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PROBLEMS ABOUT

Operating System
Arranged to fulfill one of the tasks of english language course 2

Lecturer : Mrs. Nopianti Sa’adah,M.Pd

Arranged by :

Muhammad Aqil Al-Muhtadi– 1177050067


Pramadita Sielda Dewi – 1177050089
Siti Lutfia Dwi Agustini - 1177050107

INFORMATICS ENGINEERING
FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SUNAN GUNUNG DJATI
BANDUNG
MENU
FOREWORD ............................................................................................................................................ 4
CHAPTER 1 ............................................................................................................................................. 5
INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................... 5
A. Background .................................................................................................................................. 5
B. Formulation of The Problem ................................................................................................. 5
C. Formulation of The Problem ................................................................................................. 5
CHAPTER II............................................................................................................................................. 6
DISCUSSION ............................................................................................................................................. 6
A. Understanding the Operating System ................................................................................ 6
B. History of The Operating System ......................................................................................... 6
1. First Generation (1945-1955) ................................................................................................... 6
2. Second Generation (1955-1965) ............................................................................................... 6
3. Third Generation (1965-1980).................................................................................................. 7
4. Fourth Generation (Post 1980s) ............................................................................................... 7
5. The Fifth Generation (Post 2001 to Now) ............................................................................... 7
C. Various Kinds of Computer Operating System................................................................ 7
1. WINDOWS .................................................................................................................................. 7
2. LINUX .......................................................................................................................................... 8
3. UNIX ............................................................................................................................................. 9
4. MAC OS ........................................................................................................................................ 9
5. ANDROID OS ............................................................................................................................ 10
6. FREE BSD .................................................................................................................................. 10
7. CHROME OS.............................................................................................................................. 11
8. IBM OS ....................................................................................................................................... 11
D. Operating System Functions ................................................................................................ 11
CHAPTER III ......................................................................................................................................... 13
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ......................................................................... 13
A. Conclusions ................................................................................................................................ 13
B. Recommendations ................................................................................................................... 13
BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................................................ 14
FOREWORD

Praise the presence of Almighty God for all the abundance of Grace, Inayah, Taufik and
Hinayah so I can complete the compilation of this paper in its simplest form and contents.
Hopefully this article can be used as a reference, guidance and guidance for readers in the
implementation of education in the teaching profession.
Hopefully this article can help improve the knowledge and experience for the readers so
that We can improve the form and content of this paper so that the future can be better.
We admit this paper still many shortcomings because my experience is very less.
Therefore, hopefully the readers provide constructive feedback for the perfection of this paper.

Bandung, February 21 2018

Author
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

A. Background
The operating system is a link between the user and the computer. Before any
operating system, people only use the computer using analog signals and digital signals.
Along with the development of knowledge and technology, at present there are various
operating systems with their respective advantages. To better understand the operating
system it is necessary.
Understanding the operating system in general is the manager of all the resources
contained in the computer system and provide a set of services (system calls) to the user
so as to facilitate and comfort the use and utilization of computer system resources.

B. Formulation of The Problem


The purpose of making this paper is to fulfill the task of English. In addition, so
we can know more details what is meant by the operation of computer systems and its
types.

C. Formulation of The Problem


1. Understanding the operating system
2. History of the operating system
3. Various kinds of computer operating system
4. Operating System Functions
CHAPTER II

DISCUSSION

A. Understanding the Operating System


Understanding computer operating system is a software or software that has a role
to control and perform management on hardware or hardware as well as various basic
operations on the system, including running a software. Without an operating system
inside a computer, the user is not able to run the various application programs that exist
on their computer, except only the boot program.
Computer operating system is a software located on the main layer and the
software is first placed into the memory of a computer when the computer is turned on.
Computer memory is hard disk.
After the operating system of a computer running, then the application or software
that is inside it can be run. The operating system serves to perform general core services
to run applications or software that is inside. Because the software is already served by
the operating system, then the software is not necessary to do a common core work. The
common core services include: memory management, user interface, giving access to
disks, and scheduling multiple programming applications running simultaneously.

B. History of The Operating System


Historically, the operating system is expanding. The development can be divided
into five generations:

1. First Generation (1945-1955)


The first generation is the beginning of the development of electronic computing
systems as a replacement for mechanical computing systems, it is due to the human speed
to count is limited and humans are very easy to make carelessness, even mistakes. In this
generation there is no operating system, then the computer system is given instructions
that must be done directly.

2. Second Generation (1955-1965)


The second generation introduced the Batch Processing System, the Job done in a
series, then executed sequentially. In this generation the computer system has not been
equipped with the operating system, but some operating system functions already exist,
for example the operating system function is FMS (Fortran Monitoring System) and
IBSYS. So this second generation of computers is the first generation of Operating
system.
3. Third Generation (1965-1980)
In this generation the development of the operating system was developed to
serve many users at the same time, where interactive users communicate via the terminal
on-line to the computer, the operating system becomes multi-user (multi user) and multi-
programming (serving many programs at once).

4. Fourth Generation (Post 1980s)


Today, the operating system is used for computer networks where the user is
aware of the existence of computers connected to each other. At this time the users have
also been secured with Graphical User Interface is a graphical interface computer that is
very comfortable, at this time also begins the era of computing spread where computing
is no longer centered at one point, but broken down in many computers to achieve
performance better.

5. The Fifth Generation (Post 2001 to Now)


Defining a fifth generation computer becomes quite difficult as this stage is still
on the way. An imaginative example of a fifth generation computer is the HAL9000
fictional computer from the novel by Arthur C. Clarke entitled 2001: Space Odyssey. It
displays all the desired functionality of a fifth generation computer. With artificial
intelligence, HAL can be reason enough to engage with people, use visual input, and
learn from their own experience. Although the realization of HAL9000 is still far from
reality, many of its functions have already materialized. Some computers can receive oral
instructions and be able to imitate human reasoning. The ability to translate foreign
languages is now possible. This facility looks simple. But the facility becomes much
more complicated than expected when the programmer realizes that human aspiration is
highly dependent on context and understanding rather than merely translating words
directly.

C. Various Kinds of Computer Operating System


1. WINDOWS
Mircorost Windows or commonly we call Windows is the Operating System
developed by Microsoft Corporation that uses the interface with berbasikan GUI
(Graphical User Interface) or graphical interface.
Advantages :
1. A familiar GUI
2. MS Windows has more hardware driver support than Linux.
3. Many MS Window-based applications
4. it's easier to install apps on MS Windows than on Linux, which sometimes has to
be configure first and lots of free GPL and Freeware are offered for Windows
Deficiency :
1. The price is expensive
2. Virus vulnerable and hacking many computer viruses that attack this operating
system
3. No robust security system Except MS Windows 2000 and XP,
4. In MS Windows (except MS Windows 2000 which is better than Win 9.x / Me)
5. The more applications you install, the more likely it will happen. because of this
your work will be disrupted.

2. LINUX
Linux is a multi-user and multitasking operating system, which can run on
multiple platforms, including INTEL 386 and higher processors. This operating
system implements the POSIX standard. Linux can interoperate well with other
operating systems, including Apple, Microsoft and Novell.
The name Linux itself was derived from its original creator, LINUS TORVALDS,
at the University of Helsinki, Finland which actually refers to the kernel of an
operating system, a naming commonly used to refer to a complete set of software,
which together with the kernel composes an operating system which is complete.
Linux was once a hobby project undertaken by Linus Torvalds who gained inspiration
from Minix. Minix is a small UNIX system developed by Andy Tanenbaum. Linux
version 0.01 was done around August 1991.
Advantages :
1. Linux is an Open Source system
2. Freeware ie software that is free without any claim of copyright
3. Minimal hardware is not so require hardware that is too large capacity and cost.
4. Stability is stable used as anything, both Server and Client
5. Shared Libraries do not damage other systems if installed with other versions. The
system used can run normally.
6. Immune virus is not attacked by any virus as it happened in Windows
Deficiency :
1. The operating system used is completely different from Windows so it takes time
and effort to learn to use it.
2. The use of WYSYWYG (What You See is What You Get) can not be thorough,
so it's trickery to use it yourself.
3. It is difficult for a novice user to adapt
4. Hardware support from certain vendors that are not very good on Linux.
5. The software / application installation process is not as easy on Windows.
Installing software on Linux, will become easier when connected to the internet or
if you have a CD / DVD repository. If not, then we have to download one by one
package needed along with its dependencies.

3. UNIX
UNIX is a computer operating system that started from the 1965 MultiMedical
Information and Computing Service (APM) by American Telephone and Telegraph
AT & T, General Electric (GE) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT),
at the cost of the US Department of Defense of Defense Advenced Research Project,
DARPA or ARPA), UNIX is designed as a portable, multi-tasking and multi-user
operating system.
Advantages :
1. Stable file system for databases, Internet servers, Intranets, files, Java Internet-
client development.
2. Famous stability and better performance compared to Windows NT.
3. A free version of the "almost" Unix operating system is available.
Deficiency :
1. The price of commercial operating system is expensive.
2. The speed of innovation of Linux long time urged commercial Unix system.
3. Unix version of the "almost" free version of the operating system is not as good as
commercial Unix operating systems.
4. Unpleasant hardware drivers on the "almost" free version.
5. Little software for office.

4. MAC OS
Mac OS, which means the Macintosh Operating System, or Macintosh Operating
System, is the operating system of Apple computers for Apple Macintosh computers.
Mac OS is the first operating system that uses a graphical user interface (GUI). The
Macintosh troops included Bill Atkinson, Jef Raskin and Andy Hertzfeld.
Advantages :
1. Stable, because it uses UNIX.
2. Multitasking.
3. View (UI) is very good.
4. Safe from Malware.
5. The collection of games that are available very much with quality almost close to
the real game console and supported graphics quality above the level standards,
6. The operating system is stable and easy to use for the layman though,
7. Safari browser owned operating system is also the best now. responsive and
intuitive, the best current web browser,
8. The music player is very good in terms of interface and sound quality,
9. There is an online App Store application store that provides thousands of apps and
games ready to doownlod directly.
Deficiency :
1. Not multitasking,
2. The operating system is very closed and can not be personalized,
3. The certification process for new applications is very strict,
4. Apps and games can only be downloaded from the App Store,
5. Bluetooth can not for file delivery process,
6. Text entry less convenient.
7. So you can say this operating system is too protective in terms of providing the
application and only guided by one application provider.

5. ANDROID OS
Android is the operating system for mobile phones based on Linux. Android
provides an open platform for developers to create their own applications for use by
various mobile devices. Initially, Google Inc. buy Android Inc., a newcomer who
makes software for mobile phones. Then to develop Android, the Open Handset
Alliance was formed, a consortium of 34 hardware, software and telecommunications
companies, including Google, HTC, Intel, Motorola, Qualcomm, T-Mobile and
Nvidia.

6. FREE BSD
FreeBSD is a free UNIX-type Operating System derived from UNIX AT & T.
FreeBSD runs on x86 intel systems. FreeBSD itself first appeared in 1993 by David
Greenman. The purpose of FreeBSD is to provide software that can be used for
various purposes. FreeBSD itself developed from 386BSD a BSD OS development
project that runs on top of Intel Chips.
Advantages :
1. Virus / Spyware is attacking a bit
2. Many free applications and programs are free
3. Relatively easy to customize (tampered) freely
4. Multiuser
Deficiency :
1. Relatively difficult to use, because it is still a text base in the command
2. Compared to Windows, the GUI on FreeBSD is still lacking
3. For gamers, this game operating system is very little

4. SOLARIS
The Solaris Operating System is an Operating System based on UNIX system
allowed by Sun Microsystems in 1992 as SunOS support. Solaris is renowned for its
stability, especially in Scalable Processor Architecture (SPARC) systems, Solaris is
certified in UNIX Specifications even though it was initially based on private
ownership, and most of the current code is OpenSource Software commonly known
as OpenSolaris. OpenSolaris is an OpenSource version of Sun Solaris Operating
System, but Sun Solaris consists of more than a few codes that are not just the core of
the Operating System eg: Source for Installer, Desktop, Software.
Open Solaris has many features that make OpenSolaris usable for large usage
scales from usage for desktop PC or Mobile PC. The Open Solaris concept is as
follows:
1. Free Redistribution: Distributed freely.
2. Source Code: Source (Source) must be available for all distributions.
3. Derived Works: Anyone can change the code and redistribute it.
4. No Discrimination: Code must be provided for someone to be institutionalized.

7. CHROME OS
Chrome OS is a lightweight, Linux-based Google Operating System and web
standard for personal PCs. Google Chrome works with the Windowing or Switching
(Multi-Tasking) method. Google Chrome OS uses HTML 5 web standards, which is a
software development in a browser based Operating System. If viewed, Chrome OS is
a combination of Linux and Windows Vista. Chrome OS released in mid-2010.

8. IBM OS
The IBM OS / 2 Operating System was created jointly by International Bussiness
Machine Corporation and Microsoft Corporation, for use on IBM computers as a
replacement for the DOS Operating System. The word OS / 2 stands for Operating
System / 2, the Operating System is designed to use the full capabilities of the Intel
80286 Microprocessor, including Protected Mode, capable of simultaneous tasks, and
Virtual Memory support while maintaining compatibility with many MS-DOS
software in circulation at the time.

D. Operating System Functions


1. Resource manager, is a resource management and allocate it, Example: memory,
CPU, Disk Drive and other devices.
2. Interface or commonly referred to as face-to-face, which is as an intermediary
between users with hardware by providing a view to the user more easily understood
and friendly (user friendly)
3. Coordinator, In this case the operating system serves to manage all the complex
activities of the software system / software applications that are running in order to
run in the correct order. In addition to managing all software activities, the operating
system is also tasked to manage / manage all activities related to hardware, either
input device or output device.
4. Guardian, It is intended that one of the functions or tasks of the operating system is to
take control of the process, protect files and limit the read and write and execute data
and programs. The operating system can also function as a regulator of anyone who
can access the files, programs and systems that exist in our computer.
5. Gate Keeper, serves as a controller access rights by the user who controls who is
entitled to enter the system and keep an eye on what it does.
6. Optimizer is a user input scheduler (input), database access, computing and usage
process.
7. Accountant functions to manage CPU time, memory usage, I / O calling, disk storage,
and terminal connection time.
8. Server serves to serve everything needed by a user (user).
9. Interpretation, Operating System serves as a translator of commands and instructions
between the User and the System. As an easy communication facility between
computer system and User (user).
CHAPTER III

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

A. Conclusions
The operating system is software that works to enable all devices installed on the
computer so that each can communicate with each other. In general, the Operating
System is software in the first layer that is placed on the computer memory at the time the
computer is turned on. While other software is run after the Operating System runs, and
the Operating System will perform general core services for the software. Common core
services such as disk access, memory management, scheduling tasks, and user interfaces.
So that each software no longer need to perform these common core tasks, because it can
be served and performed by the Operating System. The section of code that performs
these common and core tasks is called the "kernel" of an Operating System.

B. Recommendations
This paper is the beginning of the process of learning about the Operating System,
so that the next opportunity to be better, both the discussion, explanation and writing that
has not been achieved.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

http://woocara.blogspot.co.id/2016/03/pengertian-sistem-operasi-fungsi-contoh.html

https://ardhanpapua.wordpress.com/2011/03/17/sejarah-sistem-operasi-dan-perjalanan-sistem-
operasi-mulai-dari-dos-mac-hingga-windows/

https://www.facebook.com/notes/dr-hacker-cintha-community-fans/macam-macam-sistem-
operasi-beserta-kelebihan-dan-kelemahannya-sistem-operasi/193227527528260/

https://www.nesabamedia.com/pengertian-dan-fungsi-sistem-operasi/