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Classifications: Bacteria (Kingdom), Negibacteria (SubKingdom),

Cyanobacteria (Phylum), Cyanophyceae (Class), Oscillatoriales (Order),
Oscillatoriaceae (Family)

 Oscillatoria is a cyanobacteria that is important because it can

conduct photosynthetic activities.
 It has a long un-braching filamentous morphology and is color green
due to the chlorophyll it contains.
 Some unique features that sets it apart from other cyanobacteria is
that it is motile and can conduct anoxygenic (light energy was
captured and stored as ATP) photosynthesis.
 Within its long filamentous structure, the cells within it are in the form of discoid and are
surrounded by cell wall so it does not require heterocyst.

 Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the
plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater
basin ecosystems.
 Most phytoplankton are too small to be individually seen with the
unaided eye. However, when present in high enough numbers, some
varieties may be noticeable as colored patches on the water surface
due to the presence of chlorophyll within their cells and accessory
pigments (such as phycobiliproteins or xanthophylls) in some
Penicillium sp.
Classification: Eukaryota; Fungi/Metazoa group; Fungi;
Ascomycota; Pezizomycotina; Eurotiomycetes; Eurotiales;
Trichocomaceae; mitosporic Trichocomaceae

 Penicillium are comparable to Aspergillus. The genus

Penicillium falls into the order Eurotiales.
 In this order, organisms produce asci within cleistothecia.
Penicillium is often reffered to as Deuteromycetes, or Fungi
imperfecti. The name Penicillium comes from the word
"brush"; this refers to the appearance of spores in
 Pencillium fungi are versatile and opportunistic. They are
post-harvest pathogens. Penicillium species are one of the
most common causes of fungal spoilage in fruits and vegetables.
 Many species produce mycotoxins; for example, P. expansum produces one called patulin.
 However, Penicillium is not merely a harmful fungus. It also has many useful species. For example,
Penicillium roquefortii is used to make bleu cheese. The color of the cheese comes from the spores
(conidia) of the fungus. The spores are injected into the cheese curd during fermentation.
 One of the things Penicillium is most famous for is the drug penicillin. It was used to create the first
antibiotic. The originial strain, Penicillium notatum, was discovered in 1920 by Sir Alexander Fleming.
However, it was replaced with Penicillium chrysogenum, a more productive species, which is now the
species used in manufacturing penicillin.

Bacillus megaterium
Classification: Bacteria; Firmicutes; Bacilli; Bacillales;
Bacillaceae; Bacillus; Bacillus megaterium

 Bacillus megaterium is a gram positive, endospore forming,

rod shaped bacteria. It is considered aerobic. It is found in
soil and considered a saprophyte.
 Bacillus megaterium is an extremely large bacterium, it is
about 100 times as large as E. coli. Due to its immense size,
B. megaterium has been used to study structure, protein
localization and membranes of bacteria. Most notably, B.
megaterium is the organism that was used in the studies that discovered lysogeny.
 B. megaterium has often been used in the laboratory, and is used as an industrial organism that is
able to produce a variety of proteins and sources of bioremediation. Bacillus megaterium is a good
source of industrial proteins because it is both a desirable cloning host and produces a large
variation of enzymes.
Marine Diatoms
 Diatoms are a major group of algae, and are among the
most common types of phytoplankton.
 Diatoms are unicellular, although they can form colonies in
the shape of filaments or ribbons, fans, zigzags, or stars.
 The first diatom formally described in scientific literature,
the colonial Bacillaria paradoxa, was found in 1783 by
Danish naturalist Otto Friedrich Müller. Diatoms are
producers within the food chain.
 A unique feature of diatom cells is that they are enclosed
within a cell wall made of silica (hydrated silicon dioxide)
called a frustule.
 These frustules show a wide diversity in form, but are
usually almost bilaterally symmetrical, hence the group name.
 The symmetry is not perfect since one of the valves is slightly larger than the other, allowing one
valve to fit inside the edge of the other. Fossil evidence suggests that they originated during, or
before, the early Jurassic period. Only male gametes of centric diatoms are capable of movement
by means of flagella. Diatom communities are a popular tool for monitoring environmental
conditions, past and present, and are commonly used in studies of water quality.

Classification: Bacteria; Cyanobacteria; Nostocales;

 Nostoc is a diverse genus of cyanobacteria.They are

found in gelatinous colonies, composed of filaments
called "trichomes" surrounded by a thin sheath.
 They are common in both aquatic and terrestrial
habitats. These organisms are known for their
unusual ability to lie dormant for long periods of
time and abruptly recover metabolic activity when
rehydrated with liquid water.
 The bacteria's ability to withstand freezing and
thawing cycles make them well-adapted to living in
extreme environments, such as the Arctic and Antarctica. They can fix atmospheric nitrogen, making
them good candidates for environments with low nitrogen rates.
 Nostoc is one of the most widespread phototrophic bacteria in the world. As a nitrogen fixer, these
bacteria may provide plants with important nutrients and therefore can be used agriculturally.
 Daphnia is a genus of small planktonic crustaceans, are
0.2–5 millimetres (0.01–0.20 in) in length. Daphnia are
members of the order Cladocera, and are one of the
several small aquatic crustaceans commonly called water
fleas because their saltatory swimming style resembles
the movements of fleas.
 Daphnia live in various aquatic environments ranging
from acidic swamps to freshwater lakes, ponds, streams
and rivers.
 The two most readily available species of Daphnia are D.
pulex (small and most common) and D. magna (large).
They are often associated with a related genus in the
order Cladocera: Moina, which is in the Moinidae family
instead of Daphniidae and is much smaller than D. pulex
(approximately half the maximum length).
 The body of Daphnia is divided into segments, although this division is not visible. The head is fused,
and is generally bent down towards the body with a visible notch separating the two. In most
species, the rest of the body is covered by a carapace, with a ventral gap in which the five or six pairs
of legs lie. The most prominent features are the compound eyes, the second antennae, and a pair of
abdominal setae. In many species, the carapace is translucent or nearly so and as a result they make
excellent subjects for the microscope as one can observe the beating heart

Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Classification: Domain: Eukarya; Kingdom: Fungi; Subkingdom:
Dikarya; Phylum: Ascomycota; Subphylum: Saccharomycotina;
Class: Saccharomycetes; Order: Saccharomycetales; Family:
Saccharomycetaceae; Genus: Saccharomyces; Species: Cerevisiae

 Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an eukaryotic microbe. It is a

globular-shaped, yellow-green yeast belonging to the Fungi
kingdom. Natural strains of the yeast have been found on the
surfaces of plants, the gastrointestinal tracts and body
surfaces of insects and warm-blooded animals, soils from all
regions of the world and even in aquatic environments. Most often it is found in areas where
fermentation can occur, such as the on the surface of fruit, storage cellars and on the equipment
used during the fermentation process.
 S. cerevisiae is famously known for its role in food production. It is the critical component in the
fermentation process that converts sugar into alcohol, an ingredient shared in beer, wine and
distilled beverages. It is also used in the baking process as a leavening agent; yeast releasing gas into
their environment results in the spongy-like texture of breads and cakes.