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4/27/17 Pilot/Controller Glossary

PILOT/CONTROLLER
GLOSSARY
PURPOSE
a. This Glossary was compiled to promote a common understanding of the terms used in the Air Traffic
Control system. It includes those terms which are intended for pilot/controller communications. Those terms
most frequently used in pilot/controller communications are printed in bold italics. The definitions are primarily
defined in an operational sense applicable to both users and operators of the National Airspace System. Use of
the Glossary will preclude any misunderstandings concerning the system’s design, function, and purpose.
b. Because of the international nature of flying, terms used in the Lexicon, published by the International
Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), are included when they differ from FAA definitions. These terms are
followed by “[ICAO].” For the reader’s convenience, there are also cross references to related terms in other parts
of the Glossary and to other documents, such as the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) and the Aeronautical
Information Manual (AIM).
c. This Glossary will be revised, as necessary, to maintain a common understanding of the system.
EXPLANATION OF CHANGES
d. Terms Added:
ATS SURVEILLANCE SERVICE [ICAO]
ATS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM [ICAO]
BUFFER AREA
FLIGHT TERMINATION
IDENTIFICATION [ICAO]
LOST LINK
LOST LINK PROECDURE
PROCEDURAL CONTROL [ICAO]
PROCEDURAL SEPARATION [ICAO]
e. Terms Deleted:
FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM PROCEDURE (FMSP)
NONRADAR SEPARATION [ICAO]
RADAR IDENTIFICATION
f. Terms Modified:
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM COMMAND CENTER (ATCSCC)
AIRPORT SURFACE DETECTION EQUIPMENT (ASDE)
ALONG−TRACK DISTANCE (ATD)
SAFETY LOGIC SYSTEM
TEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTION (TFR)
g. Editorial/format changes were made where necessary. Revision bars were not used due to the insignificant
nature of the changes.

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A
AAI− ACLT−
(See ARRIVAL AIRCRAFT INTERVAL.) (See ACTUAL CALCULATED LANDING TIME.)
AAR− ACROBATIC FLIGHT− An intentional maneuver
(See AIRPORT ARRIVAL RATE.) involving an abrupt change in an aircraft’s attitude, an
abnormal attitude, or abnormal acceleration not
ABBREVIATED IFR FLIGHT PLANS− An
necessary for normal flight.
authorization by ATC requiring pilots to submit only
(See ICAO term ACROBATIC FLIGHT.)
that information needed for the purpose of ATC. It
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
includes only a small portion of the usual IFR flight
plan information. In certain instances, this may be ACROBATIC FLIGHT [ICAO]− Maneuvers inten-
only aircraft identification, location, and pilot tionally performed by an aircraft involving an abrupt
request. Other information may be requested if change in its attitude, an abnormal attitude, or an
needed by ATC for separation/control purposes. It is abnormal variation in speed.
frequently used by aircraft which are airborne and ACTIVE RUNWAY−
desire an instrument approach or by aircraft which are (See RUNWAY IN USE/ACTIVE RUNWAY/DUTY
on the ground and desire a climb to VFR-on-top. RUNWAY.)
(See VFR-ON-TOP.)
(Refer to AIM.) ACTUAL CALCULATED LANDING TIME−
ACLT is a flight’s frozen calculated landing time. An
ABEAM− An aircraft is “abeam” a fix, point, or actual time determined at freeze calculated landing
object when that fix, point, or object is approximately time (FCLT) or meter list display interval (MLDI) for
90 degrees to the right or left of the aircraft track. the adapted vertex for each arrival aircraft based upon
Abeam indicates a general position rather than a runway configuration, airport acceptance rate, airport
precise point. arrival delay period, and other metered arrival
ABORT− To terminate a preplanned aircraft aircraft. This time is either the vertex time of arrival
maneuver; e.g., an aborted takeoff. (VTA) of the aircraft or the tentative calculated
landing time (TCLT)/ACLT of the previous aircraft
ACC [ICAO]− plus the arrival aircraft interval (AAI), whichever is
(See ICAO term AREA CONTROL CENTER.) later. This time will not be updated in response to the
ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCE AVAILABLE− aircraft’s progress.
The runway plus stopway length declared available ACTUAL NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE
and suitable for the acceleration and deceleration of (ANP)−
an airplane aborting a takeoff. (See REQUIRED NAVIGATION
ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCE AVAILABLE PERFORMANCE.)
[ICAO]− The length of the take-off run available plus ADDITIONAL SERVICES− Advisory information
the length of the stopway if provided. provided by ATC which includes but is not limited to
the following:
ACDO−
(See AIR CARRIER DISTRICT OFFICE.) a. Traffic advisories.
b. Vectors, when requested by the pilot, to assist
ACKNOWLEDGE− Let me know that you have
aircraft receiving traffic advisories to avoid observed
received and understood this message.
traffic.
ACL− c. Altitude deviation information of 300 feet or
(See AIRCRAFT LIST.) more from an assigned altitude as observed on a
ACLS− verified (reading correctly) automatic altitude
(See AUTOMATIC CARRIER LANDING readout (Mode C).
SYSTEM.) d. Advisories that traffic is no longer a factor.

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e. Weather and chaff information. ADVISORY FREQUENCY− The appropriate fre-


f. Weather assistance. quency to be used for Airport Advisory Service.
(See LOCAL AIRPORT ADVISORY.)
g. Bird activity information. (See UNICOM.)
h. Holding pattern surveillance. Additional ser- (Refer to ADVISORY CIRCULAR NO. 90-42.)
vices are provided to the extent possible contingent (Refer to AIM.)
only upon the controller’s capability to fit them into
the performance of higher priority duties and on the ADVISORY SERVICE− Advice and information
basis of limitations of the radar, volume of traffic, provided by a facility to assist pilots in the safe
frequency congestion, and controller workload. The conduct of flight and aircraft movement.
controller has complete discretion for determining if (See ADDITIONAL SERVICES.)
he/she is able to provide or continue to provide a (See LOCAL AIRPORT ADVISORY.)
service in a particular case. The controller’s reason (See RADAR ADVISORY.)
not to provide or continue to provide a service in a (See SAFETY ALERT.)
particular case is not subject to question by the pilot (See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
and need not be made known to him/her. (Refer to AIM.)
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.) AERIAL REFUELING− A procedure used by the
(Refer to AIM.) military to transfer fuel from one aircraft to another
during flight.
ADF−
(Refer to VFR/IFR Wall Planning Charts.)
(See AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER.)
AERODROME− A defined area on land or water
ADIZ− (including any buildings, installations and equip-
(See AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE.) ment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for
the arrival, departure, and movement of aircraft.
ADLY−
(See ARRIVAL DELAY.) AERODROME BEACON [ICAO]− Aeronautical
beacon used to indicate the location of an aerodrome
ADMINISTRATOR− The Federal Aviation Admin- from the air.
istrator or any person to whom he/she has delegated
his/her authority in the matter concerned. AERODROME CONTROL SERVICE [ICAO]− Air
traffic control service for aerodrome traffic.
ADR−
AERODROME CONTROL TOWER [ICAO]− A
(See AIRPORT DEPARTURE RATE.) unit established to provide air traffic control service
ADS [ICAO]− to aerodrome traffic.
(See ICAO term AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT AERODROME ELEVATION [ICAO]− The eleva-
SURVEILLANCE.) tion of the highest point of the landing area.
ADS−B− AERODROME TRAFFIC CIRCUIT [ICAO]− The
(See AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT specified path to be flown by aircraft operating in the
SURVEILLANCE−BROADCAST.) vicinity of an aerodrome.
ADS−C− AERONAUTICAL BEACON− A visual NAVAID
(See AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT displaying flashes of white and/or colored light to
SURVEILLANCE−CONTRACT.) indicate the location of an airport, a heliport, a
landmark, a certain point of a Federal airway in
ADVISE INTENTIONS− Tell me what you plan to mountainous terrain, or an obstruction.
do. (See AIRPORT ROTATING BEACON.)
ADVISORY− Advice and information provided to (Refer to AIM.)
assist pilots in the safe conduct of flight and aircraft AERONAUTICAL CHART− A map used in air
movement. navigation containing all or part of the following:
(See ADVISORY SERVICE.) topographic features, hazards and obstructions,

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navigation aids, navigation routes, designated f. Instrument Departure Procedure (DP) Charts−
airspace, and airports. Commonly used aeronautical Designed to expedite clearance delivery and to
charts are: facilitate transition between takeoff and en route
operations. Each DP is presented as a separate chart
a. Sectional Aeronautical Charts (1:500,000)− and may serve a single airport or more than one
Designed for visual navigation of slow or medium airport in a given geographical location.
speed aircraft. Topographic information on these
g. Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) Charts−
charts features the portrayal of relief and a judicious
Designed to expedite air traffic control arrival
selection of visual check points for VFR flight.
procedures and to facilitate transition between en
Aeronautical information includes visual and radio
route and instrument approach operations. Each
aids to navigation, airports, controlled airspace,
STAR procedure is presented as a separate chart and
restricted areas, obstructions, and related data.
may serve a single airport or more than one airport in
b. VFR Terminal Area Charts (1:250,000)− a given geographical location.
Depict Class B airspace which provides for the h. Airport Taxi Charts− Designed to expedite the
control or segregation of all the aircraft within Class efficient and safe flow of ground traffic at an airport.
B airspace. The chart depicts topographic informa- These charts are identified by the official airport
tion and aeronautical information which includes name; e.g., Ronald Reagan Washington National
visual and radio aids to navigation, airports, Airport.
controlled airspace, restricted areas, obstructions, (See ICAO term AERONAUTICAL CHART.)
and related data.
AERONAUTICAL CHART [ICAO]− A representa-
c. En Route Low Altitude Charts− Provide tion of a portion of the earth, its culture and relief,
aeronautical information for en route instrument specifically designated to meet the requirements of
navigation (IFR) in the low altitude stratum. air navigation.
Information includes the portrayal of airways, limits AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION MANUAL
of controlled airspace, position identification and (AIM)− A primary FAA publication whose purpose
frequencies of radio aids, selected airports, minimum is to instruct airmen about operating in the National
en route and minimum obstruction clearance Airspace System of the U.S. It provides basic flight
altitudes, airway distances, reporting points, re- information, ATC Procedures and general instruc-
stricted areas, and related data. Area charts, which are tional information concerning health, medical facts,
a part of this series, furnish terminal data at a larger factors affecting flight safety, accident and hazard
scale in congested areas. reporting, and types of aeronautical charts and their
d. En Route High Altitude Charts− Provide use.
aeronautical information for en route instrument AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION PUBLICA-
navigation (IFR) in the high altitude stratum. TION (AIP) [ICAO]− A publication issued by or with
Information includes the portrayal of jet routes, the authority of a State and containing aeronautical
identification and frequencies of radio aids, selected information of a lasting character essential to air
airports, distances, time zones, special use airspace, navigation.
and related information. (See CHART SUPPLEMENT U.S.)
e. Instrument Approach Procedures (IAP) Charts− AFFIRMATIVE− Yes.
Portray the aeronautical data which is required to AFIS−
execute an instrument approach to an airport. These (See AUTOMATIC FLIGHT INFORMATION
charts depict the procedures, including all related SERVICE − ALASKA FSSs ONLY.)
data, and the airport diagram. Each procedure is
designated for use with a specific type of electronic AFP−
navigation system including NDB, TACAN, VOR, (See AIRSPACE FLOW PROGRAM.)
ILS RNAV and GLS. These charts are identified by AIM−
the type of navigational aid(s)/equipment required to (See AERONAUTICAL INFORMATION
provide final approach guidance. MANUAL.)

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AIP [ICAO]− AIR ROUTE SURVEILLANCE RADAR− Air route


(See ICAO term AERONAUTICAL traffic control center (ARTCC) radar used primarily
INFORMATION PUBLICATION.) to detect and display an aircraft’s position while en
route between terminal areas. The ARSR enables
AIR CARRIER DISTRICT OFFICE− An FAA field
controllers to provide radar air traffic control service
office serving an assigned geographical area, staffed
when aircraft are within the ARSR coverage. In some
with Flight Standards personnel serving the aviation
instances, ARSR may enable an ARTCC to provide
industry and the general public on matters related to
terminal radar services similar to but usually more
the certification and operation of scheduled air
limited than those provided by a radar approach
carriers and other large aircraft operations.
control.
AIR DEFENSE EMERGENCY− A military emer-
AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTER− A
gency condition declared by a designated authority.
facility established to provide air traffic control
This condition exists when an attack upon the
service to aircraft operating on IFR flight plans
continental U.S., Alaska, Canada, or U.S. installa-
within controlled airspace and principally during the
tions in Greenland by hostile aircraft or missiles is
en route phase of flight. When equipment capabilities
considered probable, is imminent, or is taking place.
and controller workload permit, certain advisory/as-
(Refer to AIM.)
sistance services may be provided to VFR aircraft.
AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE (ADIZ)− (See EN ROUTE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
The area of airspace over land or water, extending SERVICES.)
upward from the surface, within which the ready (Refer to AIM.)
identification, the location, and the control of aircraft AIR TAXI− Used to describe a helicopter/VTOL
are required in the interest of national security. aircraft movement conducted above the surface but
a. Domestic Air Defense Identification Zone. An normally not above 100 feet AGL. The aircraft may
ADIZ within the United States along an international proceed either via hover taxi or flight at speeds more
boundary of the United States. than 20 knots. The pilot is solely responsible for
b. Coastal Air Defense Identification Zone. An selecting a safe airspeed/altitude for the operation
ADIZ over the coastal waters of the United States. being conducted.
c. Distant Early Warning Identification Zone (See HOVER TAXI.)
(DEWIZ). An ADIZ over the coastal waters of the (Refer to AIM.)
State of Alaska. AIR TRAFFIC− Aircraft operating in the air or on an
d. Land−Based Air Defense Identification Zone. airport surface, exclusive of loading ramps and
An ADIZ over U.S. metropolitan areas, which is parking areas.
activated and deactivated as needed, with dimen- (See ICAO term AIR TRAFFIC.)
sions, activation dates and other relevant information AIR TRAFFIC [ICAO]− All aircraft in flight or
disseminated via NOTAM. operating on the maneuvering area of an aerodrome.
Note: ADIZ locations and operating and flight plan
requirements for civil aircraft operations are AIR TRAFFIC CLEARANCE− An authorization by
specified in 14 CFR Part 99. air traffic control for the purpose of preventing
collision between known aircraft, for an aircraft to
(Refer to AIM.)
proceed under specified traffic conditions within
AIR NAVIGATION FACILITY− Any facility used controlled airspace. The pilot-in-command of an
in, available for use in, or designed for use in, aid of aircraft may not deviate from the provisions of a
air navigation, including landing areas, lights, any visual flight rules (VFR) or instrument flight rules
apparatus or equipment for disseminating weather (IFR) air traffic clearance except in an emergency or
information, for signaling, for radio-directional unless an amended clearance has been obtained.
finding, or for radio or other electrical communica- Additionally, the pilot may request a different
tion, and any other structure or mechanism having a clearance from that which has been issued by air
similar purpose for guiding or controlling flight in the traffic control (ATC) if information available to the
air or the landing and takeoff of aircraft. pilot makes another course of action more practicable
(See NAVIGATIONAL AID.) or if aircraft equipment limitations or company

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procedures forbid compliance with the clearance AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SPECIALIST− A person
issued. Pilots may also request clarification or authorized to provide air traffic control service.
amendment, as appropriate, any time a clearance is (See AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL.)
not fully understood, or considered unacceptable (See FLIGHT SERVICE STATION.)
because of safety of flight. Controllers should, in (See ICAO term CONTROLLER.)
such instances and to the extent of operational AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM COMMAND
practicality and safety, honor the pilot’s request. CENTER (ATCSCC) − An Air Traffic Tactical
14 CFR Part 91.3(a) states: “The pilot in command Operations facility responsible for monitoring and
of an aircraft is directly responsible for, and is the managing the flow of air traffic throughout the NAS,
final authority as to, the operation of that aircraft.” producing a safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of
THE PILOT IS RESPONSIBLE TO REQUEST AN traffic while minimizing delays. The following
AMENDED CLEARANCE if ATC issues a functions are located at the ATCSCC:
clearance that would cause a pilot to deviate from a a. Central Altitude Reservation Function
rule or regulation, or in the pilot’s opinion, would (CARF). Responsible for coordinating, planning,
place the aircraft in jeopardy. and approving special user requirements under the
(See ATC INSTRUCTIONS.) Altitude Reservation (ALTRV) concept.
(See ICAO term AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL (See ALTITUDE RESERVATION.)
CLEARANCE.) b. Airport Reservation Office (ARO). Monitors
the operation and allocation of reservations for
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL− A service operated by unscheduled operations at airports designated by the
appropriate authority to promote the safe, orderly and Administrator as High Density Airports. These
expeditious flow of air traffic. airports are generally known as slot controlled
(See ICAO term AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL airports. The ARO allocates reservations on a first
SERVICE.) come, first served basis determined by the time the
request is received at the ARO.
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL CLEARANCE [ICAO]− (Refer to 14 CFR Part 93.)
Authorization for an aircraft to proceed under (See CHART SUPPLEMENT U.S.)
conditions specified by an air traffic control unit. c. U.S. Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) Office.
Note 1: For convenience, the term air traffic control Responsible for collecting, maintaining, and distrib-
clearance is frequently abbreviated to clearance uting NOTAMs for the U.S. civilian and military, as
when used in appropriate contexts. well as international aviation communities.
(See NOTICE TO AIRMEN.)
Note 2: The abbreviated term clearance may be
prefixed by the words taxi, takeoff, departure, en d. Weather Unit. Monitor all aspects of weather
route, approach or landing to indicate the particular for the U.S. that might affect aviation including cloud
portion of flight to which the air traffic control clear- cover, visibility, winds, precipitation, thunderstorms,
ance relates. icing, turbulence, and more. Provide forecasts based
on observations and on discussions with meteorolo-
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE− gists from various National Weather Service offices,
FAA facilities, airlines, and private weather services.
(See AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL.)
AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE− A generic term meaning:
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE [ICAO]− A a. Flight Information Service.
service provided for the purpose of: b. Alerting Service.
a. Preventing collisions: c. Air Traffic Advisory Service.
d. Air Traffic Control Service:
1. Between aircraft; and
1. Area Control Service,
2. On the maneuvering area between aircraft 2. Approach Control Service, or
and obstructions. 3. Airport Control Service.
b. Expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of AIR TRAFFIC SERVICE (ATS) ROUTES − The
air traffic. term “ATS Route” is a generic term that includes

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“VOR Federal airways,” “colored Federal airways,” operating at this weight during a particular phase of
“jet routes,” and “RNAV routes.” The term “ATS flight.
route” does not replace these more familiar route c. Large− Aircraft of more than 41,000 pounds,
names, but serves only as an overall title when listing maximum certificated takeoff weight, up to but not
the types of routes that comprise the United States including 300,000 pounds.
route structure.
d. Small− Aircraft of 41,000 pounds or less
AIRBORNE− An aircraft is considered airborne maximum certificated takeoff weight.
when all parts of the aircraft are off the ground. (Refer to AIM.)
AIRBORNE DELAY− Amount of delay to be
AIRCRAFT CONFLICT− Predicted conflict, within
encountered in airborne holding.
EDST of two aircraft, or between aircraft and
AIRCRAFT− Device(s) that are used or intended to airspace. A Red alert is used for conflicts when the
be used for flight in the air, and when used in air traffic predicted minimum separation is 5 nautical miles or
control terminology, may include the flight crew. less. A Yellow alert is used when the predicted
(See ICAO term AIRCRAFT.) minimum separation is between 5 and approximately
12 nautical miles. A Blue alert is used for conflicts
AIRCRAFT [ICAO]− Any machine that can derive between an aircraft and predefined airspace.
support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air
(See EN ROUTE DECISION SUPPORT
other than the reactions of the air against the earth’s
surface. TOOL.)

AIRCRAFT APPROACH CATEGORY− A AIRCRAFT LIST (ACL)− A view available with


grouping of aircraft based on a speed of 1.3 times the EDST that lists aircraft currently in or predicted to be
stall speed in the landing configuration at maximum in a particular sector’s airspace. The view contains
gross landing weight. An aircraft must fit in only one textual flight data information in line format and may
category. If it is necessary to maneuver at speeds in be sorted into various orders based on the specific
excess of the upper limit of a speed range for a needs of the sector team.
category, the minimums for the category for that (See EN ROUTE DECISION SUPPORT
speed must be used. For example, an aircraft which TOOL.)
falls in Category A, but is circling to land at a speed
in excess of 91 knots, must use the approach AIRCRAFT SURGE LAUNCH AND
Category B minimums when circling to land. The RECOVERY− Procedures used at USAF bases to
categories are as follows: provide increased launch and recovery rates in
instrument flight rules conditions. ASLAR is based
a. Category A− Speed less than 91 knots. on:
b. Category B− Speed 91 knots or more but less
a. Reduced separation between aircraft which is
than 121 knots.
based on time or distance. Standard arrival separation
c. Category C− Speed 121 knots or more but less applies between participants including multiple
than 141 knots. flights until the DRAG point. The DRAG point is a
d. Category D− Speed 141 knots or more but less published location on an ASLAR approach where
than 166 knots. aircraft landing second in a formation slows to a
e. Category E− Speed 166 knots or more. predetermined airspeed. The DRAG point is the
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 97.) reference point at which MARSA applies as
expanding elements effect separation within a flight
AIRCRAFT CLASSES− For the purposes of Wake or between subsequent participating flights.
Turbulence Separation Minima, ATC classifies
b. ASLAR procedures shall be covered in a Letter
aircraft as Super, Heavy, Large, and Small as follows:
of Agreement between the responsible USAF
a. Super. The Airbus A-380-800 (A388) and the military ATC facility and the concerned Federal
Antonov An-225 (A225) are classified as super. Aviation Administration facility. Initial Approach
b. Heavy− Aircraft capable of takeoff weights of Fix spacing requirements are normally addressed as
300,000 pounds or more whether or not they are a minimum.

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AIRMEN’S METEOROLOGICAL AIRPORT LIGHTING− Various lighting aids that


INFORMATION− may be installed on an airport. Types of airport
(See AIRMET.) lighting include:
a. Approach Light System (ALS)− An airport
AIRMET− In-flight weather advisories issued only
lighting facility which provides visual guidance to
to amend the area forecast concerning weather
landing aircraft by radiating light beams in a
phenomena which are of operational interest to all
directional pattern by which the pilot aligns the
aircraft and potentially hazardous to aircraft having
aircraft with the extended centerline of the runway on
limited capability because of lack of equipment,
his/her final approach for landing. Condenser-
instrumentation, or pilot qualifications. AIRMETs
Discharge Sequential Flashing Lights/Sequenced
concern weather of less severity than that covered by
Flashing Lights may be installed in conjunction with
SIGMETs or Convective SIGMETs. AIRMETs
the ALS at some airports. Types of Approach Light
cover moderate icing, moderate turbulence, sustained
Systems are:
winds of 30 knots or more at the surface, widespread
areas of ceilings less than 1,000 feet and/or visibility 1. ALSF-1− Approach Light System with
less than 3 miles, and extensive mountain Sequenced Flashing Lights in ILS Cat-I configura-
obscurement. tion.
(See AWW.) 2. ALSF-2− Approach Light System with
(See CONVECTIVE SIGMET.) Sequenced Flashing Lights in ILS Cat-II configura-
(See CWA.) tion. The ALSF-2 may operate as an SSALR when
(See SIGMET.) weather conditions permit.
(Refer to AIM.) 3. SSALF− Simplified Short Approach Light
System with Sequenced Flashing Lights.
AIRPORT− An area on land or water that is used or
intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of 4. SSALR− Simplified Short Approach Light
aircraft and includes its buildings and facilities, if System with Runway Alignment Indicator Lights.
any. 5. MALSF− Medium Intensity Approach Light
System with Sequenced Flashing Lights.
AIRPORT ADVISORY AREA− The area within ten
6. MALSR− Medium Intensity Approach Light
miles of an airport without a control tower or where
System with Runway Alignment Indicator Lights.
the tower is not in operation, and on which a Flight
Service Station is located. 7. RLLS− Runway Lead-in Light System
(See LOCAL AIRPORT ADVISORY.) Consists of one or more series of flashing lights
(Refer to AIM.) installed at or near ground level that provides positive
visual guidance along an approach path, either
AIRPORT ARRIVAL RATE (AAR)− A dynamic curving or straight, where special problems exist with
input parameter specifying the number of arriving hazardous terrain, obstructions, or noise abatement
aircraft which an airport or airspace can accept from procedures.
the ARTCC per hour. The AAR is used to calculate 8. RAIL− Runway Alignment Indicator Lights−
the desired interval between successive arrival Sequenced Flashing Lights which are installed only
aircraft. in combination with other light systems.
AIRPORT DEPARTURE RATE (ADR)− A dynamic 9. ODALS− Omnidirectional Approach Light-
parameter specifying the number of aircraft which ing System consists of seven omnidirectional
can depart an airport and the airspace can accept per flashing lights located in the approach area of a
hour. nonprecision runway. Five lights are located on the
runway centerline extended with the first light
AIRPORT ELEVATION− The highest point of an located 300 feet from the threshold and extending at
airport’s usable runways measured in feet from mean equal intervals up to 1,500 feet from the threshold.
sea level. The other two lights are located, one on each side of
(See TOUCHDOWN ZONE ELEVATION.) the runway threshold, at a lateral distance of 40 feet
(See ICAO term AERODROME ELEVATION.) from the runway edge, or 75 feet from the runway

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edge when installed on a runway equipped with a i. Boundary Lights− Lights defining the perimeter
VASI. of an airport or landing area.
(Refer to FAAO JO 6850.2, VISUAL GUIDANCE (Refer to AIM.)
LIGHTING SYSTEMS.) AIRPORT MARKING AIDS− Markings used on
b. Runway Lights/Runway Edge Lights− Lights runway and taxiway surfaces to identify a specific
having a prescribed angle of emission used to define runway, a runway threshold, a centerline, a hold line,
the lateral limits of a runway. Runway lights are etc. A runway should be marked in accordance with
uniformly spaced at intervals of approximately 200 its present usage such as:
feet, and the intensity may be controlled or preset. a. Visual.
c. Touchdown Zone Lighting− Two rows of b. Nonprecision instrument.
transverse light bars located symmetrically about the c. Precision instrument.
runway centerline normally at 100 foot intervals. The (Refer to AIM.)
basic system extends 3,000 feet along the runway. AIRPORT REFERENCE POINT (ARP)− The
d. Runway Centerline Lighting− Flush centerline approximate geometric center of all usable runway
lights spaced at 50-foot intervals beginning 75 feet surfaces.
from the landing threshold and extending to within 75 AIRPORT RESERVATION OFFICE− Office
feet of the opposite end of the runway. responsible for monitoring the operation of slot
e. Threshold Lights− Fixed green lights arranged controlled airports. It receives and processes requests
symmetrically left and right of the runway centerline, for unscheduled operations at slot controlled airports.
identifying the runway threshold. AIRPORT ROTATING BEACON− A visual
f. Runway End Identifier Lights (REIL)− Two NAVAID operated at many airports. At civil airports,
synchronized flashing lights, one on each side of the alternating white and green flashes indicate the
runway threshold, which provide rapid and positive location of the airport. At military airports, the
identification of the approach end of a particular beacons flash alternately white and green, but are
runway. differentiated from civil beacons by dualpeaked (two
quick) white flashes between the green flashes.
g. Visual Approach Slope Indicator (VASI)− An
(See INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES.)
airport lighting facility providing vertical visual
(See SPECIAL VFR OPERATIONS.)
approach slope guidance to aircraft during approach
(See ICAO term AERODROME BEACON.)
to landing by radiating a directional pattern of high
(Refer to AIM.)
intensity red and white focused light beams which
indicate to the pilot that he/she is “on path” if he/she AIRPORT STREAM FILTER (ASF)− An on/off
sees red/white, “above path” if white/white, and filter that allows the conflict notification function to
“below path” if red/red. Some airports serving large be inhibited for arrival streams into single or multiple
aircraft have three-bar VASIs which provide two airports to prevent nuisance alerts.
visual glide paths to the same runway. AIRPORT SURFACE DETECTION EQUIPMENT
h. Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI)− An (ASDE)− Surveillance equipment specifically de-
airport lighting facility, similar to VASI, providing signed to detect aircraft, vehicular traffic, and other
vertical approach slope guidance to aircraft during objects, on the surface of an airport, and to present the
approach to landing. PAPIs consist of a single row of image on a tower display. Used to augment visual
either two or four lights, normally installed on the left observation by tower personnel of aircraft and/or
side of the runway, and have an effective visual range vehicular movements on runways and taxiways.
of about 5 miles during the day and up to 20 miles at There are three ASDE systems deployed in the NAS:
night. PAPIs radiate a directional pattern of high a. ASDE−3− a Surface Movement Radar.
intensity red and white focused light beams which b. ASDE−X− a system that uses an X−band
indicate that the pilot is “on path” if the pilot sees an Surface Movement Radar, multilateration and
equal number of white lights and red lights, with ADS−B.
white to the left of the red; “above path” if the pilot c. Airport Surface Surveillance Capability
sees more white than red lights; and “below path” if (ASSC)−a system that uses Surface Movement
the pilot sees more red than white lights. Radar, multilateration and ADS−B.

PCG A−8
4/27/17
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

AIRPORT SURVEILLANCE RADAR− Approach pilot/controller communications, it is referred to as


control radar used to detect and display an aircraft’s “true airspeed” and not shortened to “airspeed.”
position in the terminal area. ASR provides range and
AIRSTART− The starting of an aircraft engine while
azimuth information but does not provide elevation
the aircraft is airborne, preceded by engine shutdown
data. Coverage of the ASR can extend up to 60 miles.
during training flights or by actual engine failure.
AIRPORT TAXI CHARTS− AIRWAY− A Class E airspace area established in the
(See AERONAUTICAL CHART.) form of a corridor, the centerline of which is defined
AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE− A by radio navigational aids.
service provided by a control tower for aircraft (See FEDERAL AIRWAYS.)
operating on the movement area and in the vicinity of (See ICAO term AIRWAY.)
an airport. (Refer to 14 CFR Part 71.)
(See MOVEMENT AREA.) (Refer to AIM.)
(See TOWER.) AIRWAY [ICAO]− A control area or portion thereof
(See ICAO term AERODROME CONTROL established in the form of corridor equipped with
SERVICE.) radio navigational aids.
AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWER− AIRWAY BEACON− Used to mark airway segments
(See TOWER.) in remote mountain areas. The light flashes Morse
Code to identify the beacon site.
AIRSPACE CONFLICT− Predicted conflict of an
(Refer to AIM.)
aircraft and active Special Activity Airspace (SAA).
AIT−
AIRSPACE FLOW PROGRAM (AFP)− AFP is a
(See AUTOMATED INFORMATION
Traffic Management (TM) process administered by TRANSFER.)
the Air Traffic Control System Command Center
(ATCSCC) where aircraft are assigned an Expect ALERFA (Alert Phase) [ICAO]− A situation wherein
Departure Clearance Time (EDCT) in order to apprehension exists as to the safety of an aircraft and
manage capacity and demand for a specific area of the its occupants.
National Airspace System (NAS). The purpose of the ALERT− A notification to a position that there
program is to mitigate the effects of en route is an aircraft-to-aircraft or aircraft-to-airspace
constraints. It is a flexible program and may be conflict, as detected by Automated Problem
implemented in various forms depending upon the Detection (APD).
needs of the air traffic system.
ALERT AREA−
AIRSPACE HIERARCHY− Within the airspace (See SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE.)
classes, there is a hierarchy and, in the event of an
overlap of airspace: Class A preempts Class B, Class ALERT NOTICE− A request originated by a flight
B preempts Class C, Class C preempts Class D, Class service station (FSS) or an air route traffic control
D preempts Class E, and Class E preempts Class G. center (ARTCC) for an extensive communication
search for overdue, unreported, or missing aircraft.
AIRSPEED− The speed of an aircraft relative to its
surrounding air mass. The unqualified term ALERTING SERVICE− A service provided to notify
“airspeed” means one of the following: appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need
of search and rescue aid and assist such organizations
a. Indicated Airspeed− The speed shown on the as required.
aircraft airspeed indicator. This is the speed used in
pilot/controller communications under the general ALNOT−
term “airspeed.” (See ALERT NOTICE.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 1.) ALONG−TRACK DISTANCE (ATD)− The hori-
b. True Airspeed− The airspeed of an aircraft zontal distance between the aircraft’s current position
relative to undisturbed air. Used primarily in flight and a fix measured by an area navigation system that
planning and en route portion of flight. When used in is not subject to slant range errors.

PCG A−9
Pilot/Controller Glossary 4/27/17
12/10/15

ALPHANUMERIC DISPLAY− Letters and numer- is visually displayed in 100-foot increments on a


als used to show identification, altitude, beacon code, radar scope having readout capability.
and other information concerning a target on a radar (See ALPHANUMERIC DISPLAY.)
display. (See AUTOMATED RADAR TERMINAL
(See AUTOMATED RADAR TERMINAL SYSTEMS.)
SYSTEMS.) (Refer to AIM.)

ALTERNATE AERODROME [ICAO]− An aero- ALTITUDE RESERVATION− Airspace utilization


drome to which an aircraft may proceed when it under prescribed conditions normally employed for
becomes either impossible or inadvisable to proceed the mass movement of aircraft or other special user
to or to land at the aerodrome of intended landing. requirements which cannot otherwise be
accomplished. ALTRVs are approved by the
Note: The aerodrome from which a flight departs appropriate FAA facility.
may also be an en-route or a destination alternate
aerodrome for the flight. (See AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM
COMMAND CENTER.)

ALTERNATE AIRPORT− An airport at which an ALTITUDE RESTRICTION− An altitude or alti-


aircraft may land if a landing at the intended airport tudes, stated in the order flown, which are to be
becomes inadvisable. maintained until reaching a specific point or time.
(See ICAO term ALTERNATE AERODROME.)
Altitude restrictions may be issued by ATC due to
traffic, terrain, or other airspace considerations.
ALTIMETER SETTING− The barometric pressure ALTITUDE RESTRICTIONS ARE CANCELED−
reading used to adjust a pressure altimeter for Adherence to previously imposed altitude restric-
variations in existing atmospheric pressure or to the tions is no longer required during a climb or descent.
standard altimeter setting (29.92).
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.) ALTRV−
(See ALTITUDE RESERVATION.)
(Refer to AIM.)
AMVER−
ALTITUDE− The height of a level, point, or object (See AUTOMATED MUTUAL-ASSISTANCE
measured in feet Above Ground Level (AGL) or from VESSEL RESCUE SYSTEM.)
Mean Sea Level (MSL).
(See FLIGHT LEVEL.)
APB−
(See AUTOMATED PROBLEM DETECTION
a. MSL Altitude− Altitude expressed in feet BOUNDARY.)
measured from mean sea level.
APD−
b. AGL Altitude− Altitude expressed in feet (See AUTOMATED PROBLEM DETECTION.)
measured above ground level.
APDIA−
c. Indicated Altitude− The altitude as shown by an
(See AUTOMATED PROBLEM DETECTION
altimeter. On a pressure or barometric altimeter it is
INHIBITED AREA.)
altitude as shown uncorrected for instrument error
and uncompensated for variation from standard APPROACH CLEARANCE− Authorization by
atmospheric conditions. ATC for a pilot to conduct an instrument approach.
(See ICAO term ALTITUDE.) The type of instrument approach for which a
clearance and other pertinent information is provided
ALTITUDE [ICAO]− The vertical distance of a level, in the approach clearance when required.
a point or an object considered as a point, measured (See CLEARED APPROACH.)
from mean sea level (MSL). (See INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
ALTITUDE READOUT− An aircraft’s altitude, (Refer to AIM.)
transmitted via the Mode C transponder feature, that (Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)

PCG A−10
5/26/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

APPROACH CONTROL FACILITY− A terminal APPROACH WITH VERTICAL GUIDANCE


ATC facility that provides approach control service in (APV)– A term used to describe RNAV approach
a terminal area. procedures that provide lateral and vertical guidance
(See APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE.) but do not meet the requirements to be considered a
(See RADAR APPROACH CONTROL precision approach.
FACILITY.) APPROPRIATE ATS AUTHORITY [ICAO]− The
APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE− Air traffic relevant authority designated by the State responsible
control service provided by an approach control for providing air traffic services in the airspace
facility for arriving and departing VFR/IFR aircraft concerned. In the United States, the “appropriate ATS
and, on occasion, en route aircraft. At some airports authority” is the Program Director for Air Traffic
not served by an approach control facility, the Planning and Procedures, ATP-1.
ARTCC provides limited approach control service. APPROPRIATE AUTHORITY−
(See ICAO term APPROACH CONTROL a. Regarding flight over the high seas: the relevant
SERVICE.) authority is the State of Registry.
(Refer to AIM.)
b. Regarding flight over other than the high seas:
APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE [ICAO]− Air the relevant authority is the State having sovereignty
traffic control service for arriving or departing over the territory being overflown.
controlled flights. APPROPRIATE OBSTACLE CLEARANCE
MINIMUM ALTITUDE− Any of the following:
APPROACH GATE− An imaginary point used
(See MINIMUM EN ROUTE IFR ALTITUDE.)
within ATC as a basis for vectoring aircraft to the
(See MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDE.)
final approach course. The gate will be established
along the final approach course 1 mile from the final (See MINIMUM OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE
ALTITUDE.)
approach fix on the side away from the airport and
(See MINIMUM VECTORING ALTITUDE.)
will be no closer than 5 miles from the landing
threshold. APPROPRIATE TERRAIN CLEARANCE
MINIMUM ALTITUDE− Any of the following:
APPROACH HOLD AREA− The locations on (See MINIMUM EN ROUTE IFR ALTITUDE.)
taxiways in the approach or departure areas of a (See MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDE.)
runway designated to protect landing or departing (See MINIMUM OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE
aircraft. These locations are identified by signs and ALTITUDE.)
markings. (See MINIMUM VECTORING ALTITUDE.)
APPROACH LIGHT SYSTEM− APRON− A defined area on an airport or heliport
(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.) intended to accommodate aircraft for purposes of
loading or unloading passengers or cargo, refueling,
APPROACH SEQUENCE− The order in which parking, or maintenance. With regard to seaplanes, a
aircraft are positioned while on approach or awaiting ramp is used for access to the apron from the water.
approach clearance. (See ICAO term APRON.)
(See LANDING SEQUENCE.)
APRON [ICAO]− A defined area, on a land
(See ICAO term APPROACH SEQUENCE.)
aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft for
APPROACH SEQUENCE [ICAO]− The order in purposes of loading or unloading passengers, mail or
which two or more aircraft are cleared to approach to cargo, refueling, parking or maintenance.
land at the aerodrome. ARC− The track over the ground of an aircraft flying
at a constant distance from a navigational aid by
APPROACH SPEED− The recommended speed
reference to distance measuring equipment (DME).
contained in aircraft manuals used by pilots when
making an approach to landing. This speed will vary AREA CONTROL CENTER [ICAO]− An air traffic
for different segments of an approach as well as for control facility primarily responsible for ATC
aircraft weight and configuration. services being provided IFR aircraft during the en

PCG A−11
Pilot/Controller Glossary 5/26/16
12/10/15

route phase of flight. The U.S. equivalent facility is 2. LEFT BASE AREA− A 30NM arc centered
an air route traffic control center (ARTCC). on the right corner IAF. The area shares a boundary
with the straight-in area except that it extends out for
AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV)− A method of 30NM from the IAF and is bounded on the other side
navigation which permits aircraft operation on any by a line extending from the IF through the FAF to the
desired flight path within the coverage of ground− or arc.
space−based navigation aids or within the limits of
the capability of self-contained aids, or a combination 3. RIGHT BASE AREA− A 30NM arc centered
of these. on the left corner IAF. The area shares a boundary
with the straight-in area except that it extends out for
Note: Area navigation includes
30NM from the IAF and is bounded on the other side
performance−based navigation as well as other
operations that do not meet the definition of by a line extending from the IF through the FAF to the
performance−based navigation. arc.
AREA NAVI GATION (R NAV) G L O B A L
AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV) APPROACH POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) PRECISION
CONFIGURATION: RUNWAY MONITORING (PRM) APPROACH – A
a. STANDARD T− An RNAV approach whose GPS approach, which requires vertical guidance,
design allows direct flight to any one of three initial used in lieu of an ILS PRM approach to conduct
approach fixes (IAF) and eliminates the need for approaches to parallel runways whose extended
procedure turns. The standard design is to align the centerlines are separated by less than 4,300 feet and
procedure on the extended centerline with the missed at least 3,000 feet, where simultaneous close parallel
approach point (MAP) at the runway threshold, the approaches are permitted. Also used in lieu of an ILS
final approach fix (FAF), and the initial approach/ PRM and/or LDA PRM approach to conduct
intermediate fix (IAF/IF). The other two IAFs will be Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approach (SOIA)
established perpendicular to the IF. operations.
b. MODIFIED T− An RNAV approach design for ARINC− An acronym for Aeronautical Radio, Inc.,
single or multiple runways where terrain or a corporation largely owned by a group of airlines.
operational constraints do not allow for the standard ARINC is licensed by the FCC as an aeronautical
T. The “T” may be modified by increasing or station and contracted by the FAA to provide
decreasing the angle from the corner IAF(s) to the IF communications support for air traffic control and
or by eliminating one or both corner IAFs. meteorological services in portions of international
c. STANDARD I− An RNAV approach design for airspace.
a single runway with both corner IAFs eliminated.
ARMY AVIATION FLIGHT INFORMATION
Course reversal or radar vectoring may be required at
BULLETIN− A bulletin that provides air operation
busy terminals with multiple runways.
data covering Army, National Guard, and Army
d. TERMINAL ARRIVAL AREA (TAA)− The Reserve aviation activities.
TAA is controlled airspace established in conjunction
with the Standard or Modified T and I RNAV ARO−
approach configurations. In the standard TAA, there (See AIRPORT RESERVATION OFFICE.)
are three areas: straight-in, left base, and right base. ARRESTING SYSTEM− A safety device consisting
The arc boundaries of the three areas of the TAA are of two major components, namely, engaging or
published portions of the approach and allow aircraft catching devices and energy absorption devices for
to transition from the en route structure direct to the the purpose of arresting both tailhook and/or
nearest IAF. TAAs will also eliminate or reduce nontailhook-equipped aircraft. It is used to prevent
feeder routes, departure extensions, and procedure aircraft from overrunning runways when the aircraft
turns or course reversal. cannot be stopped after landing or during aborted
1. STRAIGHT-IN AREA− A 30NM arc takeoff. Arresting systems have various names; e.g.,
centered on the IF bounded by a straight line arresting gear, hook device, wire barrier cable.
extending through the IF perpendicular to the (See ABORT.)
intermediate course. (Refer to AIM.)

PCG A−12
11/10/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

ARRIVAL AIRCRAFT INTERVAL− An internally ASR−


generated program in hundredths of minutes based (See AIRPORT SURVEILLANCE RADAR.)
upon the AAR. AAI is the desired optimum interval ASR APPROACH−
between successive arrival aircraft over the vertex.
(See SURVEILLANCE APPROACH.)
ARRIVAL CENTER− The ARTCC having jurisdic- ASSOCIATED− A radar target displaying a data
tion for the impacted airport. block with flight identification and altitude
ARRIVAL DELAY− A parameter which specifies a information.
period of time in which no aircraft will be metered for (See UNASSOCIATED.)
arrival at the specified airport. ATC−
ARRIVAL SECTOR− An operational control sector (See AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL.)
containing one or more meter fixes. ATC ADVISES− Used to prefix a message of
ARRIVAL SECTOR ADVISORY LIST− An noncontrol information when it is relayed to an
ordered list of data on arrivals displayed at the aircraft by other than an air traffic controller.
PVD/MDM of the sector which controls the meter (See ADVISORY.)
fix. ATC ASSIGNED AIRSPACE− Airspace of defined
ARRIVAL SEQUENCING PROGRAM− The auto- vertical/lateral limits, assigned by ATC, for the
mated program designed to assist in sequencing purpose of providing air traffic segregation between
aircraft destined for the same airport. the specified activities being conducted within the
assigned airspace and other IFR air traffic.
ARRIVAL TIME− The time an aircraft touches down (See SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE.)
on arrival.
ATC CLEARANCE−
ARSR− (See AIR TRAFFIC CLEARANCE.)
(See AIR ROUTE SURVEILLANCE RADAR.)
ATC CLEARS− Used to prefix an ATC clearance
ARTCC− when it is relayed to an aircraft by other than an air
(See AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL traffic controller.
CENTER.)
ATC INSTRUCTIONS− Directives issued by air
ARTS− traffic control for the purpose of requiring a pilot to
(See AUTOMATED RADAR TERMINAL take specific actions; e.g., “Turn left heading two five
SYSTEMS.) zero,” “Go around,” “Clear the runway.”
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
ASDA−
(See ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCE ATC PREFERRED ROUTE NOTIFICATION−
AVAILABLE.) EDST notification to the appropriate controller of the
need to determine if an ATC preferred route needs to
ASDA [ICAO]−
be applied, based on destination airport.
(See ICAO Term ACCELERATE-STOP
DISTANCE AVAILABLE.) (See ROUTE ACTION NOTIFICATION.)
(See EN ROUTE DECISION SUPPORT
ASDE− TOOL.)
(See AIRPORT SURFACE DETECTION
EQUIPMENT.) ATC PREFERRED ROUTES− Preferred routes that
are not automatically applied by Host.
ASF−
ATC REQUESTS− Used to prefix an ATC request
(See AIRPORT STREAM FILTER.)
when it is relayed to an aircraft by other than an air
ASLAR− traffic controller.
(See AIRCRAFT SURGE LAUNCH AND
ATC SECURITY SERVICES − Communications
RECOVERY.)
and security tracking provided by an ATC facility in
ASP− support of the DHS, the DOD, or other Federal
(See ARRIVAL SEQUENCING PROGRAM.) security elements in the interest of national security.

PCG A−13
Pilot/Controller Glossary 4/27/17
12/10/15

Such security services are only applicable within ATCAA−


designated areas. ATC security services do not (See ATC ASSIGNED AIRSPACE.)
include ATC basic radar services or flight following. ATCRBS−
(See RADAR.)
ATC SECURITY SERVICES POSITION − The
position responsible for providing ATC security ATCSCC−
services as defined. This position does not provide (See AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SYSTEM
ATC, IFR separation, or VFR flight following COMMAND CENTER.)
services, but is responsible for providing security ATCT−
services in an area comprising airspace assigned to (See TOWER.)
one or more ATC operating sectors. This position
may be combined with control positions. ATD−
(See ALONG−TRACK DISTANCE.)
ATC SECURITY TRACKING− The continuous ATIS−
tracking of aircraft movement by an ATC facility in (See AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFORMATION
support of the DHS, the DOD, or other security SERVICE.)
elements for national security using radar (i.e., radar
ATIS [ICAO]−
tracking) or other means (e.g., manual tracking)
(See ICAO Term AUTOMATIC TERMINAL
without providing basic radar services (including INFORMATION SERVICE.)
traffic advisories) or other ATC services not defined
in this section. ATS ROUTE [ICAO]− A specified route designed for
channeling the flow of traffic as necessary for the
ATS SURVEILLANCE SERVICE [ICAO]– A term provision of air traffic services.
used to indicate a service provided directly by means Note: The term “ATS Route” is used to mean
of an ATS surveillance system. variously, airway, advisory route, controlled or
uncontrolled route, arrival or departure, etc.
ATC SURVEILLANCE SOURCE– Used by ATC
ATTENTION ALL USERS PAGE (AAUP)- The
for establishing identification, control and separation
AAUP provides the pilot with additional information
using a target depicted on an air traffic control
relative to conducting a specific operation, for
facility’s video display that has met the relevant
example, PRM approaches and RNAV departures.
safety standards for operational use and received
from one, or a combination, of the following AUTOLAND APPROACH−An autoland system
surveillance sources: aids by providing control of aircraft systems during
a. Radar (See RADAR) a precision instrument approach to at least decision
b. ADS-B (See AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT altitude and possibly all the way to touchdown, as
SURVEILLANCE−BROADCAST.) well as in some cases, through the landing rollout.
c. WAM (See WIDE AREA MULTILATERATION) The autoland system is a sub-system of the autopilot
(See INTERROGATOR.) system from which control surface management
occurs. The aircraft autopilot sends instructions to the
(See TRANSPONDER.)
autoland system and monitors the autoland system
(See ICAO term RADAR.)
performance and integrity during its execution.
(Refer to AIM.)
AUTOMATED INFORMATION TRANSFER− A
ATS SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM [ICAO]– A precoordinated process, specifically defined in
generic term meaning variously, ADS−B, PSR, SSR facility directives, during which a transfer of altitude
or any comparable ground−based system that enables control and/or radar identification is accomplished
the identification of aircraft. without verbal coordination between controllers
using information communicated in a full data block.
Note: A comparable ground−based system is one
that has been demonstrated, by comparative AUTOMATED MUTUAL-ASSISTANCE VESSEL
assessment or other methodology, to have a level RESCUE SYSTEM− A facility which can deliver, in
of safety and performance equal to or better than a matter of minutes, a surface picture (SURPIC) of
monopulse SSR. vessels in the area of a potential or actual search and

PCG A−14
4/27/17
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

rescue incident, including their predicted positions UNICOM frequency. Availability will be published
and their characteristics. in the Chart Supplement U.S. and approach charts.
(See FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10−6−4, INFLIGHT AUTOMATIC ALTITUDE REPORT−
CONTINGENCIES.)
(See ALTITUDE READOUT.)
AUTOMATED PROBLEM DETECTION (APD)− AUTOMATIC ALTITUDE REPORTING− That
An Automation Processing capability that compares function of a transponder which responds to Mode C
trajectories in order to predict conflicts. interrogations by transmitting the aircraft’s altitude
AUTOMATED PROBLEM DETECTION in 100-foot increments.
BOUNDARY (APB)− The adapted distance beyond AUTOMATIC CARRIER LANDING SYSTEM−
a facilities boundary defining the airspace within U.S. Navy final approach equipment consisting of
which EDST performs conflict detection. precision tracking radar coupled to a computer data
(See EN ROUTE DECISION SUPPORT TOOL.) link to provide continuous information to the aircraft,
monitoring capability to the pilot, and a backup
AUTOMATED PROBLEM DETECTION IN-
approach system.
HIBITED AREA (APDIA)− Airspace surrounding a
terminal area within which APD is inhibited for all AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE
flights within that airspace. (ADS) [ICAO]− A surveillance technique in which
aircraft automatically provide, via a data link, data
AUTOMATED RADAR TERMINAL SYSTEMS derived from on−board navigation and position
(ARTS)− A generic term for several tracking systems fixing systems, including aircraft identification, four
included in the Terminal Automation Systems (TAS). dimensional position and additional data as
ARTS plus a suffix roman numeral denotes a major appropriate.
modification to that system.
AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE−
a. ARTS IIIA. The Radar Tracking and Beacon
BROADCAST (ADS-B)− A surveillance system in
Tracking Level (RT&BTL) of the modular,
which an aircraft or vehicle to be detected is fitted
programmable automated radar terminal system.
with cooperative equipment in the form of a data link
ARTS IIIA detects, tracks, and predicts primary as
transmitter. The aircraft or vehicle periodically
well as secondary radar-derived aircraft targets. This
broadcasts its GPS−derived position and other
more sophisticated computer-driven system up-
information such as velocity over the data link, which
grades the existing ARTS III system by providing
is received by a ground−based transmitter/receiver
improved tracking, continuous data recording, and
(transceiver) for processing and display at an air
fail-soft capabilities.
traffic control facility.
b. Common ARTS. Includes ARTS IIE, ARTS (See GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM.)
IIIE; and ARTS IIIE with ACD (see DTAS) which (See GROUND−BASED TRANSCEIVER.)
combines functionalities of the previous ARTS
systems. AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE−
CONTRACT (ADS−C)− A data link position
AUTOMATED WEATHER SYSTEM− Any of the reporting system, controlled by a ground station, that
automated weather sensor platforms that collect establishes contracts with an aircraft’s avionics that
weather data at airports and disseminate the weather occur automatically whenever specific events occur,
information via radio and/or landline. The systems or specific time intervals are reached.
currently consist of the Automated Surface Observ-
ing System (ASOS), Automated Weather Sensor AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT SURVEILLANCE-
System (AWSS) and Automated Weather Observa- REBROADCAST (ADS-R) is a datalink translation
tion System (AWOS). function of the ADS−B ground system required to
accommodate the two separate operating frequencies
AUTOMATED UNICOM− Provides completely (978 MHz and 1090 ES). The ADS−B system
automated weather, radio check capability and airport receives the ADS−B messages transmitted on one
advisory information on an Automated UNICOM frequency and ADS−R translates and reformats the
system. These systems offer a variety of features, information for rebroadcast and use on the other
typically selectable by microphone clicks, on the frequency. This allows ADS−B In equipped aircraft

PCG A−15
Pilot/Controller Glossary 4/27/17
12/10/15

to see nearby ADS−B Out traffic regardless of the Left approach in use, Runway Two Five Right closed,
operating link of the other aircraft. Aircraft operating advise you have Alfa.”
on the same ADS−B frequency exchange information (See ICAO term AUTOMATIC TERMINAL
directly and do not require the ADS−R translation INFORMATION SERVICE.)
function. (Refer to AIM.)
AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFORMATION
AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER− An aircraft SERVICE [ICAO]− The provision of current, routine
radio navigation system which senses and indicates information to arriving and departing aircraft by
the direction to a L/MF nondirectional radio beacon means of continuous and repetitive broadcasts
(NDB) ground transmitter. Direction is indicated to throughout the day or a specified portion of the day.
the pilot as a magnetic bearing or as a relative bearing
to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft depending on AUTOROTATION− A rotorcraft flight condition in
the type of indicator installed in the aircraft. In certain which the lifting rotor is driven entirely by action of
applications, such as military, ADF operations may the air when the rotorcraft is in motion.
be based on airborne and ground transmitters in the a. Autorotative Landing/Touchdown Autorota-
VHF/UHF frequency spectrum. tion. Used by a pilot to indicate that the landing will
(See BEARING.) be made without applying power to the rotor.
(See NONDIRECTIONAL BEACON.) b. Low Level Autorotation. Commences at an
altitude well below the traffic pattern, usually below
100 feet AGL and is used primarily for tactical
AUTOMATIC FLIGHT INFORMATION
military training.
SERVICE (AFIS) − ALASKA FSSs ONLY− The
continuous broadcast of recorded non−control c. 180 degrees Autorotation. Initiated from a
information at airports in Alaska where a FSS downwind heading and is commenced well inside the
provides local airport advisory service. The AFIS normal traffic pattern. “Go around” may not be
broadcast automates the repetitive transmission of possible during the latter part of this maneuver.
essential but routine information such as weather, AVAILABLE LANDING DISTANCE (ALD)− The
wind, altimeter, favored runway, breaking action, portion of a runway available for landing and roll-out
airport NOTAMs, and other applicable information. for aircraft cleared for LAHSO. This distance is
The information is continuously broadcast over a measured from the landing threshold to the
discrete VHF radio frequency (usually the ASOS/ hold-short point.
AWSS/AWOS frequency.)
AVIATION WEATHER SERVICE− A service
provided by the National Weather Service (NWS) and
AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFORMATION FAA which collects and disseminates pertinent
SERVICE− The continuous broadcast of recorded weather information for pilots, aircraft operators, and
noncontrol information in selected terminal areas. Its ATC. Available aviation weather reports and
purpose is to improve controller effectiveness and to forecasts are displayed at each NWS office and FAA
relieve frequency congestion by automating the FSS.
repetitive transmission of essential but routine
(See TRANSCRIBED WEATHER BROADCAST.)
information; e.g., “Los Angeles information Alfa.
(See WEATHER ADVISORY.)
One three zero zero Coordinated Universal Time.
Weather, measured ceiling two thousand overcast, (Refer to AIM.)
visibility three, haze, smoke, temperature seven one, AWW−
dew point five seven, wind two five zero at five, (See SEVERE WEATHER FORECAST
altimeter two niner niner six. I-L-S Runway Two Five ALERTS.)

PCG A−16
5/26/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

B
BACK-TAXI− A term used by air traffic controllers BLIND VELOCITY [ICAO]− The radial velocity of
to taxi an aircraft on the runway opposite to the traffic a moving target such that the target is not seen on
flow. The aircraft may be instructed to back-taxi to primary radars fitted with certain forms of fixed echo
the beginning of the runway or at some point before suppression.
reaching the runway end for the purpose of departure
BLIND ZONE−
or to exit the runway.
(See BLIND SPOT.)
BASE LEG− BLOCKED− Phraseology used to indicate that a
(See TRAFFIC PATTERN.) radio transmission has been distorted or interrupted
BEACON− due to multiple simultaneous radio transmissions.
(See AERONAUTICAL BEACON.) BOTTOM ALTITUDE– In reference to published
(See AIRPORT ROTATING BEACON.) altitude restrictions on a STAR or STAR runway
(See AIRWAY BEACON.) transition, the lowest altitude authorized.
(See MARKER BEACON.) BOUNDARY LIGHTS−
(See NONDIRECTIONAL BEACON.) (See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
(See RADAR.)
BRAKING ACTION (GOOD, MEDIUM, POOR,
BEARING− The horizontal direction to or from any OR NIL)− A report of conditions on the airport
point, usually measured clockwise from true north, movement area providing a pilot with a degree/qual-
magnetic north, or some other reference point ity of braking that he/she might expect. Braking
through 360 degrees. action is reported in terms of good, fair, poor, or nil.
(See NONDIRECTIONAL BEACON.) Effective October 1, 2016, Braking Action will be
categorized in the following terms: Good, Good to
BELOW MINIMUMS− Weather conditions below Medium, Medium, Medium to Poor, Poor, and Nil.
the minimums prescribed by regulation for the (See RUNWAY CONDITION READING.)
particular action involved; e.g., landing minimums,
takeoff minimums. BRAKING ACTION ADVISORIES− When tower
controllers have received runway braking action
BLAST FENCE− A barrier that is used to divert or reports which include the terms “fair,” “poor,” or
dissipate jet or propeller blast. “nil,” or whenever weather conditions are conducive
to deteriorating or rapidly changing runway braking
BLAST PAD− A surface adjacent to the ends of a
conditions, the tower will include on the ATIS
runway provided to reduce the erosive effect of jet
broadcast the statement, “Braking action advisories
blast and propeller wash.
are in effect” on the ATIS broadcast. During the time
BLIND SPEED− The rate of departure or closing of braking action advisories are in effect, ATC will issue
a target relative to the radar antenna at which the latest braking action report for the runway in use
cancellation of the primary radar target by moving to each arriving and departing aircraft. Pilots should
target indicator (MTI) circuits in the radar equipment be prepared for deteriorating braking conditions and
causes a reduction or complete loss of signal. should request current runway condition information
(See ICAO term BLIND VELOCITY.) if not volunteered by controllers. Pilots should also
be prepared to provide a descriptive runway
BLIND SPOT− An area from which radio condition report to controllers after landing.
transmissions and/or radar echoes cannot be Effective October 1, 2016, the term “fair” will be
received. The term is also used to describe portions replaced with “medium”.
of the airport not visible from the control tower.
BREAKOUT− A technique to direct aircraft out of
BLIND TRANSMISSION− the approach stream. In the context of simultaneous
(See TRANSMITTING IN THE BLIND.) (independent) parallel operations, a breakout is used

PCG B−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary 4/27/17
12/10/15

to direct threatened aircraft away from a deviating BROADCAST [ICAO]− A transmission of informa-
aircraft. tion relating to air navigation that is not addressed to
a specific station or stations.
BROADCAST− Transmission of information for
which an acknowledgement is not expected. BUFFER AREA− As applied to an MVA or MIA
(See ICAO term BROADCAST.) chart, a depicted three (3) or five (5) NM radius
MVA/MIA sector isolating a displayed obstacle for
which the sector is established. A portion of a buffer
area can also be inclusive of a MVA/MIA sector
polygon boundary.

PCG B−2
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

C
CALCULATED LANDING TIME− A term that may CENRAP-PLUS−
be used in place of tentative or actual calculated (See CENTER RADAR ARTS
landing time, whichever applies. PRESENTATION/PROCESSING- PLUS.)
CALL FOR RELEASE− Wherein the overlying CENTER−
ARTCC requires a terminal facility to initiate verbal (See AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL
coordination to secure ARTCC approval for release CENTER.)
of a departure into the en route environment. CENTER’S AREA− The specified airspace within
CALL UP− Initial voice contact between a facility which an air route traffic control center (ARTCC)
and an aircraft, using the identification of the unit provides air traffic control and advisory service.
being called and the unit initiating the call. (See AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL
CENTER.)
(Refer to AIM.)
(Refer to AIM.)
CANADIAN MINIMUM NAVIGATION PERFOR-
CENTER RADAR ARTS PRESENTATION/
MANCE SPECIFICATION AIRSPACE− That
PROCESSING− A computer program developed to
portion of Canadian domestic airspace within which
provide a back-up system for airport surveillance
MNPS separation may be applied.
radar in the event of a failure or malfunction. The
CARDINAL ALTITUDES− “Odd” or “Even” program uses air route traffic control center radar for
thousand-foot altitudes or flight levels; e.g., 5,000, the processing and presentation of data on the ARTS
6,000, 7,000, FL 250, FL 260, FL 270. IIA or IIIA displays.
(See ALTITUDE.) CENTER RADAR ARTS PRESENTATION/
(See FLIGHT LEVEL.) PROCESSING-PLUS− A computer program
CARDINAL FLIGHT LEVELS− developed to provide a back-up system for airport
(See CARDINAL ALTITUDES.) surveillance radar in the event of a terminal secondary
radar system failure. The program uses a combination
CAT− of Air Route Traffic Control Center Radar and
(See CLEAR-AIR TURBULENCE.) terminal airport surveillance radar primary targets
CATCH POINT− A fix/waypoint that serves as a displayed simultaneously for the processing and
transition point from the high altitude waypoint presentation of data on the ARTS IIA or IIIA
navigation structure to an arrival procedure (STAR) displays.
or the low altitude ground−based navigation CENTER TRACON AUTOMATION SYSTEM
structure. (CTAS)− A computerized set of programs designed
to aid Air Route Traffic Control Centers and
CEILING− The heights above the earth’s surface of
TRACONs in the management and control of air
the lowest layer of clouds or obscuring phenomena
traffic.
that is reported as “broken,” “overcast,” or
“obscuration,” and not classified as “thin” or CENTER WEATHER ADVISORY− An unsched-
“partial.” uled weather advisory issued by Center Weather
(See ICAO term CEILING.) Service Unit meteorologists for ATC use to alert
pilots of existing or anticipated adverse weather
CEILING [ICAO]− The height above the ground or conditions within the next 2 hours. A CWA may
water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud below modify or redefine a SIGMET.
6,000 meters (20,000 feet) covering more than half
(See AWW.)
the sky.
(See AIRMET.)
CENRAP− (See CONVECTIVE SIGMET.)
(See CENTER RADAR ARTS (See SIGMET.)
PRESENTATION/PROCESSING.) (Refer to AIM.)

PCG C−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary 5/26/16
12/10/15

CENTRAL EAST PACIFIC− An organized route runway for landing when a straight-in landing from
system between the U.S. West Coast and Hawaii. an instrument approach is not possible or is not
desirable. At tower controlled airports, this maneuver
CEP−
is made only after ATC authorization has been
(See CENTRAL EAST PACIFIC.)
obtained and the pilot has established required visual
CERAP− reference to the airport.
(See COMBINED CENTER-RAPCON.) (See CIRCLE TO RUNWAY.)
CERTIFIED TOWER RADAR DISPLAY (CTRD)− (See LANDING MINIMUMS.)
A FAA radar display certified for use in the NAS. (Refer to AIM.)

CFR− CIRCLE TO RUNWAY (RUNWAY NUMBER)−


(See CALL FOR RELEASE.) Used by ATC to inform the pilot that he/she must
circle to land because the runway in use is other than
CHAFF− Thin, narrow metallic reflectors of various the runway aligned with the instrument approach
lengths and frequency responses, used to reflect radar procedure. When the direction of the circling
energy. These reflectors when dropped from aircraft maneuver in relation to the airport/runway is
and allowed to drift downward result in large targets required, the controller will state the direction (eight
on the radar display. cardinal compass points) and specify a left or right
CHART SUPPLEMENT U.S.− A publication downwind or base leg as appropriate; e.g., “Cleared
designed primarily as a pilot’s operational manual VOR Runway Three Six Approach circle to Runway
containing all airports, seaplane bases, and heliports Two Two,” or “Circle northwest of the airport for a
open to the public including communications data, right downwind to Runway Two Two.”
navigational facilities, and certain special notices and (See CIRCLE-TO-LAND MANEUVER.)
procedures. This publication is issued in seven (See LANDING MINIMUMS.)
volumes according to geographical area. (Refer to AIM.)
CHARTED VFR FLYWAYS− Charted VFR Fly- CIRCLING APPROACH−
ways are flight paths recommended for use to bypass (See CIRCLE-TO-LAND MANEUVER.)
areas heavily traversed by large turbine-powered
CIRCLING MANEUVER−
aircraft. Pilot compliance with recommended
(See CIRCLE-TO-LAND MANEUVER.)
flyways and associated altitudes is strictly voluntary.
VFR Flyway Planning charts are published on the CIRCLING MINIMA−
back of existing VFR Terminal Area charts. (See LANDING MINIMUMS.)
CHARTED VISUAL FLIGHT PROCEDURE CLASS A AIRSPACE−
APPROACH− An approach conducted while (See CONTROLLED AIRSPACE.)
operating on an instrument flight rules (IFR) flight
plan which authorizes the pilot of an aircraft to CLASS B AIRSPACE−
proceed visually and clear of clouds to the airport via (See CONTROLLED AIRSPACE.)
visual landmarks and other information depicted on CLASS C AIRSPACE−
a charted visual flight procedure. This approach must (See CONTROLLED AIRSPACE.)
be authorized and under the control of the appropriate
air traffic control facility. Weather minimums CLASS D AIRSPACE−
required are depicted on the chart. (See CONTROLLED AIRSPACE.)

CHASE− An aircraft flown in proximity to another CLASS E AIRSPACE−


aircraft normally to observe its performance during (See CONTROLLED AIRSPACE.)
training or testing. CLASS G AIRSPACE− That airspace not designated
CHASE AIRCRAFT− as Class A, B, C, D or E.
(See CHASE.)
CLEAR AIR TURBULENCE (CAT)− Turbulence
CIRCLE-TO-LAND MANEUVER− A maneuver encountered in air where no clouds are present. This
initiated by the pilot to align the aircraft with a term is commonly applied to high-level turbulence

PCG C−2
11/10/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

associated with wind shear. CAT is often encountered aircraft will be cleared for a specific instrument
in the vicinity of the jet stream. approach procedure.
(See WIND SHEAR.) (See CLEARED (Type of) APPROACH.)
(See JET STREAM.) (See INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
CLEAR OF THE RUNWAY− (Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to AIM.)
a. Taxiing aircraft, which is approaching a
runway, is clear of the runway when all parts of the CLEARED (Type of) APPROACH− ATC authoriza-
aircraft are held short of the applicable runway tion for an aircraft to execute a specific instrument
holding position marking. approach procedure to an airport; e.g., “Cleared ILS
b. A pilot or controller may consider an aircraft, Runway Three Six Approach.”
which is exiting or crossing a runway, to be clear of (See APPROACH CLEARANCE.)
the runway when all parts of the aircraft are beyond (See INSTRUMENT APPROACH
the runway edge and there are no restrictions to its PROCEDURE.)
continued movement beyond the applicable runway (Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
holding position marking. (Refer to AIM.)

c. Pilots and controllers shall exercise good CLEARED AS FILED− Means the aircraft is cleared
judgement to ensure that adequate separation exists to proceed in accordance with the route of flight filed
between all aircraft on runways and taxiways at in the flight plan. This clearance does not include the
airports with inadequate runway edge lines or altitude, DP, or DP Transition.
holding position markings. (See REQUEST FULL ROUTE CLEARANCE.)
(Refer to AIM.)
CLEARANCE−
CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF− ATC authorization
(See AIR TRAFFIC CLEARANCE.) for an aircraft to depart. It is predicated on known
traffic and known physical airport conditions.
CLEARANCE LIMIT− The fix, point, or location to
which an aircraft is cleared when issued an air traffic CLEARED FOR THE OPTION− ATC authoriza-
clearance. tion for an aircraft to make a touch-and-go, low
(See ICAO term CLEARANCE LIMIT.) approach, missed approach, stop and go, or full stop
landing at the discretion of the pilot. It is normally
CLEARANCE LIMIT [ICAO]− The point to which used in training so that an instructor can evaluate a
an aircraft is granted an air traffic control clearance. student’s performance under changing situations.
Pilots should advise ATC if they decide to remain on
CLEARANCE VOID IF NOT OFF BY (TIME)− the runway, of any delay in their stop and go, delay
Used by ATC to advise an aircraft that the departure clearing the runway, or are unable to comply with the
clearance is automatically canceled if takeoff is not instruction(s).
made prior to a specified time. The pilot must obtain (See OPTION APPROACH.)
a new clearance or cancel his/her IFR flight plan if not (Refer to AIM.)
off by the specified time.
(See ICAO term CLEARANCE VOID TIME.) CLEARED THROUGH− ATC authorization for an
aircraft to make intermediate stops at specified
CLEARANCE VOID TIME [ICAO]− A time airports without refiling a flight plan while en route
specified by an air traffic control unit at which a to the clearance limit.
clearance ceases to be valid unless the aircraft CLEARED TO LAND− ATC authorization for an
concerned has already taken action to comply aircraft to land. It is predicated on known traffic and
therewith. known physical airport conditions.
CLEARED APPROACH− ATC authorization for an CLEARWAY− An area beyond the takeoff runway
aircraft to execute any standard or special instrument under the control of airport authorities within which
approach procedure for that airport. Normally, an terrain or fixed obstacles may not extend above

PCG C−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary 11/10/16
12/10/15

specified limits. These areas may be required for by precipitation, chaff, terrain, numerous aircraft
certain turbine-powered operations and the size and targets, or other phenomena. Such returns may limit
upward slope of the clearway will differ depending on or preclude ATC from providing services based on
when the aircraft was certificated. radar.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 1.) (See CHAFF.)
(See GROUND CLUTTER.)
CLIMB TO VFR− ATC authorization for an aircraft
(See PRECIPITATION.)
to climb to VFR conditions within Class B, C, D, and
(See TARGET.)
E surface areas when the only weather limitation is
(See ICAO term RADAR CLUTTER.)
restricted visibility. The aircraft must remain clear of
clouds while climbing to VFR. CMNPS−
(See SPECIAL VFR CONDITIONS.) (See CANADIAN MINIMUM NAVIGATION
(Refer to AIM.) PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATION AIRSPACE.)

CLIMBOUT− That portion of flight operation COASTAL FIX− A navigation aid or intersection
between takeoff and the initial cruising altitude. where an aircraft transitions between the domestic
route structure and the oceanic route structure.
CLIMB VIA– An abbreviated ATC clearance that
requires compliance with the procedure lateral path, CODES− The number assigned to a particular
associated speed restrictions, and altitude restrictions multiple pulse reply signal transmitted by a
along the cleared route or procedure. transponder.
(See DISCRETE CODE.)
CLOSE PARALLEL RUNWAYS− Two parallel
runways whose extended centerlines are separated by COLD TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION− An
less than 4,300 feet and at least 3000 feet (750 feet for action on the part of the pilot to adjust an aircraft’s
SOIA operations) that are authorized to conduct indicated altitude due to the effect of cold
simultaneous independent approach operations. temperatures on true altitude above terrain versus
PRM and simultaneous close parallel appear in aircraft indicated altitude. The amount of
approach title. Dual communications, special pilot compensation required increases at a greater rate with
training, an Attention All Users Page (AAUP), NTZ a decrease in temperature and increase in height
monitoring by displays that have aural and visual above the reporting station.
alerting algorithms are required. A high update rate COLLABORATIVE TRAJECTORY OPTIONS
surveillance sensor is required for certain runway or PROGRAM (CTOP)- CTOP is a traffic management
approach course spacing. program administered by the Air Traffic Control
CLOSED RUNWAY− A runway that is unusable for System Command Center (ATCSCC) that manages
aircraft operations. Only the airport management/ demand through constrained airspace, while consid-
military operations office can close a runway. ering operator preference with regard to both route
and delay as defined in a Trajectory Options Set
CLOSED TRAFFIC− Successive operations involv- (TOS).
ing takeoffs and landings or low approaches where
COMBINED CENTER-RAPCON− An air traffic
the aircraft does not exit the traffic pattern.
facility which combines the functions of an ARTCC
CLOUD− A cloud is a visible accumulation of and a radar approach control facility.
minute water droplets and/or ice particles in the (See AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL
atmosphere above the Earth’s surface. Cloud differs CENTER.)
from ground fog, fog, or ice fog only in that the latter (See RADAR APPROACH CONTROL
are, by definition, in contact with the Earth’s surface. FACILITY.)

CLT− COMMON POINT− A significant point over which


(See CALCULATED LANDING TIME.)
two or more aircraft will report passing or have
reported passing before proceeding on the same or
CLUTTER− In radar operations, clutter refers to the diverging tracks. To establish/maintain longitudinal
reception and visual display of radar returns caused separation, a controller may determine a common

PCG C−4
11/10/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

point not originally in the aircraft’s flight plan and with all altitude and/or speed restrictions depicted on
then clear the aircraft to fly over the point. the procedure. This term may be used in lieu of
(See SIGNIFICANT POINT.) repeating each remaining restriction that appears on
the procedure.
COMMON PORTION−
(See COMMON ROUTE.) COMPOSITE FLIGHT PLAN− A flight plan which
specifies VFR operation for one portion of flight and
COMMON ROUTE− That segment of a North IFR for another portion. It is used primarily in
American Route between the inland navigation military operations.
facility and the coastal fix.
(Refer to AIM.)
OR COMPOSITE ROUTE SYSTEM− An organized
COMMON ROUTE− Typically the portion of a oceanic route structure, incorporating reduced lateral
RNAV STAR between the en route transition end spacing between routes, in which composite
point and the runway transition start point; however, separation is authorized.
the common route may only consist of a single point COMPOSITE SEPARATION− A method of separat-
that joins the en route and runway transitions. ing aircraft in a composite route system where, by
COMMON TRAFFIC ADVISORY FREQUENCY management of route and altitude assignments, a
(CTAF)− A frequency designed for the purpose of combination of half the lateral minimum specified for
carrying out airport advisory practices while the area concerned and half the vertical minimum is
operating to or from an airport without an operating applied.
control tower. The CTAF may be a UNICOM, COMPULSORY REPORTING POINTS− Reporting
Multicom, FSS, or tower frequency and is identified points which must be reported to ATC. They are
in appropriate aeronautical publications. designated on aeronautical charts by solid triangles or
(See DESIGNATED COMMON TRAFFIC filed in a flight plan as fixes selected to define direct
ADVISORY FREQUENCY (CTAF) AREA.) routes. These points are geographical locations
(Refer to AC 90-42, Traffic Advisory Practices at which are defined by navigation aids/fixes. Pilots
Airports Without Operating Control Towers.) should discontinue position reporting over compul-
COMPASS LOCATOR− A low power, low or sory reporting points when informed by ATC that
medium frequency (L/MF) radio beacon installed at their aircraft is in “radar contact.”
the site of the outer or middle marker of an instrument CONDITIONS NOT MONITORED−When an
landing system (ILS). It can be used for navigation at airport operator cannot monitor the condition of the
distances of approximately 15 miles or as authorized movement area or airfield surface area, this
in the approach procedure. information is issued as a NOTAM. Usually
a. Outer Compass Locator (LOM)− A compass necessitated due to staffing, operating hours or other
locator installed at the site of the outer marker of an mitigating factors associated with airport operations.
instrument landing system.
CONFIDENCE MANEUVER− A confidence man-
(See OUTER MARKER.) euver consists of one or more turns, a climb or
b. Middle Compass Locator (LMM)− A compass descent, or other maneuver to determine if the pilot
locator installed at the site of the middle marker of an in command (PIC) is able to receive and comply with
instrument landing system. ATC instructions.
(See MIDDLE MARKER.)
CONFLICT ALERT− A function of certain air traffic
(See ICAO term LOCATOR.)
control automated systems designed to alert radar
COMPASS ROSE− A circle, graduated in degrees, controllers to existing or pending situations between
printed on some charts or marked on the ground at an tracked targets (known IFR or VFR aircraft) that
airport. It is used as a reference to either true or require his/her immediate attention/action.
magnetic direction. (See MODE C INTRUDER ALERT.)
COMPLY WITH RESTRICTIONS− An ATC CONFLICT RESOLUTION− The resolution of
instruction that requires an aircraft being vectored potential conflictions between aircraft that are radar
back onto an arrival or departure procedure to comply identified and in communication with ATC by

PCG C−5
Pilot/Controller Glossary 11/10/16
12/10/15

ensuring that radar targets do not touch. Pertinent nated with respect to rubber deposits or other
traffic advisories shall be issued when this procedure friction-degrading substances when the average
is applied. friction value for any 500-foot segment of the runway
Note: This procedure shall not be provided utilizing within the ALD fails below the recommended
mosaic radar systems. minimum friction level and the average friction value
in the adjacent 500-foot segments falls below the
CONFORMANCE− The condition established when maintenance planning friction level.
an aircraft’s actual position is within the conformance
region constructed around that aircraft at its position, CONTERMINOUS U.S.− The 48 adjoining States
according to the trajectory associated with the and the District of Columbia.
aircraft’s Current Plan. CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES− The 49 States
located on the continent of North America and the
CONFORMANCE REGION− A volume, bounded
District of Columbia.
laterally, vertically, and longitudinally, within which
an aircraft must be at a given time in order to be in CONTINUE− When used as a control instruction
conformance with the Current Plan Trajectory for that should be followed by another word or words
aircraft. At a given time, the conformance region is clarifying what is expected of the pilot. Example:
determined by the simultaneous application of the “continue taxi,” “continue descent,” “continue
lateral, vertical, and longitudinal conformance inbound,” etc.
bounds for the aircraft at the position defined by time CONTROL AREA [ICAO]− A controlled airspace
and aircraft’s trajectory. extending upwards from a specified limit above the
CONSOLAN− A low frequency, long-distance earth.
NAVAID used principally for transoceanic naviga- CONTROL SECTOR− An airspace area of defined
tions. horizontal and vertical dimensions for which a
CONTACT− controller or group of controllers has air traffic
control responsibility, normally within an air route
a. Establish communication with (followed by the traffic control center or an approach control facility.
name of the facility and, if appropriate, the frequency Sectors are established based on predominant traffic
to be used). flows, altitude strata, and controller workload.
b. A flight condition wherein the pilot ascertains Pilot-communications during operations within a
the attitude of his/her aircraft and navigates by visual sector are normally maintained on discrete frequen-
reference to the surface. cies assigned to the sector.
(See CONTACT APPROACH.) (See DISCRETE FREQUENCY.)
(See RADAR CONTACT.) CONTROL SLASH− A radar beacon slash repre-
CONTACT APPROACH− An approach wherein an senting the actual position of the associated aircraft.
aircraft on an IFR flight plan, having an air traffic Normally, the control slash is the one closest to the
control authorization, operating clear of clouds with interrogating radar beacon site. When ARTCC radar
at least 1 mile flight visibility and a reasonable is operating in narrowband (digitized) mode, the
expectation of continuing to the destination airport in control slash is converted to a target symbol.
those conditions, may deviate from the instrument CONTROLLED AIRSPACE− An airspace of
approach procedure and proceed to the destination defined dimensions within which air traffic control
airport by visual reference to the surface. This service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights
approach will only be authorized when requested by in accordance with the airspace classification.
the pilot and the reported ground visibility at the a. Controlled airspace is a generic term that covers
destination airport is at least 1 statute mile. Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E
(Refer to AIM.) airspace.
CONTAMINATED RUNWAY− A runway is b. Controlled airspace is also that airspace within
considered contaminated whenever standing water, which all aircraft operators are subject to certain pilot
ice, snow, slush, frost in any form, heavy rubber, or qualifications, operating rules, and equipment
other substances are present. A runway is contami- requirements in 14 CFR Part 91 (for specific

PCG C−6
11/10/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

operating requirements, please refer to 14 CFR 4. CLASS D− Generally, that airspace from the
Part 91). For IFR operations in any class of controlled surface to 2,500 feet above the airport elevation
airspace, a pilot must file an IFR flight plan and (charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that
receive an appropriate ATC clearance. Each Class B, have an operational control tower. The configuration
Class C, and Class D airspace area designated for an of each Class D airspace area is individually tailored
airport contains at least one primary airport around and when instrument procedures are published, the
which the airspace is designated (for specific airspace will normally be designed to contain the
designations and descriptions of the airspace classes, procedures. Arrival extensions for instrument
please refer to 14 CFR Part 71). approach procedures may be Class D or Class E
c. Controlled airspace in the United States is airspace. Unless otherwise authorized, each person
designated as follows: must establish two-way radio communications with
the ATC facility providing air traffic services prior to
1. CLASS A− Generally, that airspace from
entering the airspace and thereafter maintain those
18,000 feet MSL up to and including FL 600,
communications while in the airspace. No separation
including the airspace overlying the waters within 12
services are provided to VFR aircraft.
nautical miles of the coast of the 48 contiguous States
and Alaska. Unless otherwise authorized, all persons 5. CLASS E− Generally, if the airspace is not
must operate their aircraft under IFR. Class A, Class B, Class C, or Class D, and it is
controlled airspace, it is Class E airspace. Class E
2. CLASS B− Generally, that airspace from the
airspace extends upward from either the surface or a
surface to 10,000 feet MSL surrounding the nation’s
designated altitude to the overlying or adjacent
busiest airports in terms of airport operations or
controlled airspace. When designated as a surface
passenger enplanements. The configuration of each
area, the airspace will be configured to contain all
Class B airspace area is individually tailored and
instrument procedures. Also in this class are Federal
consists of a surface area and two or more layers
airways, airspace beginning at either 700 or 1,200
(some Class B airspaces areas resemble upside-down
feet AGL used to transition to/from the terminal or en
wedding cakes), and is designed to contain all
route environment, en route domestic, and offshore
published instrument procedures once an aircraft
airspace areas designated below 18,000 feet MSL.
enters the airspace. An ATC clearance is required for
Unless designated at a lower altitude, Class E
all aircraft to operate in the area, and all aircraft that
airspace begins at 14,500 MSL over the United
are so cleared receive separation services within the
States, including that airspace overlying the waters
airspace. The cloud clearance requirement for VFR
within 12 nautical miles of the coast of the 48
operations is “clear of clouds.”
contiguous States and Alaska, up to, but not
3. CLASS C− Generally, that airspace from the including 18,000 feet MSL, and the airspace above
surface to 4,000 feet above the airport elevation FL 600.
(charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that
have an operational control tower, are serviced by a CONTROLLED AIRSPACE [ICAO]− An airspace
radar approach control, and that have a certain of defined dimensions within which air traffic control
number of IFR operations or passenger enplane- service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights
ments. Although the configuration of each Class C in accordance with the airspace classification.
area is individually tailored, the airspace usually Note: Controlled airspace is a generic term which
consists of a surface area with a 5 nautical mile (NM) covers ATS airspace Classes A, B, C, D, and E.
radius, a circle with a 10NM radius that extends no
lower than 1,200 feet up to 4,000 feet above the CONTROLLED TIME OF ARRIVAL− Arrival time
airport elevation and an outer area that is not charted. assigned during a Traffic Management Program. This
Each person must establish two-way radio commu- time may be modified due to adjustments or user
nications with the ATC facility providing air traffic options.
services prior to entering the airspace and thereafter CONTROLLER−
maintain those communications while within the
(See AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SPECIALIST.)
airspace. VFR aircraft are only separated from IFR
aircraft within the airspace. CONTROLLER [ICAO]− A person authorized to
(See OUTER AREA.) provide air traffic control services.

PCG C−7
Pilot/Controller Glossary 11/10/16
12/10/15

CONTROLLER PILOT DATA LINK Coupled instrument approaches are commonly flown
COMMUNICATIONS (CPDLC)− A two−way to the allowable IFR weather minima established by
digital communications system that conveys textual the operator or PIC, or flown VFR for training and
air traffic control messages between controllers and safety.
pilots using ground or satellite-based radio relay
stations. COURSE−
a. The intended direction of flight in the horizontal
CONVECTIVE SIGMET− A weather advisory plane measured in degrees from north.
concerning convective weather significant to the
b. The ILS localizer signal pattern usually
safety of all aircraft. Convective SIGMETs are issued
specified as the front course or the back course.
for tornadoes, lines of thunderstorms, embedded
(See BEARING.)
thunderstorms of any intensity level, areas of
thunderstorms greater than or equal to VIP level 4 (See INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM.)
with an area coverage of 4/10 (40%) or more, and hail (See RADIAL.)
3/ inch or greater.
4 CPDLC−
(See AIRMET.) (See CONTROLLER PILOT DATA LINK
(See AWW.) COMMUNICATIONS.)
(See CWA.)
CPL [ICAO]−
(See SIGMET.)
(See ICAO term CURRENT FLIGHT PLAN.)
(Refer to AIM.)
CRITICAL ENGINE− The engine which, upon
CONVECTIVE SIGNIFICANT METEOROLOG-
failure, would most adversely affect the performance
ICAL INFORMATION−
or handling qualities of an aircraft.
(See CONVECTIVE SIGMET.)
CROSS (FIX) AT (ALTITUDE)− Used by ATC
COORDINATES− The intersection of lines of when a specific altitude restriction at a specified fix
reference, usually expressed in degrees/minutes/ is required.
seconds of latitude and longitude, used to determine
position or location. CROSS (FIX) AT OR ABOVE (ALTITUDE)− Used
by ATC when an altitude restriction at a specified fix
COORDINATION FIX− The fix in relation to which is required. It does not prohibit the aircraft from
facilities will handoff, transfer control of an aircraft, crossing the fix at a higher altitude than specified;
or coordinate flight progress data. For terminal however, the higher altitude may not be one that will
facilities, it may also serve as a clearance for arriving violate a succeeding altitude restriction or altitude
aircraft. assignment.
COPTER− (See ALTITUDE RESTRICTION.)
(See HELICOPTER.) (Refer to AIM.)
CROSS (FIX) AT OR BELOW (ALTITUDE)−
CORRECTION− An error has been made in the
Used by ATC when a maximum crossing altitude at
transmission and the correct version follows.
a specific fix is required. It does not prohibit the
COUPLED APPROACH− An instrument approach aircraft from crossing the fix at a lower altitude;
performed by the aircraft autopilot, and/or visually however, it must be at or above the minimum IFR
depicted on the flight director, which is receiving altitude.
position information and/or steering commands from (See ALTITUDE RESTRICTION.)
onboard navigational equipment. In general, coupled (See MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDES.)
non-precision approaches must be flown manually (Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(autopilot disengaged) at altitudes lower than 50 feet
AGL below the minimum descent altitude, and CROSSWIND−
coupled precision approaches must be flown a. When used concerning the traffic pattern, the
manually (autopilot disengaged) below 50 feet AGL word means “crosswind leg.”
unless authorized to conduct autoland operations. (See TRAFFIC PATTERN.)

PCG C−8
11/10/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

b. When used concerning wind conditions, the constant altitude and should not be confused with a
word means a wind not parallel to the runway or the cruise clearance.
path of an aircraft. (See ALTITUDE.)
(See CROSSWIND COMPONENT.) (See ICAO term CRUISING LEVEL.)

CROSSWIND COMPONENT− The wind compo- CRUISING LEVEL−


nent measured in knots at 90 degrees to the (See CRUISING ALTITUDE.)
longitudinal axis of the runway.
CRUISING LEVEL [ICAO]− A level maintained
CRUISE− Used in an ATC clearance to authorize a during a significant portion of a flight.
pilot to conduct flight at any altitude from the
minimum IFR altitude up to and including the CT MESSAGE− An EDCT time generated by the
altitude specified in the clearance. The pilot may ATCSCC to regulate traffic at arrival airports.
level off at any intermediate altitude within this block Normally, a CT message is automatically transferred
of airspace. Climb/descent within the block is to be from the traffic management system computer to the
made at the discretion of the pilot. However, once the NAS en route computer and appears as an EDCT. In
pilot starts descent and verbally reports leaving an the event of a communication failure between the
altitude in the block, he/she may not return to that traffic management system computer and the NAS,
altitude without additional ATC clearance. Further, it the CT message can be manually entered by the TMC
is approval for the pilot to proceed to and make an at the en route facility.
approach at destination airport and can be used in CTA−
conjunction with:
(See CONTROLLED TIME OF ARRIVAL.)
a. An airport clearance limit at locations with a (See ICAO term CONTROL AREA.)
standard/special instrument approach procedure. The
CFRs require that if an instrument letdown to an CTAF−
airport is necessary, the pilot shall make the letdown (See COMMON TRAFFIC ADVISORY
in accordance with a standard/special instrument FREQUENCY.)
approach procedure for that airport, or
CTAS−
b. An airport clearance limit at locations that are (See CENTER TRACON AUTOMATION
within/below/outside controlled airspace and with- SYSTEM.)
out a standard/special instrument approach
procedure. Such a clearance is NOT AUTHORIZA- CTOP−
TION for the pilot to descend under IFR conditions (See COLLABORATIVE TRAJECTORY
below the applicable minimum IFR altitude nor does OPTIONS PROGRAM)
it imply that ATC is exercising control over aircraft
in Class G airspace; however, it provides a means for CTRD−
the aircraft to proceed to destination airport, descend, (See CERTIFIED TOWER RADAR DISPLAY.)
and land in accordance with applicable CFRs
CURRENT FLIGHT PLAN [ICAO]− The flight
governing VFR flight operations. Also, this provides
plan, including changes, if any, brought about by
search and rescue protection until such time as the
subsequent clearances.
IFR flight plan is closed.
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH CURRENT PLAN− The ATC clearance the aircraft
PROCEDURE.) has received and is expected to fly.
CRUISE CLIMB− A climb technique employed by CVFP APPROACH−
aircraft, usually at a constant power setting, resulting (See CHARTED VISUAL FLIGHT PROCEDURE
in an increase of altitude as the aircraft weight APPROACH.)
decreases.
CWA−
CRUISING ALTITUDE− An altitude or flight level (See CENTER WEATHER ADVISORY and
maintained during en route level flight. This is a WEATHER ADVISORY.)

PCG C−9
11/10/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

D
D-ATIS− 3. The required visual reference means that section of
(See DIGITAL-AUTOMATIC TERMINAL the visual aids or of the approach area which should
INFORMATION SERVICE.) have been in view for sufficient time for the pilot to
have made an assessment of the aircraft position and
D−ATIS [ICAO]* rate of change of position, in relation to the desired
(See ICAO Term DATA LINK AUTOMATIC flight path.
TERMINAL INFORMATION SERVICE.) Decision altitude (DA) - A specified altitude (mean
DA [ICAO]− sea level (MSL)) on an instrument approach
(See ICAO Term DECISION procedure (ILS, GLS, vertically guided RNAV) at
ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT.) which the pilot must decide whether to continue the
approach or initiate an immediate missed approach if
DAIR− the pilot does not see the required visual references.
(See DIRECT ALTITUDE AND IDENTITY
READOUT.) DECISION HEIGHT− With respect to the operation
of aircraft, means the height at which a decision must
DANGER AREA [ICAO]− An airspace of defined
be made during an ILS or PAR instrument approach
dimensions within which activities dangerous to the
to either continue the approach or to execute a missed
flight of aircraft may exist at specified times.
approach.
Note: The term “Danger Area” is not used in
(See ICAO term DECISION
reference to areas within the United States or any
ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT.)
of its possessions or territories.
DECODER− The device used to decipher signals
DAS− received from ATCRBS transponders to effect their
(See DELAY ASSIGNMENT.) display as select codes.
DATA BLOCK− (See CODES.)
(See ALPHANUMERIC DISPLAY.) (See RADAR.)

DATA LINK AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFOR- DEFENSE AREA- Any airspace of the contiguous
MATION SERVICE (D−ATIS) [ICAO]− The United States that is not an ADIZ in which the control
provision of ATIS via data link. of aircraft is required for reasons of national security.
DEAD RECKONING− Dead reckoning, as applied DEFENSE VISUAL FLIGHT RULES− Rules
to flying, is the navigation of an airplane solely by applicable to flights within an ADIZ conducted under
means of computations based on airspeed, course, the visual flight rules in 14 CFR Part 91.
heading, wind direction, and speed, groundspeed, (See AIR DEFENSE IDENTIFICATION ZONE.)
and elapsed time. (Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
DECISION ALTITUDE/DECISION HEIGHT (Refer to 14 CFR Part 99.)
[ICAO Annex 6]- A specified altitude or height (A/H) DELAY ASSIGNMENT (DAS)− Delays are distrib-
in the precision approach at which a missed approach uted to aircraft based on the traffic management
must be initiated if the required visual reference to program parameters. The delay assignment is
continue the approach has not been established. calculated in 15−minute increments and appears as a
1. Decision altitude (DA) is referenced to mean sea table in Traffic Flow Management System (TFMS).
level and decision height (DH) is referenced to the
threshold elevation. DELAY INDEFINITE (REASON IF KNOWN)
2. Category II and III minima are expressed as a DH EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE (TIME)− Used
and not a DA. Minima is assessed by reference to a by ATC to inform a pilot when an accurate estimate
radio altimeter and not a barometric altimeter, which of the delay time and the reason for the delay cannot
makes the minima a DH. immediately be determined; e.g., a disabled aircraft

PCG D−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary 11/10/16
12/10/15

on the runway, terminal or center area saturation, DESIRED TRACK− The planned or intended track
weather below landing minimums, etc. between two waypoints. It is measured in degrees
(See EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE (TIME).) from either magnetic or true north. The instantaneous
angle may change from point to point along the great
DELAY TIME− The amount of time that the arrival circle track between waypoints.
must lose to cross the meter fix at the assigned meter
fix time. This is the difference between ACLT and DETRESFA (DISTRESS PHASE) [ICAO]− The
VTA. code word used to designate an emergency phase
wherein there is reasonable certainty that an aircraft
DEPARTURE CENTER− The ARTCC having and its occupants are threatened by grave and
jurisdiction for the airspace that generates a flight to imminent danger or require immediate assistance.
the impacted airport.
DEVIATIONS−
DEPARTURE CONTROL− A function of an a. A departure from a current clearance, such as an
approach control facility providing air traffic control off course maneuver to avoid weather or turbulence.
service for departing IFR and, under certain
b. Where specifically authorized in the CFRs and
conditions, VFR aircraft.
requested by the pilot, ATC may permit pilots to
(See APPROACH CONTROL FACILITY.)
deviate from certain regulations.
(Refer to AIM.)
DH−
DEPARTURE SEQUENCING PROGRAM− A (See DECISION HEIGHT.)
program designed to assist in achieving a specified
interval over a common point for departures. DH [ICAO]−
(See ICAO Term DECISION ALTITUDE/
DEPARTURE TIME− The time an aircraft becomes DECISION HEIGHT.)
airborne.
DIGITAL-AUTOMATIC TERMINAL INFORMA-
DESCEND VIA– An abbreviated ATC clearance that TION SERVICE (D-ATIS)− The service provides
requires compliance with a published procedure text messages to aircraft, airlines, and other users
lateral path and associated speed restrictions and outside the standard reception range of conventional
provides a pilot-discretion descent to comply with ATIS via landline and data link communications to
published altitude restrictions. the cockpit. Also, the service provides a computer−
synthesized voice message that can be transmitted to
DESCENT SPEED ADJUSTMENTS− Speed decel- all aircraft within range of existing transmitters. The
eration calculations made to determine an accurate Terminal Data Link System (TDLS) D-ATIS
VTA. These calculations start at the transition point application uses weather inputs from local automated
and use arrival speed segments to the vertex. weather sources or manually entered meteorological
DESIGNATED COMMON TRAFFIC ADVISORY data together with preprogrammed menus to provide
FREQUENCY (CTAF) AREA- In Alaska, in standard information to users. Airports with D-ATIS
addition to being designated for the purpose of capability are listed in the Chart Supplement U.S.
carrying out airport advisory practices while DIGITAL TARGET− A computer−generated symbol
operating to or from an airport without an operating representing an aircraft’s position, based on a primary
airport traffic control tower, a CTAF may also be return or radar beacon reply, shown on a digital
designated for the purpose of carrying out advisory display.
practices for operations in and through areas with a
high volume of VFR traffic. DIGITAL TERMINAL AUTOMATION SYSTEM
(DTAS)− A system where digital radar and beacon
DESIRED COURSE− data is presented on digital displays and the
a. True− A predetermined desired course direction operational program monitors the system perfor-
to be followed (measured in degrees from true north). mance on a real−time basis.
b. Magnetic− A predetermined desired course DIGITIZED TARGET− A computer−generated
direction to be followed (measured in degrees from indication shown on an analog radar display resulting
local magnetic north). from a primary radar return or a radar beacon reply.

PCG D−2
11/10/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

DIRECT− Straight line flight between two naviga- DISTRESS− A condition of being threatened by
tional aids, fixes, points, or any combination thereof. serious and/or imminent danger and of requiring
When used by pilots in describing off-airway routes, immediate assistance.
points defining direct route segments become
DIVE BRAKES−
compulsory reporting points unless the aircraft is
(See SPEED BRAKES.)
under radar contact.
DIVERSE VECTOR AREA− In a radar environ-
DIRECTLY BEHIND− An aircraft is considered to ment, that area in which a prescribed departure route
be operating directly behind when it is following the is not required as the only suitable route to avoid
actual flight path of the lead aircraft over the surface obstacles. The area in which random radar vectors
of the earth except when applying wake turbulence below the MVA/MIA, established in accordance with
separation criteria. the TERPS criteria for diverse departures, obstacles
and terrain avoidance, may be issued to departing
DISCRETE BEACON CODE−
aircraft.
(See DISCRETE CODE.)
DIVERSION (DVRSN)− Flights that are required to
DISCRETE CODE− As used in the Air Traffic land at other than their original destination for
Control Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS), any one reasons beyond the control of the pilot/company, e.g.
of the 4096 selectable Mode 3/A aircraft transponder periods of significant weather.
codes except those ending in zero zero; e.g., discrete
DME−
codes: 0010, 1201, 2317, 7777; nondiscrete codes:
(See DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT.)
0100, 1200, 7700. Nondiscrete codes are normally
reserved for radar facilities that are not equipped with DME FIX− A geographical position determined by
discrete decoding capability and for other purposes reference to a navigational aid which provides
such as emergencies (7700), VFR aircraft (1200), etc. distance and azimuth information. It is defined by a
(See RADAR.) specific distance in nautical miles and a radial,
(Refer to AIM.) azimuth, or course (i.e., localizer) in degrees
magnetic from that aid.
DISCRETE FREQUENCY− A separate radio (See DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT.)
frequency for use in direct pilot-controller commu- (See FIX.)
nications in air traffic control which reduces
DME SEPARATION− Spacing of aircraft in terms of
frequency congestion by controlling the number of
distances (nautical miles) determined by reference to
aircraft operating on a particular frequency at one
distance measuring equipment (DME).
time. Discrete frequencies are normally designated
(See DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT.)
for each control sector in en route/terminal ATC
facilities. Discrete frequencies are listed in the Chart DOD FLIP− Department of Defense Flight Informa-
Supplement U.S. and the DOD FLIP IFR En Route tion Publications used for flight planning, en route,
Supplement. and terminal operations. FLIP is produced by the
(See CONTROL SECTOR.) National Geospatial−Intelligence Agency (NGA) for
world-wide use. United States Government Flight
DISPLACED THRESHOLD− A threshold that is Information Publications (en route charts and
located at a point on the runway other than the instrument approach procedure charts) are incorpo-
designated beginning of the runway. rated in DOD FLIP for use in the National Airspace
(See THRESHOLD.) System (NAS).
(Refer to AIM.)
DOMESTIC AIRSPACE− Airspace which overlies
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT (DME)− the continental land mass of the United States plus
Equipment (airborne and ground) used to measure, in Hawaii and U.S. possessions. Domestic airspace
nautical miles, the slant range distance of an aircraft extends to 12 miles offshore.
from the DME navigational aid. DOWNBURST− A strong downdraft which induces
(See TACAN.) an outburst of damaging winds on or near the ground.
(See VORTAC.) Damaging winds, either straight or curved, are highly

PCG D−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary 11/10/16
12/10/15

divergent. The sizes of downbursts vary from 1/2 assumes responsibility to separate his/her aircraft
mile or less to more than 10 miles. An intense from all other aircraft.
downburst often causes widespread damage. Damag- (See also FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 1−2−1, WORD
ing winds, lasting 5 to 30 minutes, could reach speeds MEANINGS.)
as high as 120 knots.
DUTY RUNWAY−
DOWNWIND LEG− (See RUNWAY IN USE/ACTIVE RUNWAY/DUTY
(See TRAFFIC PATTERN.) RUNWAY.)
DP− DVA−
(See INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE PROCEDURE.) (See DIVERSE VECTOR AREA.)
DRAG CHUTE− A parachute device installed on
DVFR−
certain aircraft which is deployed on landing roll to
assist in deceleration of the aircraft. (See DEFENSE VISUAL FLIGHT RULES.)

DROP ZONE− Any pre-determined area upon which DVFR FLIGHT PLAN− A flight plan filed for a VFR
parachutists or objects land after making an aircraft which intends to operate in airspace within
intentional parachute jump or drop. which the ready identification, location, and control
(Refer to 14 CFR §105.3, Definitions) of aircraft are required in the interest of national
security.
DSP−
(See DEPARTURE SEQUENCING PROGRAM.) DVRSN−
DT− (See DIVERSION.)
(See DELAY TIME.) DYNAMIC− Continuous review, evaluation, and
DTAS− change to meet demands.
(See DIGITAL TERMINAL AUTOMATION DYNAMIC RESTRICTIONS− Those restrictions
SYSTEM.)
imposed by the local facility on an “as needed” basis
DUE REGARD− A phase of flight wherein an to manage unpredictable fluctuations in traffic
aircraft commander of a State-operated aircraft demands.

PCG D−4
11/10/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

E
EAS− EN ROUTE AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL SER-
(See EN ROUTE AUTOMATION SYSTEM.) VICES− Air traffic control service provided aircraft
on IFR flight plans, generally by centers, when these
EDCT− aircraft are operating between departure and
(See EXPECT DEPARTURE CLEARANCE destination terminal areas. When equipment, capa-
TIME.) bilities, and controller workload permit, certain
EDST− advisory/assistance services may be provided to VFR
(See EN ROUTE DECISION SUPPORT TOOL)
aircraft.
(See AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL
EFC− CENTER.)
(See EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE (TIME).) (Refer to AIM.)
EN ROUTE AUTOMATION SYSTEM (EAS)− The
ELT−
complex integrated environment consisting of
(See EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER.)
situation display systems, surveillance systems and
EMERGENCY− A distress or an urgency condition. flight data processing, remote devices, decision
support tools, and the related communications
EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER− A equipment that form the heart of the automated IFR
radio transmitter attached to the aircraft structure air traffic control system. It interfaces with automated
which operates from its own power source on terminal systems and is used in the control of en route
121.5 MHz and 243.0 MHz. It aids in locating IFR aircraft.
downed aircraft by radiating a downward sweeping (Refer to AIM.)
audio tone, 2-4 times per second. It is designed to
EN ROUTE CHARTS−
function without human action after an accident.
(See AERONAUTICAL CHART.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to AIM.) EN ROUTE DECISION SUPPORT TOOL− An
automated tool provided at each Radar Associate
E-MSAW− position in selected En Route facilities. This tool
(See EN ROUTE MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE utilizes flight and radar data to determine present and
WARNING.) future trajectories for all active and proposal aircraft
and provides enhanced automated flight data
ENHANCED FLIGHT VISION SYSTEM (EFVS) −
management.
An EFVS is an installed airborne system which uses
an electronic means to provide a display of the EN ROUTE DESCENT− Descent from the en route
forward external scene topography (the applicable cruising altitude which takes place along the route of
natural or manmade features of a place or region flight.
especially in a way to show their relative positions EN ROUTE HIGH ALTITUDE CHARTS−
and elevation) through the use of imaging sensors, (See AERONAUTICAL CHART.)
such as forward looking infrared, millimeter wave EN ROUTE LOW ALTITUDE CHARTS−
radiometry, millimeter wave radar, and/or low light (See AERONAUTICAL CHART.)
level image intensifying. When flying an instrument
approach procedure (IAP), if the runway environ- EN ROUTE MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE WARN-
ment cannot be visually acquired at decision altitude ING− A function of the EAS that aids the controller
(DA) or minimum descent altitude (MDA) using by providing an alert when a tracked aircraft is below
natural vision, then a pilot may use an EFVS to or predicted by the computer to go below a
continue descending down to 100 feet above the predetermined minimum IFR altitude (MIA).
Touchdown Zone Elevation (TDZE), provided all of EN ROUTE SPACING PROGRAM (ESP)− A
the visibility requirements of 14 CFR part 91.175 (l) program designed to assist the exit sector in
are met. achieving the required in-trail spacing.

PCG E−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary 11/10/16
12/10/15

EN ROUTE TRANSITION− ETE−


a. Conventional STARs/SIDs. The portion of a (See ESTIMATED TIME EN ROUTE.)
SID/STAR that connects to one or more en route EXECUTE MISSED APPROACH− Instructions
airway/jet route. issued to a pilot making an instrument approach
b. RNAV STARs/SIDs. The portion of a STAR which means continue inbound to the missed
preceding the common route or point, or for a SID the approach point and execute the missed approach
portion following, that is coded for a specific en route procedure as described on the Instrument Approach
fix, airway or jet route. Procedure Chart or as previously assigned by ATC.
ESP− The pilot may climb immediately to the altitude
(See EN ROUTE SPACING PROGRAM.)
specified in the missed approach procedure upon
making a missed approach. No turns should be
EST−
initiated prior to reaching the missed approach point.
(See ESTIMATED.)
When conducting an ASR or PAR approach, execute
ESTABLISHED−To be stable or fixed on a route, the assigned missed approach procedure immediately
route segment, altitude, heading, etc. upon receiving instructions to “execute missed
ESTIMATED (EST)−When used in NOTAMs approach.”
“EST” is a contraction that is used by the issuing (Refer to AIM.)
authority only when the condition is expected to EXPECT (ALTITUDE) AT (TIME) or (FIX)− Used
return to service prior to the expiration time. Using under certain conditions to provide a pilot with an
“EST” lets the user know that this NOTAM has the altitude to be used in the event of two-way
possibility of returning to service earlier than the communications failure. It also provides altitude
expiration time. Any NOTAM which includes an information to assist the pilot in planning.
“EST” will be auto−expired at the designated (Refer to AIM.)
expiration time.
EXPECT DEPARTURE CLEARANCE TIME
ESTIMATED ELAPSED TIME [ICAO]− The
(EDCT)− The runway release time assigned to an
estimated time required to proceed from one
aircraft in a traffic management program and shown
significant point to another.
on the flight progress strip as an EDCT.
(See ICAO Term TOTAL ESTIMATED ELAPSED
(See GROUND DELAY PROGRAM.)
TIME.)
ESTIMATED OFF-BLOCK TIME [ICAO]− The EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE (TIME)− The
estimated time at which the aircraft will commence time a pilot can expect to receive clearance beyond a
movement associated with departure. clearance limit.

ESTIMATED POSITION ERROR (EPE)− EXPECT FURTHER CLEARANCE VIA (AIR-


(See Required Navigation Performance) WAYS, ROUTES OR FIXES)− Used to inform a
pilot of the routing he/she can expect if any part of the
ESTIMATED TIME OF ARRIVAL− The time the route beyond a short range clearance limit differs
flight is estimated to arrive at the gate (scheduled from that filed.
operators) or the actual runway on times for
nonscheduled operators. EXPEDITE− Used by ATC when prompt com-
pliance is required to avoid the development of an
ESTIMATED TIME EN ROUTE− The estimated
imminent situation. Expedite climb/descent normal-
flying time from departure point to destination
ly indicates to a pilot that the approximate best rate
(lift-off to touchdown).
of climb/descent should be used without requiring an
ETA− exceptional change in aircraft handling characteris-
(See ESTIMATED TIME OF ARRIVAL.) tics.

PCG E−2
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

F
FAF− flight which require special flight plan filing and
(See FINAL APPROACH FIX.) handling techniques.
FAST FILE− An FSS system whereby a pilot files a a. Terminal Area Delay. A delay within a terminal
flight plan via telephone that is recorded and later area for touch-and-go, low approach, or other
transcribed for transmission to the appropriate air terminal area activity.
traffic facility. (Alaska only.) b. Special Use Airspace Delay. A delay within a
Military Operations Area, Restricted Area, Warning
FAWP− Final Approach Waypoint Area, or ATC Assigned Airspace.
FCLT− c. Aerial Refueling Delay. A delay within an
(See FREEZE CALCULATED LANDING TIME.) Aerial Refueling Track or Anchor.
FEATHERED PROPELLER− A propeller whose FILED FLIGHT PLAN− The flight plan as filed with
blades have been rotated so that the leading and an ATS unit by the pilot or his/her designated
trailing edges are nearly parallel with the aircraft representative without any subsequent changes or
flight path to stop or minimize drag and engine clearances.
rotation. Normally used to indicate shutdown of a FINAL− Commonly used to mean that an aircraft is
reciprocating or turboprop engine due to malfunc- on the final approach course or is aligned with a
tion. landing area.
FEDERAL AIRWAYS− (See FINAL APPROACH COURSE.)
(See LOW ALTITUDE AIRWAY STRUCTURE.) (See FINAL APPROACH-IFR.)
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
FEEDER FIX− The fix depicted on Instrument APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
Approach Procedure Charts which establishes the
starting point of the feeder route. FINAL APPROACH [ICAO]− That part of an
instrument approach procedure which commences at
FEEDER ROUTE− A route depicted on instrument the specified final approach fix or point, or where
approach procedure charts to designate routes for such a fix or point is not specified.
aircraft to proceed from the en route structure to the a. At the end of the last procedure turn, base turn
initial approach fix (IAF). or inbound turn of a racetrack procedure, if specified;
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH or
PROCEDURE.)
b. At the point of interception of the last track
FERRY FLIGHT− A flight for the purpose of: specified in the approach procedure; and ends at a
a. Returning an aircraft to base. point in the vicinity of an aerodrome from which:
b. Delivering an aircraft from one location to 1. A landing can be made; or
another. 2. A missed approach procedure is initiated.
c. Moving an aircraft to and from a maintenance FINAL APPROACH COURSE− A bearing/radial/
base.− Ferry flights, under certain conditions, may be track of an instrument approach leading to a runway
conducted under terms of a special flight permit. or an extended runway centerline all without regard
FIELD ELEVATION− to distance.
(See AIRPORT ELEVATION.) FINAL APPROACH FIX− The fix from which the
final approach (IFR) to an airport is executed and
FILED− Normally used in conjunction with flight
which identifies the beginning of the final approach
plans, meaning a flight plan has been submitted to
segment. It is designated on Government charts by
ATC.
the Maltese Cross symbol for nonprecision
FILED EN ROUTE DELAY− Any of the following approaches and the lightning bolt symbol,
preplanned delays at points/areas along the route of designating the PFAF, for precision approaches; or

PCG F−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary 12/10/15

when ATC directs a lower-than-published FINAL MONITOR AID− A high resolution color
glideslope/path or vertical path intercept altitude, it is display that is equipped with the controller alert
the resultant actual point of the glideslope/path or system hardware/software used to monitor the no
vertical path intercept. transgression zone (NTZ) during simultaneous
(See FINAL APPROACH POINT.) parallel approach operations. The display includes
(See GLIDESLOPE INTERCEPT ALTITUDE.) alert algorithms providing the target predictors, a
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT color change alert when a target penetrates or is
APPROACH PROCEDURE.) predicted to penetrate the no transgression zone
(NTZ), synthesized voice alerts, and digital mapping.
FINAL APPROACH-IFR− The flight path of an (See RADAR APPROACH.)
aircraft which is inbound to an airport on a final
instrument approach course, beginning at the final FINAL MONITOR CONTROLLER− Air Traffic
approach fix or point and extending to the airport or Control Specialist assigned to radar monitor the
the point where a circle-to-land maneuver or a missed flight path of aircraft during simultaneous parallel
approach is executed. (approach courses spaced less than 9000 feet/9200
(See FINAL APPROACH COURSE.) feet above 5000 feet) and simultaneous close parallel
(See FINAL APPROACH FIX.)
approach operations. Each runway is assigned a final
monitor controller during simultaneous parallel and
(See FINAL APPROACH POINT.)
simultaneous close parallel ILS approaches.
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
APPROACH PROCEDURE.) FIR−
(See ICAO term FINAL APPROACH.) (See FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION.)
FINAL APPROACH POINT− The point, applicable FIRST TIER CENTER− The ARTCC immediately
only to a nonprecision approach with no depicted adjacent to the impacted center.
FAF (such as an on airport VOR), where the aircraft FIS−B−
is established inbound on the final approach course (See FLIGHT INFORMATION
from the procedure turn and where the final approach SERVICE−BROADCAST.)
descent may be commenced. The FAP serves as the
FAF and identifies the beginning of the final FIX− A geographical position determined by visual
approach segment. reference to the surface, by reference to one or more
(See FINAL APPROACH FIX.) radio NAVAIDs, by celestial plotting, or by another
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
navigational device.
APPROACH PROCEDURE.) FIX BALANCING− A process whereby aircraft are
evenly distributed over several available arrival fixes
FINAL APPROACH SEGMENT−
reducing delays and controller workload.
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
APPROACH PROCEDURE.) FLAG− A warning device incorporated in certain
airborne navigation and flight instruments indicating
FINAL APPROACH SEGMENT [ICAO]− That that:
segment of an instrument approach procedure in
which alignment and descent for landing are a. Instruments are inoperative or otherwise not
accomplished. operating satisfactorily, or
b. Signal strength or quality of the received signal
FINAL CONTROLLER− The controller providing falls below acceptable values.
information and final approach guidance during PAR
and ASR approaches utilizing radar equipment. FLAG ALARM−
(See RADAR APPROACH.) (See FLAG.)
FLAMEOUT− An emergency condition caused by a
FINAL GUARD SERVICE− A value added service
loss of engine power.
provided in conjunction with LAA/RAA only during
periods of significant and fast changing weather FLAMEOUT PATTERN− An approach normally
conditions that may affect landing and takeoff conducted by a single-engine military aircraft
operations. experiencing loss or anticipating loss of engine

PCG F−2
4/27/17
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

power or control. The standard overhead approach FLIGHT LEVEL− A level of constant atmospheric
starts at a relatively high altitude over a runway pressure related to a reference datum of 29.92 inches
(“high key”) followed by a continuous 180 degree of mercury. Each is stated in three digits that represent
turn to a high, wide position (“low key”) followed by hundreds of feet. For example, flight level (FL) 250
a continuous 180 degree turn final. The standard represents a barometric altimeter indication of
straight-in pattern starts at a point that results in a 25,000 feet; FL 255, an indication of 25,500 feet.
straight-in approach with a high rate of descent to the (See ICAO term FLIGHT LEVEL.)
runway. Flameout approaches terminate in the type
FLIGHT LEVEL [ICAO]− A surface of constant
approach requested by the pilot (normally fullstop).
atmospheric pressure which is related to a specific
FLIGHT CHECK− A call-sign prefix used by FAA pressure datum, 1013.2 hPa (1013.2 mb), and is
aircraft engaged in flight inspection/certification of separated from other such surfaces by specific
navigational aids and flight procedures. The word pressure intervals.
“recorded” may be added as a suffix; e.g., “Flight Note 1: A pressure type altimeter calibrated in
Check 320 recorded” to indicate that an automated accordance with the standard atmosphere:
flight inspection is in progress in terminal areas. a. When set to a QNH altimeter setting, will
indicate altitude;
(See FLIGHT INSPECTION.) b. When set to a QFE altimeter setting, will
(Refer to AIM.) indicate height above the QFE reference datum;
and
FLIGHT FOLLOWING− c. When set to a pressure of 1013.2 hPa
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.) (1013.2 mb), may be used to indicate flight levels.
FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION− An airspace of Note 2: The terms ‘height’ and ‘altitude,’ used in
defined dimensions within which Flight Information Note 1 above, indicate altimetric rather than
geometric heights and altitudes.
Service and Alerting Service are provided.
a. Flight Information Service. A service provided FLIGHT LINE− A term used to describe the precise
for the purpose of giving advice and information movement of a civil photogrammetric aircraft along
useful for the safe and efficient conduct of flights. a predetermined course(s) at a predetermined altitude
during the actual photographic run.
b. Alerting Service. A service provided to notify
appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS− A comput-
of search and rescue aid and to assist such er system that uses a large data base to allow routes
organizations as required. to be preprogrammed and fed into the system by
means of a data loader. The system is constantly
FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICE− A service updated with respect to position accuracy by
provided for the purpose of giving advice and reference to conventional navigation aids. The
information useful for the safe and efficient conduct sophisticated program and its associated data base
of flights. ensures that the most appropriate aids are automati-
cally selected during the information update cycle.
FLIGHT INFORMATION SERVICE−
BROADCAST (FIS−B)− A ground broadcast service FLIGHT PATH− A line, course, or track along which
provided through the ADS−B Broadcast Services an aircraft is flying or intended to be flown.
network over the UAT data link that operates on 978 (See COURSE.)
MHz. The FIS−B system provides pilots and flight (See TRACK.)
crews of properly equipped aircraft with a cockpit FLIGHT PLAN− Specified information relating to
display of certain aviation weather and aeronautical the intended flight of an aircraft that is filed orally or
information. in writing with an FSS or an ATC facility.
FLIGHT INSPECTION− Inflight investigation and (See FAST FILE.)
evaluation of a navigational aid to determine whether (See FILED.)
it meets established tolerances. (Refer to AIM.)
(See FLIGHT CHECK.) FLIGHT PLAN AREA (FPA)− The geographical
(See NAVIGATIONAL AID.) area assigned to a flight service station (FSS) for the

PCG F−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary 4/27/17
12/10/15

purpose of establishing primary responsibility for control, or other failure that compromises the safety
services that may include search and rescue for VFR of flight.
aircraft, issuance of NOTAMs, pilot briefings, FLIGHT TEST− A flight for the purpose of:
inflight services, broadcast services, emergency
a. Investigating the operation/flight characteris-
services, flight data processing, international opera-
tics of an aircraft or aircraft component.
tions, and aviation weather services. Large
consolidated FSS facilities may combine FPAs into b. Evaluating an applicant for a pilot certificate or
larger areas of responsibility (AOR). rating.
(See FLIGHT SERVICE STATION.) FLIGHT VISIBILITY−
(See TIE-IN FACILITY.) (See VISIBILITY.)
FLIGHT RECORDER− A general term applied to FLIP−
any instrument or device that records information (See DOD FLIP.)
about the performance of an aircraft in flight or about FLY HEADING (DEGREES)− Informs the pilot of
conditions encountered in flight. Flight recorders the heading he/she should fly. The pilot may have to
may make records of airspeed, outside air turn to, or continue on, a specific compass direction
temperature, vertical acceleration, engine RPM, in order to comply with the instructions. The pilot is
manifold pressure, and other pertinent variables for a expected to turn in the shorter direction to the heading
given flight. unless otherwise instructed by ATC.
(See ICAO term FLIGHT RECORDER.) FLY-BY WAYPOINT− A fly-by waypoint requires
FLIGHT RECORDER [ICAO]− Any type of the use of turn anticipation to avoid overshoot of the
recorder installed in the aircraft for the purpose of next flight segment.
complementing accident/incident investigation. FLY-OVER WAYPOINT− A fly-over waypoint
Note: See Annex 6 Part I, for specifications relating precludes any turn until the waypoint is overflown
to flight recorders. and is followed by an intercept maneuver of the next
flight segment.
FLIGHT SERVICE STATION (FSS)− An air traffic
facility which provides pilot briefings, flight plan FLY VISUAL TO AIRPORT−
processing, en route flight advisories, search and (See PUBLISHED INSTRUMENT APPROACH
rescue services, and assistance to lost aircraft and PROCEDURE VISUAL SEGMENT.)
aircraft in emergency situations. FSS also relay ATC FMA−
clearances, process Notices to Airmen, broadcast (See FINAL MONITOR AID.)
aviation weather and aeronautical information, and
FMS−
advise Customs and Immigration of transborder
(See FLIGHT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM.)
flights. In Alaska, FSS provide Airport Advisory
Services. FORMATION FLIGHT− More than one aircraft
(See FLIGHT PLAN AREA.) which, by prior arrangement between the pilots,
(See TIE-IN FACILITY.) operate as a single aircraft with regard to navigation
and position reporting. Separation between aircraft
FLIGHT STANDARDS DISTRICT OFFICE− An within the formation is the responsibility of the flight
FAA field office serving an assigned geographical leader and the pilots of the other aircraft in the flight.
area and staffed with Flight Standards personnel who This includes transition periods when aircraft within
serve the aviation industry and the general public on the formation are maneuvering to attain separation
matters relating to the certification and operation of from each other to effect individual control and
air carrier and general aviation aircraft. Activities during join-up and breakaway.
include general surveillance of operational safety, a. A standard formation is one in which a
certification of airmen and aircraft, accident proximity of no more than 1 mile laterally or
prevention, investigation, enforcement, etc. longitudinally and within 100 feet vertically from the
FLIGHT TERMINATION− The intentional and flight leader is maintained by each wingman.
deliberate process of terminating the flight of a UA in b. Nonstandard formations are those operating
the event of an unrecoverable lost link, loss of under any of the following conditions:

PCG F−4
4/27/17
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

1. When the flight leader has requested and ATC specifications, procedures and schedules contained
has approved other than standard formation in AC 150/5320−12, Measurement, Construction,
dimensions. and Maintenance of Skid Resistant Airport Pavement
2. When operating within an authorized altitude Surfaces.
reservation (ALTRV) or under the provisions of a FSDO−
letter of agreement. (See FLIGHT STANDARDS DISTRICT OFFICE.)
3. When the operations are conducted in FSPD−
airspace specifically designed for a special activity. (See FREEZE SPEED PARAMETER.)
(See ALTITUDE RESERVATION.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.) FSS−
(See FLIGHT SERVICE STATION.)
FRC−
FUEL DUMPING− Airborne release of usable fuel.
(See REQUEST FULL ROUTE CLEARANCE.)
This does not include the dropping of fuel tanks.
FREEZE/FROZEN− Terms used in referring to (See JETTISONING OF EXTERNAL STORES.)
arrivals which have been assigned ACLTs and to the
FUEL REMAINING− A phrase used by either pilots
lists in which they are displayed.
or controllers when relating to the fuel remaining on
FREEZE CALCULATED LANDING TIME− A board until actual fuel exhaustion. When transmitting
dynamic parameter number of minutes prior to the such information in response to either a controller
meter fix calculated time of arrival for each aircraft question or pilot initiated cautionary advisory to air
when the TCLT is frozen and becomes an ACLT (i.e., traffic control, pilots will state the APPROXIMATE
the VTA is updated and consequently the TCLT is NUMBER OF MINUTES the flight can continue
modified as appropriate until FCLT minutes prior to with the fuel remaining. All reserve fuel SHOULD
meter fix calculated time of arrival, at which time BE INCLUDED in the time stated, as should an
updating is suspended and an ACLT and a frozen allowance for established fuel gauge system error.
meter fix crossing time (MFT) is assigned). FUEL SIPHONING− Unintentional release of fuel
FREEZE HORIZON− The time or point at which an caused by overflow, puncture, loose cap, etc.
aircraft’s STA becomes fixed and no longer fluctuates FUEL VENTING−
with each radar update. This setting ensures a (See FUEL SIPHONING.)
constant time for each aircraft, necessary for the
metering controller to plan his/her delay technique. FUSED TARGET-
This setting can be either in distance from the meter (See DIGITAL TARGET)
fix or a prescribed flying time to the meter fix. FUSION [STARS/CARTS]- the combination of all
FREEZE SPEED PARAMETER− A speed adapted available surveillance sources (airport surveillance
for each aircraft to determine fast and slow aircraft. radar [ASR], air route surveillance radar [ARSR],
Fast aircraft freeze on parameter FCLT and slow ADS-B, etc.) into the display of a single tracked
aircraft freeze on parameter MLDI. target for air traffic control separation services.
FUSION is the equivalent of the current
FRICTION MEASUREMENT− A measurement of single-sensor radar display. FUSION performance is
the friction characteristics of the runway pavement characteristic of a single-sensor radar display system.
surface using continuous self-watering friction Terminal areas use mono-pulse secondary surveil-
measurement equipment in accordance with the lance radar (ASR 9, Mode S or ASR 11, MSSR).

PCG F−5
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

G
GATE HOLD PROCEDURES− Procedures at b. Visual ground aids, such as VASI, which
selected airports to hold aircraft at the gate or other provide vertical guidance for a VFR approach or for
ground location whenever departure delays exceed or the visual portion of an instrument approach and
are anticipated to exceed 15 minutes. The sequence landing.
for departure will be maintained in accordance with c. PAR. Used by ATC to inform an aircraft making
initial call−up unless modified by flow control a PAR approach of its vertical position (elevation)
restrictions. Pilots should monitor the ground relative to the descent profile.
control/clearance delivery frequency for engine (See ICAO term GLIDEPATH.)
start/taxi advisories or new proposed start/taxi time
if the delay changes. GLIDESLOPE INTERCEPT ALTITUDE− The
published minimum altitude to intercept the
GBT− glideslope in the intermediate segment of an
(See GROUND−BASED TRANSCEIVER.) instrument approach. Government charts use the
lightning bolt symbol to identify this intercept point.
GCA− This intersection is called the Precise Final Approach
(See GROUND CONTROLLED APPROACH.) fix (PFAF). ATC directs a higher altitude, the
GDP− resultant intercept becomes the PFAF.
(See FINAL APPROACH FIX.)
(See GROUND DELAY PROGRAM.)
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
GENERAL AVIATION− That portion of civil APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
aviation that does not include scheduled or GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM
unscheduled air carriers or commercial space (GNSS) [ICAO]− GNSS refers collectively to the
operations. worldwide positioning, navigation, and timing
(See ICAO term GENERAL AVIATION.) determination capability available from one or more
GENERAL AVIATION [ICAO]− All civil aviation satellite constellation in conjunction with a network
operations other than scheduled air services and of ground stations.
nonscheduled air transport operations for remunera- GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE SYSTEM
tion or hire. MINIMUM EN ROUTE IFR ALTITUDE (GNSS
MEA)− The minimum en route IFR altitude on a
GEO MAP− The digitized map markings associated published ATS route or route segment which assures
with the ASR-9 Radar System. acceptable Global Navigation Satellite System
GLIDEPATH− reception and meets obstacle clearance requirements.
(See GLIDESLOPE.) (Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 95.)
GLIDEPATH [ICAO]− A descent profile determined
GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)− GPS
for vertical guidance during a final approach.
refers to the worldwide positioning, navigation
GLIDEPATH INTERCEPT ALTITUDE− and timing determination capability available
(See GLIDESLOPE INTERCEPT ALTITUDE.) from the U.S. satellite constellation. The service
provided by GPS for civil use is defined in the
GLIDESLOPE− Provides vertical guidance for
aircraft during approach and landing. The glideslope/ GPS Standard Positioning System Performance
glidepath is based on the following: Standard. GPS is composed of space, control,
and user elements.
a. Electronic components emitting signals which
provide vertical guidance by reference to airborne GNSS [ICAO]−
instruments during instrument approaches such as (See GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE
ILS or SYSTEM .)

PCG G−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary 5/26/16
12/10/15

GNSS MEA− GROUND BASED AUGMENTATION SYSTEM


(See GLOBAL NAVIGATION SATELLITE (GBAS) LANDING SYSTEM (GLS)- A type of
SYSTEM MINIMUM EN ROUTE IFR precision IAP based on local augmentation of GNSS
ALTITUDE.) data using a single GBAS station to transmit locally
corrected GNSS data, integrity parameters and
GO AHEAD− Proceed with your message. Not to be approach information. This improves the accuracy of
used for any other purpose. aircraft GNSS receivers’ signal in space, enabling the
GO AROUND− Instructions for a pilot to abandon pilot to fly a precision approach with much greater
his/her approach to landing. Additional instructions flexibility, reliability and complexity. The GLS
may follow. Unless otherwise advised by ATC, a procedure is published on standard IAP charts,
VFR aircraft or an aircraft conducting visual features the title GLS with the designated runway and
approach should overfly the runway while climbing minima as low as 200 feet DA. Future plans are
to traffic pattern altitude and enter the traffic pattern expected to support Cat II and CAT III operations.
via the crosswind leg. A pilot on an IFR flight plan GROUND−BASED TRANSCEIVER (GBT)− The
making an instrument approach should execute the ground−based transmitter/receiver (transceiver) re-
published missed approach procedure or proceed as ceives automatic dependent surveillance−broadcast
instructed by ATC; e.g., “Go around” (additional messages, which are forwarded to an air traffic
instructions if required). control facility for processing and display with other
(See LOW APPROACH.) radar targets on the plan position indicator (radar
(See MISSED APPROACH.) display).
(See AUTOMATIC DEPENDENT
GPD− SURVEILLANCE-BROADCAST.)
(See GRAPHIC PLAN DISPLAY.) GROUND CLUTTER− A pattern produced on the
GPS− radar scope by ground returns which may degrade
other radar returns in the affected area. The effect of
(See GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM.)
ground clutter is minimized by the use of moving
GRAPHIC PLAN DISPLAY (GPD)− A view target indicator (MTI) circuits in the radar equipment
available with EDST that provides a graphic display resulting in a radar presentation which displays only
of aircraft, traffic, and notification of predicted targets which are in motion.
conflicts. Graphic routes for Current Plans and Trial (See CLUTTER.)
Plans are displayed upon controller request. GROUND COMMUNICATION OUTLET (GCO)−
(See EN ROUTE DECISION SUPPORT TOOL.) An unstaffed, remotely controlled, ground/ground
communications facility. Pilots at uncontrolled
GROSS NAVIGATION ERROR (GNE) − A lateral airports may contact ATC and FSS via VHF to a
deviation from a cleared track, normally in excess of telephone connection to obtain an instrument
25 Nautical Miles (NM). More stringent standards clearance or close a VFR or IFR flight plan. They may
(for example, 10NM in some parts of the North also get an updated weather briefing prior to takeoff.
Atlantic region) may be used in certain regions to Pilots will use four “key clicks” on the VHF radio to
support reductions in lateral separation. contact the appropriate ATC facility or six “key
GROUND BASED AUGMENTATION SYSTEM clicks” to contact the FSS. The GCO system is
(GBAS)– A ground based GNSS station which intended to be used only on the ground.
provides local differential corrections, integrity GROUND CONTROLLED APPROACH− A radar
parameters and approach data via VHF data broadcast approach system operated from the ground by air
to GNSS users to meet real-time performance traffic control personnel transmitting instructions to
requirements for CAT I precision approaches. The the pilot by radio. The approach may be conducted
aircraft applies the broadcast data to improve the with surveillance radar (ASR) only or with both
accuracy and integrity of its GNSS signals and surveillance and precision approach radar (PAR).
computes the deviations to the selected approach. A Usage of the term “GCA” by pilots is discouraged
single ground station can serve multiple runway ends except when referring to a GCA facility. Pilots should
up to an approximate radius of 23 NM. specifically request a “PAR” approach when a

PCG G−2
5/26/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

precision radar approach is desired or request an to the surface of the earth.


“ASR” or “surveillance” approach when a nonpreci-
sion radar approach is desired. GROUND STOP (GS)− The GS is a process that
requires aircraft that meet a specific criteria to remain
(See RADAR APPROACH.)
on the ground. The criteria may be airport specific,
GROUND DELAY PROGRAM (GDP)− A traffic airspace specific, or equipment specific; for example,
management process administered by the ATCSCC; all departures to San Francisco, or all departures
when aircraft are held on the ground. The purpose of entering Yorktown sector, or all Category I and II
the program is to support the TM mission and limit aircraft going to Charlotte. GSs normally occur with
airborne holding. It is a flexible program and may be little or no warning.
implemented in various forms depending upon the
needs of the AT system. Ground delay programs GROUND VISIBILITY−
provide for equitable assignment of delays to all (See VISIBILITY.)
system users. GS−
GROUND SPEED− The speed of an aircraft relative (See GROUND STOP.)

PCG G−3
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

H
HAA− HEIGHT ABOVE LANDING− The height above a
(See HEIGHT ABOVE AIRPORT.) designated helicopter landing area used for helicopter
instrument approach procedures.
HAL− (Refer to 14 CFR Part 97.)
(See HEIGHT ABOVE LANDING.)
HEIGHT ABOVE TOUCHDOWN− The height of
HANDOFF− An action taken to transfer the radar the Decision Height or Minimum Descent Altitude
identification of an aircraft from one controller to above the highest runway elevation in the touchdown
another if the aircraft will enter the receiving zone (first 3,000 feet of the runway). HAT is
controller’s airspace and radio communications with published on instrument approach charts in conjunc-
the aircraft will be transferred. tion with all straight-in minimums.
(See DECISION HEIGHT.)
HAR− (See MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE.)
(See HIGH ALTITUDE REDESIGN.) HELICOPTER− A heavier-than-air aircraft sup-
HAT− ported in flight chiefly by the reactions of the air on
one or more power-driven rotors on substantially
(See HEIGHT ABOVE TOUCHDOWN.)
vertical axes.
HAVE NUMBERS− Used by pilots to inform ATC HELIPAD− A small, designated area, usually with a
that they have received runway, wind, and altimeter prepared surface, on a heliport, airport, landing/take-
information only. off area, apron/ramp, or movement area used for
takeoff, landing, or parking of helicopters.
HAZARDOUS INFLIGHT WEATHER ADVISO-
RY SERVICE− Continuous recorded hazardous HELIPORT− An area of land, water, or structure used
inflight weather forecasts broadcasted to airborne or intended to be used for the landing and takeoff of
pilots over selected VOR outlets defined as an helicopters and includes its buildings and facilities if
HIWAS BROADCAST AREA. any.
HELIPORT REFERENCE POINT (HRP)− The
HAZARDOUS WEATHER INFORMATION−
geographic center of a heliport.
Summary of significant meteorological information
(SIGMET/WS), convective significant meteorologi- HERTZ− The standard radio equivalent of frequency
cal information (convective SIGMET/WST), urgent in cycles per second of an electromagnetic wave.
pilot weather reports (urgent PIREP/UUA), center Kilohertz (kHz) is a frequency of one thousand cycles
weather advisories (CWA), airmen’s meteorological per second. Megahertz (MHz) is a frequency of one
information (AIRMET/WA) and any other weather million cycles per second.
such as isolated thunderstorms that are rapidly HF−
developing and increasing in intensity, or low (See HIGH FREQUENCY.)
ceilings and visibilities that are becoming wide-
spread which is considered significant and are not HF COMMUNICATIONS−
included in a current hazardous weather advisory. (See HIGH FREQUENCY COMMUNICATIONS.)
HIGH ALTITUDE REDESIGN (HAR)− A level of
HEAVY (AIRCRAFT)−
non−restrictive routing (NRR) service for aircraft
(See AIRCRAFT CLASSES.) that have all waypoints associated with the HAR
HEIGHT ABOVE AIRPORT− The height of the program in their flight management systems or
Minimum Descent Altitude above the published RNAV equipage.
airport elevation. This is published in conjunction HIGH FREQUENCY− The frequency band between
with circling minimums. 3 and 30 MHz.
(See MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE.) (See HIGH FREQUENCY COMMUNICATIONS.)

PCG H−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary 12/10/15

HIGH FREQUENCY COMMUNICATIONS− High altitude that will permit a normal descent to the final
radio frequencies (HF) between 3 and 30 MHz used approach fix altitude. The hold in lieu of procedure
for air-to-ground voice communication in overseas turn is a required maneuver (the same as a procedure
operations. turn) unless the aircraft is being radar vectored to the
final approach course, when “NoPT” is shown on the
HIGH SPEED EXIT− approach chart, or when the pilot requests or the
(See HIGH SPEED TAXIWAY.) controller advises the pilot to make a “straight−in”
HIGH SPEED TAXIWAY− A long radius taxiway approach.
designed and provided with lighting or marking to HOLD PROCEDURE− A predetermined maneuver
define the path of aircraft, traveling at high speed (up which keeps aircraft within a specified airspace while
to 60 knots), from the runway center to a point on the awaiting further clearance from air traffic control.
center of a taxiway. Also referred to as long radius Also used during ground operations to keep aircraft
exit or turn-off taxiway. The high speed taxiway is within a specified area or at a specified point while
designed to expedite aircraft turning off the runway awaiting further clearance from air traffic control.
after landing, thus reducing runway occupancy time.
(See HOLDING FIX.)
HIGH SPEED TURNOFF− (Refer to AIM.)
(See HIGH SPEED TAXIWAY.)
HOLDING FIX− A specified fix identifiable to a
HIWAS− pilot by NAVAIDs or visual reference to the ground
(See HAZARDOUS INFLIGHT WEATHER used as a reference point in establishing and
ADVISORY SERVICE.) maintaining the position of an aircraft while holding.
(See FIX.)
HIWAS AREA− (See VISUAL HOLDING.)
(See HAZARDOUS INFLIGHT WEATHER (Refer to AIM.)
ADVISORY SERVICE.)
HOLDING POINT [ICAO]− A specified location,
HIWAS BROADCAST AREA− A geographical area
identified by visual or other means, in the vicinity of
of responsibility including one or more HIWAS
which the position of an aircraft in flight is
outlet areas assigned to a FSS for hazardous weather
maintained in accordance with air traffic control
advisory broadcasting.
clearances.
HIWAS OUTLET AREA− An area defined as a 150
HOLDING PROCEDURE−
NM radius of a HIWAS outlet, expanded as necessary
to provide coverage. (See HOLD PROCEDURE.)

HOLD FOR RELEASE− Used by ATC to delay an HOLD-SHORT POINT− A point on the runway
aircraft for traffic management reasons; i.e., weather, beyond which a landing aircraft with a LAHSO
traffic volume, etc. Hold for release instructions clearance is not authorized to proceed. This point
(including departure delay information) are used to may be located prior to an intersecting runway,
inform a pilot or a controller (either directly or taxiway, predetermined point, or approach/departure
through an authorized relay) that an IFR departure flight path.
clearance is not valid until a release time or additional HOLD-SHORT POSITION LIGHTS− Flashing
instructions have been received. in-pavement white lights located at specified
(See ICAO term HOLDING POINT.) hold-short points.
HOLD IN LIEU OF PROCEDURE TURN− A hold HOLD-SHORT POSITION MARKING− The
in lieu of procedure turn shall be established over a painted runway marking located at the hold-short
final or intermediate fix when an approach can be point on all LAHSO runways.
made from a properly aligned holding pattern. The
hold in lieu of procedure turn permits the pilot to HOLD-SHORT POSITION SIGNS− Red and white
align with the final or intermediate segment of the holding position signs located alongside the
approach and/or descend in the holding pattern to an hold-short point.

PCG H−2
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

HOMING− Flight toward a NAVAID, without HOVER TAXI− Used to describe a helicopter/VTOL
correcting for wind, by adjusting the aircraft heading aircraft movement conducted above the surface and
to maintain a relative bearing of zero degrees. in ground effect at airspeeds less than approximately
(See BEARING.) 20 knots. The actual height may vary, and some
(See ICAO term HOMING.) helicopters may require hover taxi above 25 feet AGL
to reduce ground effect turbulence or provide
HOMING [ICAO]− The procedure of using the
clearance for cargo slingloads.
direction-finding equipment of one radio station with
the emission of another radio station, where at least (See AIR TAXI.)
one of the stations is mobile, and whereby the mobile (See HOVER CHECK.)
station proceeds continuously towards the other (Refer to AIM.)
station.
HOW DO YOU HEAR ME?− A question relating to
HOVER CHECK− Used to describe when a the quality of the transmission or to determine how
helicopter/VTOL aircraft requires a stabilized hover well the transmission is being received.
to conduct a performance/power check prior to hover
taxi, air taxi, or takeoff. Altitude of the hover will HZ−
vary based on the purpose of the check. (See HERTZ.)

PCG H−3
4/27/17
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

I
I SAY AGAIN− The message will be repeated. the manufacturer. Immediate exit from the condition
is necessary.
IAF− Note:
(See INITIAL APPROACH FIX.) Severe icing is aircraft dependent, as are the other
categories of icing intensity. Severe icing may
IAP− occur at any ice accumulation rate.
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE.) IDENT− A request for a pilot to activate the aircraft
transponder identification feature. This will help the
IAWP− Initial Approach Waypoint controller to confirm an aircraft identity or to identify
an aircraft.
ICAO− (Refer to AIM.)
(See ICAO Term INTERNATIONAL CIVIL
AVIATION ORGANIZATION.) IDENT FEATURE− The special feature in the Air
Traffic Control Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS)
ICING− The accumulation of airframe ice. equipment. It is used to immediately distinguish one
displayed beacon target from other beacon targets.
Types of icing are: (See IDENT.)
a. Rime Ice− Rough, milky, opaque ice formed by IDENTIFICATION [ICAO]− The situation which
the instantaneous freezing of small supercooled exists when the position indication of a particular
water droplets. aircraft is seen on a situation display and positively
b. Clear Ice− A glossy, clear, or translucent ice identified.
formed by the relatively slow freezing or large IF−
supercooled water droplets. (See INTERMEDIATE FIX.)
c. Mixed− A mixture of clear ice and rime ice. IFIM−
Intensity of icing: (See INTERNATIONAL FLIGHT INFORMATION
MANUAL.)
a. Trace− Ice becomes perceptible. Rate of
IF NO TRANSMISSION RECEIVED FOR
accumulation is slightly greater than the rate of
(TIME)− Used by ATC in radar approaches to prefix
sublimation. Deicing/anti-icing equipment is not
procedures which should be followed by the pilot in
utilized unless encountered for an extended period of
event of lost communications.
time (over 1 hour).
(See LOST COMMUNICATIONS.)
b. Light− The rate of accumulation may create a
IFR−
problem if flight is prolonged in this environment
(See INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES.)
(over 1 hour). Occasional use of deicing/anti-icing
equipment removes/prevents accumulation. It does IFR AIRCRAFT− An aircraft conducting flight in
not present a problem if the deicing/anti-icing accordance with instrument flight rules.
equipment is used. IFR CONDITIONS− Weather conditions below the
c. Moderate− The rate of accumulation is such that minimum for flight under visual flight rules.
even short encounters become potentially hazardous (See INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL
and use of deicing/anti-icing equipment or flight CONDITIONS.)
diversion is necessary. IFR DEPARTURE PROCEDURE−
d. Severe− The rate of ice accumulation is such (See IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND
that ice protection systems fail to remove the DEPARTURE PROCEDURES.)
accumulation of ice, or ice accumulates in locations (Refer to AIM.)
not normally prone to icing, such as areas aft of IFR FLIGHT−
protected surfaces and any other areas identified by (See IFR AIRCRAFT.)

PCG I−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary 4/27/17
12/10/15

IFR LANDING MINIMUMS− a height above touchdown of not less than 150 feet
(See LANDING MINIMUMS.) and with runway visual range of not less than 1,400
feet, HUD to DH. 3. Category II. An ILS approach
IFR MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES (IR)− Routes
procedure which provides for approach to a height
used by the Department of Defense and associated
above touchdown of not less than 100 feet and with
Reserve and Air Guard units for the purpose of
runway visual range of not less than 1,200 feet (with
conducting low-altitude navigation and tactical
autoland or HUD to touchdown and noted on
training in both IFR and VFR weather conditions
authorization, RVR 1,000 feet).− 4. Special
below 10,000 feet MSL at airspeeds in excess of 250
Authorization Category II with Reduced Lighting.
knots IAS.
An ILS approach procedure which provides for
IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND DEPARTURE approach to a height above touchdown of not less
PROCEDURES− Title 14 Code of Federal than 100 feet and with runway visual range of not less
Regulations Part 91, prescribes standard takeoff rules than 1,200 feet with autoland or HUD to touchdown
for certain civil users. At some airports, obstructions and noted on authorization (no touchdown zone and
or other factors require the establishment of centerline lighting are required).− 5. Category III:
nonstandard takeoff minimums, departure proce- a. IIIA.−An ILS approach procedure which
dures, or both to assist pilots in avoiding obstacles provides for approach without a decision height
during climb to the minimum en route altitude. Those minimum and with runway visual range of not less
airports are listed in FAA/DOD Instrument Approach than 700 feet.
Procedures (IAPs) Charts under a section entitled
“IFR Takeoff Minimums and Departure Procedures.” b. IIIB.−An ILS approach procedure which
The FAA/DOD IAP chart legend illustrates the provides for approach without a decision height
symbol used to alert the pilot to nonstandard takeoff minimum and with runway visual range of not less
minimums and departure procedures. When depart- than 150 feet.
ing IFR from such airports or from any airports where c. IIIC.−An ILS approach procedure which
there are no departure procedures, DPs, or ATC provides for approach without a decision height
facilities available, pilots should advise ATC of any minimum and without runway visual range
departure limitations. Controllers may query a pilot minimum.
to determine acceptable departure directions, turns,
ILS PRM APPROACH− An instrument landing
or headings after takeoff. Pilots should be familiar
system (ILS) approach conducted to parallel runways
with the departure procedures and must assure that
whose extended centerlines are separated by less than
their aircraft can meet or exceed any specified climb
4,300 feet and at least 3,000 feet where independent
gradients.
closely spaced approaches are permitted. Also used
IF/IAWP− Intermediate Fix/Initial Approach Way- in conjunction with an LDA PRM, RNAV PRM or
point. The waypoint where the final approach course GLS PRM approach to conduct Simultaneous Offset
of a T approach meets the crossbar of the T. When Instrument Approach (SOIA) operations. No
designated (in conjunction with a TAA) this Transgression Zone (NTZ) monitoring is required to
waypoint will be used as an IAWP when approaching conduct these approaches. ATC utilizes an enhanced
the airport from certain directions, and as an IFWP display with alerting and, with certain runway
when beginning the approach from another IAWP. spacing, a high update rate PRM surveillance sensor.
Use of a secondary monitor frequency, pilot PRM
IFWP− Intermediate Fix Waypoint
training, and publication of an Attention All Users
ILS− Page are also required for all PRM approaches.
(See INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM.) (Refer to AIM)
ILS CATEGORIES− 1. Category I. An ILS approach IM−
procedure which provides for approach to a height (See INNER MARKER.)
above touchdown of not less than 200 feet and with
runway visual range of not less than 1,800 feet.− IMC−
2. Special Authorization Category I. An ILS (See INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL
approach procedure which provides for approach to CONDITIONS.)

PCG I−2
4/27/17
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

IMMEDIATELY− Used by ATC or pilots when such INNER MARKER BEACON−


action compliance is required to avoid an imminent (See INNER MARKER.)
situation.
INREQ−
INCERFA (Uncertainty Phase) [ICAO]− A situation (See INFORMATION REQUEST.)
wherein uncertainty exists as to the safety of an
aircraft and its occupants. INS−
(See INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM.)
INCREASE SPEED TO (SPEED)−
(See SPEED ADJUSTMENT.) INSTRUMENT APPROACH−
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH
INERTIAL NAVIGATION SYSTEM− An RNAV PROCEDURE.)
system which is a form of self-contained navigation.
(See Area Navigation/RNAV.) INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE− A
series of predetermined maneuvers for the orderly
INFLIGHT REFUELING−
transfer of an aircraft under instrument flight
(See AERIAL REFUELING.) conditions from the beginning of the initial approach
INFLIGHT WEATHER ADVISORY− to a landing or to a point from which a landing may
(See WEATHER ADVISORY.) be made visually. It is prescribed and approved for a
specific airport by competent authority.
INFORMATION REQUEST− A request originated
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
by an FSS for information concerning an overdue
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
VFR aircraft.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
INITIAL APPROACH FIX− The fixes depicted on (Refer to AIM.)
instrument approach procedure charts that identify a. U.S. civil standard instrument approach
the beginning of the initial approach segment(s). procedures are approved by the FAA as prescribed
(See FIX.) under 14 CFR Part 97 and are available for public
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT use.
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
b. U.S. military standard instrument approach
INITIAL APPROACH SEGMENT− procedures are approved and published by the
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT Department of Defense.
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
c. Special instrument approach procedures are
INITIAL APPROACH SEGMENT [ICAO]− That approved by the FAA for individual operators but are
segment of an instrument approach procedure not published in 14 CFR Part 97 for public use.
between the initial approach fix and the intermediate (See ICAO term INSTRUMENT APPROACH
approach fix or, where applicable, the final approach PROCEDURE.)
fix or point.
INSTRUMENT APPROACH OPERATIONS
INLAND NAVIGATION FACILITY− A navigation [ICAO]* An approach and landing using instruments
aid on a North American Route at which the common for navigation guidance based on an instrument
route and/or the noncommon route begins or ends. approach procedure. There are two methods for
INNER MARKER− A marker beacon used with an executing instrument approach operations:
ILS (CAT II) precision approach located between the a. A two−dimensional (2D) instrument approach
middle marker and the end of the ILS runway, operation, using lateral navigation guidance only;
transmitting a radiation pattern keyed at six dots per and
second and indicating to the pilot, both aurally and b. A three−dimensional (3D) instrument approach
visually, that he/she is at the designated decision operation, using both lateral and vertical navigation
height (DH), normally 100 feet above the touchdown guidance.
zone elevation, on the ILS CAT II approach. It also Note: Lateral and vertical navigation guidance
marks progress during a CAT III approach. refers to the guidance provided either by:
(See INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM.) a) a ground−based radio navigation aid; or
(Refer to AIM.) b) computer−generated navigation data from

PCG I−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary 4/27/17
12/10/15

ground−based, space−based, self−contained INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES [ICAO]− A set of


navigation aids or a combination of these. rules governing the conduct of flight under
(See ICAO term INSTRUMENT APPROACH instrument meteorological conditions.
PROCEDURE.)
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM− A precision
INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE instrument approach system which normally consists
[ICAO]− A series of predetermined maneuvers by of the following electronic components and visual
reference to flight instruments with specified aids:
protection from obstacles from the initial approach a. Localizer.
fix, or where applicable, from the beginning of a (See LOCALIZER.)
defined arrival route to a point from which a landing b. Glideslope.
can be completed and thereafter, if a landing is not (See GLIDESLOPE.)
completed, to a position at which holding or en route
obstacle clearance criteria apply. c. Outer Marker.
(See OUTER MARKER.)
(See ICAO term INSTRUMENT APPROACH
OPERATIONS) d. Middle Marker.
(See MIDDLE MARKER.)
INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURES
e. Approach Lights.
CHARTS−
(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
(See AERONAUTICAL CHART.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE PROCEDURE (Refer to AIM.)
(DP)− A preplanned instrument flight rule (IFR) INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDI-
departure procedure published for pilot use, in TIONS− Meteorological conditions expressed in
graphic or textual format, that provides obstruction terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling
clearance from the terminal area to the appropriate en less than the minima specified for visual meteorolog-
route structure. There are two types of DP, Obstacle ical conditions.
Departure Procedure (ODP), printed either textually (See INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES.)
or graphically, and, Standard Instrument Departure (See VISUAL FLIGHT RULES.)
(SID), which is always printed graphically.
(See VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL
(See IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND CONDITIONS.)
DEPARTURE PROCEDURES.)
(See OBSTACLE DEPARTURE PROCEDURES.) INSTRUMENT RUNWAY− A runway equipped
(See STANDARD INSTRUMENT DEPARTURES.) with electronic and visual navigation aids for which
a precision or nonprecision approach procedure
(Refer to AIM.)
having straight-in landing minimums has been
INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE PROCEDURE (DP) approved.
CHARTS− (See ICAO term INSTRUMENT RUNWAY.)
(See AERONAUTICAL CHART.) INSTRUMENT RUNWAY [ICAO]− One of the
INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES− Rules governing following types of runways intended for the
the procedures for conducting instrument flight. Also operation of aircraft using instrument approach
a term used by pilots and controllers to indicate type procedures:
of flight plan. a. Nonprecision Approach Runway−An instru-
(See INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL ment runway served by visual aids and a nonvisual
CONDITIONS.) aid providing at least directional guidance adequate
(See VISUAL FLIGHT RULES.) for a straight-in approach.
(See VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL b. Precision Approach Runway, Category I−An
CONDITIONS.) instrument runway served by ILS and visual aids
(See ICAO term INSTRUMENT FLIGHT intended for operations down to 60 m (200 feet)
RULES.) decision height and down to an RVR of the order of
(Refer to AIM.) 800 m.

PCG I−4
4/27/17
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

c. Precision Approach Runway, Category II−An and assigned at the intermediate airport. An
instrument runway served by ILS and visual aids intermediate landing airport within the arrival center
intended for operations down to 30 m (100 feet) will not be accepted without coordination with and
decision height and down to an RVR of the order of the approval of the ATCSCC.
400 m. INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT− Relating to interna-
d. Precision Approach Runway, Category III−An tional flight, it means:
instrument runway served by ILS to and along the a. An airport of entry which has been designated
surface of the runway and: by the Secretary of Treasury or Commissioner of
1. Intended for operations down to an RVR of Customs as an international airport for customs
the order of 200 m (no decision height being service.
applicable) using visual aids during the final phase of b. A landing rights airport at which specific
landing; permission to land must be obtained from customs
2. Intended for operations down to an RVR of authorities in advance of contemplated use.
the order of 50 m (no decision height being c. Airports designated under the Convention on
applicable) using visual aids for taxiing; International Civil Aviation as an airport for use by
3. Intended for operations without reliance on international commercial air transport and/or interna-
visual reference for landing or taxiing. tional general aviation.
Note 1: See Annex 10 Volume I, Part I, Chapter 3, (See ICAO term INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT.)
for related ILS specifications. (Refer to Chart Supplement U.S.)
Note 2: Visual aids need not necessarily be (Refer to IFIM.)
matched to the scale of nonvisual aids provided.
INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT [ICAO]− Any airport
The criterion for the selection of visual aids is the
conditions in which operations are intended to be designated by the Contracting State in whose
conducted. territory it is situated as an airport of entry and
departure for international air traffic, where the
INTEGRITY− The ability of a system to provide formalities incident to customs, immigration, public
timely warnings to users when the system should not health, animal and plant quarantine and similar
be used for navigation. procedures are carried out.
INTERMEDIATE APPROACH SEGMENT− INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGA-
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT NIZATION [ICAO]− A specialized agency of the
APPROACH PROCEDURE.) United Nations whose objective is to develop the
INTERMEDIATE APPROACH SEGMENT principles and techniques of international air
[ICAO]− That segment of an instrument approach navigation and to foster planning and development of
procedure between either the intermediate approach international civil air transport.
fix and the final approach fix or point, or between the a. Regions include:
end of a reversal, race track or dead reckoning track 1. African-Indian Ocean Region
procedure and the final approach fix or point, as 2. Caribbean Region
appropriate.
3. European Region
INTERMEDIATE FIX− The fix that identifies the 4. Middle East/Asia Region
beginning of the intermediate approach segment of an 5. North American Region
instrument approach procedure. The fix is not
normally identified on the instrument approach chart 6. North Atlantic Region
as an intermediate fix (IF). 7. Pacific Region
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT 8. South American Region
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
INTERNATIONAL FLIGHT INFORMATION
INTERMEDIATE LANDING− On the rare occasion MANUAL− A publication designed primarily as a
that this option is requested, it should be approved. pilot’s preflight planning guide for flights into
The departure center, however, must advise the foreign airspace and for flights returning to the U.S.
ATCSCC so that the appropriate delay is carried over from foreign locations.

PCG I−5
Pilot/Controller Glossary 4/27/17
12/10/15

INTERROGATOR− The ground-based surveillance b. Used to describe the point where two runways,
radar beacon transmitter-receiver, which normally a runway and a taxiway, or two taxiways cross or
scans in synchronism with a primary radar, meet.
transmitting discrete radio signals which repetitious-
ly request all transponders on the mode being used to INTERSECTION DEPARTURE− A departure from
reply. The replies received are mixed with the any runway intersection except the end of the runway.
primary radar returns and displayed on the same plan (See INTERSECTION.)
position indicator (radar scope). Also, applied to the INTERSECTION TAKEOFF−
airborne element of the TACAN/DME system. (See INTERSECTION DEPARTURE.)
(See TRANSPONDER.)
(Refer to AIM.) IR−
(See IFR MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES.)
INTERSECTING RUNWAYS− Two or more
runways which cross or meet within their lengths. IRREGULAR SURFACE− A surface that is open for
(See INTERSECTION.) use but not per regulations.
INTERSECTION− ISR– Indicates the confidence level of the track
a. A point defined by any combination of courses, requires 5NM separation. 3NM separation, 1 1/2NM
radials, or bearings of two or more navigational aids. separation, and target resolution cannot be used.

PCG I−6
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

J
JAMMING− Electronic or mechanical interference JET STREAM− A migrating stream of high-speed
which may disrupt the display of aircraft on radar or winds present at high altitudes.
the transmission/reception of radio communications/
navigation. JETTISONING OF EXTERNAL STORES− Air-
borne release of external stores; e.g., tiptanks,
JET BLAST− Jet engine exhaust (thrust stream ordnance.
turbulence).
(See FUEL DUMPING.)
(See WAKE TURBULENCE.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
JET ROUTE− A route designed to serve aircraft
operations from 18,000 feet MSL up to and including JOINT USE RESTRICTED AREA−
flight level 450. The routes are referred to as “J” (See RESTRICTED AREA.)
routes with numbering to identify the designated
route; e.g., J105. JUMP ZONE− The airspace directly associated with
(See Class A AIRSPACE.) a Drop Zone. Vertical and horizontal limits may be
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 71.) locally defined.

PCG J−1
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

K
KNOWN TRAFFIC− With respect to ATC clear-
ances, means aircraft whose altitude, position, and
intentions are known to ATC.

PCG K−1
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

L
LAA− LANDING DISTANCE AVAILABLE (LDA)− The
(See LOCAL AIRPORT ADVISORY.) runway length declared available and suitable for a
landing airplane.
LAAS− (See ICAO term LANDING DISTANCE
(See LOW ALTITUDE ALERT SYSTEM.) AVAILABLE.)
LANDING DISTANCE AVAILABLE [ICAO]− The
LAHSO− An acronym for “Land and Hold Short length of runway which is declared available and
Operation.” These operations include landing and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane landing.
holding short of an intersecting runway, a taxiway, a
predetermined point, or an approach/departure LANDING MINIMUMS− The minimum visibility
flightpath. prescribed for landing a civil aircraft while using an
instrument approach procedure. The minimum
LAHSO-DRY− Land and hold short operations on applies with other limitations set forth in 14 CFR
runways that are dry. Part 91 with respect to the Minimum Descent
Altitude (MDA) or Decision Height (DH) prescribed
LAHSO-WET− Land and hold short operations on in the instrument approach procedures as follows:
runways that are wet (but not contaminated). a. Straight-in landing minimums. A statement of
MDA and visibility, or DH and visibility, required for
LAND AND HOLD SHORT OPERATIONS− a straight-in landing on a specified runway, or
Operations which include simultaneous takeoffs and b. Circling minimums. A statement of MDA and
landings and/or simultaneous landings when a visibility required for the circle-to-land maneuver.
landing aircraft is able and is instructed by the Note: Descent below the MDA or DH must meet the
controller to hold-short of the intersecting runway/ conditions stated in 14 CFR Section 91.175.
taxiway or designated hold-short point. Pilots are
(See CIRCLE-TO-LAND MANEUVER.)
expected to promptly inform the controller if the hold
(See DECISION HEIGHT.)
short clearance cannot be accepted.
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH
(See PARALLEL RUNWAYS.) PROCEDURE.)
(Refer to AIM.) (See MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE.)
(See STRAIGHT-IN LANDING.)
LANDING AREA− Any locality either on land, (See VISIBILITY.)
water, or structures, including airports/heliports and (Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
intermediate landing fields, which is used, or
intended to be used, for the landing and takeoff of LANDING ROLL− The distance from the point of
aircraft whether or not facilities are provided for the touchdown to the point where the aircraft can be
shelter, servicing, or for receiving or discharging brought to a stop or exit the runway.
passengers or cargo. LANDING SEQUENCE− The order in which
(See ICAO term LANDING AREA.) aircraft are positioned for landing.
(See APPROACH SEQUENCE.)
LANDING AREA [ICAO]− That part of a movement
area intended for the landing or take-off of aircraft. LAST ASSIGNED ALTITUDE− The last altitude/
flight level assigned by ATC and acknowledged by
LANDING DIRECTION INDICATOR− A device the pilot.
which visually indicates the direction in which (See MAINTAIN.)
landings and takeoffs should be made. (Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(See TETRAHEDRON.) LATERAL NAVIGATION (LNAV)– A function of
(Refer to AIM.) area navigation (RNAV) equipment which calculates,

PCG L−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary 5/26/16
12/10/15

displays, and provides lateral guidance to a profile or LINE UP AND WAIT (LUAW)− Used by ATC to
path. inform a pilot to taxi onto the departure runway to line
up and wait. It is not authorization for takeoff. It is
LATERAL SEPARATION− The lateral spacing of used when takeoff clearance cannot immediately be
aircraft at the same altitude by requiring operation on issued because of traffic or other reasons.
different routes or in different geographical locations.
(See CLEARED FOR TAKEOFF.)
(See SEPARATION.)
LOCAL AIRPORT ADVISORY (LAA)− A service
LDA−
available only in Alaska and provided by facilities,
(See LOCALIZER TYPE DIRECTIONAL AID.) which are located on the landing airport, have a
(See LANDING DISTANCE AVAILABLE.) discrete ground−to−air communication frequency or
(See ICAO Term LANDING DISTANCE the tower frequency when the tower is closed,
AVAILABLE.) automated weather reporting with voice broadcast-
LF− ing, and a continuous ASOS/AWSS/AWOS data
(See LOW FREQUENCY.) display, other continuous direct reading instruments,
or manual observations available to the specialist.
LIGHTED AIRPORT− An airport where runway and (See AIRPORT ADVISORY AREA.)
obstruction lighting is available.
(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.) LOCAL TRAFFIC− Aircraft operating in the traffic
(Refer to AIM.) pattern or within sight of the tower, or aircraft known
to be departing or arriving from flight in local practice
LIGHT GUN− A handheld directional light signaling areas, or aircraft executing practice instrument
device which emits a brilliant narrow beam of white, approaches at the airport.
green, or red light as selected by the tower controller. (See TRAFFIC PATTERN.)
The color and type of light transmitted can be used to
approve or disapprove anticipated pilot actions where LOCALIZER− The component of an ILS which
radio communication is not available. The light gun provides course guidance to the runway.
is used for controlling traffic operating in the vicinity (See INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM.)
of the airport and on the airport movement area. (See ICAO term LOCALIZER COURSE.)
(Refer to AIM.) (Refer to AIM.)

LIGHT-SPORT AIRCRAFT (LSA)- An LOCALIZER COURSE [ICAO]− The locus of


FAA-registered aircraft, other than a helicopter or points, in any given horizontal plane, at which the
powered-lift, that meets certain weight and DDM (difference in depth of modulation) is zero.
performance. Principally it is a single engine aircraft
with a maximum of two seats and weighing no more LOCALIZER OFFSET− An angular offset of the
than 1,430 pounds if intended for operation on water, localizer aligned with 3_ of the runway alignment.
or 1,320 pounds if not. They must be of simple design LOCALIZER TYPE DIRECTIONAL AID− A
(fixed landing gear (except if intended for operations localizer with an angular offset that exceeds 3_. of the
on water or a glider) piston powered, runway alignment used for nonprecision instrument
non-pressurized, with a fixed or ground adjustable approaches with utility and accuracy comparable to
propeller), Performance is also limited to a maximum a localizer but which are not part of a complete ILS.
airspeed in level flight of not more than 120 knots
(Refer to AIM.)
CAS, have a maximum never-exceed speed of not
more than 120 knots CAS for a glider, and have a LOCALIZER TYPE DIRECTIONAL AID (LDA)
maximum stalling speed, without the use of PRECISION RUNWAY MONITOR (PRM)
lift-enhancing devices (VS1 ) of not more than APPROACH− An approach, which includes a
45 knots CAS. They may be certificated as either glidslope, used in conjunction with an ILS PRM,
Experimental LSA or as a Special LSA aircraft. A RNAV PRM or GLS PRM approach to an adjacent
minimum of a sport pilot certificate is required to runway to conduct Simultaneous Offset Instrument
operate light-sport aircraft.” (Refer to 14 CFR Part 1, Approaches (SOIA) to parallel runways whose
§1.1.) centerlines are separated by less than 3,000 feet and

PCG L−2
4/27/17
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

at least 750 feet. NTZ monitoring is required to LOST LINK− An interruption or loss of the control
conduct these approaches. link, or when the pilot is unable to effect control of the
(See SIMULTANEOUS OFFSET INSTRUMENT aircraft and, as a result, the UA will perform a
APPROACH (SOIA).) predictable or planned maneuver. Loss of command
(Refer to AIM) and control link between the Control Station and the
LOCALIZER USABLE DISTANCE− The maxi- aircraft. There are two types of links:
mum distance from the localizer transmitter at a a. An uplink which transmits command instruc-
specified altitude, as verified by flight inspection, at tions to the aircraft, and
which reliable course information is continuously b. A downlink which transmits the status of the
received. aircraft and provides situational awareness to the
(Refer to AIM.) pilot.
LOCATOR [ICAO]− An LM/MF NDB used as an aid
to final approach. LOST LINK PROCEDURE− Preprogrammed or
predetermined mitigations to ensure the continued
Note: A locator usually has an average radius of
rated coverage of between 18.5 and 46.3 km (10 safe operation of the UA in the event of a lost link
and 25 NM). (LL). In the event positive link cannot be established,
flight termination must be implemented.
LONG RANGE NAVIGATION−
(See LORAN.) LOW ALTITUDE AIRWAY STRUCTURE− The
network of airways serving aircraft operations up to
LONGITUDINAL SEPARATION− The longitudi-
but not including 18,000 feet MSL.
nal spacing of aircraft at the same altitude by a
minimum distance expressed in units of time or (See AIRWAY.)
miles. (Refer to AIM.)
(See SEPARATION.)
LOW ALTITUDE ALERT, CHECK YOUR ALTI-
(Refer to AIM.)
TUDE IMMEDIATELY−
LORAN− An electronic navigational system by (See SAFETY ALERT.)
which hyperbolic lines of position are determined by
measuring the difference in the time of reception of LOW APPROACH− An approach over an airport or
synchronized pulse signals from two fixed transmit- runway following an instrument approach or a VFR
ters. Loran A operates in the 1750-1950 kHz approach including the go-around maneuver where
frequency band. Loran C and D operate in the the pilot intentionally does not make contact with the
100-110 kHz frequency band. In 2010, the U.S. Coast runway.
Guard terminated all U.S. LORAN-C transmissions. (Refer to AIM.)
(Refer to AIM.)
LOW FREQUENCY− The frequency band between
LOST COMMUNICATIONS− Loss of the ability to 30 and 300 kHz.
communicate by radio. Aircraft are sometimes (Refer to AIM.)
referred to as NORDO (No Radio). Standard pilot
procedures are specified in 14 CFR Part 91. Radar LPV− A type of approach with vertical guidance
controllers issue procedures for pilots to follow in the (APV) based on WAAS, published on RNAV (GPS)
event of lost communications during a radar approach approach charts. This procedure takes advantage of
when weather reports indicate that an aircraft will the precise lateral guidance available from WAAS.
likely encounter IFR weather conditions during the The minima is published as a decision altitude (DA).
approach.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.) LUAW−
(Refer to AIM.) (See LINE UP AND WAIT.)

PCG L−3
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

M
MAA− requires familiarity with the subject. Terrorists
(See MAXIMUM AUTHORIZED ALTITUDE.) choose MANPADS because the weapons are low
cost, highly mobile, require minimal set−up time, and
MACH NUMBER− The ratio of true airspeed to the are easy to use and maintain. Although the weapons
speed of sound; e.g., MACH .82, MACH 1.6. have limited range, and their accuracy is affected by
(See AIRSPEED.) poor visibility and adverse weather, they can be fired
MACH TECHNIQUE [ICAO]− Describes a control from anywhere on land or from boats where there is
technique used by air traffic control whereby turbojet unrestricted visibility to the target.
aircraft operating successively along suitable routes MANDATORY ALTITUDE− An altitude depicted
are cleared to maintain appropriate MACH numbers on an instrument Approach Procedure Chart
for a relevant portion of the en route phase of flight. requiring the aircraft to maintain altitude at the
The principle objective is to achieve improved depicted value.
utilization of the airspace and to ensure that
separation between successive aircraft does not MANPADS−
decrease below the established minima. (See MAN PORTABLE AIR DEFENSE
SYSTEMS.)
MAHWP− Missed Approach Holding Waypoint
MAP−
MAINTAIN− (See MISSED APPROACH POINT.)
a. Concerning altitude/flight level, the term MARKER BEACON− An electronic navigation
means to remain at the altitude/flight level specified. facility transmitting a 75 MHz vertical fan or
The phrase “climb and” or “descend and” normally boneshaped radiation pattern. Marker beacons are
precedes “maintain” and the altitude assignment; identified by their modulation frequency and keying
e.g., “descend and maintain 5,000.” code, and when received by compatible airborne
b. Concerning other ATC instructions, the term is equipment, indicate to the pilot, both aurally and
used in its literal sense; e.g., maintain VFR. visually, that he/she is passing over the facility.
(See INNER MARKER.)
MAINTENANCE PLANNING FRICTION (See MIDDLE MARKER.)
LEVEL− The friction level specified in (See OUTER MARKER.)
AC 150/5320-12, Measurement, Construction, and (Refer to AIM.)
Maintenance of Skid Resistant Airport Pavement
Surfaces, which represents the friction value below MARSA−
which the runway pavement surface remains (See MILITARY AUTHORITY ASSUMES
acceptable for any category or class of aircraft RESPONSIBILITY FOR SEPARATION OF
operations but which is beginning to show signs of AIRCRAFT.)
deterioration. This value will vary depending on the MAWP− Missed Approach Waypoint
particular friction measurement equipment used.
MAXIMUM AUTHORIZED ALTITUDE− A pub-
MAKE SHORT APPROACH− Used by ATC to lished altitude representing the maximum usable
inform a pilot to alter his/her traffic pattern so as to altitude or flight level for an airspace structure or
make a short final approach. route segment. It is the highest altitude on a Federal
(See TRAFFIC PATTERN.) airway, jet route, area navigation low or high route,
or other direct route for which an MEA is designated
MAN PORTABLE AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS
in 14 CFR Part 95 at which adequate reception of
(MANPADS)− MANPADS are lightweight, shoul-
navigation aid signals is assured.
der−launched, missile systems used to bring down
aircraft and create mass casualties. The potential for MAYDAY− The international radiotelephony distress
MANPADS use against airborne aircraft is real and signal. When repeated three times, it indicates

PCG M−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary 12/10/15

imminent and grave danger and that immediate METERING AIRPORTS− Airports adapted for
assistance is requested. metering and for which optimum flight paths are
(See PAN-PAN.) defined. A maximum of 15 airports may be adapted.
(Refer to AIM.)
METERING FIX− A fix along an established route
MCA− from over which aircraft will be metered prior to
(See MINIMUM CROSSING ALTITUDE.) entering terminal airspace. Normally, this fix should
be established at a distance from the airport which
MDA−
will facilitate a profile descent 10,000 feet above
(See MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE.)
airport elevation (AAE) or above.
MEA−
METERING POSITION(S)− Adapted PVDs/
(See MINIMUM EN ROUTE IFR ALTITUDE.)
MDMs and associated “D” positions eligible for
MEARTS− display of a metering position list. A maximum of
(See MICRO-EN ROUTE AUTOMATED RADAR four PVDs/MDMs may be adapted.
TRACKING SYSTEM.)
METERING POSITION LIST− An ordered list of
METEOROLOGICAL IMPACT STATEMENT− data on arrivals for a selected metering airport
An unscheduled planning forecast describing displayed on a metering position PVD/MDM.
conditions expected to begin within 4 to 12 hours
which may impact the flow of air traffic in a specific MFT−
center’s (ARTCC) area. (See METER FIX TIME/SLOT TIME.)

METER FIX ARC− A semicircle, equidistant from MHA−


a meter fix, usually in low altitude relatively close to (See MINIMUM HOLDING ALTITUDE.)
the meter fix, used to help CTAS/HOST calculate a MIA−
meter time, and determine appropriate sector meter (See MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDES.)
list assignments for aircraft not on an established
arrival route or assigned a meter fix. MICROBURST− A small downburst with outbursts
of damaging winds extending 2.5 miles or less. In
METER FIX TIME/SLOT TIME− A calculated time spite of its small horizontal scale, an intense
to depart the meter fix in order to cross the vertex at microburst could induce wind speeds as high as 150
the ACLT. This time reflects descent speed knots
adjustment and any applicable time that must be (Refer to AIM.)
absorbed prior to crossing the meter fix.
MICRO-EN ROUTE AUTOMATED RADAR
METER LIST− TRACKING SYSTEM (MEARTS)− An automated
(See ARRIVAL SECTOR ADVISORY LIST.) radar and radar beacon tracking system capable of
METER LIST DISPLAY INTERVAL− A dynamic employing both short-range (ASR) and long-range
parameter which controls the number of minutes (ARSR) radars. This microcomputer driven system
prior to the flight plan calculated time of arrival at the provides improved tracking, continuous data record-
meter fix for each aircraft, at which time the TCLT is ing, and use of full digital radar displays.
frozen and becomes an ACLT; i.e., the VTA is MID RVR−
updated and consequently the TCLT modified as (See VISIBILITY.)
appropriate until frozen at which time updating is
suspended and an ACLT is assigned. When frozen, MIDDLE COMPASS LOCATOR−
the flight entry is inserted into the arrival sector’s (See COMPASS LOCATOR.)
meter list for display on the sector PVD/MDM.
MIDDLE MARKER− A marker beacon that defines
MLDI is used if filed true airspeed is less than or
a point along the glideslope of an ILS normally
equal to freeze speed parameters (FSPD).
located at or near the point of decision height (ILS
METERING− A method of time-regulating arrival Category I). It is keyed to transmit alternate dots and
traffic flow into a terminal area so as not to exceed a dashes, with the alternate dots and dashes keyed at the
predetermined terminal acceptance rate. rate of 95 dot/dash combinations per minute on a

PCG M−2
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

1300 Hz tone, which is received aurally and visually which assures acceptable navigational signal cover-
by compatible airborne equipment. age and meets obstacle clearance requirements
(See INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM.) between those fixes. The MEA prescribed for a
(See MARKER BEACON.) Federal airway or segment thereof, area navigation
(Refer to AIM.) low or high route, or other direct route applies to the
entire width of the airway, segment, or route between
MILES-IN-TRAIL− A specified distance between the radio fixes defining the airway, segment, or route.
aircraft, normally, in the same stratum associated (Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
with the same destination or route of flight. (Refer to 14 CFR Part 95.)
MILITARY AUTHORITY ASSUMES RESPONSI- (Refer to AIM.)
BILITY FOR SEPARATION OF AIRCRAFT− A
condition whereby the military services involved MINIMUM FRICTION LEVEL− The friction level
assume responsibility for separation between specified in AC 150/5320-12, Measurement,
participating military aircraft in the ATC system. It is Construction, and Maintenance of Skid Resistant
used only for required IFR operations which are Airport Pavement Surfaces, that represents the
specified in letters of agreement or other appropriate minimum recommended wet pavement surface
FAA or military documents. friction value for any turbojet aircraft engaged in
LAHSO. This value will vary with the particular
MILITARY LANDING ZONE− A landing strip used friction measurement equipment used.
exclusively by the military for training. A military
landing zone does not carry a runway designation. MINIMUM FUEL− Indicates that an aircraft’s fuel
MILITARY OPERATIONS AREA− supply has reached a state where, upon reaching the
destination, it can accept little or no delay. This is not
(See SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE.)
an emergency situation but merely indicates an
MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES− Airspace of emergency situation is possible should any undue
defined vertical and lateral dimensions established delay occur.
for the conduct of military flight training at airspeeds (Refer to AIM.)
in excess of 250 knots IAS.
(See IFR MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES.) MINIMUM HOLDING ALTITUDE− The lowest
(See VFR MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES.) altitude prescribed for a holding pattern which
assures navigational signal coverage, communica-
MINIMA− tions, and meets obstacle clearance requirements.
(See MINIMUMS.)
MINIMUM IFR ALTITUDES (MIA)− Minimum
MINIMUM CROSSING ALTITUDE− The lowest
altitudes for IFR operations as prescribed in 14 CFR
altitude at certain fixes at which an aircraft must cross
Part 91. These altitudes are published on aeronautical
when proceeding in the direction of a higher
charts and prescribed in 14 CFR Part 95 for airways
minimum en route IFR altitude (MEA).
and routes, and in 14 CFR Part 97 for standard
(See MINIMUM EN ROUTE IFR ALTITUDE.) instrument approach procedures. If no applicable
MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE− The lowest minimum altitude is prescribed in 14 CFR Part 95 or
altitude, expressed in feet above mean sea level, to 14 CFR Part 97, the following minimum IFR
which descent is authorized on final approach or altitude applies:
during circle-to-land maneuvering in execution of a a. In designated mountainous areas, 2,000 feet
standard instrument approach procedure where no above the highest obstacle within a horizontal
electronic glideslope is provided. distance of 4 nautical miles from the course to be
(See NONPRECISION APPROACH flown; or
PROCEDURE.)
b. Other than mountainous areas, 1,000 feet above
MINIMUM EN ROUTE IFR ALTITUDE (MEA)− the highest obstacle within a horizontal distance of 4
The lowest published altitude between radio fixes nautical miles from the course to be flown; or

PCG M−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary 11/10/16
12/10/15

c. As otherwise authorized by the Administrator published procedures as “Emergency Safe


or assigned by ATC. Altitudes.”
(See MINIMUM CROSSING ALTITUDE.) MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE WARNING− A
(See MINIMUM EN ROUTE IFR ALTITUDE.) function of the ARTS III computer that aids the
(See MINIMUM OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE controller by alerting him/her when a tracked Mode
ALTITUDE.) C equipped aircraft is below or is predicted by the
(See MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE.) computer to go below a predetermined minimum safe
(See MINIMUM VECTORING ALTITUDE.) altitude.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.) (Refer to AIM.)

MINIMUM OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE ALTI- MINIMUM SECTOR ALTITUDE [ICAO]− The


TUDE (MOCA)− The lowest published altitude in lowest altitude which may be used under emergency
effect between radio fixes on VOR airways, conditions which will provide a minimum clearance
off-airway routes, or route segments which meets of 300 m (1,000 feet) above all obstacles located in
obstacle clearance requirements for the entire route an area contained within a sector of a circle of 46 km
segment and which assures acceptable navigational (25 NM) radius centered on a radio aid to navigation.
signal coverage only within 25 statute (22 nautical) MINIMUMS− Weather condition requirements
miles of a VOR. established for a particular operation or type of
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.) operation; e.g., IFR takeoff or landing, alternate
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 95.) airport for IFR flight plans, VFR flight, etc.
(See IFR CONDITIONS.)
MINIMUM RECEPTION ALTITUDE− The lowest
(See IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND
altitude at which an intersection can be determined. DEPARTURE PROCEDURES.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 95.) (See LANDING MINIMUMS.)
MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE− (See VFR CONDITIONS.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
a. The minimum altitude specified in 14 CFR (Refer to AIM.)
Part 91 for various aircraft operations.
MINIMUM VECTORING ALTITUDE (MVA)−
b. Altitudes depicted on approach charts which The lowest MSL altitude at which an IFR aircraft will
provide at least 1,000 feet of obstacle clearance for be vectored by a radar controller, except as otherwise
emergency use. These altitudes will be identified as authorized for radar approaches, departures, and
Minimum Safe Altitudes or Emergency Safe missed approaches. The altitude meets IFR obstacle
Altitudes and are established as follows: clearance criteria. It may be lower than the published
1. Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA). Altitudes MEA along an airway or J-route segment. It may be
depicted on approach charts which provide at least utilized for radar vectoring only upon the controller’s
1,000 feet of obstacle clearance within a 25-mile determination that an adequate radar return is being
radius of the navigation facility, waypoint, or airport received from the aircraft being controlled. Charts
reference point upon which the MSA is predicated. depicting minimum vectoring altitudes are normally
MSAs are for emergency use only and do not available only to the controllers and not to pilots.
necessarily assure acceptable navigational signal (Refer to AIM.)
coverage.
MINUTES-IN-TRAIL− A specified interval be-
(See ICAO term Minimum Sector Altitude.) tween aircraft expressed in time. This method would
2. Emergency Safe Altitude (ESA). Altitudes more likely be utilized regardless of altitude.
depicted on approach charts which provide at least
MIS−
1,000 feet of obstacle clearance in nonmountainous
(See METEOROLOGICAL IMPACT
areas and 2,000 feet of obstacle clearance in STATEMENT.)
designated mountainous areas within a 100-mile
radius of the navigation facility or waypoint used as MISSED APPROACH−
the ESA center. These altitudes are normally used a. A maneuver conducted by a pilot when an
only in military procedures and are identified on instrument approach cannot be completed to a

PCG M−4
11/10/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

landing. The route of flight and altitude are shown on Mode C (altitude reporting) are used in air traffic
instrument approach procedure charts. A pilot control.
executing a missed approach prior to the Missed (See INTERROGATOR.)
Approach Point (MAP) must continue along the final (See RADAR.)
approach to the MAP. (See TRANSPONDER.)
b. A term used by the pilot to inform ATC that (See ICAO term MODE.)
he/she is executing the missed approach. (Refer to AIM.)

c. At locations where ATC radar service is MODE (SSR MODE) [ICAO]− The letter or number
provided, the pilot should conform to radar vectors assigned to a specific pulse spacing of the
when provided by ATC in lieu of the published interrogation signals transmitted by an interrogator.
missed approach procedure. There are 4 modes, A, B, C and D specified in Annex
10, corresponding to four different interrogation
(See MISSED APPROACH POINT.)
pulse spacings.
(Refer to AIM.)
MODE C INTRUDER ALERT− A function of
MISSED APPROACH POINT− A point prescribed certain air traffic control automated systems designed
in each instrument approach procedure at which a to alert radar controllers to existing or pending
missed approach procedure shall be executed if the situations between a tracked target (known IFR or
required visual reference does not exist. VFR aircraft) and an untracked target (unknown IFR
or VFR aircraft) that requires immediate attention/
(See MISSED APPROACH.)
action.
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
(See CONFLICT ALERT.)
APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
MODEL AIRCRAFT− An unmanned aircraft that is:
MISSED APPROACH PROCEDURE [ICAO]− The (1) capable of sustained flight in the atmosphere; (2)
procedure to be followed if the approach cannot be flown within visual line of sight of the person
continued. operating the aircraft; and (3) flown for hobby or
recreational purposes.
MISSED APPROACH SEGMENT−
MONITOR− (When used with communication
(See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT transfer) listen on a specific frequency and stand by
APPROACH PROCEDURE.) for instructions. Under normal circumstances do not
establish communications.
MLDI−
(See METER LIST DISPLAY INTERVAL.) MONITOR ALERT (MA)− A function of the TFMS
that provides traffic management personnel with a
MM− tool for predicting potential capacity problems in
individual operational sectors. The MA is an
(See MIDDLE MARKER.) indication that traffic management personnel need to
analyze a particular sector for actual activity and to
MOA− determine the required action(s), if any, needed to
(See MILITARY OPERATIONS AREA.) control the demand.

MOCA− MONITOR ALERT PARAMETER (MAP)− The


number designated for use in monitor alert
(See MINIMUM OBSTRUCTION CLEARANCE
processing by the TFMS. The MAP is designated for
ALTITUDE.)
each operational sector for increments of 15 minutes.
MODE− The letter or number assigned to a specific MOSAIC/MULTI−SENSOR MODE− Accepts posi-
pulse spacing of radio signals transmitted or received tional data from multiple radar or ADS−B sites.
by ground interrogator or airborne transponder Targets are displayed from a single source within a
components of the Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon radar sort box according to the hierarchy of the
System (ATCRBS). Mode A (military Mode 3) and sources assigned.

PCG M−5
Pilot/Controller Glossary 11/10/16
12/10/15

MOVEMENT AREA− The runways, taxiways, and MSA−


other areas of an airport/heliport which are utilized (See MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE.)
for taxiing/hover taxiing, air taxiing, takeoff, and
MSAW−
landing of aircraft, exclusive of loading ramps and
(See MINIMUM SAFE ALTITUDE WARNING.)
parking areas. At those airports/heliports with a
tower, specific approval for entry onto the movement MTI−
area must be obtained from ATC. (See MOVING TARGET INDICATOR.)
(See ICAO term MOVEMENT AREA.) MTR−
(See MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES.)
MOVEMENT AREA [ICAO]− That part of an
aerodrome to be used for the takeoff, landing and MULTICOM− A mobile service not open to public
taxiing of aircraft, consisting of the maneuvering area correspondence used to provide communications
and the apron(s). essential to conduct the activities being performed by
or directed from private aircraft.
MOVING TARGET INDICATOR− An electronic
MULTIPLE RUNWAYS− The utilization of a
device which will permit radar scope presentation
dedicated arrival runway(s) for departures and a
only from targets which are in motion. A partial
dedicated departure runway(s) for arrivals when
remedy for ground clutter.
feasible to reduce delays and enhance capacity.
MRA− MVA−
(See MINIMUM RECEPTION ALTITUDE.) (See MINIMUM VECTORING ALTITUDE.)

PCG M−6
11/10/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

N
NAS− NAVAID CLASSES− VOR, VORTAC, and TACAN
(See NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM.) aids are classed according to their operational use.
The three classes of NAVAIDs are:
NAT HLA –
a. T− Terminal.
(See NORTH ATLANTIC HIGH LEVEL
AIRSPACE) b. L− Low altitude.
c. H− High altitude.
NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM− The common
network of U.S. airspace; air navigation facilities, Note: The normal service range for T, L, and H class
aids is found in the AIM. Certain operational
equipment and services, airports or landing areas;
requirements make it necessary to use some of
aeronautical charts, information and services; rules, these aids at greater service ranges than
regulations and procedures, technical information, specified. Extended range is made possible
and manpower and material. Included are system through flight inspection determinations. Some
components shared jointly with the military. aids also have lesser service range due to location,
terrain, frequency protection, etc. Restrictions to
NATIONAL BEACON CODE ALLOCATION service range are listed in Chart Supplement U.S.
PLAN AIRSPACE− Airspace over United States
territory located within the North American continent NAVIGABLE AIRSPACE− Airspace at and above
between Canada and Mexico, including adjacent the minimum flight altitudes prescribed in the CFRs
territorial waters outward to about boundaries of including airspace needed for safe takeoff and
oceanic control areas (CTA)/Flight Information landing.
Regions (FIR). (Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(See FLIGHT INFORMATION REGION.)
NAVIGATION REFERENCE SYSTEM (NRS)−
NATIONAL FLIGHT DATA CENTER− A facility in The NRS is a system of waypoints developed for use
Washington D.C., established by FAA to operate a within the United States for flight planning and
central aeronautical information service for the navigation without reference to ground based
collection, validation, and dissemination of navigational aids. The NRS waypoints are located in
aeronautical data in support of the activities of a grid pattern along defined latitude and longitude
government, industry, and the aviation community. lines. The initial use of the NRS will be in the high
The information is published in the National Flight altitude environment in conjunction with the High
Data Digest. Altitude Redesign initiative. The NRS waypoints are
(See NATIONAL FLIGHT DATA DIGEST.) intended for use by aircraft capable of point−to−point
navigation.
NATIONAL FLIGHT DATA DIGEST− A daily
(except weekends and Federal holidays) publication NAVIGATION SPECIFICATION [ICAO]− A set of
of flight information appropriate to aeronautical aircraft and flight crew requirements needed to
charts, aeronautical publications, Notices to Airmen, support performance−based navigation operations
or other media serving the purpose of providing within a defined airspace. There are two kinds of
operational flight data essential to safe and efficient navigation specifications:
aircraft operations. a. RNP specification. A navigation specification
based on area navigation that includes the
NATIONAL SEARCH AND RESCUE PLAN− An
requirement for performance monitoring and
interagency agreement which provides for the
alerting, designated by the prefix RNP; e.g., RNP 4,
effective utilization of all available facilities in all
RNP APCH.
types of search and rescue missions.
b. RNAV specification. A navigation specifica-
NAVAID− tion based on area navigation that does not include the
(See NAVIGATIONAL AID.) requirement for performance monitoring and alert-

PCG N−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary 11/10/16
12/10/15

ing, designated by the prefix RNAV; e.g., RNAV 5, with headings to be flown, the controller observes the
RNAV 1. radar track and issues control instructions “turn
Note: The Performance−based Navigation Manual right/left” or “stop turn” as appropriate.
(Doc 9613), Volume II contains detailed guidance (Refer to AIM.)
on navigation specifications.
NO GYRO VECTOR−
(See NO GYRO APPROACH.)
NAVIGATIONAL AID− Any visual or electronic
NO TRANSGRESSION ZONE (NTZ)− The NTZ is
device airborne or on the surface which provides
a 2,000 foot wide zone, located equidistant between
point-to-point guidance information or position data
parallel runway or SOIA final approach courses in
to aircraft in flight.
which flight is normally not allowed.
(See AIR NAVIGATION FACILITY.)
NONAPPROACH CONTROL TOWER− Author-
NBCAP AIRSPACE−
izes aircraft to land or takeoff at the airport controlled
(See NATIONAL BEACON CODE ALLOCATION
by the tower or to transit the Class D airspace. The
PLAN AIRSPACE.)
primary function of a nonapproach control tower is
NDB− the sequencing of aircraft in the traffic pattern and on
(See NONDIRECTIONAL BEACON.) the landing area. Nonapproach control towers also
NEGATIVE− “No,” or “permission not granted,” or separate aircraft operating under instrument flight
“that is not correct.” rules clearances from approach controls and centers.
They provide ground control services to aircraft,
NEGATIVE CONTACT− Used by pilots to inform vehicles, personnel, and equipment on the airport
ATC that: movement area.
a. Previously issued traffic is not in sight. It may NONCOMMON ROUTE/PORTION− That segment
be followed by the pilot’s request for the controller to of a North American Route between the inland
provide assistance in avoiding the traffic. navigation facility and a designated North American
b. They were unable to contact ATC on a terminal.
particular frequency.
NONCOMPOSITE SEPARATION− Separation in
NFDC− accordance with minima other than the composite
(See NATIONAL FLIGHT DATA CENTER.) separation minimum specified for the area con-
NFDD− cerned.
(See NATIONAL FLIGHT DATA DIGEST.) NONDIRECTIONAL BEACON− An L/MF or UHF
NIGHT− The time between the end of evening civil radio beacon transmitting nondirectional signals
twilight and the beginning of morning civil twilight, whereby the pilot of an aircraft equipped with
as published in the Air Almanac, converted to local direction finding equipment can determine his/her
time. bearing to or from the radio beacon and “home” on or
track to or from the station. When the radio beacon is
(See ICAO term NIGHT.)
installed in conjunction with the Instrument Landing
NIGHT [ICAO]− The hours between the end of System marker, it is normally called a Compass
evening civil twilight and the beginning of morning Locator.
civil twilight or such other period between sunset and (See AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER.)
sunrise as may be specified by the appropriate (See COMPASS LOCATOR.)
authority.
NONMOVEMENT AREAS− Taxiways and apron
Note: Civil twilight ends in the evening when the
center of the sun’s disk is 6 degrees below the
(ramp) areas not under the control of air traffic.
horizon and begins in the morning when the center NONPRECISION APPROACH−
of the sun’s disk is 6 degrees below the horizon. (See NONPRECISION APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
NO GYRO APPROACH− A radar approach/vector
provided in case of a malfunctioning gyro-compass NONPRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE− A
or directional gyro. Instead of providing the pilot standard instrument approach procedure in which no

PCG N−2
4/27/17
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

electronic glideslope is provided; e.g., VOR, NORDO (No Radio)− Aircraft that cannot or do not
TACAN, NDB, LOC, ASR, LDA, or SDF communicate by radio when radio communication is
approaches. required are referred to as “NORDO.”
(See LOST COMMUNICATIONS.)
NONRADAR− Precedes other terms and generally
means without the use of radar, such as: NORMAL OPERATING ZONE (NOZ)− The NOZ
a. Nonradar Approach. Used to describe is the operating zone within which aircraft flight
instrument approaches for which course guidance on remains during normal independent simultaneous
final approach is not provided by ground-based parallel ILS approaches.
precision or surveillance radar. Radar vectors to the NORTH AMERICAN ROUTE− A numerically
final approach course may or may not be provided by coded route preplanned over existing airway and
ATC. Examples of nonradar approaches are VOR, route systems to and from specific coastal fixes
NDB, TACAN, ILS, RNAV, and GLS approaches. serving the North Atlantic. North American Routes
(See FINAL APPROACH COURSE.) consist of the following:
(See FINAL APPROACH-IFR.) a. Common Route/Portion. That segment of a
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH North American Route between the inland navigation
PROCEDURE.) facility and the coastal fix.
(See RADAR APPROACH.)
b. Noncommon Route/Portion. That segment of a
b. Nonradar Approach Control. An ATC facility North American Route between the inland navigation
providing approach control service without the use of facility and a designated North American terminal.
radar. c. Inland Navigation Facility. A navigation aid on
(See APPROACH CONTROL FACILITY.) a North American Route at which the common route
(See APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE.) and/or the noncommon route begins or ends.
c. Nonradar Arrival. An aircraft arriving at an d. Coastal Fix. A navigation aid or intersection
airport without radar service or at an airport served by where an aircraft transitions between the domestic
a radar facility and radar contact has not been route structure and the oceanic route structure.
established or has been terminated due to a lack of
radar service to the airport. NORTH AMERICAN ROUTE PROGRAM (NRP)−
(See RADAR ARRIVAL.)
The NRP is a set of rules and procedures which are
designed to increase the flexibility of user flight
(See RADAR SERVICE.)
planning within published guidelines.
d. Nonradar Route. A flight path or route over
which the pilot is performing his/her own navigation. NORTH ATLANTIC HIGH LEVEL AIRSPACE
The pilot may be receiving radar separation, radar (NAT HLA)− That volume of airspace (as defined in
monitoring, or other ATC services while on a ICAO Document 7030) between FL 285 and FL 420
nonradar route. within the Oceanic Control Areas of Bodo Oceanic,
(See RADAR ROUTE.) Gander Oceanic, New York Oceanic East, Reykjavik,
Santa Maria, and Shanwick, excluding the Shannon
e. Nonradar Separation. The spacing of aircraft in and Brest Ocean Transition Areas. ICAO Doc 007
accordance with established minima without the use North Atlantic Operations and Airspace Manual
of radar; e.g., vertical, lateral, or longitudinal provides detailed information on related aircraft and
separation. operational requirements.
(See RADAR SEPARATION.)
NORTH MARK− A beacon data block sent by the
NON−RESTRICTIVE ROUTING (NRR)− Portions host computer to be displayed by the ARTS on a 360
of a proposed route of flight where a user can flight degree bearing at a locally selected radar azimuth and
plan the most advantageous flight path with no distance. The North Mark is used to ensure correct
requirement to make reference to ground−based range/azimuth orientation during periods of
NAVAIDs. CENRAP.
NOPAC− NORTH PACIFIC− An organized route system
(See NORTH PACIFIC.) between the Alaskan west coast and Japan.

PCG N−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary 4/27/17
12/10/15

NOT STANDARD− Varying from what is expected of responsibility of the Flight Service Station. These
or published. For use in NOTAMs only. NOTAMs will be stored and available until canceled.
NOT STD- c. FDC NOTAM− A NOTAM regulatory in
(See NOT STANDARD) nature, transmitted by USNOF and given system
wide dissemination.
NOTAM− (See ICAO term NOTAM.)
(See NOTICE TO AIRMEN.)
NOTICES TO AIRMEN PUBLICATION− A
NOTAM [ICAO]− A notice containing information publication issued every 28 days, designed primarily
concerning the establishment, condition or change in for the pilot, which contains current NOTAM
any aeronautical facility, service, procedure or information considered essential to the safety of
hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to flight as well as supplemental data to other
personnel concerned with flight operations. aeronautical publications. The contraction NTAP is
a. I Distribution− Distribution by means of used in NOTAM text.
telecommunication. (See NOTICE TO AIRMEN.)
b. II Distribution− Distribution by means other NRR−
than telecommunications.
(See NON−RESTRICTIVE ROUTING.)
NOTICE TO AIRMEN− A notice containing NRS−
information (not known sufficiently in advance to
(See NAVIGATION REFERENCE SYSTEM.)
publicize by other means) concerning the
establishment, condition, or change in any NTAP−
component (facility, service, or procedure of, or (See NOTICES TO AIRMEN PUBLICATION.)
hazard in the National Airspace System) the timely NUMEROUS TARGETS VICINITY (LOCA-
knowledge of which is essential to personnel TION)− A traffic advisory issued by ATC to advise
concerned with flight operations. pilots that targets on the radar scope are too numerous
NOTAM(D)− A NOTAM given (in addition to local to issue individually.
dissemination) distant dissemination beyond the area (See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)

PCG N−4
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

O
OBSTACLE− An existing object, object of natural (b) 180 feet, plus the wingspan of the most
growth, or terrain at a fixed geographical location or demanding airplane, plus 20 feet per 1,000 feet of
which may be expected at a fixed location within a airport elevation.
prescribed area with reference to which vertical 2. For runways serving only small airplanes:
clearance is or must be provided during flight (a) 300 feet for precision instrument run-
operation. ways.
OBSTACLE DEPARTURE PROCEDURE (ODP)− (b) 250 feet for other runways serving small
A preplanned instrument flight rule (IFR) departure airplanes with approach speeds of 50 knots, or more.
procedure printed for pilot use in textual or graphic (c) 120 feet for other runways serving small
form to provide obstruction clearance via the least airplanes with approach speeds of less than 50 knots.
onerous route from the terminal area to the b. Inner-approach OFZ. The inner-approach OFZ
appropriate en route structure. ODPs are recom- is a defined volume of airspace centered on the
mended for obstruction clearance and may be flown approach area. The inner-approach OFZ applies only
without ATC clearance unless an alternate departure to runways with an approach lighting system. The
procedure (SID or radar vector) has been specifically inner-approach OFZ begins 200 feet from the runway
assigned by ATC. threshold at the same elevation as the runway
(See IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND threshold and extends 200 feet beyond the last light
DEPARTURE PROCEDURES.) unit in the approach lighting system. The width of the
(See STANDARD INSTRUMENT inner-approach OFZ is the same as the runway OFZ
DEPARTURES.) and rises at a slope of 50 (horizontal) to 1 (vertical)
(Refer to AIM.) from the beginning.
c. Inner-transitional OFZ. The inner transitional
OBSTACLE FREE ZONE− The OFZ is a three surface OFZ is a defined volume of airspace along the
dimensional volume of airspace which protects for sides of the runway and inner-approach OFZ and
the transition of aircraft to and from the runway. The applies only to precision instrument runways. The
OFZ clearing standard precludes taxiing and parked inner-transitional surface OFZ slopes 3 (horizontal)
airplanes and object penetrations, except for to 1 (vertical) out from the edges of the runway OFZ
frangible NAVAID locations that are fixed by and inner-approach OFZ to a height of 150 feet above
function. Additionally, vehicles, equipment, and the established airport elevation.
personnel may be authorized by air traffic control to (Refer to AC 150/5300-13, Chapter 3.)
enter the area using the provisions of FAAO JO (Refer to FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 3−1−5,
7110.65, Para 3−1−5, VEHICLES/EQUIPMENT/ VEHICLES/EQUIPMENT/PERSONNEL ON
PERSONNEL ON RUNWAYS. The runway OFZ RUNWAYS.)
and when applicable, the inner-approach OFZ, and
OBSTRUCTION− Any object/obstacle exceeding
the inner-transitional OFZ, comprise the OFZ.
the obstruction standards specified by 14 CFR
a. Runway OFZ. The runway OFZ is a defined Part 77, Subpart C.
volume of airspace centered above the runway. The
OBSTRUCTION LIGHT− A light or one of a group
runway OFZ is the airspace above a surface whose
of lights, usually red or white, frequently mounted on
elevation at any point is the same as the elevation of
a surface structure or natural terrain to warn pilots of
the nearest point on the runway centerline. The
the presence of an obstruction.
runway OFZ extends 200 feet beyond each end of the
runway. The width is as follows: OCEANIC AIRSPACE− Airspace over the oceans of
the world, considered international airspace, where
1. For runways serving large airplanes, the
oceanic separation and procedures per the Interna-
greater of:
tional Civil Aviation Organization are applied.
(a) 400 feet, or Responsibility for the provisions of air traffic control

PCG O−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary 11/10/16
12/10/15

service in this airspace is delegated to various b. Used by ATC to advise a pilot making a radar
countries, based generally upon geographic proxim- approach that his/her aircraft is lined up on the final
ity and the availability of the required resources. approach course.
(See ON-COURSE INDICATION.)
OCEANIC ERROR REPORT− A report filed when
ATC observes an Oceanic Error as defined by ON-COURSE INDICATION− An indication on an
FAAO 7110.82, Reporting Oceanic Errors. instrument, which provides the pilot a visual means
of determining that the aircraft is located on the
OCEANIC PUBLISHED ROUTE− A route estab- centerline of a given navigational track, or an
lished in international airspace and charted or indication on a radar scope that an aircraft is on a
described in flight information publications, such as given track.
Route Charts, DOD Enroute Charts, Chart Supple-
ments, NOTAMs, and Track Messages. ONE-MINUTE WEATHER− The most recent one
minute updated weather broadcast received by a pilot
OCEANIC TRANSITION ROUTE− An ATS route from an uncontrolled airport ASOS/AWSS/AWOS.
established for the purpose of transitioning aircraft
ONER−
to/from an organized track system.
(See OCEANIC NAVIGATIONAL ERROR
ODP− REPORT.)
(See OBSTACLE DEPARTURE PROCEDURE.) OPERATIONAL−
OFF COURSE− A term used to describe a situation (See DUE REGARD.)
where an aircraft has reported a position fix or is OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS [ICAO]− The
observed on radar at a point not on the ATC-approved authorizations, conditions and limitations associated
route of flight. with the air operator certificate and subject to the
conditions in the operations manual.
OFF-ROUTE VECTOR− A vector by ATC which
takes an aircraft off a previously assigned route. OPPOSITE DIRECTION AIRCRAFT− Aircraft are
Altitudes assigned by ATC during such vectors operating in opposite directions when:
provide required obstacle clearance. a. They are following the same track in reciprocal
directions; or
OFFSET PARALLEL RUNWAYS− Staggered
runways having centerlines which are parallel. b. Their tracks are parallel and the aircraft are
flying in reciprocal directions; or
OFFSHORE/CONTROL AIRSPACE AREA− That c. Their tracks intersect at an angle of more than
portion of airspace between the U.S. 12 NM limit and 135_.
the oceanic CTA/FIR boundary within which air
traffic control is exercised. These areas are OPTION APPROACH− An approach requested and
established to provide air traffic control services. conducted by a pilot which will result in either a
Offshore/Control Airspace Areas may be classified touch-and-go, missed approach, low approach,
as either Class A airspace or Class E airspace. stop-and-go, or full stop landing. Pilots should advise
ATC if they decide to remain on the runway, of any
OFT− delay in their stop and go, delay clearing the runway,
(See OUTER FIX TIME.) or are unable to comply with the instruction(s).
(See CLEARED FOR THE OPTION.)
OM−
(Refer to AIM.)
(See OUTER MARKER.)
ORGANIZED TRACK SYSTEM− A series of ATS
ON COURSE− routes which are fixed and charted; i.e., CEP,
a. Used to indicate that an aircraft is established on NOPAC, or flexible and described by NOTAM; i.e.,
the route centerline. NAT TRACK MESSAGE.

PCG O−2
11/10/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

OROCA− An off-route altitude which provides OUTER FIX− An adapted fix along the converted
obstruction clearance with a 1,000 foot buffer in route of flight, prior to the meter fix, for which
nonmountainous terrain areas and a 2,000 foot buffer crossing times are calculated and displayed in the
in designated mountainous areas within the United metering position list.
States. This altitude may not provide signal coverage OUTER FIX ARC− A semicircle, usually about a
from ground-based navigational aids, air traffic 50−70 mile radius from a meter fix, usually in high
control radar, or communications coverage. altitude, which is used by CTAS/HOST to calculate
OTR− outer fix times and determine appropriate sector
(See OCEANIC TRANSITION ROUTE.) meter list assignments for aircraft on an established
arrival route that will traverse the arc.
OTS−
OUTER FIX TIME− A calculated time to depart the
(See ORGANIZED TRACK SYSTEM.) outer fix in order to cross the vertex at the ACLT. The
OUT− The conversation is ended and no response is time reflects descent speed adjustments and any
expected. applicable delay time that must be absorbed prior to
crossing the meter fix.
OUT OF SERVICE− When a piece of equipment, a
OUTER MARKER− A marker beacon at or near the
system, a facility or a service is not operational,
glideslope intercept altitude of an ILS approach. It is
certified (if required) and immediately “available”
keyed to transmit two dashes per second on a 400 Hz
for Air Traffic or public use.
tone, which is received aurally and visually by
OUTER AREA (associated with Class C airspace)− compatible airborne equipment. The OM is normally
Nonregulatory airspace surrounding designated located four to seven miles from the runway threshold
Class C airspace airports wherein ATC provides radar on the extended centerline of the runway.
vectoring and sequencing on a full-time basis for all (See INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM.)
IFR and participating VFR aircraft. The service (See MARKER BEACON.)
provided in the outer area is called Class C service (Refer to AIM.)
which includes: IFR/IFR−IFR separation; IFR/ OVER− My transmission is ended; I expect a
VFR−traffic advisories and conflict resolution; and response.
VFR/VFR−traffic advisories and, as appropriate,
safety alerts. The normal radius will be 20 nautical OVERHEAD MANEUVER− A series of predeter-
miles with some variations based on site-specific mined maneuvers prescribed for aircraft (often in
requirements. The outer area extends outward from formation) for entry into the visual flight rules (VFR)
the primary Class C airspace airport and extends from traffic pattern and to proceed to a landing. An
the lower limits of radar/radio coverage up to the overhead maneuver is not an instrument flight rules
ceiling of the approach control’s delegated airspace (IFR) approach procedure. An aircraft executing an
excluding the Class C charted area and other airspace overhead maneuver is considered VFR and the IFR
as appropriate. flight plan is cancelled when the aircraft reaches the
(See CONFLICT RESOLUTION.) “initial point” on the initial approach portion of the
maneuver. The pattern usually specifies the
(See CONTROLLED AIRSPACE.)
following:
OUTER COMPASS LOCATOR− a. The radio contact required of the pilot.
(See COMPASS LOCATOR.) b. The speed to be maintained.
OUTER FIX− A general term used within ATC to c. An initial approach 3 to 5 miles in length.
describe fixes in the terminal area, other than the final d. An elliptical pattern consisting of two 180
approach fix. Aircraft are normally cleared to these degree turns.
fixes by an Air Route Traffic Control Center or an e. A break point at which the first 180 degree turn
Approach Control Facility. Aircraft are normally is started.
cleared from these fixes to the final approach fix or f. The direction of turns.
final approach course.
g. Altitude (at least 500 feet above the convention-
OR al pattern).

PCG O−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary 11/10/16
12/10/15

h. A “Roll-out” on final approach not less than 1/4 OVERLYING CENTER− The ARTCC facility that
mile from the landing threshold and not less than 300 is responsible for arrival/departure operations at a
feet above the ground. specific terminal.

PCG O−4
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

P
P TIME− PERFORMANCE−BASED NAVIGATION (PBN)
(See PROPOSED DEPARTURE TIME.) [ICAO]− Area navigation based on performance
requirements for aircraft operating along an ATS
P-ACP− route, on an instrument approach procedure or in a
(See PREARRANGED COORDINATION designated airspace.
PROCEDURES.)
Note: Performance requirements are expressed in
PAN-PAN− The international radio-telephony urgen- navigation specifications (RNAV specification,
cy signal. When repeated three times, indicates RNP specification) in terms of accuracy, integrity,
uncertainty or alert followed by the nature of the continuity, availability, and functionality needed for
the proposed operation in the context of a
urgency.
particular airspace concept.
(See MAYDAY.)
(Refer to AIM.) PERMANENT ECHO− Radar signals reflected from
fixed objects on the earth’s surface; e.g., buildings,
PAR−
towers, terrain. Permanent echoes are distinguished
(See PRECISION APPROACH RADAR.)
from “ground clutter” by being definable locations
PAR [ICAO]− rather than large areas. Under certain conditions they
(See ICAO Term PRECISION APPROACH may be used to check radar alignment.
RADAR.)
PHOTO RECONNAISSANCE− Military activity
PARALLEL ILS APPROACHES− Approaches to that requires locating individual photo targets and
parallel runways by IFR aircraft which, when navigating to the targets at a preplanned angle and
established inbound toward the airport on the altitude. The activity normally requires a lateral route
adjacent final approach courses, are radar-separated width of 16 NM and altitude range of 1,500 feet to
by at least 2 miles. 10,000 feet AGL.
(See FINAL APPROACH COURSE.) PILOT BRIEFING− A service provided by the FSS
(See SIMULTANEOUS ILS APPROACHES.) to assist pilots in flight planning. Briefing items may
PARALLEL OFFSET ROUTE− A parallel track to include weather information, NOTAMS, military
the left or right of the designated or established activities, flow control information, and other items
airway/route. Normally associated with Area Navi- as requested.
gation (RNAV) operations. (Refer to AIM.)
(See AREA NAVIGATION.) PILOT IN COMMAND− The pilot responsible for
PARALLEL RUNWAYS− Two or more runways at the operation and safety of an aircraft during flight
the same airport whose centerlines are parallel. In time.
addition to runway number, parallel runways are (Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
designated as L (left) and R (right) or, if three parallel PILOT WEATHER REPORT− A report of meteoro-
runways exist, L (left), C (center), and R (right). logical phenomena encountered by aircraft in flight.
PBCT− (Refer to AIM.)
(See PROPOSED BOUNDARY CROSSING PILOT’S DISCRETION− When used in conjunc-
TIME.) tion with altitude assignments, means that ATC has
PBN offered the pilot the option of starting climb or
(See ICAO Term PERFORMANCE−BASED descent whenever he/she wishes and conducting the
NAVIGATION.) climb or descent at any rate he/she wishes. He/she
may temporarily level off at any intermediate
PDC− altitude. However, once he/she has vacated an
(See PRE−DEPARTURE CLEARANCE.) altitude, he/she may not return to that altitude.

PCG P−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary 12/10/15

PIREP− PREARRANGED COORDINATION− A standard-


(See PILOT WEATHER REPORT.) ized procedure which permits an air traffic controller
to enter the airspace assigned to another air traffic
PITCH POINT− A fix/waypoint that serves as a controller without verbal coordination. The proce-
transition point from a departure procedure or the low dures are defined in a facility directive which ensures
altitude ground−based navigation structure into the approved separation between aircraft.
high altitude waypoint system.
PREARRANGED COORDINATION PROCE-
PLANS DISPLAY− A display available in EDST DURES− A facility’s standardized procedure that
that provides detailed flight plan and predicted describes the process by which one controller shall
conflict information in textual format for requested allow an aircraft to penetrate or transit another
Current Plans and all Trial Plans. controller’s airspace in a manner that assures
(See EN ROUTE DECISION SUPPORT TOOL) approved separation without individual coordination
POFZ− for each aircraft.
(See PRECISION OBSTACLE FREE ZONE.) PRECIPITATION− Any or all forms of water
particles (rain, sleet, hail, or snow) that fall from the
POINT OUT−
atmosphere and reach the surface.
(See RADAR POINT OUT.)
PRECIPITATION RADAR WEATHER DE-
POINT−TO−POINT (PTP)− A level of NRR service SCRIPTIONS − Existing radar systems cannot detect
for aircraft that is based on traditional waypoints in turbulence. However, there is a direct correlation
their FMSs or RNAV equipage. between the degree of turbulence and other weather
POLAR TRACK STRUCTURE− A system of features associated with thunderstorms and the
organized routes between Iceland and Alaska which weather radar precipitation intensity. Controllers will
overlie Canadian MNPS Airspace. issue (where capable) precipitation intensity as
observed by radar when using weather and radar
POSITION REPORT− A report over a known processor (WARP) or NAS ground based digital
location as transmitted by an aircraft to ATC. radars with weather capabilities. When precipitation
(Refer to AIM.) intensity information is not available, the intensity
POSITION SYMBOL− A computer-generated will be described as UNKNOWN. When intensity
indication shown on a radar display to indicate the levels can be determined, they shall be described as:
mode of tracking. a. LIGHT (< 30 dBZ)
POSITIVE CONTROL− The separation of all air b. MODERATE (30 to 40 dBZ)
traffic within designated airspace by air traffic c. HEAVY (> 40 to 50 dBZ)
control. d. EXTREME (> 50 dBZ)
PRACTICE INSTRUMENT APPROACH− An (Refer to AC 00−45, Aviation Weather Services.)
instrument approach procedure conducted by a VFR PRECISION APPROACH−
or an IFR aircraft for the purpose of pilot training or (See PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
proficiency demonstrations.
PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE− A
PRE−DEPARTURE CLEARANCE− An application standard instrument approach procedure in which an
with the Terminal Data Link System (TDLS) that electronic glideslope/or other type of glidepath is
provides clearance information to subscribers, provided ; e.g., ILS, PAR, and GLS.
through a service provider, in text to the cockpit or (See INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM.)
gate printer. (See PRECISION APPROACH RADAR.)

PCG P−2
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

PRECISION APPROACH RADAR− Radar equip- system, or other FMA with the same capability,
ment in some ATC facilities operated by the FAA presents (NTZ) surveillance track data to controllers
and/or the military services at joint-use civil/military along with detailed maps depicting approaches and
locations and separate military installations to detect no transgression zone and is required for all
and display azimuth, elevation, and range of aircraft simultaneous close parallel PRM NTZ monitoring
on the final approach course to a runway. This operations.
equipment may be used to monitor certain nonradar (Refer to AIM)
approaches, but is primarily used to conduct a PREDICTIVE WIND SHEAR ALERT SYSTEM
precision instrument approach (PAR) wherein the (PWS)− A self−contained system used onboard some
controller issues guidance instructions to the pilot aircraft to alert the flight crew to the presence of a
based on the aircraft’s position in relation to the final potential wind shear. PWS systems typically monitor
approach course (azimuth), the glidepath (elevation), 3 miles ahead and 25 degrees left and right of the
and the distance (range) from the touchdown point on aircraft’s heading at or below 1200’ AGL. Departing
the runway as displayed on the radar scope. flights may receive a wind shear alert after they start
Note: The abbreviation “PAR” is also used to the takeoff roll and may elect to abort the takeoff.
denote preferential arrival routes in ARTCC Aircraft on approach receiving an alert may elect to
computers. go around or perform a wind shear escape maneuver.
(See GLIDEPATH.)
PREFERENTIAL ROUTES− Preferential routes
(See PAR.) (PDRs, PARs, and PDARs) are adapted in ARTCC
(See PREFERENTIAL ROUTES.) computers to accomplish inter/intrafacility controller
(See ICAO term PRECISION APPROACH coordination and to assure that flight data is posted at
RADAR.) the proper control positions. Locations having a need
(Refer to AIM.) for these specific inbound and outbound routes
PRECISION APPROACH RADAR [ICAO]− Pri- normally publish such routes in local facility
mary radar equipment used to determine the position bulletins, and their use by pilots minimizes flight
of an aircraft during final approach, in terms of lateral plan route amendments. When the workload or traffic
and vertical deviations relative to a nominal approach situation permits, controllers normally provide radar
path, and in range relative to touchdown. vectors or assign requested routes to minimize
Note: Precision approach radars are designed to
circuitous routing. Preferential routes are usually
enable pilots of aircraft to be given guidance by confined to one ARTCC’s area and are referred to by
radio communication during the final stages of the the following names or acronyms:
approach to land. a. Preferential Departure Route (PDR). A specific
departure route from an airport or terminal area to an
PRECISION OBSTACLE FREE ZONE (POFZ)− en route point where there is no further need for flow
An 800 foot wide by 200 foot long area centered on control. It may be included in an Instrument
the runway centerline adjacent to the threshold Departure Procedure (DP) or a Preferred IFR Route.
designed to protect aircraft flying precision
b. Preferential Arrival Route (PAR). A specific
approaches from ground vehicles and other aircraft
arrival route from an appropriate en route point to an
when ceiling is less than 250 feet or visibility is less
airport or terminal area. It may be included in a
than 3/4 statute mile (or runway visual range below
Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR) or a Preferred IFR
4,000 feet.)
Route. The abbreviation “PAR” is used primarily
PRECISION RUNWAY MONITOR (PRM) within the ARTCC and should not be confused with
SYSTEM− Provides air traffic controllers the abbreviation for Precision Approach Radar.
monitoring the NTZ during simultaneous close c. Preferential Departure and Arrival Route
parallel PRM approaches with precision, high update (PDAR). A route between two terminals which are
rate secondary surveillance data. The high update rate within or immediately adjacent to one ARTCC’s area.
surveillance sensor component of the PRM system is PDARs are not synonymous with Preferred IFR
only required for specific runway or approach course Routes but may be listed as such as they do
separation. The high resolution color monitoring accomplish essentially the same purpose.
display, Final Monitor Aid (FMA) of the PRM (See PREFERRED IFR ROUTES.)

PCG P−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary 4/27/17
12/10/15

PREFERRED IFR ROUTES− Routes established the procedure. However, unless otherwise restricted,
between busier airports to increase system efficiency the point at which the turn may be commenced and
and capacity. They normally extend through one or the type and rate of turn are left to the discretion of the
more ARTCC areas and are designed to achieve pilot.
balanced traffic flows among high density terminals. (See ICAO term PROCEDURE TURN.)
IFR clearances are issued on the basis of these routes PROCEDURE TURN [ICAO]− A maneuver in
except when severe weather avoidance procedures or which a turn is made away from a designated track
other factors dictate otherwise. Preferred IFR Routes followed by a turn in the opposite direction to permit
are listed in the Chart Supplement U.S. If a flight is the aircraft to intercept and proceed along the
planned to or from an area having such routes but the reciprocal of the designated track.
departure or arrival point is not listed in the Chart Note 1: Procedure turns are designated “left” or
Supplement U.S., pilots may use that part of a “right” according to the direction of the initial turn.
Preferred IFR Route which is appropriate for the Note 2: Procedure turns may be designated as
departure or arrival point that is listed. Preferred IFR being made either in level flight or while
Routes are correlated with DPs and STARs and may descending, according to the circumstances of
be defined by airways, jet routes, direct routes each individual approach procedure.
between NAVAIDs, Waypoints, NAVAID radials/
PROCEDURE TURN INBOUND− That point of a
DME, or any combinations thereof.
procedure turn maneuver where course reversal has
(See CENTER’S AREA.)
been completed and an aircraft is established inbound
(See INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE
on the intermediate approach segment or final
PROCEDURE.)
approach course. A report of “procedure turn
(See PREFERENTIAL ROUTES.)
inbound” is normally used by ATC as a position
(See STANDARD TERMINAL ARRIVAL.)
report for separation purposes.
(Refer to CHART SUPPLEMENT U.S.)
(See FINAL APPROACH COURSE.)
(Refer to NOTICES TO AIRMEN PUBLICATION.) (See PROCEDURE TURN.)
PRE-FLIGHT PILOT BRIEFING− (See SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT
(See PILOT BRIEFING.) APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
PROFILE DESCENT− An uninterrupted descent
PREVAILING VISIBILITY−
(except where level flight is required for speed
(See VISIBILITY.)
adjustment; e.g., 250 knots at 10,000 feet MSL) from
PRIMARY RADAR TARGET− An analog or digital cruising altitude/level to interception of a glideslope
target, exclusive of a secondary radar target, or to a minimum altitude specified for the initial or
presented on a radar display. intermediate approach segment of a nonprecision
instrument approach. The profile descent normally
PRM− terminates at the approach gate or where the
(See ILS PRM APPROACH and PRECISION glideslope or other appropriate minimum altitude is
RUNWAY MONITOR SYSTEM.) intercepted.
PROCEDURAL CONTROL [ICAO]– Term used to PROGRESS REPORT−
indicate that information derived from an ATS (See POSITION REPORT.)
surveillance system is not required for the provision PROGRESSIVE TAXI− Precise taxi instructions
of air traffic control service. given to a pilot unfamiliar with the airport or issued
PROCEDURAL SEPARATION [ICAO]– The sepa- in stages as the aircraft proceeds along the taxi route.
ration used when providing procedural control. PROHIBITED AREA−
PROCEDURE TURN− The maneuver prescribed (See SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE.)
when it is necessary to reverse direction to establish (See ICAO term PROHIBITED AREA.)
an aircraft on the intermediate approach segment or PROHIBITED AREA [ICAO]− An airspace of
final approach course. The outbound course, defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial
direction of turn, distance within which the turn must waters of a State, within which the flight of aircraft
be completed, and minimum altitude are specified in is prohibited.

PCG P−4
4/27/17
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

PROMINENT OBSTACLE– An obstacle that meets the lateral separation minimum except where
one or more of the following conditions: reduction of protected airspace has been authorized.
a. An obstacle which stands out beyond the PROTECTED SEGMENT- The protected segment is
adjacent surface of surrounding terrain and immedi- a segment on the amended TFM route that is to be
ately projects a noticeable hazard to aircraft in flight. inhibited from automatic adapted route alteration by
b. An obstacle, not characterized as low and close ERAM.
in, whose height is no less than 300 feet above the PT−
departure end of takeoff runway (DER) elevation, is (See PROCEDURE TURN.)
within 10NM from the DER, and that penetrates that
airport/heliport’s diverse departure obstacle clear- PTP−
ance surface (OCS). (See POINT−TO−POINT.)
c. An obstacle beyond 10NM from an airport/heli- PTS−
port that requires an obstacle departure procedure (See POLAR TRACK STRUCTURE.)
(ODP) to ensure obstacle avoidance. PUBLISHED INSTRUMENT APPROACH
(See OBSTACLE.) PROCEDURE VISUAL SEGMENT− A segment on
(See OBSTRUCTION.) an IAP chart annotated as “Fly Visual to Airport” or
“Fly Visual.” A dashed arrow will indicate the visual
PROPOSED BOUNDARY CROSSING TIME−
flight path on the profile and plan view with an
Each center has a PBCT parameter for each internal
associated note on the approximate heading and
airport. Proposed internal flight plans are transmitted
distance. The visual segment should be flown as a
to the adjacent center if the flight time along the
dead reckoning course while maintaining visual
proposed route from the departure airport to the
conditions.
center boundary is less than or equal to the value of
PBCT or if airport adaptation specifies transmission PUBLISHED ROUTE− A route for which an IFR
regardless of PBCT. altitude has been established and published; e.g.,
Federal Airways, Jet Routes, Area Navigation
PROPOSED DEPARTURE TIME− The time that the Routes, Specified Direct Routes.
aircraft expects to become airborne.
PWS−
PROTECTED AIRSPACE− The airspace on either (See PREDICTIVE WIND SHEAR ALERT
side of an oceanic route/track that is equal to one-half SYSTEM.)

PCG P−5
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

Q
Q ROUTE− ‘Q’ is the designator assigned to as follows: NE quadrant 000-089, SE quadrant
published RNAV routes used by the United States. 090-179, SW quadrant 180-269, NW quadrant
270-359.
QNE− The barometric pressure used for the standard
altimeter setting (29.92 inches Hg.). QUEUING−
(See STAGING/QUEUING.)
QNH− The barometric pressure as reported by a
particular station. QUICK LOOK− A feature of the EAS and ARTS
which provides the controller the capability to
QUADRANT− A quarter part of a circle, centered on display full data blocks of tracked aircraft from other
a NAVAID, oriented clockwise from magnetic north control positions.

PCG Q−1
5/26/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

R
RADAR− A device which, by measuring the time RADAR APPROACH− An instrument approach
interval between transmission and reception of radio procedure which utilizes Precision Approach Radar
pulses and correlating the angular orientation of the (PAR) or Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR).
radiated antenna beam or beams in azimuth and/or (See AIRPORT SURVEILLANCE RADAR.)
elevation, provides information on range, azimuth, (See INSTRUMENT APPROACH
and/or elevation of objects in the path of the PROCEDURE.)
transmitted pulses. (See PRECISION APPROACH RADAR.)
(See SURVEILLANCE APPROACH.)
a. Primary Radar− A radar system in which a
(See ICAO term RADAR APPROACH.)
minute portion of a radio pulse transmitted from a site
(Refer to AIM.)
is reflected by an object and then received back at that
site for processing and display at an air traffic control RADAR APPROACH [ICAO]− An approach,
facility. executed by an aircraft, under the direction of a radar
controller.
b. Secondary Radar/Radar Beacon (ATCRBS)− A
radar system in which the object to be detected is RADAR APPROACH CONTROL FACILITY− A
fitted with cooperative equipment in the form of a terminal ATC facility that uses radar and nonradar
radio receiver/transmitter (transponder). Radar capabilities to provide approach control services to
pulses transmitted from the searching transmitter/re- aircraft arriving, departing, or transiting airspace
ceiver (interrogator) site are received in the controlled by the facility.
cooperative equipment and used to trigger a (See APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE.)
distinctive transmission from the transponder. This a. Provides radar ATC services to aircraft
reply transmission, rather than a reflected signal, is operating in the vicinity of one or more civil and/or
then received back at the transmitter/receiver site for military airports in a terminal area. The facility may
processing and display at an air traffic control facility. provide services of a ground controlled approach
(See INTERROGATOR.) (GCA); i.e., ASR and PAR approaches. A radar
approach control facility may be operated by FAA,
(See TRANSPONDER.)
USAF, US Army, USN, USMC, or jointly by FAA
(See ICAO term RADAR.) and a military service. Specific facility nomencla-
(Refer to AIM.) tures are used for administrative purposes only and
are related to the physical location of the facility and
RADAR [ICAO]− A radio detection device which the operating service generally as follows:
provides information on range, azimuth and/or 1. Army Radar Approach Control (ARAC)
elevation of objects. (Army).
a. Primary Radar− Radar system which uses 2. Radar Air Traffic Control Facility (RATCF)
reflected radio signals. (Navy/FAA).
b. Secondary Radar− Radar system wherein a 3. Radar Approach Control (RAPCON) (Air
radio signal transmitted from a radar station initiates Force/FAA).
the transmission of a radio signal from another 4. Terminal Radar Approach Control
station. (TRACON) (FAA).
5. Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) (FAA).
RADAR ADVISORY− The provision of advice and (Only those towers delegated approach control
information based on radar observations. authority.)
(See ADVISORY SERVICE.) RADAR ARRIVAL− An aircraft arriving at an
airport served by a radar facility and in radar contact
RADAR ALTIMETER− with the facility.
(See RADIO ALTIMETER.) (See NONRADAR.)

PCG R−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary 4/27/17
12/10/15

RADAR BEACON− RADAR FLIGHT FOLLOWING− The observation


(See RADAR.) of the progress of radar identified aircraft, whose
primary navigation is being provided by the pilot,
RADAR CLUTTER [ICAO]− The visual indication wherein the controller retains and correlates the
on a radar display of unwanted signals. aircraft identity with the appropriate target or target
RADAR CONTACT− symbol displayed on the radar scope.
(See RADAR CONTACT.)
a. Used by ATC to inform an aircraft that it is (See RADAR SERVICE.)
identified using an approved ATC surveillance (Refer to AIM.)
source on an air traffic controller’s display and that
radar flight following will be provided until radar RADAR IDENTIFICATION− The process of
service is terminated. Radar service may also be ascertaining that an observed radar target is the radar
provided within the limits of necessity and capability. return from a particular aircraft.
When a pilot is informed of “radar contact,” he/she (See RADAR CONTACT.)
automatically discontinues reporting over compuls- (See RADAR SERVICE.)
ory reporting points. (See ICAO term RADAR IDENTIFICATION.)
(See ATC SURVEILLANCE SOURCE.) RADAR IDENTIFIED AIRCRAFT− An aircraft, the
(See RADAR CONTACT LOST.) position of which has been correlated with an
(See RADAR FLIGHT FOLLOWING.) observed target or symbol on the radar display.
(See RADAR SERVICE.) (See RADAR CONTACT.)
(See RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED.) (See RADAR CONTACT LOST.)
(Refer to AIM.) RADAR MONITORING−
b. The term used to inform the controller that the (See RADAR SERVICE.)
aircraft is identified and approval is granted for the
RADAR NAVIGATIONAL GUIDANCE−
aircraft to enter the receiving controllers airspace.
(See RADAR SERVICE.)
(See ICAO term RADAR CONTACT.)
RADAR POINT OUT− An action taken by a
RADAR CONTACT [ICAO]− The situation which controller to transfer the radar identification of an
exists when the radar blip or radar position symbol of aircraft to another controller if the aircraft will or may
a particular aircraft is seen and identified on a radar enter the airspace or protected airspace of another
display. controller and radio communications will not be
RADAR CONTACT LOST− Used by ATC to inform transferred.
a pilot that the surveillance data used to determine the RADAR REQUIRED− A term displayed on charts
aircraft’s position is no longer being received, or is no and approach plates and included in FDC NOTAMs
longer reliable and radar service is no longer being to alert pilots that segments of either an instrument
provided. The loss may be attributed to several approach procedure or a route are not navigable
factors including the aircraft merging with weather or because of either the absence or unusability of a
ground clutter, the aircraft operating below radar line NAVAID. The pilot can expect to be provided radar
of sight coverage, the aircraft entering an area of poor navigational guidance while transiting segments
radar return, failure of the aircraft’s equipment, or labeled with this term.
failure of the surveillance equipment. (See RADAR ROUTE.)
(See CLUTTER.) (See RADAR SERVICE.)
(See RADAR CONTACT.)
RADAR ROUTE− A flight path or route over which
RADAR ENVIRONMENT− An area in which radar an aircraft is vectored. Navigational guidance and
service may be provided. altitude assignments are provided by ATC.
(See ADDITIONAL SERVICES.) (See FLIGHT PATH.)
(See RADAR CONTACT.) (See ROUTE.)
(See RADAR SERVICE.) RADAR SEPARATION−
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.) (See RADAR SERVICE.)

PCG R−2
4/27/17
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

RADAR SERVICE− A term which encompasses one other airports, is instructed to change to tower or
or more of the following services based on the use of advisory frequency.
radar which can be provided by a controller to a pilot d. An aircraft completes a radar approach.
of a radar identified aircraft.
RADAR SURVEILLANCE− The radar observation
a. Radar Monitoring− The radar flight-following of a given geographical area for the purpose of
of aircraft, whose primary navigation is being performing some radar function.
performed by the pilot, to observe and note deviations
from its authorized flight path, airway, or route. RADAR TRAFFIC ADVISORIES− Advisories
When being applied specifically to radar monitoring issued to alert pilots to known or observed radar
of instrument approaches; i.e., with precision traffic which may affect the intended route of flight
approach radar (PAR) or radar monitoring of of their aircraft.
simultaneous ILS,RNAV and GLS approaches, it (See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
includes advice and instructions whenever an aircraft RADAR TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE−
nears or exceeds the prescribed PAR safety limit or
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
simultaneous ILS RNAV and GLS no transgression
zone. RADAR VECTORING [ICAO]− Provision of
(See ADDITIONAL SERVICES.) navigational guidance to aircraft in the form of
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.) specific headings, based on the use of radar.
b. Radar Navigational Guidance− Vectoring RADIAL− A magnetic bearing extending from a
aircraft to provide course guidance. VOR/VORTAC/TACAN navigation facility.
c. Radar Separation− Radar spacing of aircraft in RADIO−
accordance with established minima. a. A device used for communication.
(See ICAO term RADAR SERVICE.)
b. Used to refer to a flight service station; e.g.,
RADAR SERVICE [ICAO]− Term used to indicate “Seattle Radio” is used to call Seattle FSS.
a service provided directly by means of radar. RADIO ALTIMETER− Aircraft equipment which
a. Monitoring− The use of radar for the purpose of makes use of the reflection of radio waves from the
providing aircraft with information and advice ground to determine the height of the aircraft above
relative to significant deviations from nominal flight the surface.
path.
RADIO BEACON−
b. Separation− The separation used when aircraft (See NONDIRECTIONAL BEACON.)
position information is derived from radar sources.
RADIO DETECTION AND RANGING−
RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED− Used by ATC (See RADAR.)
to inform a pilot that he/she will no longer be
RADIO MAGNETIC INDICATOR− An aircraft
provided any of the services that could be received
navigational instrument coupled with a gyro compass
while in radar contact. Radar service is automatically
or similar compass that indicates the direction of a
terminated, and the pilot is not advised in the
selected NAVAID and indicates bearing with respect
following cases:
to the heading of the aircraft.
a. An aircraft cancels its IFR flight plan, except
within Class B airspace, Class C airspace, a TRSA, RAIS−
or where Basic Radar service is provided. (See REMOTE AIRPORT INFORMATION
SERVICE.)
b. An aircraft conducting an instrument, visual, or
contact approach has landed or has been instructed to RAMP−
change to advisory frequency. (See APRON.)
c. An arriving VFR aircraft, receiving radar RANDOM ALTITUDE− An altitude inappropriate
service to a tower-controlled airport within Class B for direction of flight and/or not in accordance with
airspace, Class C airspace, a TRSA, or where FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 4−5−1, VERTICAL
sequencing service is provided, has landed; or to all SEPARATION MINIMA.

PCG R−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary 5/26/16
12/10/15

RANDOM ROUTE− Any route not established or REMOTE AIRPORT INFORMATION SERVICE
charted/published or not otherwise available to all (RAIS)− A temporary service provided by facilities,
users. which are not located on the landing airport, but have
communication capability and automated weather
RC−
reporting available to the pilot at the landing airport.
(See ROAD RECONNAISSANCE.)
REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS AIR/GROUND
RCAG− FACILITY− An unmanned VHF/UHF transmitter/
(See REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS receiver facility which is used to expand ARTCC
AIR/GROUND FACILITY.) air/ground communications coverage and to facilitate
RCC− direct contact between pilots and controllers. RCAG
(See RESCUE COORDINATION CENTER.)
facilities are sometimes not equipped with emergen-
cy frequencies 121.5 MHz and 243.0 MHz.
RCO− (Refer to AIM.)
(See REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS OUTLET.) REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS OUTLET− An
RCR− unmanned communications facility remotely con-
(See RUNWAY CONDITION READING.) trolled by air traffic personnel. RCOs serve FSSs.
RTRs serve terminal ATC facilities. An RCO or RTR
READ BACK− Repeat my message back to me. may be UHF or VHF and will extend the
RECEIVER AUTONOMOUS INTEGRITY MON- communication range of the air traffic facility. There
ITORING (RAIM)− A technique whereby a civil are several classes of RCOs and RTRs. The class is
GNSS receiver/processor determines the integrity of determined by the number of transmitters or
the GNSS navigation signals without reference to receivers. Classes A through G are used primarily for
sensors or non-DoD integrity systems other than the air/ground purposes. RCO and RTR class O
receiver itself. This determination is achieved by a facilities are nonprotected outlets subject to
consistency check among redundant pseudorange undetected and prolonged outages. RCO (O’s) and
measurements. RTR (O’s) were established for the express purpose
of providing ground-to-ground communications
RECEIVING CONTROLLER− A controller/facility between air traffic control specialists and pilots
receiving control of an aircraft from another located at a satellite airport for delivering en route
controller/facility. clearances, issuing departure authorizations, and
RECEIVING FACILITY− acknowledging instrument flight rules cancellations
or departure/landing times. As a secondary function,
(See RECEIVING CONTROLLER.)
they may be used for advisory purposes whenever the
RECONFORMANCE− The automated process of aircraft is below the coverage of the primary
bringing an aircraft’s Current Plan Trajectory into air/ground frequency.
conformance with its track. REMOTE TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER−
REDUCE SPEED TO (SPEED)− (See REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS OUTLET.)
(See SPEED ADJUSTMENT.) REPORT− Used to instruct pilots to advise ATC of
specified information; e.g., “Report passing Hamil-
REIL−
ton VOR.”
(See RUNWAY END IDENTIFIER LIGHTS.)
REPORTING POINT− A geographical location in
RELEASE TIME− A departure time restriction relation to which the position of an aircraft is
issued to a pilot by ATC (either directly or through an reported.
authorized relay) when necessary to separate a (See COMPULSORY REPORTING POINTS.)
departing aircraft from other traffic. (See ICAO term REPORTING POINT.)
(See ICAO term RELEASE TIME.) (Refer to AIM.)
RELEASE TIME [ICAO]− Time prior to which an REPORTING POINT [ICAO]− A specified geo-
aircraft should be given further clearance or prior to graphical location in relation to which the position of
which it should not proceed in case of radio failure. an aircraft can be reported.

PCG R−4
5/26/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

REQUEST FULL ROUTE CLEARANCE− Used RESCUE CO-ORDINATION CENTRE [ICAO]− A


by pilots to request that the entire route of flight be unit responsible for promoting efficient organization
read verbatim in an ATC clearance. Such request of search and rescue service and for coordinating the
should be made to preclude receiving an ATC conduct of search and rescue operations within a
clearance based on the original filed flight plan when search and rescue region.
a filed IFR flight plan has been revised by the pilot,
company, or operations prior to departure. RESOLUTION ADVISORY−A display indication
given to the pilot by the traffic alert and collision
avoidance systems (TCAS II) recommending a
REQUIRED NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE maneuver to increase vertical separation relative to an
(RNP)– A statement of the navigational performance intruding aircraft. Positive, negative, and vertical
necessary for operation within a defined airspace. speed limit (VSL) advisories constitute the resolution
The following terms are commonly associated with advisories. A resolution advisory is also classified as
RNP: corrective or preventive
a. Required Navigation Performance Level or RESTRICTED AREA−
Type (RNP-X). A value, in nautical miles (NM), from
(See SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE.)
the intended horizontal position within which an
(See ICAO term RESTRICTED AREA.)
aircraft would be at least 95-percent of the total flying
time. RESTRICTED AREA [ICAO]− An airspace of
defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial
b. Required Navigation Performance (RNP)
waters of a State, within which the flight of aircraft
Airspace. A generic term designating airspace, route
is restricted in accordance with certain specified
(s), leg (s), operation (s), or procedure (s) where
conditions.
minimum required navigational performance (RNP)
have been established. RESUME NORMAL SPEED− Used by ATC to
advise a pilot to resume an aircraft’s normal operating
c. Actual Navigation Performance (ANP). A
speed. It is issued to terminate a speed adjustment
measure of the current estimated navigational
where no published speed restrictions apply. It does
performance. Also referred to as Estimated Position
not delete speed restrictions in published procedures
Error (EPE).
of upcoming segments of flight. This does not relieve
d. Estimated Position Error (EPE). A measure of the pilot of those speed restrictions, which are
the current estimated navigational performance. Also applicable to 14 CFR Section 91.117.
referred to as Actual Navigation Performance (ANP).
RESUME OWN NAVIGATION− Used by ATC to
e. Lateral Navigation (LNAV). A function of area advise a pilot to resume his/her own navigational
navigation (RNAV) equipment which calculates, responsibility. It is issued after completion of a radar
displays, and provides lateral guidance to a profile or vector or when radar contact is lost while the aircraft
path. is being radar vectored.
(See RADAR CONTACT LOST.)
f. Vertical Navigation (VNAV). A function of area
(See RADAR SERVICE TERMINATED.)
navigation (RNAV) equipment which calculates,
displays, and provides vertical guidance to a profile RESUME PUBLISHED SPEED- Used by ATC to
or path. advise a pilot to resume published speed restrictions
that are applicable to a SID, STAR, or other
RESCUE COORDINATION CENTER− A search instrument procedure. It is issued to terminate a speed
and rescue (SAR) facility equipped and manned to adjustment where speed restrictions are published on
coordinate and control SAR operations in an area a charted procedure.
designated by the SAR plan. The U.S. Coast Guard RMI−
and the U.S. Air Force have responsibility for the
(See RADIO MAGNETIC INDICATOR.)
operation of RCCs.
(See ICAO term RESCUE CO-ORDINATION RNAV−
CENTRE.) (See AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV).)

PCG R−5
Pilot/Controller Glossary 5/26/16
12/10/15

RNAV APPROACH− An instrument approach RUNWAY− A defined rectangular area on a land


procedure which relies on aircraft area navigation airport prepared for the landing and takeoff run of
equipment for navigational guidance. aircraft along its length. Runways are normally
(See AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV).) numbered in relation to their magnetic direction
(See INSTRUMENT APPROACH rounded off to the nearest 10 degrees; e.g., Runway
PROCEDURE.) 1, Runway 25.
(See PARALLEL RUNWAYS.)
ROAD RECONNAISSANCE− Military activity
(See ICAO term RUNWAY.)
requiring navigation along roads, railroads, and
rivers. Reconnaissance route/route segments are RUNWAY [ICAO]− A defined rectangular area on a
seldom along a straight line and normally require a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off
lateral route width of 10 NM to 30 NM and an altitude of aircraft.
range of 500 feet to 10,000 feet AGL. RUNWAY CENTERLINE LIGHTING−
ROGER− I have received all of your last (See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
transmission. It should not be used to answer a RUNWAY CONDITION READING− Numerical
question requiring a yes or a no answer. decelerometer readings relayed by air traffic
(See AFFIRMATIVE.) controllers at USAF and certain civil bases for use by
(See NEGATIVE.) the pilot in determining runway braking action.
These readings are routinely relayed only to USAF
ROLLOUT RVR−
and Air National Guard Aircraft.
(See VISIBILITY.)
(See BRAKING ACTION.)
ROUTE− A defined path, consisting of one or more RUNWAY END IDENTIFIER LIGHTS−
courses in a horizontal plane, which aircraft traverse
(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
over the surface of the earth.
(See AIRWAY.) RUNWAY ENTRANCE LIGHTS (REL)—An array
(See JET ROUTE.) of red lights which include the first light at the hold
(See PUBLISHED ROUTE.) line followed by a series of evenly spaced lights to the
(See UNPUBLISHED ROUTE.)
runway edge aligned with the taxiway centerline, and
one additional light at the runway centerline in line
ROUTE ACTION NOTIFICATION− EDST notifi- with the last two lights before the runway edge.
cation that a PAR/PDR/PDAR has been applied to the
RUNWAY GRADIENT− The average slope, mea-
flight plan.
sured in percent, between two ends or points on a
(See ATC PREFERRED ROUTE
runway. Runway gradient is depicted on Government
NOTIFICATION.)
aerodrome sketches when total runway gradient
(See EN ROUTE DECISION SUPPORT TOOL)
exceeds 0.3%.
ROUTE SEGMENT− As used in Air Traffic Control, RUNWAY HEADING− The magnetic direction that
a part of a route that can be defined by two corresponds with the runway centerline extended, not
navigational fixes, two NAVAIDs, or a fix and a the painted runway number. When cleared to “fly or
NAVAID. maintain runway heading,” pilots are expected to fly
(See FIX.) or maintain the heading that corresponds with the
(See ROUTE.) extended centerline of the departure runway. Drift
(See ICAO term ROUTE SEGMENT.) correction shall not be applied; e.g., Runway 4, actual
ROUTE SEGMENT [ICAO]− A portion of a route to magnetic heading of the runway centerline 044, fly
be flown, as defined by two consecutive significant 044.
points specified in a flight plan. RUNWAY IN USE/ACTIVE RUNWAY/DUTY
RSA− RUNWAY− Any runway or runways currently being
used for takeoff or landing. When multiple runways
(See RUNWAY SAFETY AREA.)
are used, they are all considered active runways. In
RTR− the metering sense, a selectable adapted item which
(See REMOTE TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER.) specifies the landing runway configuration or

PCG R−6
5/26/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

direction of traffic flow. The adapted optimum flight function. These objects shall be constructed on low
plan from each transition fix to the vertex is impact resistant supports (frangible mounted struc-
determined by the runway configuration for arrival tures) to the lowest practical height with the frangible
metering processing purposes. point no higher than 3 inches above grade.
(Refer to AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design,
RUNWAY LIGHTS− Chapter 3.)
(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
RUNWAY STATUS LIGHTS (RWSL)
RUNWAY MARKINGS− SYSTEM—The RWSL is a system of runway and
(See AIRPORT MARKING AIDS.) taxiway lighting to provide pilots increased
situational awareness by illuminating runway entry
RUNWAY OVERRUN− In military aviation exclu- lights (REL) when the runway is unsafe for entry or
sively, a stabilized or paved area beyond the end of a crossing, and take-off hold lights (THL) when the
runway, of the same width as the runway plus runway is unsafe for departure.
shoulders, centered on the extended runway
centerline. RUNWAY TRANSITION−
a. Conventional STARs/SIDs. The portion of a
RUNWAY PROFILE DESCENT− An instrument STAR/SID that serves a particular runway or
flight rules (IFR) air traffic control arrival procedure runways at an airport.
to a runway published for pilot use in graphic and/or
b. RNAV STARs/SIDs. Defines a path(s) from
textual form and may be associated with a STAR.
the common route to the final point(s) on a STAR. For
Runway Profile Descents provide routing and may
a SID, the common route that serves a particular
depict crossing altitudes, speed restrictions, and
runway or runways at an airport.
headings to be flown from the en route structure to the
point where the pilot will receive clearance for and RUNWAY USE PROGRAM− A noise abatement
execute an instrument approach procedure. A runway selection plan designed to enhance noise
Runway Profile Descent may apply to more than one abatement efforts with regard to airport communities
runway if so stated on the chart. for arriving and departing aircraft. These plans are
(Refer to AIM.) developed into runway use programs and apply to all
turbojet aircraft 12,500 pounds or heavier; turbojet
RUNWAY SAFETY AREA− A defined surface aircraft less than 12,500 pounds are included only if
surrounding the runway prepared, or suitable, for the airport proprietor determines that the aircraft
reducing the risk of damage to airplanes in the event creates a noise problem. Runway use programs are
of an undershoot, overshoot, or excursion from the coordinated with FAA offices, and safety criteria
runway. The dimensions of the RSA vary and can be used in these programs are developed by the Office of
determined by using the criteria contained within Flight Operations. Runway use programs are
AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design, Chapter 3. administered by the Air Traffic Service as “Formal”
Figure 3−1 in AC 150/5300-13 depicts the RSA. The or “Informal” programs.
design standards dictate that the RSA shall be:
a. Formal Runway Use Program− An approved
a. Cleared, graded, and have no potentially noise abatement program which is defined and
hazardous ruts, humps, depressions, or other surface acknowledged in a Letter of Understanding between
variations; Flight Operations, Air Traffic Service, the airport
b. Drained by grading or storm sewers to prevent proprietor, and the users. Once established, participa-
water accumulation; tion in the program is mandatory for aircraft operators
and pilots as provided for in 14 CFR Section 91.129.
c. Capable, under dry conditions, of supporting
snow removal equipment, aircraft rescue and b. Informal Runway Use Program− An approved
firefighting equipment, and the occasional passage of noise abatement program which does not require a
aircraft without causing structural damage to the Letter of Understanding, and participation in the
aircraft; and, program is voluntary for aircraft operators/pilots.
d. Free of objects, except for objects that need to RUNWAY VISIBILITY VALUE−
be located in the runway safety area because of their (See VISIBILITY.)

PCG R−7
Pilot/Controller Glossary 5/26/16
12/10/15

RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE−


(See VISIBILITY.)

PCG R−8
4/27/17
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

S
SAA− or aircraft/other tangible object) that safety logic has
(See SPECIAL ACTIVITY AIRSPACE.) predicted will result in an imminent collision, based
upon the current set of Safety Logic parameters.
SAFETY ALERT− A safety alert issued by ATC to
b. FALSE ALERT−
aircraft under their control if ATC is aware the aircraft
is at an altitude which, in the controller’s judgment, 1. Alerts generated by one or more false
places the aircraft in unsafe proximity to terrain, surface−radar targets that the system has interpreted
obstructions, or other aircraft. The controller may as real tracks and placed into safety logic.
discontinue the issuance of further alerts if the pilot 2. Alerts in which the safety logic software did
advises he/she is taking action to correct the situation not perform correctly, based upon the design
or has the other aircraft in sight. specifications and the current set of Safety Logic
parameters.
a. Terrain/Obstruction Alert− A safety alert issued
by ATC to aircraft under their control if ATC is aware 3. The alert is generated by surface radar targets
the aircraft is at an altitude which, in the controller’s caused by moderate or greater precipitation.
judgment, places the aircraft in unsafe proximity to c. NUISANCE ALERT− An alert in which one or
terrain/obstructions; e.g., “Low Altitude Alert, check more of the following is true:
your altitude immediately.” 1. The alert is generated by a known situation
b. Aircraft Conflict Alert− A safety alert issued by that is not considered an unsafe operation, such as
ATC to aircraft under their control if ATC is aware of LAHSO or other approved operations.
an aircraft that is not under their control at an altitude 2. The alert is generated by inaccurate secon-
which, in the controller’s judgment, places both dary radar data received by the Safety Logic System.
aircraft in unsafe proximity to each other. With the 3. One or more of the aircraft involved in the
alert, ATC will offer the pilot an alternate course of alert is not intending to use a runway (for example,
action when feasible; e.g., “Traffic Alert, advise you helicopter, pipeline patrol, non−Mode C overflight,
turn right heading zero niner zero or climb to eight etc.).
thousand immediately.” d. VALID NON−ALERT− A situation in which
Note: The issuance of a safety alert is contingent the safety logic software correctly determines that an
upon the capability of the controller to have an alert is not required, based upon the design
awareness of an unsafe condition. The course of specifications and the current set of Safety Logic
action provided will be predicated on other traffic parameters.
under ATC control. Once the alert is issued, it is
e. INVALID NON−ALERT− A situation in which
solely the pilot’s prerogative to determine what
course of action, if any, he/she will take.
the safety logic software did not issue an alert when
an alert was required, based upon the design
SAFETY LOGIC SYSTEM− A software enhance- specifications.
ment to ASDE−3, ASDE−X, and ASSC, that predicts SAIL BACK− A maneuver during high wind
the path of aircraft landing and/or departing, and/or conditions (usually with power off) where float plane
vehicular movements on runways. Visual and aural movement is controlled by water rudders/opening
alarms are activated when the safety logic projects a and closing cabin doors.
potential collision. The Airport Movement Area
SAME DIRECTION AIRCRAFT− Aircraft are
Safety System (AMASS) is a safety logic system
operating in the same direction when:
enhancement to the ASDE−3. The Safety Logic
a. They are following the same track in the same
System for ASDE−X and ASSC is an integral part of
direction; or
the software program.
b. Their tracks are parallel and the aircraft are
SAFETY LOGIC SYSTEM ALERTS− flying in the same direction; or
a. ALERT− An actual situation involving two real c. Their tracks intersect at an angle of less than 45
safety logic tracks (aircraft/aircraft, aircraft/vehicle, degrees.

PCG S−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary 5/26/16
12/10/15

SAR− employed during an SAR Mission; e.g., a Civil Air


(See SEARCH AND RESCUE.) Patrol Wing, or a Coast Guard Station.
(See SEARCH AND RESCUE.)
SAY AGAIN− Used to request a repeat of the last
transmission. Usually specifies transmission or SECNOT−
portion thereof not understood or received; e.g., “Say (See SECURITY NOTICE.)
again all after ABRAM VOR.” SECONDARY RADAR TARGET− A target derived
SAY ALTITUDE− Used by ATC to ascertain an from a transponder return presented on a radar
aircraft’s specific altitude/flight level. When the display.
aircraft is climbing or descending, the pilot should SECTIONAL AERONAUTICAL CHARTS−
state the indicated altitude rounded to the nearest 100 (See AERONAUTICAL CHART.)
feet. SECTOR LIST DROP INTERVAL− A parameter
SAY HEADING− Used by ATC to request an aircraft number of minutes after the meter fix time when
heading. The pilot should state the actual heading of arrival aircraft will be deleted from the arrival sector
the aircraft. list.
SCHEDULED TIME OF ARRIVAL (STA)− A STA SECURITY NOTICE (SECNOT) − A SECNOT is a
is the desired time that an aircraft should cross a request originated by the Air Traffic Security
certain point (landing or metering fix). It takes other Coordinator (ATSC) for an extensive communica-
traffic and airspace configuration into account. A tions search for aircraft involved, or suspected of
STA time shows the results of the TBFM scheduler being involved, in a security violation, or are
that has calculated an arrival time according to considered a security risk. A SECNOT will include
parameters such as optimized spacing, aircraft the aircraft identification, search area, and expiration
performance, and weather. time. The search area, as defined by the ATSC, could
be a single airport, multiple airports, a radius of an
SDF− airport or fix, or a route of flight. Once the expiration
(See SIMPLIFIED DIRECTIONAL FACILITY.) time has been reached, the SECNOT is considered to
SEA LANE− A designated portion of water outlined be cancelled.
by visual surface markers for and intended to be used SECURITY SERVICES AIRSPACE − Areas
by aircraft designed to operate on water. established through the regulatory process or by
NOTAM, issued by the Administrator under title 14,
SEARCH AND RESCUE− A service which seeks
CFR, sections 99.7, 91.141, and 91.139, which
missing aircraft and assists those found to be in need
specify that ATC security services are required; i.e.,
of assistance. It is a cooperative effort using the
ADIZ or temporary flight rules areas.
facilities and services of available Federal, state and
local agencies. The U.S. Coast Guard is responsible SEE AND AVOID− When weather conditions
for coordination of search and rescue for the Maritime permit, pilots operating IFR or VFR are required to
Region, and the U.S. Air Force is responsible for observe and maneuver to avoid other aircraft.
search and rescue for the Inland Region. Information Right-of-way rules are contained in 14 CFR Part 91.
pertinent to search and rescue should be passed SEGMENTED CIRCLE− A system of visual
through any air traffic facility or be transmitted indicators designed to provide traffic pattern
directly to the Rescue Coordination Center by information at airports without operating control
telephone. towers.
(See FLIGHT SERVICE STATION.) (Refer to AIM.)
(See RESCUE COORDINATION CENTER.) SEGMENTS OF AN INSTRUMENT APPROACH
(Refer to AIM.) PROCEDURE− An instrument approach procedure
SEARCH AND RESCUE FACILITY− A facility may have as many as four separate segments
responsible for maintaining and operating a search depending on how the approach procedure is
and rescue (SAR) service to render aid to persons and structured.
property in distress. It is any SAR unit, station, NET, a. Initial Approach− The segment between the
or other operational activity which can be usefully initial approach fix and the intermediate fix or the

PCG S−2
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

point where the aircraft is established on the SEVERE WEATHER FORECAST ALERTS−
intermediate course or final approach course. Preliminary messages issued in order to alert users
(See ICAO term INITIAL APPROACH that a Severe Weather Watch Bulletin (WW) is being
SEGMENT.) issued. These messages define areas of possible
severe thunderstorms or tornado activity. The
b. Intermediate Approach− The segment between
messages are unscheduled and issued as required by
the intermediate fix or point and the final approach
the Storm Prediction Center (SPC) at Norman,
fix.
Oklahoma.
(See ICAO term INTERMEDIATE APPROACH
(See AIRMET.)
SEGMENT.)
(See CONVECTIVE SIGMET.)
c. Final Approach− The segment between the final (See CWA.)
approach fix or point and the runway, airport, or (See SIGMET.)
missed approach point.
(See ICAO term FINAL APPROACH SEGMENT.) SFA−
(See SINGLE FREQUENCY APPROACH.)
d. Missed Approach− The segment between the
missed approach point or the point of arrival at SFO−
decision height and the missed approach fix at the (See SIMULATED FLAMEOUT.)
prescribed altitude.
SHF−
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 97.)
(See SUPER HIGH FREQUENCY.)
(See ICAO term MISSED APPROACH
PROCEDURE.) SHORT RANGE CLEARANCE− A clearance
issued to a departing IFR flight which authorizes IFR
SEPARATION− In air traffic control, the spacing of flight to a specific fix short of the destination while
aircraft to achieve their safe and orderly movement in air traffic control facilities are coordinating and
flight and while landing and taking off. obtaining the complete clearance.
(See SEPARATION MINIMA.)
SHORT TAKEOFF AND LANDING AIRCRAFT−
(See ICAO term SEPARATION.) An aircraft which, at some weight within its approved
operating weight, is capable of operating from a
SEPARATION [ICAO]− Spacing between aircraft,
runway in compliance with the applicable STOL
levels or tracks.
characteristics, airworthiness, operations, noise, and
pollution standards.
SEPARATION MINIMA− The minimum longitudi-
(See VERTICAL TAKEOFF AND LANDING
nal, lateral, or vertical distances by which aircraft are
AIRCRAFT.)
spaced through the application of air traffic control
procedures. SIAP−
(See SEPARATION.) (See STANDARD INSTRUMENT APPROACH
PROCEDURE.)
SERVICE− A generic term that designates functions
or assistance available from or rendered by air traffic SID−
control. For example, Class C service would denote (See STANDARD INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE.)
the ATC services provided within a Class C airspace SIDESTEP MANEUVER− A visual maneuver
area. accomplished by a pilot at the completion of an
instrument approach to permit a straight-in landing
SEVERE WEATHER AVOIDANCE PLAN− An on a parallel runway not more than 1,200 feet to either
approved plan to minimize the affect of severe side of the runway to which the instrument approach
weather on traffic flows in impacted terminal and/or was conducted.
ARTCC areas. SWAP is normally implemented to (Refer to AIM.)
provide the least disruption to the ATC system when
flight through portions of airspace is difficult or SIGMET− A weather advisory issued concerning
impossible due to severe weather. weather significant to the safety of all aircraft.

PCG S−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary 12/10/15

SIGMET advisories cover severe and extreme include aural and visual alerts and predictive aircraft
turbulence, severe icing, and widespread dust or position software, communications override, ATC
sandstorms that reduce visibility to less than 3 miles. procedures, an Attention All Users Page (AAUP),
(See AIRMET.) PRM in the approach name, and appropriate ground
(See AWW.) based and airborne equipment. High update rate
(See CONVECTIVE SIGMET.) surveillance sensor required for certain runway or
(See CWA.) approach course separations.
(See ICAO term SIGMET INFORMATION.) SIMULTANEOUS (CONVERGING)
(Refer to AIM.) DEPENDENT APPROACHES-An approach
SIGMET INFORMATION [ICAO]− Information operation permitting ILS/RNAV/GLS approaches to
issued by a meteorological watch office concerning runways or missed approach courses that intersect
the occurrence or expected occurrence of specified where required minimum spacing between the
en-route weather phenomena which may affect the aircraft on each final approach course is required.
safety of aircraft operations. SIMULTANEOUS (CONVERGING)
SIGNIFICANT METEOROLOGICAL INFOR- INDEPENDENT APPROACHES- An approach
MATION− operation permitting ILS/RNAV/GLS approaches to
(See SIGMET.) non-parallel runways where approach procedure
design maintains the required aircraft spacing
SIGNIFICANT POINT− A point, whether a named throughout the approach and missed approach and
intersection, a NAVAID, a fix derived from a hence the operations may be conducted
NAVAID(s), or geographical coordinate expressed in independently.
degrees of latitude and longitude, which is
established for the purpose of providing separation, SIMULTANEOUS ILS APPROACHES− An
as a reporting point, or to delineate a route of flight. approach system permitting simultaneous ILS
approaches to airports having parallel runways
SIMPLIFIED DIRECTIONAL FACILITY− A separated by at least 4,300 feet between centerlines.
NAVAID used for nonprecision instrument Integral parts of a total system are ILS, radar,
approaches. The final approach course is similar to communications, ATC procedures, and appropriate
that of an ILS localizer except that the SDF course airborne equipment.
may be offset from the runway, generally not more (See PARALLEL RUNWAYS.)
than 3 degrees, and the course may be wider than the (Refer to AIM.)
localizer, resulting in a lower degree of accuracy.
SIMULTANEOUS OFFSET INSTRUMENT
(Refer to AIM.)
APPROACH (SOIA)− An instrument landing
SIMULATED FLAMEOUT− A practice approach system comprised of an ILS PRM, RNAV PRM or
by a jet aircraft (normally military) at idle thrust to a GLS PRM approach to one runway and an offset
runway. The approach may start at a runway (high LDA PRM with glideslope or an RNAV PRM or
key) and may continue on a relatively high and wide GLS PRM approach utilizing vertical guidance to
downwind leg with a continuous turn to final. It another where parallel runway spaced less than 3,000
terminates in landing or low approach. The purpose feet and at least 750 feet apart. The approach courses
of this approach is to simulate a flameout. converge by 2.5 to 3 degrees. Simultaneous close
(See FLAMEOUT.) parallel PRM approach procedures apply up to the
SIMULTANEOUS CLOSE PARALLEL point where the approach course separation becomes
APPROACHES- A simultaneous, independent 3,000 feet, at the offset MAP. From the offset MAP
approach operation permitting ILS/RNAV/GLS to the runway threshold, visual separation by the
approaches to airports having parallel runways aircraft conducting the offset approach is utilized.
separated by at least 3,000 feet and less than 4300 feet (Refer to AIM)
between centerlines. Aircraft are permitted to pass SIMULTANEOUS (PARALLEL) DEPENDENT
each other during these simultaneous operations. APPROACHES- An approach operation permitting
Integral parts of a total system are radar, NTZ ILS/RNAV/GLS approaches to adjacent parallel
monitoring with enhanced FMA color displays that runways where prescribed diagonal spacing must be

PCG S−4
5/26/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

maintained. Aircraft are not permitted to pass each SPECIAL ACTIVITY AIRSPACE (SAA)− Any
other during simultaneous dependent operations. airspace with defined dimensions within the National
Integral parts of a total system ATC procedures, and Airspace System wherein limitations may be
appropriate airborne and ground based equipment. imposed upon aircraft operations. This airspace may
be restricted areas, prohibited areas, military
SINGLE DIRECTION ROUTES− Preferred IFR
operations areas, air ATC assigned airspace, and any
Routes which are sometimes depicted on high
other designated airspace areas. The dimensions of
altitude en route charts and which are normally flown
this airspace are programmed into EDST and can be
in one direction only.
designated as either active or inactive by screen entry.
(See PREFERRED IFR ROUTES.) Aircraft trajectories are constantly tested against the
(Refer to CHART SUPPLEMENT U.S.) dimensions of active areas and alerts issued to the
SINGLE FREQUENCY APPROACH− A service applicable sectors when violations are predicted.
provided under a letter of agreement to military (See EN ROUTE DECISION SUPPORT TOOL.)
single-piloted turbojet aircraft which permits use of SPECIAL EMERGENCY− A condition of air piracy
a single UHF frequency during approach for landing. or other hostile act by a person(s) aboard an aircraft
Pilots will not normally be required to change which threatens the safety of the aircraft or its
frequency from the beginning of the approach to passengers.
touchdown except that pilots conducting an en route
descent are required to change frequency when SPECIAL INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCE-
control is transferred from the air route traffic control DURE−
center to the terminal facility. The abbreviation (See INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
“SFA” in the DOD FLIP IFR Supplement under SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE− Airspace of defined
“Communications” indicates this service is available dimensions identified by an area on the surface of the
at an aerodrome. earth wherein activities must be confined because of
their nature and/or wherein limitations may be
SINGLE-PILOTED AIRCRAFT− A military imposed upon aircraft operations that are not a part of
turbojet aircraft possessing one set of flight controls, those activities. Types of special use airspace are:
tandem cockpits, or two sets of flight controls but
operated by one pilot is considered single-piloted by a. Alert Area− Airspace which may contain a high
ATC when determining the appropriate air traffic volume of pilot training activities or an unusual type
service to be applied. of aerial activity, neither of which is hazardous to
aircraft. Alert Areas are depicted on aeronautical
(See SINGLE FREQUENCY APPROACH.)
charts for the information of nonparticipating pilots.
SKYSPOTTER− A pilot who has received All activities within an Alert Area are conducted in
specialized training in observing and reporting accordance with Federal Aviation Regulations, and
inflight weather phenomena. pilots of participating aircraft as well as pilots
transiting the area are equally responsible for
SLASH− A radar beacon reply displayed as an collision avoidance.
elongated target.
b. Controlled Firing Area− Airspace wherein
SLDI− activities are conducted under conditions so
(See SECTOR LIST DROP INTERVAL.) controlled as to eliminate hazards to nonparticipating
aircraft and to ensure the safety of persons and
SLOT TIME− property on the ground.
(See METER FIX TIME/SLOT TIME.)
c. Military Operations Area (MOA)− A MOA is
SLOW TAXI− To taxi a float plane at low power or airspace established outside of Class A airspace area
low RPM. to separate or segregate certain nonhazardous
military activities from IFR traffic and to identify for
SN− VFR traffic where these activities are conducted.
(See SYSTEM STRATEGIC NAVIGATION.) (Refer to AIM.)
SPEAK SLOWER− Used in verbal communications d. Prohibited Area− Airspace designated under
as a request to reduce speech rate. 14 CFR Part 73 within which no person may operate

PCG S−5
Pilot/Controller Glossary 12/10/15

an aircraft without the permission of the using value for the purpose of providing desired spacing.
agency. Pilots are expected to maintain a speed of plus or
(Refer to AIM.) minus 10 knots or 0.02 Mach number of the specified
(Refer to En Route Charts.) speed. Examples of speed adjustments are:
e. Restricted Area− Airspace designated under a. “Increase/reduce speed to Mach point
14 CFR Part 73, within which the flight of aircraft, (number.)”
while not wholly prohibited, is subject to restriction. b. “Increase/reduce speed to (speed in knots)” or
Most restricted areas are designated joint use and “Increase/reduce speed (number of knots) knots.”
IFR/VFR operations in the area may be authorized by
the controlling ATC facility when it is not being SPEED BRAKES− Moveable aerodynamic devices
utilized by the using agency. Restricted areas are on aircraft that reduce airspeed during descent and
depicted on en route charts. Where joint use is landing.
authorized, the name of the ATC controlling facility
SPEED SEGMENTS− Portions of the arrival route
is also shown.
between the transition point and the vertex along the
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 73.)
optimum flight path for which speeds and altitudes
(Refer to AIM.)
are specified. There is one set of arrival speed
f. Warning Area− A warning area is airspace of segments adapted from each transition point to each
defined dimensions extending from 3 nautical miles vertex. Each set may contain up to six segments.
outward from the coast of the United States, that
contains activity that may be hazardous to SQUAWK (Mode, Code, Function)− Activate
nonparticipating aircraft. The purpose of such specific modes/codes/functions on the aircraft
warning area is to warn nonparticipating pilots of the transponder; e.g., “Squawk three/alpha, two one zero
potential danger. A warning area may be located over five, low.”
domestic or international waters or both. (See TRANSPONDER.)

SPECIAL VFR CONDITIONS− Meteorological STA−


conditions that are less than those required for basic (See SCHEDULED TIME OF ARRIVAL.)
VFR flight in Class B, C, D, or E surface areas and
in which some aircraft are permitted flight under STAGING/QUEUING− The placement, integration,
visual flight rules. and segregation of departure aircraft in designated
(See SPECIAL VFR OPERATIONS.)
movement areas of an airport by departure fix, EDCT,
and/or restriction.
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
SPECIAL VFR FLIGHT [ICAO]− A VFR flight STAND BY− Means the controller or pilot must
cleared by air traffic control to operate within Class pause for a few seconds, usually to attend to other
B, C, D, and E surface areas in metrological duties of a higher priority. Also means to wait as in
conditions below VMC. “stand by for clearance.” The caller should
reestablish contact if a delay is lengthy. “Stand by” is
SPECIAL VFR OPERATIONS− Aircraft operating not an approval or denial.
in accordance with clearances within Class B, C, D,
and E surface areas in weather conditions less than the STANDARD INSTRUMENT APPROACH PRO-
basic VFR weather minima. Such operations must be CEDURE (SIAP)−
requested by the pilot and approved by ATC. (See INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE.)
(See SPECIAL VFR CONDITIONS.) STANDARD INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE (SID)−
(See ICAO term SPECIAL VFR FLIGHT.) A preplanned instrument flight rule (IFR) air traffic
SPEED− control (ATC) departure procedure printed for
(See AIRSPEED.)
pilot/controller use in graphic form to provide
obstacle clearance and a transition from the terminal
(See GROUND SPEED.)
area to the appropriate en route structure. SIDs are
SPEED ADJUSTMENT− An ATC procedure used to primarily designed for system enhancement to
request pilots to adjust aircraft speed to a specific expedite traffic flow and to reduce pilot/controller

PCG S−6
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

workload. ATC clearance must always be received sea lane for takeoff. The STEP TURN maneuver
prior to flying a SID. should only be used upon pilot request.
(See IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND STEPDOWN FIX− A fix permitting additional
DEPARTURE PROCEDURES.)
descent within a segment of an instrument approach
(See OBSTACLE DEPARTURE PROCEDURE.)
procedure by identifying a point at which a
(Refer to AIM.) controlling obstacle has been safely overflown.
STANDARD RATE TURN− A turn of three degrees STEREO ROUTE− A routinely used route of flight
per second. established by users and ARTCCs identified by a
STANDARD TERMINAL ARRIVAL− A coded name; e.g., ALPHA 2. These routes minimize
preplanned instrument flight rule (IFR) air traffic flight plan handling and communications.
control arrival procedure published for pilot use in STOL AIRCRAFT−
graphic and/or textual form. STARs provide (See SHORT TAKEOFF AND LANDING
transition from the en route structure to an outer fix AIRCRAFT.)
or an instrument approach fix/arrival waypoint in the
STOP ALTITUDE SQUAWK− Used by ATC to
terminal area.
inform an aircraft to turn-off the automatic altitude
STANDARD TERMINAL ARRIVAL CHARTS− reporting feature of its transponder. It is issued when
(See AERONAUTICAL CHART.) the verbally reported altitude varies 300 feet or more
from the automatic altitude report.
STANDARD TERMINAL AUTOMATION RE- (See ALTITUDE READOUT.)
PLACEMENT SYSTEM (STARS)− (See TRANSPONDER.)
(See DTAS.)
STOP AND GO− A procedure wherein an aircraft
STAR− will land, make a complete stop on the runway, and
(See STANDARD TERMINAL ARRIVAL.) then commence a takeoff from that point.
(See LOW APPROACH.)
STATE AIRCRAFT− Aircraft used in military,
(See OPTION APPROACH.)
customs and police service, in the exclusive service
of any government, or of any political subdivision, STOP BURST−
thereof including the government of any state, (See STOP STREAM.)
territory, or possession of the United States or the
STOP BUZZER−
District of Columbia, but not including any
(See STOP STREAM.)
government-owned aircraft engaged in carrying
persons or property for commercial purposes. STOP SQUAWK (Mode or Code)− Used by ATC to
tell the pilot to turn specified functions of the aircraft
STATIC RESTRICTIONS− Those restrictions that transponder off.
are usually not subject to change, fixed, in place, (See STOP ALTITUDE SQUAWK.)
and/or published. (See TRANSPONDER.)
STATIONARY RESERVATIONS− Altitude STOP STREAM− Used by ATC to request a pilot to
reservations which encompass activities in a fixed suspend electronic attack activity.
area. Stationary reservations may include activities, (See JAMMING.)
such as special tests of weapons systems or
equipment, certain U.S. Navy carrier, fleet, and STOPOVER FLIGHT PLAN− A flight plan format
anti-submarine operations, rocket, missile and drone which permits in a single submission the filing of a
operations, and certain aerial refueling or similar sequence of flight plans through interim full-stop
operations. destinations to a final destination.

STEP TAXI− To taxi a float plane at full power or STOPWAY− An area beyond the takeoff runway no
high RPM. less wide than the runway and centered upon the
extended centerline of the runway, able to support the
STEP TURN− A maneuver used to put a float plane airplane during an aborted takeoff, without causing
in a planing configuration prior to entering an active structural damage to the airplane, and designated by

PCG S−7
Pilot/Controller Glossary 5/26/16
12/10/15

the airport authorities for use in decelerating the SUPPLEMENTAL WEATHER SERVICE
airplane during an aborted takeoff. LOCATION− Airport facilities staffed with contract
personnel who take weather observations and
STRAIGHT-IN APPROACH IFR− An instrument
provide current local weather to pilots via telephone
approach wherein final approach is begun without
or radio. (All other services are provided by the parent
first having executed a procedure turn, not
FSS.)
necessarily completed with a straight-in landing or
made to straight-in landing minimums. SUPPS− Refers to ICAO Document 7030 Regional
(See LANDING MINIMUMS.) Supplementary Procedures. SUPPS contain
(See STRAIGHT-IN APPROACH VFR.) procedures for each ICAO Region which are unique
(See STRAIGHT-IN LANDING.) to that Region and are not covered in the worldwide
provisions identified in the ICAO Air Navigation
STRAIGHT-IN APPROACH VFR− Entry into the Plan. Procedures contained in Chapter 8 are based in
traffic pattern by interception of the extended runway part on those published in SUPPS.
centerline (final approach course) without executing
any other portion of the traffic pattern. SURFACE AREA− The airspace contained by the
(See TRAFFIC PATTERN.) lateral boundary of the Class B, C, D, or E airspace
designated for an airport that begins at the surface and
STRAIGHT-IN LANDING− A landing made on a extends upward.
runway aligned within 30_ of the final approach
course following completion of an instrument SURPIC− A description of surface vessels in the area
approach. of a Search and Rescue incident including their
(See STRAIGHT-IN APPROACH IFR.) predicted positions and their characteristics.
(Refer to FAAO JO 7110.65, Para 10−6−4,
STRAIGHT-IN LANDING MINIMUMS− INFLIGHT CONTINGENCIES.)
(See LANDING MINIMUMS.)
SURVEILLANCE APPROACH− An instrument
STRAIGHT-IN MINIMUMS− approach wherein the air traffic controller issues
(See STRAIGHT-IN LANDING MINIMUMS.) instructions, for pilot compliance, based on aircraft
position in relation to the final approach course
STRATEGIC PLANNING− Planning whereby
(azimuth), and the distance (range) from the end of
solutions are sought to resolve potential conflicts.
the runway as displayed on the controller’s radar
SUBSTITUTE ROUTE− A route assigned to pilots scope. The controller will provide recommended
when any part of an airway or route is unusable altitudes on final approach if requested by the pilot.
because of NAVAID status. These routes consist of: (Refer to AIM.)
a. Substitute routes which are shown on U.S. SWAP−
Government charts. (See SEVERE WEATHER AVOIDANCE PLAN.)
b. Routes defined by ATC as specific NAVAID SWSL−
radials or courses.
(See SUPPLEMENTAL WEATHER SERVICE
c. Routes defined by ATC as direct to or between LOCATION.)
NAVAIDs.
SYSTEM STRATEGIC NAVIGATION− Military
SUNSET AND SUNRISE− The mean solar times of activity accomplished by navigating along a
sunset and sunrise as published in the Nautical preplanned route using internal aircraft systems to
Almanac, converted to local standard time for the maintain a desired track. This activity normally
locality concerned. Within Alaska, the end of evening requires a lateral route width of 10 NM and altitude
civil twilight and the beginning of morning civil range of 1,000 feet to 6,000 feet AGL with some route
twilight, as defined for each locality. segments that permit terrain following.

PCG S−8
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

T
TACAN− this pertains to the act of becoming airborne after
(See TACTICAL AIR NAVIGATION.) departing a takeoff area.
TACAN-ONLY AIRCRAFT− An aircraft, normally TAKEOFF RUN AVAILABLE (TORA) – The
military, possessing TACAN with DME but no VOR runway length declared available and suitable for the
navigational system capability. Clearances must ground run of an airplane taking off.
specify TACAN or VORTAC fixes and approaches. (See ICAO term TAKEOFF RUN AVAILABLE.)

TACTICAL AIR NAVIGATION− An ultra-high TAKEOFF RUN AVAILABLE [ICAO]− The length
frequency electronic rho-theta air navigation aid of runway declared available and suitable for the
which provides suitably equipped aircraft a ground run of an aeroplane take-off.
continuous indication of bearing and distance to the TARGET− The indication shown on an analog
TACAN station. display resulting from a primary radar return or a
(See VORTAC.) radar beacon reply.
(Refer to AIM.) (See ASSOCIATED.)
(See DIGITAL TARGET.)
TAILWIND− Any wind more than 90 degrees to the (See DIGITIZED RADAR TARGET.)
longitudinal axis of the runway. The magnetic (See FUSED TARGET)
direction of the runway shall be used as the basis for
(See PRIMARY RADAR TARGET.)
determining the longitudinal axis.
(See RADAR.)
TAKEOFF AREA− (See SECONDARY RADAR TARGET.)
(See LANDING AREA.) (See TARGET SYMBOL.)
(See ICAO term TARGET.)
TAKEOFF DISTANCE AVAILABLE (TODA)– The (See UNASSOCIATED.)
takeoff run available plus the length of any remaining
runway or clearway beyond the far end of the takeoff TARGET [ICAO]− In radar:
run available. a. Generally, any discrete object which reflects or
(See ICAO term TAKEOFF DISTANCE retransmits energy back to the radar equipment.
AVAILABLE.) b. Specifically, an object of radar search or
surveillance.
TAKEOFF DISTANCE AVAILABLE [ICAO]− The
length of the takeoff run available plus the length of TARGET RESOLUTION− A process to ensure that
the clearway, if provided. correlated radar targets do not touch. Target
resolution must be applied as follows:
TAKEOFF HOLD LIGHTS (THL)– The THL
a. Between the edges of two primary targets or the
system is composed of in-pavement lighting in a
edges of the ASR-9/11 primary target symbol.
double, longitudinal row of lights aligned either side
of the runway centerline. The lights are focused b. Between the end of the beacon control slash and
toward the arrival end of the runway at the “line up the edge of a primary target.
and wait” point, and they extend for 1,500 feet in c. Between the ends of two beacon control slashes.
front of the holding aircraft. Illuminated red lights Note 1: Mandatory traffic advisories and safety
indicate to an aircraft in position for takeoff or rolling alerts must be issued when this procedure is used.
that it is unsafe to takeoff because the runway is Note 2: This procedure must not be used when
occupied or about to be occupied by an aircraft or utilizing mosaic radar systems or multi−sensor
vehicle. mode.

TAKEOFF ROLL − The process whereby an aircraft TARGET SYMBOL− A computer-generated indica-
is aligned with the runway centerline and the aircraft tion shown on a radar display resulting from a
is moving with the intent to take off. For helicopters, primary radar return or a radar beacon reply.

PCG T−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary 4/27/17
12/10/15

TARMAC DELAY− The holding of an aircraft on the TEMPORARY FLIGHT RESTRICTION (TFR) − A
ground either before departure or after landing with TFR is a regulatory action issued by the FAA via the
no opportunity for its passengers to deplane. U.S. NOTAM System, under the authority of United
States Code, Title 49. TFRs are issued within the
TARMAC DELAY AIRCRAFT− An aircraft whose
sovereign airspace of the United States and its
pilot−in−command has requested to taxi to the ramp,
territories to restrict certain aircraft from operating
gate, or alternate deplaning area to comply with the
within a defined area on a temporary basis to protect
Three−hour Tarmac Rule.
persons or property in the air or on the ground. While
TARMAC DELAY REQUEST− A request by the not all inclusive, TFRs may be issued for disaster or
pilot−in−command to taxi to the ramp, gate, or hazard situations such as: toxic gas leaks or spills,
alternate deplaning location to comply with the fumes from flammable agents, aircraft accident/in-
Three−hour Tarmac Rule. cident sites, aviation or ground resources engaged in
wildfire suppression, or aircraft relief activities
TAS− following a disaster. TFRs may also be issued in
(See TERMINAL AUTOMATION SYSTEMS.) support of VIP movements; for reasons of national
TAWS− security; or when determined necessary for the
(See TERRAIN AWARENESS WARNING management of air traffic in the vicinity of aerial
SYSTEM.) demonstrations or major sporting events. NAS users
or other interested parties should contact a FSS for
TAXI− The movement of an airplane under its own TFR information. Additionally, TFR information can
power on the surface of an airport (14 CFR be found in automated briefings, NOTAM publica-
Section 135.100 [Note]). Also, it describes the tions, and on the internet at http://www.faa.gov. The
surface movement of helicopters equipped with FAA also distributes TFR information to aviation
wheels. user groups for further dissemination.
(See AIR TAXI.)
TENTATIVE CALCULATED LANDING TIME− A
(See HOVER TAXI.)
projected time calculated for adapted vertex for each
(Refer to 14 CFR Section 135.100.)
arrival aircraft based upon runway configuration,
(Refer to AIM.) airport acceptance rate, airport arrival delay period,
TAXI PATTERNS− Patterns established to illustrate and other metered arrival aircraft. This time is either
the desired flow of ground traffic for the different the VTA of the aircraft or the TCLT/ACLT of the
runways or airport areas available for use. previous aircraft plus the AAI, whichever is later.
This time will be updated in response to an aircraft’s
TCAS− progress and its current relationship to other arrivals.
(See TRAFFIC ALERT AND COLLISION
AVOIDANCE SYSTEM.) TERMINAL AREA− A general term used to describe
airspace in which approach control service or airport
TCH− traffic control service is provided.
(See THRESHOLD CROSSING HEIGHT.)
TERMINAL AREA FACILITY− A facility provid-
TCLT− ing air traffic control service for arriving and
(See TENTATIVE CALCULATED LANDING departing IFR, VFR, Special VFR, and on occasion
TIME.) en route aircraft.
(See APPROACH CONTROL FACILITY.)
TDLS−
(See TOWER.)
(See TERMINAL DATA LINK SYSTEM.)
TERMINAL AUTOMATION SYSTEMS (TAS)−
TDZE− TAS is used to identify the numerous automated
(See TOUCHDOWN ZONE ELEVATION.) tracking systems including ARTS IIE, ARTS IIIA,
TELEPHONE INFORMATION BRIEFING SER- ARTS IIIE, STARS, and MEARTS.
VICE− A continuous telephone recording of TERMINAL DATA LINK SYSTEM (TDLS)− A
meteorological and/or aeronautical information. system that provides Digital Automatic Terminal
(Refer to AIM.) Information Service (D−ATIS) both on a specified

PCG T−2
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12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

radio frequency and also, for subscribers, in a text d. Class B Service− This service provides, in
message via data link to the cockpit or to a gate addition to basic radar service, approved separation
printer. TDLS also provides Pre−departure Clear- of aircraft based on IFR, VFR, and/or weight, and
ances (PDC), at selected airports, to subscribers, sequencing of VFR arrivals to the primary airport(s).
through a service provider, in text to the cockpit or to (See CONTROLLED AIRSPACE.)
a gate printer. In addition, TDLS will emulate the (See TERMINAL RADAR SERVICE AREA.)
Flight Data Input/Output (FDIO) information within (Refer to AIM.)
the control tower. (Refer to CHART SUPPLEMENT U.S.)
TERMINAL-VERY HIGH FREQUENCY OMNI-
TERMINAL RADAR SERVICE AREA− Airspace
DIRECTIONAL RANGE STATION− A very high
surrounding designated airports wherein ATC
frequency terminal omnirange station located on or
provides radar vectoring, sequencing, and separation
near an airport and used as an approach aid.
on a full-time basis for all IFR and participating VFR
(See NAVIGATIONAL AID.)
aircraft. The AIM contains an explanation of TRSA.
(See VOR.)
TRSAs are depicted on VFR aeronautical charts.
Pilot participation is urged but is not mandatory. TERRAIN AWARENESS WARNING SYSTEM
(TAWS)− An on−board, terrain proximity alerting
TERMINAL VFR RADAR SERVICE− A national system providing the aircrew ‘Low Altitude
program instituted to extend the terminal radar warnings’ to allow immediate pilot action.
services provided instrument flight rules (IFR)
TERRAIN FOLLOWING− The flight of a military
aircraft to visual flight rules (VFR) aircraft. The
aircraft maintaining a constant AGL altitude above
program is divided into four types service referred to
the terrain or the highest obstruction. The altitude of
as basic radar service, terminal radar service area
the aircraft will constantly change with the varying
(TRSA) service, Class B service and Class C service.
terrain and/or obstruction.
The type of service provided at a particular location
is contained in the Chart Supplement U.S. TETRAHEDRON− A device normally located on
uncontrolled airports and used as a landing direction
a. Basic Radar Service− These services are
indicator. The small end of a tetrahedron points in the
provided for VFR aircraft by all commissioned
direction of landing. At controlled airports, the
terminal radar facilities. Basic radar service includes
tetrahedron, if installed, should be disregarded
safety alerts, traffic advisories, limited radar
because tower instructions supersede the indicator.
vectoring when requested by the pilot, and
(See SEGMENTED CIRCLE.)
sequencing at locations where procedures have been
(Refer to AIM.)
established for this purpose and/or when covered by
a letter of agreement. The purpose of this service is to TF−
adjust the flow of arriving IFR and VFR aircraft into (See TERRAIN FOLLOWING.)
the traffic pattern in a safe and orderly manner and to THAT IS CORRECT− The understanding you have
provide traffic advisories to departing VFR aircraft. is right.
b. TRSA Service− This service provides, in THREE−HOUR TARMAC RULE– Rule that relates
addition to basic radar service, sequencing of all IFR to Department of Transportation (DOT) requirements
and participating VFR aircraft to the primary airport placed on airlines when tarmac delays are anticipated
and separation between all participating VFR to reach 3 hours.
aircraft. The purpose of this service is to provide
separation between all participating VFR aircraft and 360 OVERHEAD−
all IFR aircraft operating within the area defined as a (See OVERHEAD MANEUVER.)
TRSA. THRESHOLD− The beginning of that portion of the
c. Class C Service− This service provides, in runway usable for landing.
addition to basic radar service, approved separation (See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
between IFR and VFR aircraft, and sequencing of (See DISPLACED THRESHOLD.)
VFR aircraft, and sequencing of VFR arrivals to the THRESHOLD CROSSING HEIGHT− The
primary airport. theoretical height above the runway threshold at

PCG T−3
Pilot/Controller
5/26/16 Glossary 5/26/16
12/10/15
Pilot/Controller Glossary

which the aircraft’s glideslope antenna would be if TIS−B−


the aircraft maintains the trajectory established by the (See TRAFFIC INFORMATION
mean ILS glideslope or the altitude at which the SERVICE−BROADCAST.)
calculated glidepath of an RNAV or GPS approaches. TMPA−
(See GLIDESLOPE.) (See TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PROGRAM
(See THRESHOLD.) ALERT.)

THRESHOLD LIGHTS− TMU−


(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.) (See TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT UNIT.)
TODA−
TIBS−
(See TAKEOFF DISTANCE AVAILABLE.)
(See TELEPHONE INFORMATION BRIEFING (See ICAO term TAKEOFF DISTANCE
SERVICE.) AVAILABLE.)
TIE-IN FACILITY– The FSS primarily responsible TOI−
for providing FSS services, including telecommu- (See TRACK OF INTEREST.)
ni ca ti on s se rv i ce s fo r la nd in g f ac il it ie s o r
TOP ALTITUDE– In reference to SID published
navigational aids located within the boundaries of a
altitude restrictions the charted “maintain” altitude
flight plan area (FPA). Three-letter identifiers are
contained in the procedure description or assigned by
assigned to each FSS/FPA and are annotated as tie-in
ATC.
facilities in the Chart Supplement U.S., the Alaska
Supplement, the Pacific Supplement, and FAA Order TORA−
JO 7350.8, Location Identifiers. Large consolidated (See TAKEOFF RUN AVAILABLE.)
FSS facilities may have many tie-in facilities or FSS (See ICAO term TAKEOFF RUN AVAILABLE.)
sectors within one facility. TORCHING− The burning of fuel at the end of an
(See FLIGHT PLAN AREA.) exhaust pipe or stack of a reciprocating aircraft
(See FLIGHT SERVICE STATION.) engine, the result of an excessive richness in the fuel
air mixture.
TIME BASED FLOW MANAGEMENT (TBFM)−
The hardware, software, methods, processes, and TOS−
initiatives to manage air traffic flows based on time (See TRAJECTORY OPTIONS SET)
to balance air traffic demand with system capacity, TOTAL ESTIMATED ELAPSED TIME [ICAO]−
and support the management of PBN. This includes, For IFR flights, the estimated time required from
but not limited to, Adjacent Center Metering (ACM). take-off to arrive over that designated point, defined
En Route Departure Capability (EDC), by reference to navigation aids, from which it is
Ground-Interval Management-Spacing (GIM-S), intended that an instrument approach procedure will
Integrated Departure/Arrival Capability (IDAC), be commenced, or, if no navigation aid is associated
Single Center Metering (SCM), Time-Based with the destination aerodrome, to arrive over the
Metering (TBM), Time-Based Scheduling (TBS), destination aerodrome. For VFR flights, the
and Extended/Coupled Metering. estimated time required from take-off to arrive over
the destination aerodrome.
TIME GROUP− Four digits representing the hour
(See ICAO term ESTIMATED ELAPSED TIME.)
and minutes from the Coordinated Universal Time
(UTC) clock. FAA uses UTC for all operations. The TOUCH-AND-GO− An operation by an aircraft that
term “ZULU” may be used to denote UTC. The word lands and departs on a runway without stopping or
“local” or the time zone equivalent shall be used to exiting the runway.
denote local when local time is given during radio and TOUCH-AND-GO LANDING−
telephone communications. When written, a time (See TOUCH-AND-GO.)
zone designator is used to indicate local time; e.g.
“0205M” (Mountain). The local time may be based TOUCHDOWN−
on the 24-hour clock system. The day begins at 0000 a. The point at which an aircraft first makes
and ends at 2359. contact with the landing surface.

PCG T−4
5/26/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

b. Concerning a precision radar approach (PAR), TOWER EN ROUTE CONTROL SERVICE− The
it is the point where the glide path intercepts the control of IFR en route traffic within delegated
landing surface. airspace between two or more adjacent approach
(See ICAO term TOUCHDOWN.) control facilities. This service is designed to expedite
traffic and reduce control and pilot communication
TOUCHDOWN [ICAO]− The point where the requirements.
nominal glide path intercepts the runway.
TOWER TO TOWER−
Note: Touchdown as defined above is only a datum
and is not necessarily the actual point at which the (See TOWER EN ROUTE CONTROL
aircraft will touch the runway. SERVICE.)
TRACEABLE PRESSURE STANDARD− The
TOUCHDOWN RVR− facility station pressure instrument, with certifica-
(See VISIBILITY.) tion/calibration traceable to the National Institute of
Standards and Technology. Traceable pressure
TOUCHDOWN ZONE− The first 3,000 feet of the
standards may be mercurial barometers, commis-
runway beginning at the threshold. The area is used
sioned ASOS/AWSS or dual transducer AWOS, or
for determination of Touchdown Zone Elevation in
portable pressure standards or DASI.
the development of straight-in landing minimums for
instrument approaches. TRACK− The actual flight path of an aircraft over the
(See ICAO term TOUCHDOWN ZONE.) surface of the earth.
(See COURSE.)
TOUCHDOWN ZONE [ICAO]− The portion of a (See FLIGHT PATH.)
runway, beyond the threshold, where it is intended (See ROUTE.)
landing aircraft first contact the runway. (See ICAO term TRACK.)
TOUCHDOWN ZONE ELEVATION− The highest TRACK [ICAO]− The projection on the earth’s
elevation in the first 3,000 feet of the landing surface. surface of the path of an aircraft, the direction of
TDZE is indicated on the instrument approach which path at any point is usually expressed in
procedure chart when straight-in landing minimums degrees from North (True, Magnetic, or Grid).
are authorized. TRACK OF INTEREST (TOI)− Displayed data
(See TOUCHDOWN ZONE.) representing an airborne object that threatens or has
TOUCHDOWN ZONE LIGHTING− the potential to threaten North America or National
Security. Indicators may include, but are not limited
(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.)
to: noncompliance with air traffic control instructions
TOWER− A terminal facility that uses air/ground or aviation regulations; extended loss of communica-
communications, visual signaling, and other devices tions; unusual transmissions or unusual flight
to provide ATC services to aircraft operating in the behavior; unauthorized intrusion into controlled
vicinity of an airport or on the movement area. airspace or an ADIZ; noncompliance with issued
Authorizes aircraft to land or takeoff at the airport flight restrictions/security procedures; or unlawful
controlled by the tower or to transit the Class D interference with airborne flight crews, up to and
airspace area regardless of flight plan or weather including hijack. In certain circumstances, an object
conditions (IFR or VFR). A tower may also provide may become a TOI based on specific and credible
approach control services (radar or nonradar). intelligence pertaining to that particular aircraft/
(See AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL SERVICE.) object, its passengers, or its cargo.
(See APPROACH CONTROL FACILITY.) TRACK OF INTEREST RESOLUTION− A TOI
(See APPROACH CONTROL SERVICE.) will normally be considered resolved when: the
(See MOVEMENT AREA.) aircraft/object is no longer airborne; the aircraft
(See TOWER EN ROUTE CONTROL complies with air traffic control instructions, aviation
SERVICE.) regulations, and/or issued flight restrictions/security
(See ICAO term AERODROME CONTROL procedures; radio contact is re−established and
TOWER.) authorized control of the aircraft is verified; the
(Refer to AIM.) aircraft is intercepted and intent is verified to be

PCG T−5
Pilot/Controller Glossary 5/26/16
12/10/15

nonthreatening/nonhostile; TOI was identified based system based on radar beacon signals which operates
on specific and credible intelligence that was later independent of ground-based equipment. TCAS-I
determined to be invalid or unreliable; or displayed generates traffic advisories only. TCAS-II generates
data is identified and characterized as invalid. traffic advisories, and resolution (collision avoid-
ance) advisories in the vertical plane.
TRAFFIC−
a. A term used by a controller to transfer radar TRAFFIC INFORMATION−
(See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
identification of an aircraft to another controller for
the purpose of coordinating separation action. Traffic TRAFFIC INFORMATION SERVICE−
is normally issued: BROADCAST (TIS−B)− The broadcast of ATC
1. In response to a handoff or point out, derived traffic information to ADS−B equipped
(1090ES or UAT) aircraft. The source of this traffic
2. In anticipation of a handoff or point out, or information is derived from ground−based air traffic
3. In conjunction with a request for control of an surveillance sensors, typically from radar targets.
aircraft. TIS−B service will be available throughout the NAS
b. A term used by ATC to refer to one or more where there are both adequate surveillance coverage
aircraft. (radar) and adequate broadcast coverage from
ADS−B ground stations. Loss of TIS−B will occur
TRAFFIC ADVISORIES− Advisories issued to alert when an aircraft enters an area not covered by the
pilots to other known or observed air traffic which GBT network. If this occurs in an area with adequate
may be in such proximity to the position or intended surveillance coverage (radar), nearby aircraft that
route of flight of their aircraft to warrant their remain within the adequate broadcast coverage
attention. Such advisories may be based on: (ADS−B) area will view the first aircraft. TIS−B may
a. Visual observation. continue when an aircraft enters an area with
b. Observation of radar identified and nonidenti- inadequate surveillance coverage (radar); nearby
fied aircraft targets on an ATC radar display, or aircraft that remain within the adequate broadcast
c. Verbal reports from pilots or other facilities. coverage (ADS−B) area will not view the first
aircraft.
Note 1: The word “traffic” followed by additional
information, if known, is used to provide such TRAFFIC IN SIGHT− Used by pilots to inform a
advisories; e.g., “Traffic, 2 o’clock, one zero miles, controller that previously issued traffic is in sight.
southbound, eight thousand.” (See NEGATIVE CONTACT.)
Note 2: Traffic advisory service will be provided to (See TRAFFIC ADVISORIES.)
the extent possible depending on higher priority TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT PROGRAM ALERT−
duties of the controller or other limitations; e.g., A term used in a Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) issued
radar limitations, volume of traffic, frequency
in conjunction with a special traffic management
congestion, or controller workload. Radar/
nonradar traffic advisories do not relieve the pilot program to alert pilots to the existence of the program
of his/her responsibility to see and avoid other and to refer them to either the Notices to Airmen
aircraft. Pilots are cautioned that there are many publication or a special traffic management program
times when the controller is not able to give traffic advisory message for program details. The contrac-
advisories concerning all traffic in the aircraft’s tion TMPA is used in NOTAM text.
proximity; in other words, when a pilot requests or TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT UNIT− The entity in
is receiving traffic advisories, he/she should not
ARTCCs and designated terminals directly involved
assume that all traffic will be issued.
in the active management of facility traffic. Usually
(Refer to AIM.) under the direct supervision of an assistant manager
TRAFFIC ALERT (aircraft call sign), TURN for traffic management.
(left/right) IMMEDIATELY, (climb/descend) AND TRAFFIC NO FACTOR− Indicates that the traffic
MAINTAIN (altitude). described in a previously issued traffic advisory is no
(See SAFETY ALERT.) factor.
TRAFFIC ALERT AND COLLISION AVOID- TRAFFIC NO LONGER OBSERVED− Indicates
ANCE SYSTEM− An airborne collision avoidance that the traffic described in a previously issued traffic

PCG T−6
5/26/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

advisory is no longer depicted on radar, but may still TRAJECTORY− A EDST representation of the path
be a factor. an aircraft is predicted to fly based upon a Current
Plan or Trial Plan.
TRAFFIC PATTERN− The traffic flow that is (See EN ROUTE DECISION SUPPORT TOOL.)
prescribed for aircraft landing at, taxiing on, or taking TRAJECTORY MODELING− The automated pro-
off from an airport. The components of a typical cess of calculating a trajectory.
traffic pattern are upwind leg, crosswind leg,
downwind leg, base leg, and final approach. TRAJECTORY OPTIONS SET (TOS)- A TOS is an
electronic message, submitted by the operator, that is
a. Upwind Leg− A flight path parallel to the used by the Collaborative Trajectory Options
landing runway in the direction of landing. Program (CTOP) to manage the airspace captured in
b. Crosswind Leg− A flight path at right angles to the traffic management program. The TOS will allow
the landing runway off its upwind end. the operator to express the route and delay trade-off
options that they are willing to accept.
c. Downwind Leg− A flight path parallel to the
landing runway in the direction opposite to landing. TRANSCRIBED WEATHER BROADCAST− A
The downwind leg normally extends between the continuous recording of meteorological and aeronau-
crosswind leg and the base leg. tical information that is broadcast on L/MF and VOR
facilities for pilots. (Provided only in Alaska.)
d. Base Leg− A flight path at right angles to the (Refer to AIM.)
landing runway off its approach end. The base leg
TRANSFER OF CONTROL− That action whereby
normally extends from the downwind leg to the
the responsibility for the separation of an aircraft is
intersection of the extended runway centerline.
transferred from one controller to another.
e. Final Approach. A flight path in the direction of (See ICAO term TRANSFER OF CONTROL.)
landing along the extended runway centerline. The
TRANSFER OF CONTROL [ICAO]− Transfer of
final approach normally extends from the base leg to
responsibility for providing air traffic control service.
the runway. An aircraft making a straight-in approach
VFR is also considered to be on final approach. TRANSFERRING CONTROLLER− A controller/
(See STRAIGHT-IN APPROACH VFR.) facility transferring control of an aircraft to another
controller/facility.
(See TAXI PATTERNS.)
(See ICAO term TRANSFERRING
(See ICAO term AERODROME TRAFFIC UNIT/CONTROLLER.)
CIRCUIT.)
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.) TRANSFERRING FACILITY−
(See TRANSFERRING CONTROLLER.)
(Refer to AIM.)
TRANSFERRING UNIT/CONTROLLER [ICAO]−
TRAFFIC SITUATION DISPLAY (TSD)− TSD is a Air traffic control unit/air traffic controller in the
computer system that receives radar track data from process of transferring the responsibility for
all 20 CONUS ARTCCs, organizes this data into a providing air traffic control service to an aircraft to
mosaic display, and presents it on a computer screen. the next air traffic control unit/air traffic controller
The display allows the traffic management coordina- along the route of flight.
tor multiple methods of selection and highlighting of Note: See definition of accepting unit/controller.
individual aircraft or groups of aircraft. The user has
TRANSITION−
the option of superimposing these aircraft positions
over any number of background displays. These a. The general term that describes the change from
background options include ARTCC boundaries, any one phase of flight or flight condition to another; e.g.,
stratum of en route sector boundaries, fixes, airways, transition from en route flight to the approach or
military and other special use airspace, airports, and transition from instrument flight to visual flight.
geopolitical boundaries. By using the TSD, a b. A published procedure (DP Transition) used to
coordinator can monitor any number of traffic connect the basic DP to one of several en route
situations or the entire systemwide traffic flows. airways/jet routes, or a published procedure (STAR

PCG T−7
Pilot/Controller Glossary 5/26/16
12/10/15

Transition) used to connect one of several en route TRANSPONDER [ICAO]− A receiver/transmitter


airways/jet routes to the basic STAR. which will generate a reply signal upon proper
(Refer to DP/STAR Charts.) interrogation; the interrogation and reply being on
different frequencies.
TRANSITION POINT− A point at an adapted
number of miles from the vertex at which an arrival TRANSPONDER CODES−
aircraft would normally commence descent from its (See CODES.)
en route altitude. This is the first fix adapted on the TRANSPONDER OBSERVED − Phraseology used
arrival speed segments. to inform a VFR pilot the aircraft’s assigned beacon
TRANSITION WAYPOINT− The waypoint that code and position have been observed. Specifically,
defines the beginning of a runway or en route this term conveys to a VFR pilot the transponder
transition on an RNAV SID or STAR. reply has been observed and its position correlated for
transit through the designated area.
TRANSITIONAL AIRSPACE− That portion of
controlled airspace wherein aircraft change from one TRIAL PLAN− A proposed amendment which
phase of flight or flight condition to another. utilizes automation to analyze and display potential
conflicts along the predicted trajectory of the selected
TRANSMISSOMETER− An apparatus used to
aircraft.
determine visibility by measuring the transmission of
light through the atmosphere. It is the measurement TRSA−
source for determining runway visual range (RVR) (See TERMINAL RADAR SERVICE AREA.)
and runway visibility value (RVV). TSD−
(See VISIBILITY.) (See TRAFFIC SITUATION DISPLAY.)
TRANSMITTING IN THE BLIND− A transmis- TURBOJET AIRCRAFT− An aircraft having a jet
sion from one station to other stations in engine in which the energy of the jet operates a
circumstances where two-way communication turbine which in turn operates the air compressor.
cannot be established, but where it is believed that the
called stations may be able to receive the TURBOPROP AIRCRAFT− An aircraft having a jet
transmission. engine in which the energy of the jet operates a
turbine which drives the propeller.
TRANSPONDER− The airborne radar beacon
receiver/transmitter portion of the Air Traffic Control TURN ANTICIPATION− (maneuver anticipation).
Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS) which automati- TVOR−
cally receives radio signals from interrogators on the (See TERMINAL-VERY HIGH FREQUENCY
ground, and selectively replies with a specific reply OMNIDIRECTIONAL RANGE STATION.)
pulse or pulse group only to those interrogations
being received on the mode to which it is set to TWEB−
respond. (See TRANSCRIBED WEATHER BROADCAST.)
(See INTERROGATOR.) TWO-WAY RADIO COMMUNICATIONS FAIL-
(See ICAO term TRANSPONDER.) URE−
(Refer to AIM.) (See LOST COMMUNICATIONS.)

PCG T−8
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12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

U
UHF− UNMANNED AIRCRAFT (UA) - A device used or
(See ULTRAHIGH FREQUENCY.) intended to be used for flight that has no onboard
pilot. This device can be any type of airplane,
ULTRAHIGH FREQUENCY− The frequency band helicopter, airship, or powered-lift aircraft.
between 300 and 3,000 MHz. The bank of radio Unmanned free balloons, moored balloons, tethered
frequencies used for military air/ground voice aircraft, gliders, and unmanned rockets are not
communications. In some instances this may go as considered to be a UA.
low as 225 MHz and still be referred to as UHF.
UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM (UAS)- An
ULTRALIGHT VEHICLE− A single-occupant unmanned aircraft and its associated elements related
aeronautical vehicle operated for sport or recreational to safe operations, which may include control
purposes which does not require FAA registration, an stations (ground, ship, or air based), control links,
airworthiness certificate, nor pilot certification. support equipment, payloads, flight termination
Operation of an ultralight vehicle in certain airspace systems, and launch/recovery equipment. It consists
requires authorization from ATC of three elements: unmanned aircraft, control station,
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 103.) and data link.
UNABLE− Indicates inability to comply with a UNPUBLISHED ROUTE− A route for which no
specific instruction, request, or clearance. minimum altitude is published or charted for pilot
UNASSOCIATED− A radar target that does not use. It may include a direct route between NAVAIDs,
display a data block with flight identification and a radial, a radar vector, or a final approach course
altitude information. beyond the segments of an instrument approach
procedure.
(See ASSOCIATED.)
(See PUBLISHED ROUTE.)
UNDER THE HOOD− Indicates that the pilot is (See ROUTE.)
using a hood to restrict visibility outside the cockpit
UNRELIABLE (GPS/WAAS)− An advisory to
while simulating instrument flight. An appropriately
pilots indicating the expected level of service of the
rated pilot is required in the other control seat while
GPS and/or WAAS may not be available. Pilots must
this operation is being conducted.
then determine the adequacy of the signal for desired
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
use.
UNFROZEN− The Scheduled Time of Arrival (STA) UPWIND LEG−
tags, which are still being rescheduled by the time (See TRAFFIC PATTERN.)
based flow management (TBFM) calculations. The
aircraft will remain unfrozen until the time the URGENCY− A condition of being concerned about
corresponding estimated time of arrival (ETA) tag safety and of requiring timely but not immediate
passes the preset freeze horizon for that aircraft’s assistance; a potential distress condition.
stream class. At this point the automatic rescheduling (See ICAO term URGENCY.)
will stop, and the STA becomes “frozen.” URGENCY [ICAO]− A condition concerning the
UNICOM− A nongovernment communication facil- safety of an aircraft or other vehicle, or of person on
ity which may provide airport information at certain board or in sight, but which does not require
airports. Locations and frequencies of UNICOMs are immediate assistance.
shown on aeronautical charts and publications. USAFIB−
(See CHART SUPPLEMENT U.S.) (See ARMY AVIATION FLIGHT INFORMATION
(Refer to AIM.) BULLETIN.)

PCG U−1
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

V
VASI− descents and of using very short runways or small
(See VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATOR.) areas for takeoff and landings. These aircraft include,
but are not limited to, helicopters.
VCOA− (See SHORT TAKEOFF AND LANDING
(See VISUAL CLIMB OVER AIRPORT.) AIRCRAFT.)
VDP− VERY HIGH FREQUENCY− The frequency band
(See VISUAL DESCENT POINT.) between 30 and 300 MHz. Portions of this band, 108
to 118 MHz, are used for certain NAVAIDs; 118 to
VECTOR− A heading issued to an aircraft to provide 136 MHz are used for civil air/ground voice
navigational guidance by radar. communications. Other frequencies in this band are
(See ICAO term RADAR VECTORING.) used for purposes not related to air traffic control.
VERIFY− Request confirmation of information; VERY HIGH FREQUENCY OMNIDIRECTION-
e.g., “verify assigned altitude.” AL RANGE STATION−
(See VOR.)
VERIFY SPECIFIC DIRECTION OF TAKEOFF
(OR TURNS AFTER TAKEOFF)− Used by ATC to VERY LOW FREQUENCY− The frequency band
ascertain an aircraft’s direction of takeoff and/or between 3 and 30 kHz.
direction of turn after takeoff. It is normally used for
VFR−
IFR departures from an airport not having a control
(See VISUAL FLIGHT RULES.)
tower. When direct communication with the pilot is
not possible, the request and information may be VFR AIRCRAFT− An aircraft conducting flight in
relayed through an FSS, dispatcher, or by other accordance with visual flight rules.
means. (See VISUAL FLIGHT RULES.)
(See IFR TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND VFR CONDITIONS− Weather conditions equal to
DEPARTURE PROCEDURES.)
or better than the minimum for flight under visual
VERTEX− The last fix adapted on the arrival speed flight rules. The term may be used as an ATC
segments. Normally, it will be the outer marker of the clearance/instruction only when:
runway in use. However, it may be the actual a. An IFR aircraft requests a climb/descent in
threshold or other suitable common point on the VFR conditions.
approach path for the particular runway configura- b. The clearance will result in noise abatement
tion. benefits where part of the IFR departure route does
VERTEX TIME OF ARRIVAL− A calculated time of not conform to an FAA approved noise abatement
aircraft arrival over the adapted vertex for the runway route or altitude.
configuration in use. The time is calculated via the c. A pilot has requested a practice instrument
optimum flight path using adapted speed segments. approach and is not on an IFR flight plan.
Note: All pilots receiving this authorization must
VERTICAL NAVIGATION (VNAV)– A function of comply with the VFR visibility and distance from
area navigation (RNAV) equipment which calculates, cloud criteria in 14 CFR Part 91. Use of the term
displays, and provides vertical guidance to a profile does not relieve controllers of their responsibility to
or path. separate aircraft in Class B and Class C airspace
or TRSAs as required by FAAO JO 7110.65. When
VERTICAL SEPARATION− Separation between used as an ATC clearance/instruction, the term
aircraft expressed in units of vertical distance. may be abbreviated “VFR;” e.g., “MAINTAIN
(See SEPARATION.) VFR,” “CLIMB/DESCEND VFR,” etc.

VERTICAL TAKEOFF AND LANDING AIR- VFR FLIGHT−


CRAFT− Aircraft capable of vertical climbs and/or (See VFR AIRCRAFT.)

PCG V−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary 12/10/15

VFR MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES− Routes distance, to see and identify prominent unlighted
used by the Department of Defense and associated objects by day and prominent lighted objects by
Reserve and Air Guard units for the purpose of night. Visibility is reported as statute miles, hundreds
conducting low-altitude navigation and tactical of feet or meters.
training under VFR below 10,000 feet MSL at (Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
airspeeds in excess of 250 knots IAS. (Refer to AIM.)
VFR NOT RECOMMENDED− An advisory a. Flight Visibility− The average forward horizon-
provided by a flight service station to a pilot during tal distance, from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight,
a preflight or inflight weather briefing that flight at which prominent unlighted objects may be seen
under visual flight rules is not recommended. To be and identified by day and prominent lighted objects
given when the current and/or forecast weather may be seen and identified by night.
conditions are at or below VFR minimums. It does
not abrogate the pilot’s authority to make his/her own b. Ground Visibility− Prevailing horizontal visi-
decision. bility near the earth’s surface as reported by the
United States National Weather Service or an
VFR-ON-TOP− ATC authorization for an IFR accredited observer.
aircraft to operate in VFR conditions at any c. Prevailing Visibility− The greatest horizontal
appropriate VFR altitude (as specified in 14 CFR and visibility equaled or exceeded throughout at least half
as restricted by ATC). A pilot receiving this the horizon circle which need not necessarily be
authorization must comply with the VFR visibility, continuous.
distance from cloud criteria, and the minimum IFR
altitudes specified in 14 CFR Part 91. The use of this d. Runway Visibility Value (RVV)− The visibility
term does not relieve controllers of their responsibil- determined for a particular runway by a transmis-
ity to separate aircraft in Class B and Class C airspace someter. A meter provides a continuous indication of
or TRSAs as required by FAAO JO 7110.65. the visibility (reported in miles or fractions of miles)
for the runway. RVV is used in lieu of prevailing
VFR TERMINAL AREA CHARTS− visibility in determining minimums for a particular
(See AERONAUTICAL CHART.) runway.

VFR WAYPOINT− e. Runway Visual Range (RVR)− An instrumen-


tally derived value, based on standard calibrations,
(See WAYPOINT.)
that represents the horizontal distance a pilot will see
VHF− down the runway from the approach end. It is based
on the sighting of either high intensity runway lights
(See VERY HIGH FREQUENCY.)
or on the visual contrast of other targets whichever
VHF OMNIDIRECTIONAL RANGE/TACTICAL yields the greater visual range. RVR, in contrast to
AIR NAVIGATION− prevailing or runway visibility, is based on what a
pilot in a moving aircraft should see looking down the
(See VORTAC.)
runway. RVR is horizontal visual range, not slant
VIDEO MAP− An electronically displayed map on visual range. It is based on the measurement of a
the radar display that may depict data such as airports, transmissometer made near the touchdown point of
heliports, runway centerline extensions, hospital the instrument runway and is reported in hundreds of
emergency landing areas, NAVAIDs and fixes, feet. RVR is used in lieu of RVV and/or prevailing
reporting points, airway/route centerlines, bound- visibility in determining minimums for a particular
aries, handoff points, special use tracks, obstructions, runway.
prominent geographic features, map alignment 1. Touchdown RVR− The RVR visibility
indicators, range accuracy marks, minimum vector- readout values obtained from RVR equipment
ing altitudes. serving the runway touchdown zone.
VISIBILITY− The ability, as determined by 2. Mid-RVR− The RVR readout values obtained
atmospheric conditions and expressed in units of from RVR equipment located midfield of the runway.

PCG V−2
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

3. Rollout RVR− The RVR readout values runway as an alternative to complying with climb
obtained from RVR equipment located nearest the gradients greater than 200 feet per nautical mile.
rollout end of the runway. Pilots are responsible to advise ATC as early as
(See ICAO term FLIGHT VISIBILITY.) possible of the intent to fly the VCOA option prior to
(See ICAO term GROUND VISIBILITY.) departure. These textual procedures are published in
(See ICAO term RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE.) the ‘Take−Off Minimums and (Obstacle) Departure
(See ICAO term VISIBILITY.) Procedures’ section of the Terminal Procedures
Publications and/or appear as an option on a Graphic
VISIBILITY [ICAO]− The ability, as determined by ODP.
atmospheric conditions and expressed in units of (See AIM.)
distance, to see and identify prominent unlighted
objects by day and prominent lighted objects by VISUAL DESCENT POINT− A defined point on the
night. final approach course of a nonprecision straight-in
approach procedure from which normal descent from
a. Flight Visibility−The visibility forward from the MDA to the runway touchdown point may be
the cockpit of an aircraft in flight. commenced, provided the approach threshold of that
b. Ground Visibility−The visibility at an aero- runway, or approach lights, or other markings
drome as reported by an accredited observer. identifiable with the approach end of that runway are
c. Runway Visual Range [RVR]−The range over clearly visible to the pilot.
which the pilot of an aircraft on the centerline of a VISUAL FLIGHT RULES− Rules that govern the
runway can see the runway surface markings or the procedures for conducting flight under visual
lights delineating the runway or identifying its conditions. The term “VFR” is also used in the
centerline. United States to indicate weather conditions that are
VISUAL APPROACH− An approach conducted on equal to or greater than minimum VFR requirements.
an instrument flight rules (IFR) flight plan which In addition, it is used by pilots and controllers to
authorizes the pilot to proceed visually and clear of indicate type of flight plan.
clouds to the airport. The pilot must, at all times, have (See INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES.)
either the airport or the preceding aircraft in sight. (See INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL
This approach must be authorized and under the CONDITIONS.)
control of the appropriate air traffic control facility. (See VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL
Reported weather at the airport must be ceiling at or CONDITIONS.)
above 1,000 feet and visibility of 3 miles or greater. (Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
(See ICAO term VISUAL APPROACH.) (Refer to AIM.)

VISUAL APPROACH [ICAO]− An approach by an VISUAL HOLDING− The holding of aircraft at


IFR flight when either part or all of an instrument selected, prominent geographical fixes which can be
approach procedure is not completed and the easily recognized from the air.
approach is executed in visual reference to terrain. (See HOLDING FIX.)

VISUAL APPROACH SLOPE INDICATOR− VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS−


(See AIRPORT LIGHTING.) Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of
visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling equal to or
VISUAL CLIMB OVER AIRPORT (VCOA)− A better than specified minima.
departure option for an IFR aircraft, operating in (See INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES.)
visual meteorological conditions equal to or greater (See INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL
than the specified visibility and ceiling, to visually CONDITIONS.)
conduct climbing turns over the airport to the (See VISUAL FLIGHT RULES.)
published “climb−to” altitude from which to proceed
with the instrument portion of the departure. VCOA VISUAL SEGMENT−
procedures are developed to avoid obstacles greater (See PUBLISHED INSTRUMENT APPROACH
than 3 statute miles from the departure end of the PROCEDURE VISUAL SEGMENT.)

PCG V−3
Pilot/Controller Glossary 5/26/16
12/10/15

VISUAL SEPARATION− A means employed by VORTAC− A navigation aid providing VOR


ATC to separate aircraft in terminal areas and en route azimuth, TACAN azimuth, and TACAN distance
airspace in the NAS. There are two ways to effect this measuring equipment (DME) at one site.
separation: (See DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT.)
a. The tower controller sees the aircraft involved (See NAVIGATIONAL AID.)
and issues instructions, as necessary, to ensure that (See TACAN.)
the aircraft avoid each other. (See VOR.)
(Refer to AIM.)
b. A pilot sees the other aircraft involved and upon
instructions from the controller provides his/her own VORTICES− Circular patterns of air created by the
separation by maneuvering his/her aircraft as movement of an airfoil through the air when
necessary to avoid it. This may involve following generating lift. As an airfoil moves through the
another aircraft or keeping it in sight until it is no atmosphere in sustained flight, an area of area of low
longer a factor. pressure is created above it. The air flowing from the
(See SEE AND AVOID.) high pressure area to the low pressure area around and
(Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.) about the tips of the airfoil tends to roll up into two
rapidly rotating vortices, cylindrical in shape. These
VLF− vortices are the most predominant parts of aircraft
(See VERY LOW FREQUENCY.) wake turbulence and their rotational force is
VMC− dependent upon the wing loading, gross weight, and
speed of the generating aircraft. The vortices from
(See VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL
CONDITIONS.) medium to super aircraft can be of extremely high
velocity and hazardous to smaller aircraft.
VOICE SWITCHING AND CONTROL SYSTEM− (See AIRCRAFT CLASSES.)
The VSCS is a computer controlled switching system (See WAKE TURBULENCE.)
that provides air traffic controllers with all voice (Refer to AIM.)
circuits (air to ground and ground to ground)
necessary for air traffic control. VOT− A ground facility which emits a test signal to
check VOR receiver accuracy. Some VOTs are
(See VOICE SWITCHING AND CONTROL
SYSTEM.)
available to the user while airborne, and others are
limited to ground use only.
(Refer to AIM.)
(See CHART SUPPLEMENT U.S.)
VOR− A ground-based electronic navigation aid (Refer to 14 CFR Part 91.)
transmitting very high frequency navigation signals, (Refer to AIM.)
360 degrees in azimuth, oriented from magnetic
VR−
north. Used as the basis for navigation in the National
(See VFR MILITARY TRAINING ROUTES.)
Airspace System. The VOR periodically identifies
itself by Morse Code and may have an additional VSCS−
voice identification feature. Voice features may be (See VOICE SWITCHING AND CONTROL
used by ATC or FSS for transmitting instructions/ SYSTEM.)
information to pilots. VTA−
(See NAVIGATIONAL AID.) (See VERTEX TIME OF ARRIVAL.)
(Refer to AIM.)
VTOL AIRCRAFT−
VOR TEST SIGNAL− (See VERTICAL TAKEOFF AND LANDING
(See VOT.) AIRCRAFT.)

PCG V−4
11/10/16
12/10/15 Pilot/Controller Glossary

W
WA− instructions have been met. “When able,” should not
(See AIRMET.) be used when expeditious compliance is required.
(See WEATHER ADVISORY.) WIDE-AREA AUGMENTATION SYSTEM
WAAS− (WAAS)− The WAAS is a satellite navigation system
(See WIDE-AREA AUGMENTATION SYSTEM.) consisting of the equipment and software which
augments the GPS Standard Positioning Service
WAKE TURBULENCE− Phenomena resulting from (SPS). The WAAS provides enhanced integrity,
the passage of an aircraft through the atmosphere. accuracy, availability, and continuity over and above
The term includes vortices, thrust stream turbulence, GPS SPS. The differential correction function
jet blast, jet wash, propeller wash, and rotor wash provides improved accuracy required for precision
both on the ground and in the air. approach.
(See AIRCRAFT CLASSES.)
WIDE AREA MULTILATERATION (WAM)– A
(See JET BLAST.) distributed surveillance technology which may
(See VORTICES.) utilize any combination of signals from Air Traffic
(Refer to AIM.) Control Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS) (Modes A
WARNING AREA− and C) and Mode S transponders, and ADS-B
transmissions. Multiple geographically dispersed
(See SPECIAL USE AIRSPACE.)
ground sensors measure the time-of-arrival of the
WAYPOINT− A predetermined geographical posi- transponder messages. Aircraft position is determ-
tion used for route/instrument approach definition, ined by joint processing of the
progress reports, published VFR routes, visual time-difference-of-arrival (TDOA) measurements
reporting points or points for transitioning and/or computed between a reference and the ground
circumnavigating controlled and/or special use stations’ measured time-of-arrival.
airspace, that is defined relative to a VORTAC station WILCO− I have received your message, understand
or in terms of latitude/longitude coordinates. it, and will comply with it.
WEATHER ADVISORY− In aviation weather WIND GRID DISPLAY− A display that presents the
forecast practice, an expression of hazardous weather latest forecasted wind data overlaid on a map of the
conditions not predicted in the area forecast, as they ARTCC area. Wind data is automatically entered and
affect the operation of air traffic and as prepared by updated periodically by transmissions from the
the NWS. National Weather Service. Winds at specific
(See AIRMET.) altitudes, along with temperatures and air pressure
(See SIGMET.) can be viewed.
WHEN ABLE− WIND SHEAR− A change in wind speed and/or wind
a. In conjunction with ATC instructions, gives the direction in a short distance resulting in a tearing or
pilot the latitude to delay compliance until a shearing effect. It can exist in a horizontal or vertical
condition or event has been reconciled. Unlike “pilot direction and occasionally in both.
discretion,” when instructions are prefaced “when WIND SHEAR ESCAPE– An unplanned abortive
able,” the pilot is expected to seek the first maneuver initiated by the pilot in command (PIC) as
opportunity to comply. a result of onboard cockpit systems. Wind shear
b. In conjunction with a weather deviation escapes are characterized by maximum thrust climbs
clearance, requires the pilot to determine when he/she in the low altitude terminal environment until wind
is clear of weather, then execute ATC instructions. shear conditions are no longer detected.
c. Once a maneuver has been initiated, the pilot is WING TIP VORTICES−
expected to continue until the specifications of the (See VORTICES.)

PCG W−1
Pilot/Controller Glossary 5/26/16
12/10/15

WORDS TWICE− WS−


a. As a request: “Communication is difficult. (See SIGMET.)
Please say every phrase twice.” (See WEATHER ADVISORY.)
b. As information: “Since communications are WST−
difficult, every phrase in this message will be spoken (See CONVECTIVE SIGMET.)
twice.” (See WEATHER ADVISORY.)

PCG W−2