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331 Lecture 3

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Fluid Statics

3.1 Hydrostatic Pressure

• Fluid mechanics is the study of fluid in motion.

• Special case: NO motion at all.

• Fluid statics - determine the stress field.

immersed in a fluid at rest, is always

perpendicular (normal) to the surface.

Recall that by definition, a fluid moves and deforms when

subjected to shear stress and, conversely, a fluid that is

static (at rest) is not subjected to any shear stress.

Otherwise it'll move!

is the same in all directions (hydrostatic pressure).

Proof

• Consider a small, wedged-shaped fluid element.

• Let the element be sufficiently small so that we can

assume that the stress is constant on any surface

(uniformly distributed).

F1=1dA1 ; F2=2dA2 ; F3=3dA3

m = V

- fluid density ; V=(xyz)/2 - element volume

∑Fx = 0

F1cos - F2 = 0

1A1 cos - 2A2 = 0

1y(z/cos) cos - 2yz = 0 1 = 2

∑Fz = 0

F1sin + mg= F3

1A1sin + Vg = 3A3

1(x/sin)y sin + g(xyz)/2= 3xy

1 + gz/2= 3

Shrink the element down to an infinitesimal point,

such that z0, and then 1=3.

1 = 2 = 3

Notes:

• Normal stress at any point in a fluid in equilibrium

is the same in all directions.

• This stress is called hydrostatic pressure.

• Pressure has units of force per unit area.

F = pA [N/m2]

namely to find the pressure at any point in a fluid at rest.

3.2 Vertical distribution of pressure

• Consider a large tank of liquid

• Select a small element of fluid

in a convenient shape

• Force balance:

(p+dp) A + g A dy = p A

dp/dy = -g

• Negative sign indicates that p decreases

as y increases.

• For a constant density fluid, we can integrate for

any 2 vertical points in the fluid (1) & (2):

p2 - p1 = -g(y2 - y1)

or,

p = gy

where p = p2-p1 and y = y2-y1

• If =(y), then:

∫dp = -g ∫(y)dy

3.3 Horizontal distribution of pressure

• Consider a convenient element of liquid

• Force balance:

p1A = p2A

p1 = p2

determine the pressure at any point in a fluid at rest.

3.4 Forces on immersed surfaces

• For constant density fluid:

- The pressure varies with depth, p=gh.

- The pressure acts perpendicular to an immersed surface.

• Let the surface be infinitely thin, i.e. NO volume.

• Plate has arbitrary planform, and is set at an arbitrary

angle, , with the horizontal plane.

• Considering the top plate surface only, the pressure

acting on the plate at any given depth h is:

p = patm + gh

• So, the pressure distribution on the surface is linear.

• To find the total force on the top surface, integrate the

pressure over the area of the plate,

F = ∫pdA = patmA + g ∫hdA

• Note that h=ysin, therefore:

F = patmA + g sin ∫ydA

• Recall that the location of c.g. along y is:

ycg = (A)-1 ∫ydA

• So,

F = patmA + g sin ycgA

• or,

F = patmA + g hcgA = (patm+ghcg)A

• If the pressure at c.g. is pcg=patm+ghcg, then:

F = pcgA

surface is equal to the pressure at the c.g. of the plane

multiplied by the area of the plane.

F is independent of .

The shape of the plate is not important.

Where does the total/resultant force act?

Similar to c.g., the point on the surface where the resultant

force is applied is called the Center of Pressure, c.p.

equal the moment of the original distributed pressure

about the x-axis, i.e.

ycpF = ∫y dF = g sin ∫y2 dA + Patm∫y dA

Recall that the moment of inertia about the x-axis, Iox, is

by definition:

Iox = ∫y2 dA = ycg2 A + Icgx

Icgx – moment of inertia about the x-axis at c.g.

= g sin (ycg2A + Icgx) + patm ycgA

= (g sin ycgA + patmA)ycg + g sin Icgx

Similarly,

Icgy – moment of inertia about the y-axis at c.g.

3.4.2 Curved surface

• Consider a warped plate submerged in water,

what is the resulting force acting on it?

The problem can be simplified by

examining the horizontal and vertical

components separately.

Zoom on an arbitrary point 'a'.

Locally, it is like a flat plate!

pa is the pressure acting at 'a',

and it is normal to the surface.

The force due to the pressure at 'a' is:

Fa = paAa

which acts along the same direction as pa.

FaH = Fasin = paAasin

horizontal force at 'a' due to pressure is equal to the force

that would be exerted on a plane, vertical projection of 'a'.

This can be generalized for the entire plane.

The horizontal force on a curved surface equals the force

on the plane area formed by the projection of the curved

surface onto a vertical plane.

line of action on a projected plane.

on the vertical projection there is a

corresponding point on the warped

plate that has the same pressure.

3.4.2.2 Vertical force

Similar to the previous approach,

FaV = Facos = paAacos

but this is true only at one point!

Notice that if one looks at the entire plate,

the pressures on the horizontal projection

are not equal to the pressures on the plate.

In general, pa pa’

• Consequently, one needs to integrate along the curved plate.

• This is not difficult if the shape of the plate is given in a functional

form.

• The ultimate result is:

- The vertical component of the force on a curved surface is equal to

the total weight of the volume of fluid above it.

- The line of action is through the c.g. of the volume.

• If the lower side of a surface is exposed while the upper side is

not, the resulting vertical force is equal to the weight of the fluid

that would be above the surface.

Fv Fv

Curved submerged surface - summary

• Horizontal force = Equivalent vertical plane force

• Vertical force = Weight of fluid directly above

(+ Free surface pressure force)

In fact, only one side of the surface has been considered.

Note that for a surface to be in equilibrium, there has to be

an equal and opposite force on the other side.

3.5 Bodies with volume

• The volume can be constructed from two curved surfaces

put together, and thus utilize the previous results.

1 2 1' 2'

FV

ab

b c

FHab FHcd

a d

FV cd

• Since the vertical projections of both plates are the same,

FHab = FHcd., such that: FH=0.

FVab = g(Vol. 1-a-b-2-1) ; FVcd = g(Vol. 1’-d-c-2-1’)

Note that this is true regardless of whether there is or there isn't any fluid above c-d.

1 2

b,c

a,d

• This force FB is called Buoyancy!

3.6 Archimedes' principle

• The net vertical force on an immersed body of arbitrary

shape due to the pressure forces acting on the surfaces

of the body is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid.

• The line of action is through the center of the mass of the

displaced fluid volume.

• Direction of buoyant force is upward.

W = FB = gV

W - the weight of the body

• For a body in a fluid of varying density, e.g. ocean,

the body will sink or rise until it is at a height where

its density is equal to the density of the fluid.

float at a level such that the weight of the volume of

fluid it displaces is equal to its own weight.

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