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LET US BE PART OF YOUR LIFE

manufacturing solutions
ZINCALUME® steel is very much a part
of your daily life. Its excellent performance
provides you with excellent choice in various
applications such as: Air Conditioning Ducting,
Roller Shutters, Ceiling-T and many more.
AN

INGENIOUS
INNOVATION
Microstructure Of ZINCALUME® steel This ingenious­­ zinc and aluminium coating
formulation of ZINCALUME ® steel was
developed in the 1960s, after extensive studies
Zinc/
Aluminium
on improving the performance of hot-dipped
alloy- galvanised products. Research shows that a
coating mixture of 55% aluminium, 43.5% zinc and the
remainder 1.5% silicon, by weight, was most
effective for corrosion protection.

Base Steel
Aluminium Zinc Silicon Alloy Layer
Worldwide Recognition
Since the first commercial production of
ZINCALUME® steel in 1972, more than 25
million tonnes have been produced worldwide.
Annual production amounts to more than 5.5
million tonnes, making ZINCALUME® steel one
of the fastest growing steel products in the
international market.

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UNIQUE FEATURES

& ADVANTAGES
4 Corrosion Resistance
The unique composition of zinc and aluminium can outlast Galvanised steel (G.I.)
by up to 4 times longer depending on the environment.

5 Yield Advantage
The metallic coating weighs less, giving you more square metres per tonne
than Galvanised steel (G.I.).

6 Excellence in Fabrication
Its ability to be formed, bent, crimped, punched and stamped means that
it can be used in a wide range of applications.

7 Joining, Welding & Fastening


Easy joining and fastening allows greater flexibility to create versatile and
attractive products.

8-9 Usage Tips for ZINCALUME® steel

10-11 Questions & Answers

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LONGER LIFE WITH
CORROSION RESISTANCE
6 Years In Severe Marine Environment Resistance To
(Bellambi Point - Australia) Atmosphere Corrosion

ZINCALUME® steel outlasts Galvanised


steel (G.I.) by up to 4 times longer in
marine, industrial and rural atmospheres.

The zinc/aluminium alloy coating on


ZINCALUME® steel provides the optimum
combination of corrosion resistance that
is far superior to ordinary galvanised zinc
coatings.
Galvanised steel (G.I.) ZINCALUME® steel This coating ensures long-term durability
Galvanised steel (G.I.) loses its coating with the appearance of red rust on the surface of aluminium and the sacrificial or
but ZINCALUME® steel is still in good condition, with no signs of corrosion. galvanic protection of cut edges of zinc.

150
Expected Life Of Coating (Years)

120

90

60

30 The coating life expectancy


of ZINCALUME® AZ150 steel
compared to Galvanised steel
0 (G.I.) Z275 after exposure at
Severe Marine Marine Industrial Marine Rural
East Coast Australia test sites
Environmen t ranging from rural to severe
marine.
ZINCALUME® steel Galvanised steel

Salt Spray Testing


Laboratory salt spray testing were conducted in
accordance to the ASTM test method B117 and AS1580.
Results show that ZINCALUME® steel performs better
compared to Galvanised steel (G.I.) after 240 hours of
salt spray testing.

Galvanised steel (G.I.) ZINCALUME® steel


(240 hours) (240 hours)

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GO FOR A HIGHER
YIELD ADVANTAGE
Base Metal Calculated metr e length per t onne (m/t onne)
Thickness
Galvanised st eel (G.I.) ZINCALUM E ® steel
From the tables, it can be seen that ZINCALUME®
(BMT) steel is lighter than Galvanised steel (G.I.), giving a
mm Z275 AZ150 higher yield advantage than Galvanised steel (G.I.).
0.30 378 396 This is due to the coating on ZINCALUME® steel
0.35 329 343 because it is made of 55% Aluminium by weight
0.40 291 302 and 80% by volume. By simple ratio analysis, it
0.45 262 270 can be calculated that ZINCALUME® AZ150 steel
0.50 237 244 with a 0.30mm base metal thickness (BMT) has
0.55 217 223 up to 4.5% yield advantage over Galvanised steel
with Z275 zinc coating.
0.60 200 205
0.70 173 177 For example, Figure 1 shows that ZINCALUME®
0.80 152 155 AZ150 steel with a base metal thickness of 0.30mm,
0.90 136 138 will give 396 metres per tonne, as compared to
1.00 123 125 Galvanised Z275 steel of the same base metal
1.10 112 114 thickness, which only gives 378 metres per
tonne.
1.20 103 104
Figure 1: The nominal metre length per tonne of coated sheet for various base metal thickness.

ZINCALUM E ® Galvanised ZINCALUM E ® Galvanised ZINCALUM E ® Galvanised


steel steel steel steel steel steel
AZ 150 Z 275 AZ 150 Z 275 AZ 150 Z 275
Width (mm) 1220(4') 1220(4') 1220(4')
Length (mm) 1830 (6') 2440(8') 3660(12')
Base Meta l
Thickness (mm)
0.45 121 117 91 88 60 58
0.50 109 106 82 80 55 53
0.55 100 97 75 73 50 49
0.60 92 89 69 67 46 45
0.70 79 77 59 58 40 39
0.75 74 72 55 54 37 36
0.80 69 68 52 51 35 34
0.90 62 61 46 46 31 30
0.95 59 58 44 43 29 29
1.00 56 55 42 41 28 27
1.10 50 50 38 38 25 25
1.15 49 48 37 36 24 24
Figure 2: Nominal sheet count per tonne between ZINCALUME® AZ150 steel and Galvanised (G.I.) Z275 steel.

To further illustrate, Figure 2 shows that for every


1 tonne of ZINCALUME® AZ150 steel compared
to 1 tonne of Galvanised Z275 steel, a base metal
thickness of 0.45mm will give you 121 sheets of
1220mm width x 1830 length, compared to only
117 sheets of Galvanised Z275 steel with the same
width and length.

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YOU CAN RELY ON US FOR
EXCELLENCE IN
FABRICATION
Easy To Paint
The surface of ZINCALUME® steel can be easily field-painted
without using a primer. The best is to use water-based acrylic paint
but other paints can also be used such as alkyd, polyurethane,
etc. Ensure that the surface is clean and dry before painting
directly on it. As with all paints, follow the manufacturer’s
instructions.

Excellent Formability
ZINCALUME® steel has excellent formability qualities and is
suitable for most forming operations. Without sacrificing coating
adhesion, ZINCALUME® steel can be readily bent, roll-formed or
drawn.

Bending
Laboratory tests confirm excellent adherence of the zinc
and aluminium coating to the steel substrate during bending,
folding and brake pressing that are done commercially as with
conventional Galvanised steel (G.I.).

Roll-Forming
ZINCALUME® steel is readily roll-formed due to excellent lubricating
qualities of the resin coating so roll-formers rarely need additional
lubricants (which can be potentially hazardous). The resin coating
also reduces wear and tear on rolls and dies, and reduces risk of
marks on the roll surface during the process.

Lock Seaming
ZINCALUME® steel is easily lock seamed for your convenience.

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JOINING, WELDING & FASTENING
Joining
Make sure the fasteners used are
compatible with ZINCALUME® steel.
In exterior applications, fasteners
should have corrosion resistance at
least equivalent to the life of the
steel. Please note that:
● Electroplated zinc fasteners with

washers are suitable.


● Blind rivets should be waterproof

or sealed and made of aluminium.


● Electro-galvanised zinc-coated
steel rivets lack sufficient metallic
coating for long-term exposure.
● Copper, brass and monel metal

rivets are not recommended.


● Sealing washers must be graphite-

free.
The best sealed joints for rainwater
products are made by using neutral
cure silicon rubber sealants (amine
and acetic acid free) together with
mechanical fasteners such as blind
rivets.

Welding
ZINCALUME® steel is suitable for
resistance spot-welding using
machine adjustments similar to
those used for Galvanised steel
(G.I.). Observe the correct method
for cooling water, tip configuration
settings and re-conditioning to
maximize the tip life of welding
equipment.

Integral Fastening
Integral fastening refers to joining
pieces without using additional
fasteners or welding. ZINCALUME®
steel can be bent, folded, stamped,
punched or crimped without
screws, rivets or other mechanical
fasteners.
ZINCALUME® steel can be joined to create versatile and attractive products using spot-welding,
fasteners and sealant.

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Usage Tips for ZINCALUME® steel
High Temperature Resistance
ZINCALUME® steel is suitable for high temperature application of up
to 200ºC. For temperatures above 200ºC, ZINCALUME® steel should
be specified without resin coating. Otherwise, consult our technical
service personnel for advice.

Adverse Conditions
The performance of ZINCALUME® steel is superior to Galvanised steel
(G.I.) in the vast majority of environments. However, there are specific
end use applications which ZINCALUME® steel should be placed after
Example: Correct storage.
careful consideration, such as:
● Intensive animal shelters
Storing ZINCALUME® steel
● Buried in soils (e.g. culverts)
The passivated ZINCALUME® steel minimises staining problems
● Contact with lead or other dissimilar metals
associated with wet storage. However, it is recommended practice ● Contact with green hardwood or treated timber

to keep the sheets stored indoors and to keep it dry in transit and in ● Extreme severe industrial environment (e.g. refineries)

storage. Where outdoor storage is unavoidable, the standard sheets ● Composite panel applications in coolrooms.

should be fully covered and kept off the ground to prevent water or
Spot-Welding
condensation from being trapped in between surfaces. If packs should Typical spot-welding schedules for ZINCALUME® steel are as follows:
become wet, separate the sheets, wipe them with a clean, dry cloth
Material Welding Electrode Welding Time, Electrode Face
and allow to air-dry. Thickness Current Force (1b) Cycles (1/60 sec.) Diameter (mm)
(mm) (amperes)
Forming ZINCALUME® steel
0.56 11,000 350 10 4.75
The clear resin film on the surface of ZINCALUME® steel acts as a
0.71 11,000 400 12 4.75
lubricant during forming operations. Roll-forming lubricant is usually 0.91 12,500 500 14 6.35
not needed. However, if a lubricant is deemed essential due to the 1.02 12,800 500 14 6.35
severity of the profile being formed, then Shellsol-T, Solvent 11 or an
*Actual requirement will vary depending on the job conditions.
equivalent formulation is recommended. Kerosene-based lubricants
must not be used. High volume welding industries require simple and cost effective
technology for thin steel. Resistance spot-welding meets these
The benefits of not using lubricants while forming ZINCALUME® steel
requirements and is also adaptable in that it can be easily incorporated
include:
with robotics systems. In the past, spot-welding parameter selection
• Reduced clean-up after processing
was considered relatively simple for uncoated steel but the range of
• Improved final appearance
metallic coated steel now available as superior replacement products
• Less slippery surface
mean parameter selection is far more critical.
• No lubricant cost
• Reduces roll wear While it is possible to achieve many thousands of welds from one set
of electrodes employed on an uncoated steel before replacement or
Field Painting
redressing of electrodes is necessary, features of individual metallic
With ZINCALUME® steel, you do not need to use a primer prior to
coated steel means as little as 250 welds may only be possible if
painting. Thus, ZINCALUME® steel is readily over-painted. Appropriate
inappropriate parameters are chosen.
consideration should be given to environmental conditions, end use,
location and product applications. The Mechanism of Electrode Degradation
The rate of degradation of resistance spot-welding electrodes during
ZINCALUME® steel offers distinct advantage as it can be readily
welding of metallic coated steel is far greater than those experienced
over-painted best with water-based acrylic topcoat provided the
during welding of uncoated steel. Due to the lower contact resistance
surface is clean and dry. Other paints such as alkyd, polyurethane,
of zinc coatings, welding times and current levels are required to
etc. can also be used. A primer may be recommended in a limited
be higher in order to produce satisfactory weld sizes. This provides
number of circumstances where solvent-based decorative or high
the driving force for alloying to take place between the electrode
build protective paint systems are necessary, for enhanced corrosion
working face and the metallic coating. The conventional truncated
protection in industrial or severe environment applications.
cone electrode tip diameter (See Figure 3) increases as welding
Recommendations for post painting of ZINCALUME® steel can be progresses due to alloy build-up around the periphery of the electrode.
summarised as follows: If incremental increases are not made to the applied current in order
to compensate for this, then current density will fall off resulting in
Where a painting system is to be chosen for aesthetic or minimal production of smaller and smaller welds. The metallic coating alloys
additional corrosion resistance: to the electrode working face and forms metallic alloy phases. These
Surface Preparation - Wash surface with a 5% solution of a non-ionic phases can be stripped away from the electrode when the electrode is
detergent. removed from the sheet surface after completion of each weld.
Coating - Apply two coats of water-based acrylic.

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Usage Tips for ZINCALUME® steel
The Effect of Welding Current Upslope
Upsloping is the term given to gradually increasing the welding Some Dos and Don’ts
current to the maximum preset level during spot welding rather than
Do Take care in machining of electrode working faces.
instantaneously applying the maximum preset current. Upsloping
Ensure they are relatively flat and smooth.
has the tendency to remove some of the metallic coating prior to the
application of the maximum preset current. This assists the electrode Do Take care to accurately align electrodes in the
to bed-in to the sheet surface which means that less coating is welding machine to avoid producing undersized
available for alloying to take place. There is no added benefit in using welds, damaging electrodes and scarring of
upsloping when welding ZINCALUME® steel. workpiece surface through metal expulsion.
Carbon paper placed between blank sheets of paper
The Effect of Electrode Tip Angle can be used to obtain an impression of electrode
Decreasing the electrode tip included angle (see Figure 3) benefits faces. Once in the welding machine, the electrodes
electrode life when welding ZINCALUME® can be brought together using the paper in between.
steel. Decreasing the included angle from The resulting impression will indicate alignment.

Included
the commonly employed 120º angle to 90º is Do Employ automatic electrode tip redressing tools.
Angle
believed to assist in removing the alloy build-up
around the periphery of the electrode tip due to Do Try and work within the welding lobe window for the
the sharper angle of incidence with the surface. particular steel type, but stay just below the point of
Tip It is not recommended that included angles metal expulsion.
Diameter

Figure 3: Truncated cone less than this be employed since mechanical Do Conduct regular inspection of weld quality and
electrode tip profile strength of the electrode tip may be lost. replace or redress electrodes where necessary.
A simple peel test on offcuts should suffice.
The Effect of Electrode Tip Diameter
Selection of the electrode tip face diameter depends on the weld size, Don’t Use hand files to redress worn electrodes. This will
desired sheet thickness and, in some cases, design of the component promote electrode misalignment.
(flange widths). It should be noted that electrode alignment becomes
more difficult with the increase of tip diameter and that even the Don’t Use excessive welding current. Electrode/metallic
coating alloying rates will be accelerated and metal
slightest misalignment may result in metal expulsion from the sheet
expulsion will further degrade the electrode.
surface scarring the workplace and damaging the electrodes. It is
important then not to employ electrode tip diameters way beyond Don’t Use excessively long welding times. It is far better
recommended sizes. to use short weld times and to adjust the welding
current to achieve the optimum weld size.
Only electrodes that are used to weld ZINCALUME® steel may benefit
by way of increased life with the increasing tip diameters. With Don’t Use radiused electrodes unless part fit-up is a
larger tip diameters the increase in life can be up to four times. The problem. Radiused electrodes degrade more
mechanism for this is not yet clearly understood. quickly than truncated electrodes when used on
metallic-coated steels.
The Effect of Electrode Chemistries
Resistance Welder Manufacturers Association Class II (Cu-0.8º -Cr)
electrode composition also referred to as J47 alloy, is most suitable
for spot-welding ZINCALUME® steel. The more aggressive nature
of the electrode erosion process encountered during welding of
ZINCALUME® steel appears to outweigh any influence that electrode
alloying elements may have on electrode life.

These features are summarised below :

Steel Type Use Use 90º Use Increased Electrode


Current Included Tip Diameters Chemistry
Upslope Tip Angle

ZINCALUME® steel No Yes Yes Cu/Cr

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QUESTIONS &

Q.1 Why is the silicon included in the coating? Therefore, for ZINCALUME® AZ150 steel with a 25 micron coating on
The silicon is included to control the alloying and chemical reaction each side, the Total Coating Thickness is determined by adding 0.05mm
between the base metal and the steel base during production. to the Base Steel Thickness. It should be noted that it is only the Base
Metal Thickness (BMT) that provides the steel’s structural performance;
Q.2 What are the basic differences in the production of Galvanised steel and hence BlueScope Steel products are sold on the basis of Base
(G.I.) and ZINCALUME® steel? Metal Thickness (BMT) or Base Steel Thickness (BST).
The most significant difference is that the coating metal bath for
ZINCALUME® steel contains a zinc/aluminium alloy rather than the Q.8 How does AZ150 compare with galvanised Z275 and Z180 coatings?
near-pure zinc for galvanizing. The coating bath temperature for the From the table on the left in Q.7 it can be seen that Z275 coatings
former is operated at 600ºC compared to 450ºC for the latter. have a coating thickness of 0.04mm, while the coating thickness for
ZINCALUME® AZ150 steel is 0.05mm.
Q.3 Why is the ZINCALUME® steel surface much smoother than the
galvanised product and why is it a matte finish? ZINCALUME® steel can be expected to have a potential life of up to four
The surface and appearance of ZINCALUME® steel is an inherent times that of Z275 coated zinc.
characteristic of the coating composition.
For Galvanised steel (G.I.) , the potential life is directly proportional to
Q.4 Are the mechanical properties of Galvanised steel (G.I.) and the coating thickness. Z180 zinc-coated product, having only two thirds
ZINCALUME® steel products similar? of the coating of Z275 will accordingly have a potential life that is two
Yes, provided that both are of the same steel grade, e.g. G550. thirds of the heavier Z275 coating.

Q.5 What is the corrosion mechanism of the coating? In this case, the ZINCALUME® AZ150 steel potential life can be as much
The coating of ZINCALUME® steel is an alloy of zinc and aluminium as five to six times the expected life of the Z180 coating.
consisting essentially of approximately 20% zinc-rich areas and 80%
aluminium-rich areas by volume. Q.9 What are the yield advantages attainable as a result of using
ZINCALUME® steel?
In the initial stage of exposure, the surface corrodes preferentially at
zinc-rich areas which are well dispersed throughout the coating. In Taking 0.42mm BMT steel as an example, the area per tonne of product is :
atmospheric exposure, the resulting corrosion of zinc and aluminium
Uncoated 303.3sq metres
form an adherent protective layer at the zinc-rich areas which tend to
control the corrosion rate to a useful low rate capable of providing Z180 285.5
sacrificial protection. After long exposure, when the zinc-rich areas Z200 284.3
have either been removed or stifled by corrosion product formation, the Z275 278.8
aluminium-rich areas corrode, also at a low rate and provide continued AZ150 288.4
protection of the steel base.

Q.6 Where does the ZINCALUME® steel coating fit in the galvanic series By simple ratio analysis, it can be calculated that AZ150 has a 3.5% yield
which is based on electrical potential measurements and galvanic advantage over Z275 zinc coating.
tests when immersed in sea water?
It fits between zinc and aluminium. However, its tendency to initially AZ150 has approximately a 1.0% yield advantage over Z180 zinc coating.
act as a zinc surface and later, after a longer immersion time, more like
It should be noted that these comparisons do not compare like to like
an aluminium surface, causes it to shift from quite close to zinc in the
as the potential life of ZINCALUME® AZ150 steel coating is far more
early stages to close to aluminium after longer periods. Its behaviour
superior.
depends on the nature of the environment, which in the case of the
galvanic series is sea water. Q.10 What are the recommended lubricants for roll-forming?
Resin coated ZINCALUME® steel does not generally need roll-forming
Q.7 How does metallic coating affect the base metal thickness?
lubricants. However, should a lubricant be required, then Shellsol-T or
The table below indicates the nominal additional thickness attributed
Solvent 11 should be used.
to the different coatings.
Q.11 Passivation is a normal process applicable to Galvanised steel (G.I.).
ZINCALUME® steel Galvanised steel (G.I.) Is ZINCALUME® steel also passivated?
Coating Coating Coating Coating Yes. Its purpose is to render the surfaces inert to particular
Class Thickness Class Thickness environmental conditions thus improving resistance to early formation
AZ150 0.05mm Z100 0.02mm of corrosion. This can be due to the atmosphere exposure or under
Z180 0.03mm closely-stacked conditions where water is present and air circulation
Z200 0.03mm limited i.e. coil of packed sheets. In the case of Galvanised steel
Z275 0.04mm (G.I.), the corrosion forms white rust while the same effect formed on
Z450 0.07mm ZINCALUME® steel is black.
Z600 0.09mm

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ANSWERS
Q.12 Should the same care be exercised with storage of ZINCALUME®
steel and for Galvanised steel (G.I.) and if damaged by water,
Q.18

What welding techniques are applicable to ZINCALUME® steel?
MMA (manual metal-arc) welding
what would be the expected effects? GMA (gas metal-arc often called MIG) welding
Yes, the same prevention procedures are applicable to both. Whilst Resistance welding (spot or seam)
passivated ZINCALUME® steel minimises the effects of water
damage, it should still be avoided. Seriousness of water damage Q.19 Any corrosion problems with spot-welds?
depends on the degree of such damage and black-staining may result If correct welding parameters are applied, there is normally
if recommended storage procedures are not followed. sufficient coating left on the ZINCALUME® steel sheet to protect
the substrate from corrosion. Avoid excessive weld currents.
Q.13 Are Galvanised steel (G.I.) and ZINCALUME® steel products
compatible in contact with each other? Q.20 Can ZINCALUME® steel be bronze-welded, brazed or silver-
Yes. soldered?
ZINCALUME® steel can be MIG spot-welded using silicon/bronze-
Q.14 Does ZINCALUME® steel have superior reflectance of solar welding wire. This imparts good corrosion protection to the
radiation when compared to Galvanised steel (G.I.)? substrate. Bronze-welding, brazing and silver-soldering with oxy
When new, ZINCALUME® steel has higher reflectivity to Galvanised acetylene are not applicable to ZINCALUME® steel.
steel (G.I.) and is more diffused. The durability of ZINCALUME® steel
helps retain a high level of reflectivity before dulling occurs. Q.21 How about fumes when welding ZINCALUME® steel?
Less compared to Galvanised steel (G.I.). However when arc-
Q.15 With respect to the degree of preparation, how does the field- welding, adequate ventilation must be provided.
painting of ZINCALUME® steel compare with Galvanised steel (G.I.)?
Similar preparation is required for both with respect to the surface Q.22 What repairs to weld are needed or applicable?
being clean and dry. For Galvanised steel (G.I.) surfaces however, an As for Galvanised steel (G.I.), clean up and repair with zinc-rich
additional process of etch priming is recommended prior to painting. paint.

Q.16 How about expansion and contraction? Any difference between


Galvanised steel (G.I.) and ZINCALUME® steel?
No. The coating makes no difference at all to the thermal effects on
the steel base.

Q.17 How does the aging performance of ZINCALUME® steel in storage


compare to Galvanised steel (G.I.)?
The ‘aging’ characteristic of both ZINCALUME® steel and
Galvanised steel (G.I.) is related to the chemical composition of the
base steel and the processing undergone (i.e. tension levelling), than
to the attributes of the respective coatings.

11
This simple checklist is your guarantee of ZINCALUME® is a registered trade mark of BlueScope Steel Limited.
confidence in ZINCALUME® steel. BlueScope is a trade mark of BlueScope Steel Limited.

Made by BlueScope Steel Malaysia for Copyright © 2006 by BlueScope Steel (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd. All rights
✓ Malaysia’s tough conditions.
reserved. No part of this brochure may be reproduced, stored in
✓ Termite proof. a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without
✓ Non-combustible. written permission of BlueScope Steel (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd.

✓ Durable, strong and lightweight.

✓ Meets relevant Malaysian building codes.

BlueScope Steel (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd (223136-P)


Lot 1551, Jalan Bukit Kapar, 42200 Kapar, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia.
Tel: 603-3361 6888 Fax: 603-3361 6889
Website: www.bluescopesteel.com.my