected to obtain it.

Your object, then, is to visit all establishments in Europe simi- lar to the Girard College; and as these are found principally, if

not exclusively, in England, Scotland, Ireland, France, Bel-

gium, Holland, Switzerland, Italy, Austria, Prussia, and the

rest of the states of Germany, these countries will form

the

natural limits of your tour. Accordingly, all institutions in each

of those countries resembling the Girard College, or any others

which promise to afford useful information in organizing it, you will see and examine. Your own reflection will readily suggest

the points of information desired; and I will, therefore, merely

enumerate a few, which may serve as a basis for your own

extensive investigation. Of every establishment visited by you,

we should wish to know

  • 1. Its history, general administration, and the nature and ex-

tent of its funds.

  • 2. Its interior organization and government; the names, titles,

and duties of all the persons employed in it.

  • 3. Who arc admitted to it, and the forms and terms of ad-

mission, and where it is professedly for the education of

orphajis who are considered as orphans.

PREFACE.

V

  • 4. The number and classification of the scholars, and their

term of residence.

  • 5. Their course of studies, in the minutest detail, from the

commencement to the end of their residence in the institution,

with the text-books and other works used.

  • 6. As a part of that course, specially important to the Girard

College, we should desire to know the regulations or the prac-

tice by which, among a large body of scholars, a portion, after

continuing for some time in the institution, are permitted to begin their active career in lifewhile others, with greater aptitude or greater willingness to learn, are carried up to the higher

branches of education.

The nature and the mode of that dis-

crimination would be highly interestingas would also be

  • 7. The precise extent to which moral and religious instruc-

tion is proposed to be given, and is actually given, and also by

whom and in what form that instruction is conveyed.

  • 8. The mechanical arts taughtthe mode of teaching them

the models, tools, and implements of all kinds employed

and the manner in which the practice of these arts is mingled with the routine of studies.

  • 9. The system of rewards and punishments in regard to stu-

dies or personal conduct.

  • 10. The general police and discipline of the school.

  • 11. The amusements gymnastic exercises games of all

kinds, uniting instruction with agreeable relaxationtogether

with the number and extent of the vacations, pecuniary allow-

ance, or personal indulgences to the scholars.

  • 12. The diet and clothing of the scholars.

  • 13. The regulations in regard to health, hours of study and

of rest, arrangement as to sleeping and eating, and the whole routine of each day's employment.

  • 14. The expenses of the school, including salaries and all

incidents, with the average annual expense of each scholar.

^

  • vi PREFACE.

    • 15. The structure of the buildings, the arrangement of dor-

milories, refectories, play-grounds, and work-shops, illustrated

by drawings, where they can be procured.

  • 16. As a proper foundation for similar statistical inquiries in

this countrj', you will collect all the information you can in

respect to the proportion of orphans to the rest of the com- munity.

These general heads of inquiry, which you can easily mul-

tiply, will indicate the wish of the Board that your examination

should be thorough and practical. They already possess, or

may easily obtain, all that books can teach on the subject.

It

is your especial duty to study the actual working of the ma-

chinery of education; to domesticate yourself, if practicable, in

these institutions, and, by your own personal observation, to

distinguish what is really useful from what is merely plausible in theory.

It is this anxiety that your investigation should be complete, which induces them not to fix at present any period for your

return.

How much time it may require cannot now be safely

determined. They rely confidently on your diligence, and are

sure that you will not prolong your absence without ample While, therefore, they are very anxious to open the

reason.

College with the least possible delay, they deem it so much more important to begin well than to,begin soon, that they post-

pone naming any limit to your stay in Europe, until you are

able to apprize them of your progress.

In respect to the purchase of books and apparatus, mentioned

in the resolution of the Board, it is not their wish that you should, at this time, purchase a library, or an extensive philo-

sophical apparatus.

You will only inquire where they can be

b0ft procured hereafter, and, in the mean time, limit your actual

purchases lo textbooks and other works used in schools, or

which may assist your inquiries: to models, drawings, and such

phikmophical iiwlrumenls as may he necessary or useful in

PREFACE. opening the College, or which you may deem it expedient to

Vll

procure in anticipation of the larger collection.

The materials and information thus acquired you will, on your return, present to the Board of Trustees, and at the same

time, or as soon thereafter as practicable, you will prepare a final Report, with a plan for the government and instruction of the Collegethe result of all your examination and reflection.

In the mean time, you will keep the Board constantly advised

of your movements.

With my best wishes that your mission may be as pleasant as I am sure it will be useful, I remain,

Your's, truly,

(Signed.)

N. BIDDLE, Chairman.

CONTENTS

 

PAGE.

Introductory Remarks,

1

PART FIRST.

INSTITUTIONS FOR THE EDUCATION OF ORPHANS AND OTHER DESTITUTE CHILDREN.

CHAPTER I.

Eleemosynary Institutions of Great Britain,

 

11

Education Hospitals for Boys, at Edinburgh,

12

Notice of the Orphan Hospital,

13

Description of Heriot's Hospital,

13

Description of George Watson's Hospital,

....

33

Description

of John Watson's Institution,

....

38

Notice of Cauvin's Hospital,

 

-

47

Eleemosjmary Schools of England,

 

48

Description of the Liverpool Blue-coat School,

...

48

Notice of Henshaw's Hospital, or the Oldliam Blue-coat School,

 

56

Description of the London Orphan Asylum, Clapton,

-

-

58

Description of Christ's Hospital, or the London Blue-coat School,

65

 

CHAPTER II.

Orphan-houses of Germany,

83

Introductory Observations,

83

Description of the Orphan-house of Hamburgh,

...

g3

Notice of tlie Orphan-house of Altona,

93

Description of the Franke Foundations at Halle,

...

94

Description of the Military Orphan-house at Potsdam,

.

.

115

Courses of Instruction in the Military Orphan-house at Annaburg,

125

Notices of the Civil Orphan-houses at Potsdam and at Little

Gliencke,

129

Description of the Orphan-house of Frankfort cai Maine,

 

-

131

Description of the School for Soldiers' Children at Struppen, near

Dresden,

137

Description of the Orphan-house of St. John at Prague, - -

 

140

B

X

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER III.

Orphan-boutea and Fouudations of Holland,

Introductory Remark*,

yotice of the Burgher Orphan-housc at Amsterdam,

General Remarks on tlio Orphan-houses.

Notice ofthe Renawoudc Foundations,

PART SECOND.

-

-

'AGE.

1^6

146

147

151

INSTITUTIONS FOR EDUCATION IN GENERAL.

Outline ofthc Plan of this part of the Report,

CHAPTER I.

---

Infant Schools, .... Introductory Observations.

...

Model Infant School of the Glasgow Education Society, -

Model School of tlie Edinburgh Infant School Society,

-

-

-

-

153

157

159

1 66

Gray's Inn-Road School, of the Home and Colonial Infant School

Society, of London,

CHAPTER II.

Primary or Elementary Schools,

Introductory Remarks.

Elementary Instruction in Great Britain,

167

170

174

General Account of the Provisions for Elementary Instruction in England,

Ireland, and Scotland.

Juvenile Training School of the Glasgow Education Society, - Sessional School of Edinburgh, Elementary Departments of the Madras College at St. Andrew's,

Notice ofthc Circus-Place School of Edinburgh,

CHAPTER III.

Primary Instruction in France, .

-

-

.

178

189

194

196

199

General Organization of Primary Instruction.

CHAPTER IV.

Primary or Elementary Instruction in Holland,

General Organization, &c.

A Primary School at the Hague,

---

..

-

202

«}09

ComiMrieon of the Burgher Schools and French Schools with the

Seboob fi>r the Poor,

CHAPTER V.

frimarjf or ElenMntary Instruction in Prussia,

GeMTtl Aeoottnt of the Organixation, Sec. Primary Soboola for the Poor, at Berlin,

ObMnraiiooa on the Burgher or Middle Schools,

.

218

.

930

231

235

CONTENTS.

Xi

PAttE.

Seminary School of Weissenfels,

 

237

-----

Dorothean Higher City-school of Berlin,

240

Seminary School of Berlin,

247

Higher Burgher School of Potsdam,

261

Remarks on the Primary Instruction of Prussia, -

-

-

-

-

268

 

CHAPTER VI.

Elementary Instruction in Saxony, &c.,

 

271

General Organization, &c. Schools of Dresden and Leipsic. Burgher

 

--

School of Leipsic,

 

278

Notice of the Model Burgher School of Frankfort on the Maine, -

-

287

 

CHAPTER VII.

Primary Schools of Baireuth in Bavaria, with Special Reference to Doctor

 

Graser's

System of Education,

291

SCHOOLS OF THE ELEMENTARY CLASS INTENDED TO PREPARE FOR SOME PARTICULAR

OCCUPATION IN LIFE.

CHAPTER VIII.

Schools of Agriculture and Industry,

 

303

Rural Schools of Switzerland, &c.,

 

305

Agricultural School of Hofwyl,

 

306

Rural School of Carra,

310

Agricultural School of Templemoyle, near Londonderry, -

 

-

311

Manual Labour School of Ealing, near London,

 

-

-

-

31

Lamartinidre Industrial

School

of Lyons,

-

-^

-

-

-

318

CHAPTER IX.

 

,

Seminaries for the Preparation of Teachers of Primary Schools, -

 

-

323

Introductory Observations.

 

Seminaries for Primary Teachers in Prussia,

 

327

Seminary

of Weissenfels,

330

Seminary

of Berlin,

342

Education of Teachers in Holland. Notice of the School for the Education of Teachers at Haarlem,

 

346

Normal Schools of France.

 

Primary Normal Schools of Versailles and Dijon,

-

-

-

349

Schools for Teachers in Switzerland.

 

Normal School of Zurich,

 

355

SECONDARY SCHOOLS.

 

CHAPTER X.

General Divisions of Secondary Instruction,

 

-

.

,

,

-

362

Observations on the Secondary Instruction preparatory to the University Courses.

lij

COIITBWTS.

flMoodary Schools of Great Britain. General Remarks,

The Academy of Edinburgh,

Notice of the Glasgow High-School,

Notice of tlic Ilcirast Academy,

Notice of the Belfast Academical Institution, .

...

-

-

-

PAGK.

365

368

374

379

381

The Hill Street Institution of Edinburgh, and comparison with

the Academy,

The Grammar School at Rugby,

CJounee of Instruction at Harrow Grammar School,

-

-

Comparison of Rugby and Harrow, &c.,

....

St Domingo-House School at Everton, near Liverpool, Brace-Castle School at Tottenham, near London,

-

-

-

-

-

CHAPTER XI.

Secondary Instruction in France,

-

-

-

-

--

-

382

390

398

399

402

409

417

General Organization of tlie University of France and of Secondary In-

•troction.

The Royal Colleges of France,

424

Normal School for tlie Education of Teachers for the Secondary

Schools,

CHAPTER XII.

Bacoodary Instruction in Prussia, General Division of the Schools.

Organiiation of Classical Secondary Schools or Gymnasia, -

-

-

Frederick William Gymnasium of Berlin,

....

Cologne Real Gymnasium of Berlin,

Gymnasium at Schulpforta,

440

450

451

470

471

472

Comparison of the Studies of the Frederick William Gymnasium

at Berlin, of tlie Cologne Real-Gymnasium at Berlin, and of the

Schulpforta Gymnasium,

.

-

477

General Remarks and Comparisons of the Secondary Instruction of difier-

ent Countries, floeondary Hchoob belonging to the Second Division, or preparatory to the

Menhanie Arts and Higher Trades, Royal Ucal-School of Berlin, Cily Trade-School of Berlin,

503

517

517

523

Nuike of tiio FilzUmm Gymnasium and Blochman Boarding School at

Dieeden,

HUriRlOR SCHOOLS.

CHAPTER XIII.

Otneral iUmarks 00 Uie CbssiBcaUon of Superior Schools, -

533

.

.

536

Schoob of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce.

C50NTENTS.

Xlll

Polytechnic School of France, Notice of the Schools, of Roads and Bridges, and of Mines, of France,

School of Arts and Manufactures of Paris, Notice of the Boarding Institute of Arts at Charonne,

....

-

-

Schools of Arts of Prussia,

Institute of Arts at Berlin,

Polytechnic Institute of Vienna,

School of Mines of Saxony, at Frey berg,

....

Institute of Agriculture and Forestry at Hohenheim, Naval School of Austria, at. Venice,

-

.

Concluding Remarks,

PAGE.

542

561

563

572

573

574

583

589

595

600

602

No. I.

No. II.

APPENDIX.

List of Documents collected in Great Britain, France, Switzer-

land, Belgium, Holland, Germany, and Italy,

-

-

609

Distinctions to be drawn between Institutions for the Main-

tenance and Education of Orphans, and those for other

No. III.

classes of children,

Rules of Heriot's Hospital, Edinburgh, relating to those who

643

have passed through the institution, and are serving an ap-

No. IV.

No. V.

prenticeship,

644

Queries to be answered by Apprentices from Heriot*8 Hospital

to their masters, and keepers of the houses where they board,

645

List of Studies and Distribution of Time, prepared for John

Watson's Institution, Edinburgh. Distribution of Time at Heriot's Hospital, Edinburgh. List of Text-books used at

Heriot's and George Watson's Hospital, Edinburgh, at the

Madras College, St Andrew's, and the High School of

No. VI.

No. VII.

Edinburgh,

Documents relating to the Admission of Pupils into Cauvin's Hospital,

Tables of Diet in various Eleemosynary Institutions, -

-

646

651

653

Table of the Order of the Day in Eleemosynary and other

Schools, both primary and secondary, showing the amount of time occupied in study, exercise, &c., -

-

-

-

Example of a Bible lesson in the Glasgow Model Infant School,

Method of teaching to read, called " Reading Disentangled,"

Remarks on Education by Mr. Emanuel de Fellenberg, Remarks by the Rev. Dr. Arnold on the Study of the Classics,

-

655

656

657

658

661

ERRATA.

The following errata should be corrected as affecting, in general, the meaning

of the text.

On page 5, line 17 from top of page, /or " western" rtad southern.

6,

8,

15,

18,

28,

50,

76,

112,

125,

129,

151,

305,

386,

391,

409,

435,

477,

504,

534,

540,

573,

589,

593,

13

18

17

bottom, erase one of the " its." before " impossible" insert sometimes.

"

top,

/or the semicolon after "exercises"pZocca comma.

7& 8, bottom, /or "require" read requires.

13

12

top,

"

for " insures" read insure.

insert " Intellectual Education" at beginning of

line.

13

17

12

15

10

8

10

12

3

11

bottom, /or "infraction" rcflwi infractions.

"

"

top,

"

"

/or " amout" read amount.

for "gospel" read gospels, and /or " works" read

books. for " introduction" read introductory.

/or " ten" read two.

insert after " credit of," first.

bottom, /or "composing" rcarf comparing.

"

top,

"

for " body" read board.

for " recite" read have recreation.

/or " branches" read bachelor.

10

bottom,/or"01to" read Otto. Note, /or "380,381" read 398,399.

15 & 16 top,

erase " at a quarter to seven."

17

bottom, /or " Freyburgh" read Freyberg.

14

"

erase the colon between "described" and "at Potsdam."

14

15

top,

u

for " Freyburg" read Freyberg.

M

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REPORT ON EDUCAT^^jINIj ^ y;

TO THE TRUSTEES OF THE GIRARD COLLEGE FOR ORPHANS.

Gentlemen:

Having completed the tour of examination into the state of Education in Europe, undertaken by your direction, with espe-

cial reference to the organization of the Girard College for Orphans, I beg leave to present to you a Report upon the infor-

mation collected.

The more immediate direction of my mission, as President

of the Girard College for Orphans, was devolved by the Trus-

tees upon their Committee on Scholastic Education, from whom

I received detailed instructions.

In these I was directed to

visit the institutions in the principal countries of "^iurope, which

might be supposed to afford useful information towards organi-

zing the College, to procure text-books, and other works used

in the more remarkable schools, and the more important works

on Education: and to collect such philosophical instruments,

models, and drawings, as might be useful or necessary in open-

ing the College, or as might seem

to me desirable to be pur-

chased in anticipation of the larger collections.

My arrangements for leaving home were complete ' at the

close of September, 1836; and aftv

..

having visited the chief

countries of Europe, which were the most interesting for my

undertaking, I completed my tour in October, 1838.

Tt is

almost needless to say, that I am now not only ready, but

1

  • 2 INTRODUCTION.'

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anxious to render available, as soon as possible, in the organi-

zation of the Girard College, the knowledge which has thus been acquired.

It will be the design of the present Report to state in what way

I have executed the instructions of the Committee of the Board of Trustees, and to present the result of the inquiries which they

directed. Their instructions contained, besides the general indications of the objects of my journey, suggestions as to the

mode of securing these objects, which I found highly useful,

and for which I feel very grateful. The most important pur- pose of my mission was the examination of institutions for Edu-

cation, and my Report will principally consist of descriptions of

these, and remarks upon them.

condary, and even incidental.

The other objects were se-

Whoever has even glanced at the part of the Will of Mr.

Girard, which relates to the endowment of a "College for Or-

phans," must have perceived that he intended no ordinary

Orphan Asylum to be created with the immense fund which his

liberality intrusted to the authorities of the city of his adoption.

Mr. Girard has put himself in the place of a father to the

orphan, and has determined that talent shall have all the oppor- tunities for development, by education, within the reach of chil- dren the most favoured by the circumstances of their parents. This view has been prominent in all the measures taken by the

City Councils of Philadelphia, in the execution of their trust; and the Board of Trustees, to whom they have delegated the

direct control of the Institution, have, by their President, official-

ly asserted this same understanding of the founder's wishes.

A

due execution, therefore, of the instructions of the Scholastic

Committee, required not merely an examination of orphan-

houses and elementary schools, but of the various modes of

education and grades of instruction.

This task I undertook

with real distrust of my power to do it justice, notwithstanding

the CDCOuragement extended by the choice made of me, by

gentlemen for whom I entertain a high respect. I must be allow-

ed to say that, in the course of attempting its execution, I have

spared no personal exertion, and that, though I may regret it

INTRODUCTION.

3

was not in abler hands, my conscience acquits me of having

wasted any part of the time or means so liberally placed at my

disposal by my fellow citizens.

Before entering upon the descriptive portion of my Report,

I propose to give a brief sketch of the views and circumstances

which guided me in the distribution of time in the different coun-

tries visited, and to present some of the general features of pub- lic education peculiar to each of them.

While there can be no doubt that the general principles of

education must be founded upon those of human action, and

hence be common to all nations, it must be admitted that sys-

tems framed from such general laws would require considera-

ble modification to render them applicable to different countries. Differences in political and social organization, in habits and

manners, require corresponding changes to adapt a system of

education to the nation; and, without such modifications, success

in the institutions of one country is no guarantee for the same re-

sult in those of another.

The difficulties, however, of working

out a plan of education, from observation, appeared to me much

greater at the outset of my undertaking than they do now, that I

have seen how very many of the essentials are common to all well

organized institutions having the same scope. A consideration