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a 5 CHARACTERISTICS OF UNIT CELL 9 The atomic packing factor for FCC structure will be ‘The packing density of the FCC structure is 74% and void sp SCand BCC structure, FCC structure is a tightly packed thre structures. race of FCC unit cell is 26%. Compared to structure because its APF is largest among the Hexagonal Close-Packed Structure (HCP) hexagonal close-packed structure consists of three layers of atoms: 1. The bottom layer is hexagon-shaped and it has six corner atoms and one face-centered atom. 2, The middle layer has three full atoms, 5. The upper layer is also hexagon-shaped and it has six corner atoms and one face-centered atom. Therefore, in the HCP structure, there are 12 corner atoms, two centered atoms of the hexagons, and thee atoms at the center of the unit cell, which is situated between wo layers of the hexagons as shown in Fg, 20. The arrangement of atoms in HCP structure is as shown in Fig. 20(b). In the bottom layer, the center atom of the hexagon is surrounded by six corner atoms, which is denoved by A. The second layer af atoms is placed over the bottom layer, between two atoms alternatively which is represented by B, The upper layer is similar to that of bottom layer, which is denoted as A or C. The stack sequence goes on sABABABAB .... or ABCABCABC ... for HCP structure. The characteristics of a HCP structure are given below in detail. Number of Atoms per Unit Cell we know, HCP structure has three layers of atom in which there are three types of atoms, they are corner “ons, base centered atoms of two hexagons, and the middle layer atoms, () Figure 20 (a) HCP unit cell. (b) Arrangement of atoms in HCP structure. 250 .- CHAPTER 9/CRYSTAL STRUCTUs 1. Comer atoms: In HCP structure, there are 12 corner atoms in two hexagons. Each comer atg is shared by six surrounding hexagonal unit cells. Therefore, the number of corner atoms per unit cell = there are two base-centered atoms in two hexago, 'd another on the top layer. Each base-centered ato x12=2 atoms. 2. Base-centered atoms: In a HCP structure, that is, one on the bottom layer of the hexagon ani is shared by two unit cells. Therefore, the number of base-centered atoms per unit cell 3. Middle layer of atoms: There are thrce atoms situated at the middle of the unit cell, These ao belong to the same unit cell and they are not shared between any other unit cells. Therefore, the number of middle layer of atoms per unit cell = 3 aroms. The total number of atoms per unit cell in HCP structure is = 24+1+3=6 atoms. a1 y1=1atoms. 2 Atomic Radius In any two corner atoms, the distance between two nearest neighboring atom is 2r (see Fig, 21). From Fig. 21(c), we get Qr=a Coordination Number In an HCP structure, consider the base-centered atom of the bottom layer of a hexagon. It is connected six corner atoms of the bottom layer which lie in its plane, three middle atoms of another unit cell wh are lying below the plane and three middle layer atoms of another unit cell which are lying below the pl Therefore, the bottom layer base-centered atom is connected to six corner atoms in its plane, three mit atoms above the plane and three middle atoms below the plane in another unit cell. Hence, the coordina number for HCP structure is 12. : Relation between c and a Consider the bottom layer of the hexagonally close-packed ns ee eee Let ABCDEF be the commer ato! (c) Figure 21 Atomic radius of NCP ereuerisee Tics OF UNIT CELL + 251 iat acre @ (b) Figure 22 (a) Bottom surface of HCP unit cell. (b) Triangle AGX for finding c/a ratio. iuneHHCP structure, the height of the unie cell is ¢. The height of the middle atoms (G, H, 1) from the Ie unit cll isc/2. These middle layers are located exactly above the centroids of the triangle san of | eefOC. and DOE ata distance of e/2. Consider the triangle ABY as shown in Fig, 22(b). Them, we have cos30° = AY = AY AB a ‘Weknow that CHAPTER 9/Ci 252 “Atomic Packing Factor (APF) The atomic packing factor is defined as ; Volume of the atoms Volume of the unit cell (V) rs the unit cell (v) np APF = Number of atoms/unit cell (n) * For HCP structure, Area ofthe hexagonal base X Height of the unit cel Volume of the unit cell = Area of the hexagonal base = 6 x Area of the triangle AOB Therefore the volume of the unit cell will be V=6 x Area of the triangle AOB x ¢ =6{ Loasex eight) 3 Volume of the hexagonal unit cell = 2° 4, 2 The atomic packing factor will be = 4 Therefore, the packi , the packing dens The atoms in the HCP stra oe structure i 1 HCP structure ar rightly ects 4% and the void space in che HCP structure 8 24