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Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd
ghJfhg;G topfhl;b
khw;Wf; nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyaj;jpd; ntspaL
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Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b


Kjw; gjpg;G : 2005 Nk
ISBN : 955-8037-85-0
tbtikg;G : Rfe;jp kzpkhwd; - 2330071
mr;R : f;Nshg; gphpd;bq; th;f]
; ;
ntspaPL : khw;Wf; nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;

njhFg;G
ctpe;J FUFy#hpa
Rde;j Njrg;gphpa
v];. ead fNzrd;

ml;ilg;glj;jpd; Gifg;glk;
Gifg;gl ClftpayhsnuhUth; 2005Mk; Mz;L Nk khjk;
NgUtpy; ,lk;ngw;w fyfk; xd;wpd; NghJ fz;zPh; Gifj;
jhf;FjYf;F kj;jpapy; Gifg;glk; vLj;jy;.
glk; : AP/ khh;l;bd; Nk[pah

gpd;Gw ml;ilapd; Gifg;glk;


Clftpayhsh; epkyuh[dpd; gLnfhiyf; F vjpuhf
Clftpayhsh;fs; Nkw;nfhz;l Mh;g;ghl;lnkhd;W
glk; : m[pj; nrdtpuj;d

And]; N fh epWtdj; j pd; %yNk ,e; E }y; njhFg; g pw; F k;


nkhopngah;gG; r; nraw;ghLfSf;Fk; mDruiz toq;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.
,jpy; mlq;fpAs;s fUj;Jf;fs; And];Nfh epWtdj;jpd; fUj;Jf;fs;
my;y. ,J njhlh;ghd nghWg;G khw;Wf; nfhs;iffSf;fhd
epiyaj; j pw; N f cz; L . midj; J vOj; j hf; f q; f spYk;
gad;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;s gjtpg; ngah;fs; kw;Wk; cs;slf;fj;jpd; %yk;
Kd;itf;fg;gLk; fUj;Jf;fs; And];Nfhtpd; fUj;Jf;fs; my;y.
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

cs;slf;fk;

Mgj;jhd #o;epiyfspy; Ntiy nra;tjw;Fj; jahuhFjy; 1

n[dPth khehl;L xg;ge;jk; 8

nghJthd ghJfhg;G gw;wpa mwpTWj;jy;fs; 16

ghJfhg;G njhlh;ghd cld;ghl;L thrfk; 23

Aj;j tyaq;fSk; Nkhjy; gpuNjrq;fSk; 26

kpjpntbfs; kw;Wk; rpW nghwpfs; 28

fytuq;fSk; cs;ehl;L mikjpapd;ikAk; 39

Clf Rje;jpuKk; caph; tho;tjw;fhd chpikAk; 46

khw;Wf; nfhs;iffSf;fhd epiyak;


24|2> 28tJ xOq;if> g;sth; tPjp> nfhOk;G- 07> ,yq;if
njhiyNgrp : 2565304> 2565306> 5552746> 5552748
njhiyefy; : 4714460
kpd;dQ;ry; : cpa@sri.lanka.net
,izaj;jsk; : www.cpalanka.org

(i)
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

Kd;Diu

fle;j 13 tUl fhyg;gFjpf;Fs; flikapy; <Lgl;Lf; nfhz;bUe;j Ntisapy;


KO cyfj; j pYk; 1250w; F k; mjpfkhd Clftpayhsh; f s; gLnfhiy
nra; a g; g l; L s; s dh; . 2004Mk; Mz; b y; kl; L k; 129 Ngh; gLnfhiy
nra;ag;gl;Ls;sdh;. Vnddpy; mth;fs; vOjpait $wpait njhlh;ghf xUth;
tpUg;gkpy;yhjpUe;jikapdhyhFk;; xUth; Muhaf; $lhJ vd epidj;jij
Muha;e;jikapdhyhFk;; xUth;> Clftpayhsh;fis tpUk;ghikapdhyhFk;.
jtwhd Neuj;jpy; jtwhd ,lj;jpy; ,Ue;j fhuzj;jpdhyhFk;.
ve;jnthU njhopypYk; Mgj;J cs;sJ. Mdhy; xUth; kiwf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk; vd epidf;Fk; xU tplaj;ij gfpuq;fg;gLj;Jk; Clftpayhsh;fspd;
njhopy; Vida njhopy;fis tpl kpfTk; Mgj;jhdJ. ,d;W ,t; Mgj;J
Vw;Wf; nfhs;s Kbahjstpw;F mjpfhpj;Js;sJ. cyfpd; rpy gpuNjrq;fspy;
Jd;GWj;jy;fs;> mr;RWj;jy; tpLj;jy; Nghd;wit iftpl Kbahjstpw;Fj;
njhopypd; Xh; mq;fkhf mike;J tpl;lJ. Aj;jk; kw;Wk; rptpy; Nkhjy;fis
mwpf; i fapLk; nghOJ mq; F mjd; Mgj; J kpfTk; mjpfhpg; g Jld;
Clftpayhsh;fs; jkJ capiuf; $l ,of;f NehpLfpwJ.
vdNt Clftpayhsh;fSf;F ghJfhg;Gj; njhlh;ghd tpsf;fk; gw;wpa njspT
Njitg;gLfpd;wJ. jkJ njhopiy rpwg;ghf nra;tjw;F ,J
mj;jpahtrpakhdjhFk;. rpwe;j Clftpayhsh;fs; Neh;fhzy; kw;Wk; Muha;r;rpj;
jpwikfis tsh; j ; J f; nfhs; t jidg; Nghd; W ghJfhg; G njhlh; g hd
jpwikfisAk; tsh;jJ ; f; nfhs;fpd;wdh;. ghJfhg;G vd;gJ vjph;fhyk; njhlh;ghf
rpe;jpj;jYk;> jhauhFjYk;> vd;d eilngWfpwJ vd;gjid fz;fhzpg;gJkhFk;.
Clftpayhsh;fspd; flik fij $wNy jtpu fijahf khWtjy;y.
,e;j E}ypd; Nehf;fk;. ghJfhg;G gw;wpAk; ghJfhg;gw;w jd;ik gw;wpAk;
tpghpg;gjy;y. ,jd; Nehf;fk; Clftpayhsh;fSf;F jkJ jPh;khdq;fis
Nkw;nfhs;tjw;Fk; ghJfhg;Gj; njhlh;ghd Nkyjpfj; jfty;fs; kw;Wk; jpwikfis
tsh;j;Jf; nfhs;stJ njhlh;ghf tpsf;fnkhd;wpid toq;FtjhFk;.
,e;E}y; "Practical guide for journalists" vd;w "And];Nfh" epWtdj;jpd;
E}iyAk; "vy;iyfsw;w gj;jphpifahsh;" mikg;gpd; %yk; gpuRhpf;fg;gl;l
Mtzq;fisAk; rh;tNjr Clftpayhsh; rk;Nksdj;jpdhy; gpuRhpf;fg;gl;l
"Survival guide for journalists" vd;w Gj;jfj;jpd; cjtpAlDk; ,yq;iff;Fj;
Njitahd tpjj;jpy; njhFf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. rh;tNjr hPjpapy; Clftpayhsh;fspd;
ghJfhg;G njhlh;ghf vLf;fg;gl Ntz;ba eltbf;iffs; vd ghpe;Jiuf;fg;gl;l
rfy fhuzpfSk; cs; s lf; f g; g l; L s; s d. ,J njhlh; g hf ,yq; i fapd;
Clftpayhsh;fSf;Fk;> Clf njhopw;Jiwapdh;fspd; mikg;Gf;fs; kw;Wk;
Clf chpikahsh;fSf;F tpsf;fnkhd;wpid toq;FtJ rpwe;jJ vd ehk;
epidf;fpd;Nwhk;.
ctpe;J FUFy#hpa

(ii)
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

Mgj;jhd #o;epiyfspy; Ntiy


nra;tjw;F jahuhFjy;

A j; j r; #oypNy Clftpayhsh; f s; Ntiy nra; A k; NghJ


Jg;ghf;fpfs;> Fz;Lfs;> nuhf;fl; ntbfs;> vwpfizfs; kw;Wk;
Vida ntb nghUs; rhjdq;fshy; Vw;glf;$ba Mgj;J mjpfk;.
Mdhy; Aj;jr; #oiytpl gue;j td;Kiw #oy; xd;wpy;
Clftpayhsh;fs; gy Mgj;Jf;fis vjph;Nehf;Ffpd;wdh;. kuG hPjpahd
Aj;jr; #o;epiyapy; Ntiy nra;Ak; Clftpayhsiu tpl> td;Kiw
Mh;g;ghl;lq;fs;> my;yJ nghJf; fytuq;fs; kj;jpapy; Ntiy nra;Ak;
ClftpayhsUf;F cly; hPjpahd Mgj;J mjpfk;. mNj Nghd;W
mtUila jiyikafj;jpd; cjtpapd;wp ntspNa jdpahf Ntiy
nra;Ak; Clftpayhsh;fSf;Fk; gpd;tUk; Mgj;Jf;fs; cz;L.
RfaPdk;
gazj;jpd; NghJk; Vida jpBh; tpgj;JfSk;
td;Kiwfs;> my;yJ Clfj;ij Fwpitj;j td;Kiw
ghJfhg;gw;w #o;epiy
mjpfk; fisg;giljy;
kdf; ftiyfs; kw;Wk; Ntiy nra;a Cf;fkpy;yhik
Aj;jq;fspy; nfhy;yg;gLfpw my;yJ fhag;gLfpw Clftpayhsh;fis
tpl mjpfkhd Clftpayhsh;fs; NehapdhYk; tPjp tpgj;Jf;fspdhYk;
ghjpf;fg;gLfpd;whh;fs;. fha;r;rypdhNyh my;yJ czT tp\j;jhNyh
RftPdkilAk;; Clftpayhshpdhy; gzpahw;wNth Mtzq;fis
mr;rfj;jpw;F mDg;gNth KbahJ. Aj;jfsj;jpy; vLf;f Ntz;ba Jzpfu
KbTfs; Nghy; ,y;iynad;whYk; Vida Jzpfu KbTfis vLf;f
Kbahj epiyapypUg;gh;. td;Kiw vd;gJ vjph;ghuhj jpirfspypUe;J
mth;fSf;F tuyhk;. cjhuzkhf vjph;g;G Mh;g;ghl;lk; td;Kiw
nraw;ghLfshf khwp nghJkf;fs; jkJ tpuf;jpia Clfj;jpd; kPJ fhl;l
Kidayhk;.
jkJ md;whl nray;tl;lj;jpw;F ntspNa gy epfo;Tfis gy;NtW
#o; e piyfspy; nra; j pj; jpul; l Ntz; b a Clftpayhsh; f s;
mr;#o;epiyfspy; vw;gLk; vjph;g;Gf;fs; kd mOj;jk; vd;gtw;wpw;Fj;
jk;ik Vw;fdNt jahh;gg
; Lj;jpf; nfhs;s Ntz;baJ mj;jpahtrpakhFk;.

1
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

cq;fshy; mwpf;ifaplg;gLk; kdjhYk;> clyhYk; jk;ik mth;fs; KOikahf jahh;gg ; Lj;jpf; nfhs;s
kf;fs; cq;fis vt;thW Ntz; L k; . tuf; $ ba Mgj; J f; f s; gw; w pa Kd; d wpT> mjw; f hd
fhz;fpwhh;fs;? jw;ghJfhg;G eltbf;if vd;gtw;iw mth;fs; jkjhf;fpf; nfhz;L ve;jr;
#o;epiyiaAk; jhk; ifahsf;$ba rf;jp ngw;wpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. mth;fs;
gpujhd jug;gpdh; cq;fis midj;ijAk; tpjpaplk; tpl;Ltpl KbahJ. xU Clftpayhsh; Kw;whf
vt;thW ghh;f;fpd;wdh;? ve;jnthU Mgj;Jk; tuhky; #o;epiyfis ifahs KbAk; vd;gJ
Clftpayhsh; kPjhd ,ayhj fhhpak;. Mdhy; tUk; Mgj;Jf;fisg; gw;wpa mwpit ngUf;fpf;
mth;fspd; fz;Nzhl;lk;
nfhz;L jhk; vLf;f Ntz;ba Jzpfu KbTfis fzpg;gPL nra;af;
cq;fs; Clf epWtdj;jpd; kPJ
$ba epiyapy; mth;fs; nraw;gl KbAk;.
tpNuhjKs;sjh? ePq;fs;
Nkhjnyhd;wpd; VNjhnthU jahh; epiyapy; ,y; y hj nra; j pahsUf; N fh> glg; g pbg; G f;
jug;gpdiu FOtpdUf;Nfh mjpf Mgj;jpy;yhj #o;epiyfs; $l kpf Mgj;jhdjhf
gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;Jgtuhf mike;J tplyhk;. khwhf kpf Mgj;jhd #o;epiyfs; ey;y fzpg;G>
fhz;gjw;F ,lKz;lh?
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#o;epiyahf khw;wg;glyhk.;. ey;y jpl;lkply; cq;fis Xh; #o;epiyf;Fs;
Mgj;jpy;yhky; Ngha;tu cjTtJ kl;Lky;yhky; cq;fs; nra;jpr;
tiuglq;fis #o;epiyapy; cs;s Kf;fpa $Wfs;> gpd;dzpj; jfty; vd;gtw;iw
cgNahfg;gLj;jpf; cq;fSf;Fj; njspTgLj;jp cq;fis Xh; rpwe;j mwpT gilj;j jpwikahd
nfhs;Sq;fs; nra;jpj; jpul;LduhfNth glg;gpbg;ghsuhfNth cUthf;f KbAk;.
gpuNjrk; gw;wp cq;fSf;F
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juj;jpyhd kw;Wk; fhyj;jpw;F ePq;fs; nry;tjw;F Kd;G
nghUe;jf; $ba
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itj;Jf; nfhs;tjpy; ftdk; epiyapy; cs;sJ vd;gij cWjp nra;J nfhs;Sq;fs
s;.
nrYj;Jq;fs;.
mNdfkhd Clftpayhsh;fs; jkJ epiyia cah;j;jf; $ba kpf
Mgj;jhd re;jh;gg
; q;fs; tUk;NghJ mijj; jl;bf;fopf;f tpUk;Gtjpy;iy.
re;Njfkh? Clftpayhsh; Mdhy; Clftpayhsh; kd Rj;jpNahL jhk; cly; hPjpahf mg;gzpf;F
xUthplk; NfSq;fs; Kfk;nfhLf;ff; $ba epiyapy; ,Uf;fpd;Nwhkh? vd;W jk;ikf; Nfl;Lf;
nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. mtrpak; vw;gbd; Xh; ,uT g+uhTk; eilahfg;
ghpr;rakw;w gpuNjrnkhd;wpw;Fr; gazpf;f KbAkh? my;yJ ghJfhg;Gj; Njb Xl KbAkh? trjpahd
nry;ifapy; gpuNjrj;jpd; Xl;ly;fs; ,y;yhjNghJ cq;fshy; <LnfhLf;f KbAkh? cly; cWjp
ClftpayhsnuhUthplk; vd;gJ Kf;fpakhdJ. Njitg;gLk; NghJ ePq;fs; cliy tUj;jp
tprhhpAq;fs;. gpuNjrj;jpy; ciof;fj; jahuha; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
Mgj;Jf;fs; ,lk; ngwf;$ba
,lq;fs; njhlh;ghf mth;fs; (M) ePq;fs; cl;GFk; #o;epiyg;gw;wp cq;fs; mwpitg; ngUf;fpf;
njhptpf;Fk; jfty;fisf; nfhs;Sq;fs;
NfSq;fs;.
ePq;fs; cl;GFk; ,lj;jpd; murpay;> r%f #o;epiy gw;wp cq;fSf;F
vt;tsT njhpAk;? #o; epiyia eph;zapf;Fk; Kf;fpa ebfh;fs; ahh;?

2
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

Mh;gg
; hl;lf;fhuh;fSf;F
kj;jpapy; nra;jp
Nrfhpg;gpy;
<Lgl;bUf;Fk;
Clftpayhsh;fs;.
glk; : [dg;gphpa
rkujpthfu

mz;ikf;fhy Kd;Ndw;wq;fs; Fwpj;J cq;fSf;Fg; Nghjpa jfty; VjhtJ xU tplaj;jpid


fpilj;Js;sjh? mth;fs; gpuNahfpf;Fk; nkhop ahJ? Clfk; gw;wp $wKbahj epiyapy;
mth;fSf;F ,Uf;Fk; nghJthd kdg;ghq;F ahJ? Fwpg;ghf cq;fs; ,Uf;fhjPh;fs;
gjtp> cq;fs; Clf epWtdk; vd;gd gw;wp mth;fspd; kNdhepiy cq;fSila ehl;bd; gpuhe;jpa
ahJ? cq;fs; ,dj;Jtk; cq;fSf;F mjpf Mgj;ijf; nfhz;L tUkh? gof;f tof;fq;fs;> nkhop> rpe;jpf;Fk;
Clftpayhsh; kPJ my;yJ Fbkf;fs; kPJ td;Kiwia cgNahfpf;Fk; tpjk; gw;wp mwpe;J nfhs;Sq;fs;.
kf;fSf;F mth;fSila
tuyhW fz;l FOf;fs; VJk; ,Uf;fpd;wdth? ePq;fs; njhpe;J itj;Jf; nkhopapNy miog;gjw;F
nfhs;s Ntz;ba Kf;fpa vy;iyfs; vit? ePq;fs; cl;Gf Kbahj cq;fSf;F ,aYkhapd; ey;Ywit
'jilg;gpuNjrq;fs;'' VJk; cz;lh? ePq;fs; ahhplk; vj;jifa mDkjp Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhs;tjw;F mJ cjtp
ngw Ntz;Lk;? ePq;fs; tPjpapy; ,wq;Fk; NghJ mJ cq;fSf;Ff; GhpAk;. cjtp NfhUk; Kiwia
mwpe;J nfhs;sTk;.
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ePq;fs; nra;jp jpul;lg; NghFk; #o;epiy> kf;fs;> r%fq;fs; vd;gd
rfh xUtUld; gazk;
gw;wpa njspe;j mwpT kpf Kf;fpakhdJ. fyhrhuj;ijNah nkhopiaNah nra;aTk;
Ghpe;J nfhs;shky; Clftpayhsh; jk;ikawpahkNy kf;fs; kdijg;
Gz;gLj;jp jk;ik mth;fsplkpUe;J me;epag;gLj;jpf; nfhs;syhk;. ,e;jg; gy;NtW jilfs; cs;s
gpuNjrq;fspy; gazQ; nra;Ak;
gpur;rpid Njrpa Clftpayhsh;fSf;Ff; $l Vw;glyhk;. jkf;Fg; Clftpayhsh;fs; jdpikapy;
ghpr;rakpy;yhj ,lj;jpw;Nfh gpuNjrnkhop ghtpf;fg;gLk; ,lj;jpw;Nfh gazQ; nra;tjid jtph;j;Jf;
nry;Yk; NghJ ,g;gpur;rpid Vw;glyhk;. rpy Clftpayhsh; jkf;F nfhs;sy; Ntz;Lk;. jdpikapy;
Ntz;ba fijiag; ngw;Wf; nfhs;s nghWikapoe;Njh my;yJ jkJ gazQ; nra;J Mgj;njhd;wpid
Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhs;tjid tpl
ghJfhg;gpd;ik czh;Tfis kiwg;gjw;Nfh Xh; Mztg; Nghf;fhd Nghl;bahsnuhUtUld; gazQ;
njhdpiaf; filg;gpbf;f KbAk;. Mdhy; kf;fis kjpf;fg; goFk; nra;J xUtiunahUth;
ClftpayhsNuh glg;gpbg;ghsNuh jhd; kf;fs; Mjuitg; ngw KbAk;. ftdpj;Jf; nfhs;sy; rpwe;jjhFk;.

3
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

nkhopawpT vg;NghJk; ifnfhLf;Fk;. ePq;fs; njhlh;e;J rpwpJ fhyk;


Xh; ,lj;jpy; gzpahw;wg;Nghtjha; ,Ue;jhy; mr; #oikT nkhopapd;
mbg;gilfisahtJ fw;Wf; nfhs;Sq;fs;. Clftpayhsh;fs; jkJ
nkhop mwpag;glhj my;yJ tuNtw;fg;glhj ,lq;fspy; nra;jp jpul;Lk;
FWfpa fhy mwptpg;NghL jpBnud;W mDg;gpitf;fg;gl KbAk;. Xh;
,utpy; ePq;fs; nkhopia fw;Wf; nfhs;s KbahJ. mg;gpuNjr kf;fspd;
nkhopiag; NgRk; NghJ mth;fs; cq;fSld; mz;kpf;fpd;whh;fs;. ehd;
Xh; Clftpayhsh; vdf;F cq;fshy; cjt KbAkh? my;yJ 'ehd; xU
itj;jpaiug; ghh;f;f Ntz;Lk;' Nghd;w Kf;fpa thf;fpaq;fisg; Ngrg;
gofpf; nfhs;Sq;fs;.
ePq;fs; Kjd;Kiwahf xU ehl;bw;Nfh my;yJ gpuNjrj;jpw;Nfh
nrd; w hy; cq; f Sf; F j; njhpahjJ vt; t sNth ,Uf; F k; . rpwe; j
Clftpayhsh;fSf;F vy;yhk; njhpe;jpUf;f KbahJ. vd;whYk; mth;fs;
Kf;fpa Nfs;tpfisf; Nfl;ff; fw;Wf; nfhs;tjpy; jpwik gilj;jth;fsha;
,Ug; g hh; f s; . Vw; f dNt jhk; Ntiy ghh; f ; F k; kf; f is kjpf; F k;
ClftpayhsUld; cq;fs; el;gpidg; gyg;gLj;Jq;fs;. jhk; Ntiy
ghh;f;Fk; ,lq;fisAk; kf;fisAk; gw;wp Fiw$Wk; mtJ}W NgRk;
egh;fs; mr;#o;epiyfs; gw;wp ePq;fs; njspthf mwpe;J nfhs;s cjtpaha;
,Uf;f khl;lhh;fs;.
(,) cq;fs; chpikfisj; njhpe;J nfhs;Sq;fs;
jPaizg;G tPuh;fs; jhq;fs; vjph;Nehf;Fk; #o;epiy vg;gbg;gl;lJ>
mjid vg;gbf; ifahs Ntz;Lk; vd;W njhpe;J nfhs;shky; gw;wp
vhpAk; fl;blj;jpw;Fs; Eioa khl;lhh;fs;. Mdhy; Clftpayhsh;fs;
jhk; nra;jpj;jpul;l Ntz;ba #o;epiyapy; cs;s Kuz;epiy gw;wpa
cz;ikepiy GhpahkNy mq;F nry;fpd;wdh;. (mDg;gg;gLfpd;whh;fs;)
rpy Clftpayhsh;fs; jhk; nry;Yk; ,lq;fs; gw;wpa Nghjpa mwptpd;wp>
rh;tNjr rl;lq;fs; gw;wpNah> eLepiy fz;fhzpg;ghsh;fs; vd;w Kiwapy;
jq;fs; chpikfs; gw;wpNah Kiwahfj; njhpe;J nfhs;shky; gazk;
nra;fpd;whh;fs;. mNdfh; n[dpth xg;ge;j tpjpfisNah Nghhpy;
<LglhNjhhpd; kdpj chpikr; rl;lk; $Wk; chpikfisNah nrhy;y
n[dPth cld;ghl;bd; Kbahjth;fsha; ,Uf;fpd;whh;fs;. jhk; xhplj;jpw;Fr; nry;tjw;F Kd;G
rhuk;rnkhd;W mth;fs; rh;tNjr nrQ;rpYitr; rq;fk;> If;fpa ehLfs; rigf; fpis
epWtdq;fs;> gpuhe;jpa murpay; mikg;Gfs; vd;gd gw;wp njhpe;J
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd
n[dPth cld;ghl;bd; itj;Jf; nfhs;sy; Ntz;Lk;.
rhuhk;rj;ij mwptjw;F 8Mk;> n[dpth cld;ghL
9Mk; gf;fq;fisg; ghh;f;fTk;.
Aj;j fhyj;jpd; NghNjh my;yJ cs;ehl;L fytuk; xd;wpd; NghNjh
Xh; Clftpayhsiuf; nfhiy nra;atJ my;yJ Jd;GWj;jg;gLtJ

4
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

xh; Aj;jf; Fw;wr; nray; vd n[dpth cld;ghL tiutpyf;fzk; nra;fpwJ.


kUj;Jt eltbf;iffis
ehLfSf;fpilNaNah my;yJ cs;ehl;L MAj Nkhjy;fspd; NghNjh jahh;gLj;jy;
nghJ kf;fspd; chpik vJNth mNj chpikia n[dpth cld;ghL
ClftpayhsUf;F mspf;fpd;wJ. fljhrpapy; vOjg;gl;Ls;s ,e;jr; kUj;Jt tplaq;fspd;
rl; l k; nfhiy ntwp nfhz; l nfhiyahspia jLj; J epWj; j g; topKiwfs; njhlh;ghd
jfty;fis ngw;Wf;
Nghtjpy;iy. Mdhy; Aj;jf; Fw;wthspfs; ePjpr; rl;lj;jpd; Kd;G
nfhs;sf;$ba ,lq;fs; 1tJ
epWj; j g; g LtJ cyfpy; mjpfhpj; J f; n fhz; L tUtJ kl; L ky; y ge;jpapy; fhl;lg;gl;Ls;sJ.
,uhZtq;fSk; Jizg; gilfSk; Aj;jf; Fw;wk; vd;gJ gw;wpa mwpit
cilath;fshfNt fhzg;gLfpd;whh;fs;. Clftpayhsh;fs; ,e;j mwpit
jq;fSf;Fr; rhjfkhf;fpf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ePq;fs; Xh; Aj;j #o;epiyf;Fr; ntb Fz;Lfs; my;y
nry;Yfpd;wPh;fs; vd;why; n[dpth cld;ghl;bd; Xh; gpujpia cq;fSld; mwpf;ifg; gj;jpuq;fs;
vLj;Jr; nry;Yq;fs;. Fwpg;ghf Aj;jj;jpy; rk;ge;jg;glhj nghJ kf;fs; ve;jnthU re;jh;g;gj;jpYk;
NghyNt Clftpayhsh; elj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W Fwpg;gplg;gl;Ls;s MAjnkhd;wpid vLj;Jr;
gFjpia vLj; J r; nry; Y q; f s; . mg; g Fjpia Njitahd vy; y h nry;yhjPh;fs;. mt;thW
nkhopfspYk; nkhop ngah;j;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs;. Mdhy; Clftpayhsh; nra;jhy; ePq;fs; n[dPth
Aj;jj;jpy; <Lgl;lhNyh> MAjk; Ve;jpdhNyh my;yJ csT ghh;j;jhNyh cld;ghl;Lg; ghJfhg;gpypUe;J
,j; jifikia ,og;gh; vd;gij kwthjPh;fs;. ,r; nray;fis mth;fs; jtph;f;fg;gLtJld; cq;fSia
ghJfhg;Gk; cq;fSila
Ghpe;jhy; mth;fs; Clftpayhsuha; ,Uf;fj; jtwptpLfpwhh;fs;.
rfhtpd; ghJfhg;Gk;
(<) r%ff; fhg;G Mgj;jpw;Fs;shf;fg;gLk;.

cq;fSf;F VJk; jtW ele;Jtpl;lhy; epiyik vd;d? vj;jifa


fhg;GWjp cq;fsplk; cs;sJ? cq;fs; FLk;gj;jpw;F vd;dthFk;?
cldbahfj; Njitg;gLtJ kUj;Jt rpfpr;ir my;yJ Gdh;tho;T
vd;gjha; ,Uf;fyhk;. Vw;gl;l clw; fhak; my;yJ kdtL vd;gtw;wpy;
,Ue;J tpLgl ePz;lfhy ftdpg;G cq;fSf;Fj; Njitg;glyhk;.
jq;fshy; gzpGhpa Kbahkw; Nghdhy; jq;fs; Cjpak; Fiwahky;
njhlh;e;J fpilf;Fk; vd;gijAk; jhq;fs; ,wf;Fk; gl;rj;jpy; jq;fs;
FLk;gj;jpdh; njhlh;e;J guhkhpf;fg;gLth; vd;gjidAk; Clftpayhsh;
njhpe;J itj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. Clfq;fs; ,j;jifa fhg;GWjp toq;f
jq;fSf;F epjpgyk; NghjhJ vd;W $wyhk;. Mdhy; vtuhapDk; el;l<L
nrYj;jpNa Mf Ntz;Lk;. Mdhy; mth; ghjpf;fg;gl;l jdpeguhf
,Uf; f f; $lhJ. gj; j phpif epWtdq; f s; ,e; j j; Njit g+h; j ; j p
nra;ag;gLtij cWjpnra;a Ntz;Lk;. fhg;GWjp> kUj;Jt epjpak; vd;gd
jd; d pr; i rahd gj; j phpifahsUf; F k; m idj; J mq; f j; j pdUf; F k;
toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
gy Clf epWtdq;fs; fhg;GWjp kUj;Jt eyk; vd;gd toq;fhkNy
nra;jpfisj; jpul;bf;nfhs;s jkJ Copah;fisNah jd;dpr;irahd
gj; j phpifahsh; f isNah ghtpj; J f; nfhs; f pd; w hh; f s; . Mdhy;
Clftpayhsh;fs;> Clfj; njhopw; rq;fq;fs; vd;gd mzpjpuz;L ,j;

5
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

jtwhd eilKiwf;F Kw;Wg;Gs;sp itf;f Ntz;Lk;.


(c) Neha; Mgj;J Fwpj;J mwpe;J nfhs;Sq;fs;
ePq;fs; NghFk; ,lj;jpy; ngUk;ghYk; fhzg;gLk; Neha;fs; ahit?
ePq;fs; ngw;Wf; nfhs;s Ntz;ba jLg;G Crpfs; vit? ePq;fs; nfhz;L
nry;y Ntz;ba kUe;Jfs; vit? cyf Rfhjhu epWtd rh;tNjr gazf;
ifNaL> http://www.who.int/ith/countrylistol.html ,izaj; j sk;
MfpaitAld; Muk;gpAq;fs;.
(C) cq;fs; nra;jp epWtdj;Jldhd njhlh;ig cWjp nra;J
nfhs;Sq;fs;
ePq; f s; njhiytplj; j py; gzpahw; W k; NghJ cq; f s; nra; j p
epWtdj; J ld; my; y J jahhpg; g hsUld; njhlh; G nfhs; t jpy;
gpur;rpidfs; Vw;glyhk;. ,uNth gfNyh jkJnra;jp jpul;Ldh;fSld;
njhlh;G nfhs;s Kbahky; NghFk; NghJ epWtdj;jpdh; ftiy
nfhs;fpd;whh;fs;. ePq;fs; vq;Nf ,Uf;fpd;wPh;fs;? vd;d nra;fpd;wPh;fs;?
vd;gJ kw;wth;fSf;Fj; njhpahky; Nghdhy; mJ cq;fSf;F Mgj;J
vd;gij ePq;fs; epidtpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. Mgj;J kpFe;j vy;yh
#o;epiyfspYk; Cfltpayhsh;fs; nghWg;G kpFe;j xUtUf;Fj; jq;fs;
Nghf;Ftuj;J Fwpj;j tpguq;fis mwpaj;jUtJ mj;jpahtrpakhdJ.
vof;$ba gpur;rpidfs; Fwpj;J cq;fs; nra;jp epWtdj;Jld;
MNyhrpj;J xU Neuj;ij xJf;Fq;fs;. cq;fs; nra;jpNah glNkh te;J
NrUtjw;F Kd;G cq;fs; epWtdj;jpdh; nghWikapof;fyhk;. cq;fs;
fsj;jpy; rpwpa fhhpaq;fis Kbg;gjw;Ff; $l fhyjhkjk; Mfyhk;
vd;gij mth;fs; czuhky; ,Uf;fyhk;. ,jd; fhuzkhf jq;fs; vjph;
epWtdNkh my;yJ fpisfNsh jUk; nra;jpfisNah glq;fisNah
mth;fs; Vw;Wf; nfhz;L jq;fs; nrhe;jj; jftyhsh;fis fUj;jpw;
nfhs;shky; tplyhk;. ,jd; fhuzkhfj;jhd; nra;jp gy Ntisfspy;
xNu khjphpaha; ntsptUfpwJ. nra;jpfspy; gd;ikj;Jtk; nra;jpfspy;
tpj;jpahrk; vd;gij nra;jp epWtdq;fs; kwe;JtpLfpd;wd. vdNt nra;jp
epWtdq;fs; jkJ Clftpayhsh;fs; fsj;jpypUe;J jUk; nra;jpfspYk;
glq;fspYk; ek;gpf;if itf;f Kd;tu Ntz;Lk;. Vw;fdNt Xh; epWtdk;
je; j pUf; F k; nra; j pfisAk; glq; f isAk; jhKk; jpul; L tjw; f hf
ClftpayhsUk; glg;gpbg;ghsh;fSk; jk;ik Mgj;J #o;epiyfspy;
cl;gLj;jpf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ Kl;lhs;j; jdkhFk;.
ehSf;F ehs; elg;Gfspd; NghJ neUf;fbahd jPh;khdq;fis
jLf;Fk; mjpfhuk; fsj;jpypUg;gth;fSf;Nf chpaJ. Kl;lhs;j; jdkhf
Mgj;jhd jPh;khdq;fis vLf;Fk;gb cq;fis Cf;Ftpf;Fk; cq;fs;

6
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

epWtd mjpfNtfg; Nghf;F Fwpj;J ePq;fs; vr;rhpf;ifaha; ,Uj;jy;


Ntz;Lk;. mNjNghd;W vy;iyfisf; flj;jy;> Xh; Neh;fhzYf;fhf
MAjg; NghuhspfSld; nry;Yjy; Nghd;w Neuq;fspy; cq;fs; epWtdk;
jq;fsplk; Kd; mDkjpiag; ngwNtz;Lk; vd;W vjph;ghh;f;fyhk;.
Mdhy; ePq;fSk; cq;fs; FOtpdUk; jPh;khdj;ij vLj;J mjd;gb
xOf Ntz;Lk;. Mgj;jhd jPh;khdq;fs; vLg;gJ Fwpj;J FOtpduhf
ePq;fs; fye;jhNyhrpj;J ,zf;fg;ghl;bw;F tuNtz;Lk;. ,e;j KbTfis
ePq;fs; gjpTnra;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. Mgj;J #o;epiy njhlh;e;J
,Ue;jhy; mDgt mbg;gilapy; jPh;khdk; kWghprPyid nra;ag;gl
Ntz;Lk;. ,e;j mDgtf; Fwpg;Gfs; kpfTk; gpuNahrdkhfyhk;.
njhlh;Gfs;> Mgj;Jg; gFjpfs;> cjtp ,lq;fs; vd;gd gjpT nra;ag;gl;L
gfpug;glyhk;. caph;fisf; fhg;ghw;wf; $ba jfty;fisg; gfph;eJ
; nfhs;s
Clftpayhsh; Kd;tu Ntz;Lk;. fsj;jpypUe;J jpUk;Gk; Clftpayhsh;
kPswptpg;G nra;tjhy; mYtyfj; jftiy GJg;gpj;jy; nra;ayhk;. jpdk;
,t;thW nra;Ak; NghJ ClftpayhsNuh my;yJ FOtpy; xU egNuh
xU Fwpg;gpl;l fhyj;jpw;FNky; njhlh;G nfhs;shtpl;lhy; Mtze; NjLk;
eltbf;iff;F ,J cjTk;. Clftpayhsh; Mgj;jpy; ,Ue;jhNyh
my;yJ jLj;J itf;fg;gl;bUe;jhNyh jdJ epWtdk; chpa eltbf;if
vLf;Fk; vd;gJ ,jdhy; njhpe;jpUg;gjhy; mth; jPh;khdk; vLf;f ,J
cjTk;. ,g;gbg;gl;l ehshe;j gjpT xUth; fhag;gl;bUe;jhNyh>
Neha;tha;g;gl;lhNyh> gytPdkhapUe;jhNyh mtiu mt;tplj;jpypUe;J
mfw;Wtjw;F chpa jpl;lq;fis cWjp nra;tjha; mika Ntz;Lk;.
(v) rhpahd cgfuzq;fisf; nfhz;L nry;yTk;
cjTk; cgfuzk; gytifg;glyhk;. ftrthfdk; Kjy; kpd; miy
njhiyNgrp> eide; j hYk; gw; w f; $ba jPf; F r; r p> tpw; g idf; f hd
rhf;Nyl;Lfs; tiu ,jpy; mlq;Fk;. Clftpayhsh;> glg;gpbg;ghsh;>
glg;gpbg;Gf; FOtpdh; Vw;fdNt jk;Kld; nfhz;L nry;yNtz;ba
cgfuzq;fs; mNdfk; cz;L. ePq;fs; vt;tsT nfhz;L Nghfyhk;
vd;gJ ePq;fs; vq;fpUf;fpd;wPh;fs; cq;fs; trjp vd;d vd;gjig;
nghWj;jJ. ePq;fs; nfhz;L Nghf Ntz;ba Kf;fpa cgfuzq;fspy;
rpy gpd;tUkhW :
gj;jphpif milahs ml;il
,J cq;fis milahsk; fhl;Lk;. cq;fs; glj;ijj; jhq;fp tUk;.
,J cq;fs; epWtdj;jhNyh> njhopw; rq;fj;jpdhNyh> cq;fs; njhopy;
toq;FduhNyh cq;fSf;Fj; jug;glyhk;. Xh; mq;fPfhuk; ngw;w Kd;dzp
epWtdj;jpdhy; jug;gLk; milahs ml;il Clftpayhsh;; cyfhPjpapy;
mq;fPfhuk; ngw;W njhopy; Ghpgth; vd;w fUj;ij cWjp nra;fpd;wJ.

7
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

n[dpth cld;ghL
MAj Nkhjnyhd;wpd; NghJ rfy kdpj caph;fSk; kjpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lnkd n[dpth cld;ghL NfhUfpwJ.
,jpNy Clftpayhsh;fSila kdpj chpikfs; ghJfhf;fg;gl Ntz;Lnkdf; $wg;gLtJld;> mth;fs; Vida
nghJkf;fisg; Nghd;W td;Kiw> kpul;ly;> nfhiy> rpiwitg;G> rpj;jputij Nghd;wtw;wpypUe;J ghJfhf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lnkd Fwpg;gplg;gLfpwJ. rl;lg+h;tkhd mwpf;if 1949k; Mz;L njhlf;fk; fhzg;gLtNjhL gy ehLfspdhYk;
Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,r; rl;lq;fs; rh;tNjr kdpjhgpkhd rl;lq;fspYk; gq;fhf cs;sd. Xh; ,uhZt tPud;
my;yJ MAjjhhp ,tw;iw kPwpdhy; mJ Aj;j Fw;wr; nrayhfpd;wJ. Clftpayhsh;fs; ,e;j chpikfis mwpe;J
itj;J mtw;iw eilKiwg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;.

rhuhk;rk;
murhq;fq;fs; gpd;tUkhW nraw;gl Ntz;Lnkd rh;tNjr nrQ;rpYitr; rq;fk; $Wfpd;wJ :
rfy ehLfSk;... ez;gh;fisAk;> vjphpfisAk; rkdhfg; guhkhpf;f Ntz;Lk;.
vy;yh kdpjh;fisAk; kjpj;J> mtidNah my;yJ mtisNah nfsutpj;J> FLk;g chpikfisg; ghJfhj;J>
rka chpikfisg; ghJfhj;J> rpW gps;isfSila chpikfSf;F tpNrl ftdk; mspf;f Ntz;Lk;.
gpd;tUtdtw;iw jtph;j;jy; Ntz;Lk;. kdpjhgpkhdkw;w> fPo;j;jukhd elj;ij> gzaf; ifjpfs;> ghhpa
gLnfhiyfs;> rpj;jputij> tprhuizaw;w nfhiyj; jPh;g;Gfs;> ehLflj;jy;> clikfis nfhs;isabj;jy;
kw;Wk; jd;dpr;irahf Nrjk; Vw;gLj;jy;.
fhag;gl;l MAjjhhpfs;> Aj;j rpiwf;ifjpfs;> nghJkf;fs; ahtUf;Fk; ghJfhg;G toq;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;.
Kjypuz;L xg;ge;jq;fSk; fhag;gl;l> RfaPdkhd MAjjhhpfspdJk;> itj;jpa Ntiyfspy; <LgLgth;fspdJk;
ghJfhg;ig> Aj;jf; fsj;jpYk;> flypYk; cWjp nra;fpd;wJ. %d;whtJ xg;ge;jk; Aj;jf; ifjpfis ghJfhf;fpd;wJ.
gpuj;jpNafkhf Aj;j #o;epiyapy; Ntiy nra;a epakpf;f;gl;l Clftpayhsh;fisf; Fwpj;J %d;W cld;ghLfSk;
Fwpg;gpLfpd;wd. ehd;fhtJ n[dpth cld;ghL ifg;gw;wg;gl;l my;yJ vjphpapd; vy;iyapy; cs;s nghJ kf;fspd;
chpikfisg; ghJfhf;fpd;wJ.
,jpy; cWg;Giu 3> vy;yh cld;ghLfs; Fwpj;J Kf;fpakhd tplaq;fisf; $Wfpd;wJ.
1. MAj Nkhjypy; ve;j tpjg; gq;Fk; tfpf;fhj Aj;jq;fis Gwf;fzpj;j ,uhZtj;jpdh;> Nghh; nra;a Kbahky;
RfaPdkile;Njhh;> fhakile;Njhh;> rpiw itf;fg;gl;lth;fs;> vy;yh re;jh;g;gq;fspYk; kdpjhgpkhdj;NjhL
elhj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk; vdTk; ,d> kj> epw> ghy;> gpwg;G> nry;thf;F vd;fpd;w mbg;gilapy; ,th;fs; xJf;fg;gLjy;
$lhJ vdTk; $WfpwJ. gpd;tUk; nray;fs; Nky; Fwpg;gplg;gl;l rhuhUf;F nra;ag;glf; $lhjit.
(m) tho;f;iff;F mr;RWj;jyhd> egUf;F mr;RWj;jyhd td;Kiw> rfytpjkhd nfhiyfs;> nfhLikg; gLj;jy;>
kw;Wk; rpj;jputij.
(M) gzaf; ifjpfshf vLj;jy;
(,) Ra nfsutj;Jf;F vjpuhd elj;ijfs;> Fwpg;ghf ,opthd> fPo;j;jukhf elj;Jjy;.
(<) ahg;G top ,y;yhj ePjp kd;wj;jpdhy; tprhuizapy;yhj kuz jz;lidfs; toq;fg;glf; $lhJ. nghJ
kf;fspdhy; KOikahf Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;l> ePjpia cWjp nra;fpd;w Xh; mikg;gpdhy; epahak; jPh;f;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;.
2. fhakile;jth;fisAk;> Nehahsh;fisAk; xd;wpizj;J mth;fis ghh;j;Jf; nfhs;sy; Ntz;Lk;.

8
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

clftpayhsh;fs; nghJ kf;fisg; Nghd;W ghJfhf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; cWg;Giu 79 Kf;fpakhdJ


Miz 1 n[dpth cld;ghL (,J 1978k; Mz;L mKYf;F te;jJ) cWg;Giu 79,d; gb :
1. cWg;Giu 50 Kjyhk; ge;jpapy; cs;sthW xU Clftpayhsh; Aj;j #o;epiy xd;wpy; Mgj;jhd Ntiyapy;
<Lgl;bUf;Fk; NghJ mth; nghJkfdhfNt fUjg;gLthh;.
2. ,e;j Mizapd; gb Clftpayhsh;fs; ghJfhf;fg;gl Ntz;Lkhdhy;> mth;fs; nghJkfdhf> my;yJ nghJ
kfshf fUjg;gLtjw;F Kuzhd nraw;ghl;by; <Lglf; $lhJ. mj;NjhL cWg;Giu 4 A apd; (ehd;fhk;
cld; g hl; b d; gb) ,uhZtj; j pdUf; F toq; f g; g l; L s; s Aj; j mwpf; i fahshpd; chpikfSf; F CW
tpistpf;fhjtifapy; ele;J nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
3. ,e;j Mizapy; ,izg;G 11,y; cs;sthW Xh; milahs ml;ilia mth;fs; ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sjy; mtrpak;.
,e;j ml;il Clftpayhsiu gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;Jfpd;w murhq;fj;jpdhy;> my;yJ gpuNjrj;jpdhy;
toq;fg;gl;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. mj;NjhL mjpNy Clftpayhsh; gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;Jfpw epWtdk;> mjDila
Kfthp> kw;Wk; Clftpayhshpd; njhopy; epiy vd;gd Fwpg;gplg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

cld;ghL rptpy; Aj;jq;fis kl;LNk Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ. fytuq;fis my;y.


Miz 2 n[dpth cld;ghl;il cs;ehl;L MAj Kuz;ghLfs; Fwpj;Jk; rpy tplaq;fis $wp itf;fpd;wJ.
mjhtJ xU ehl;bd; vy;iyf;Fs; mur ,uhZtj;jpdUf;Fk;> Vida ve;jnthU MAj FOtpw;Fk; ,ilapyhd
MAj Nkhjiy ,J Fwpg;gpLfpd;wJ.
,e;j Mizapd; gb ghhpa rptpy; Kuz;ghLfs; Fwpg;gplg;gLfpd;wNj jtpu> "cs;@h; fytuq;fs;> iffyg;Gfs;>
Mq;fhq;Nf Vw;gLk; td;Kiw rk;gtq;fs; Nghd;wtw;iw cld;ghL cs;slf;ftpy;iy.

nghJ kf;fs; vt;thW elj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;> vt;thW elj;jg;glf; $lhJ.


Miz 2 cWg;Giu 4 vt;thW Aj;jj;jpy; <LgLfpwhh;fs;. nghJkf;fis vt;thW elj;j Ntz;Lnkd;W $Wfpd;wJ.
1. mth;fSila Rje;jpuk; tiuaWf;fg;gl;bUe;jhYk; ,y;yhtpbDk;> egUf;Fk;> mtUila nfsutKk;>
ek;gpf;iffSk;> kjg; ghuk;ghpaq;fSk; kjpf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ve;jtpj ghFghLk; ,d;wp mth;fs; vy;yh
re;jh;g;gj;jpYk; kdpjhgpkhdj;NjhL elhj;jg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ahUk; jg;gpapUf;ff; $lhJ vd cj;jutpLtJ jil
nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ.
2. gpd;tUk; elj;ijfs; ,q;F Fwpg;gplg;gLk; egh;fSf;nfjpuhf ve;jnthU Neuj;jpYk;> ,lj;jpYk; jil
nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ.
(m) capUf;nfjpuhd td;Kiw> Rfhjhuj;Jf;F vjpuhd> kw;Wk; cly;> cs eyDf;F vjpuhd td;Kiwfs;. Fwpg;ghf
nfhiy kw;Wk; rpj;jputijfs;. mq;ftPdg;gLj;jy; my;yJ cly; hPjpahd jz;lid.
(M) $l;Lj; jz;lidfs;
(,) gzaf;; ifjpfshf vLj;jy;
(<) gaq;futhj elj;ijfs;
(c) Ra nfsutj;Jf;F vjpuhd nraw;ghLfs;. Fwpg;ghf fPo;j;jukhd> mnfsutkhd nray;fs;. ghypay; ty;YwT
gyte;jg;gLj;jg;gl;l tpgr;rhuk; Nghd;w mtkhpahijahd nray;fs;.
(C) mbikj;Jtk; kw;Wk; mbik tpahghuk;
(v) nfhs;is
(V) Nkw;Fwpg;gpl;l ve;jnthU nraiyAk; nra;tjhf mr;RWj;jy;

9
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

Nkhjy; #o;epiyfspy; mjpy; gq;Nfw;gth;fshy; cq;fs; milahs


ml; i l tuNtw; f g; glyhk; . tuNtw; i gj; juhkYk; tplyhk; .
,uhZtj;jpdh; my;yJ nghyprhuhy; ifnahg;gkplg;gl;l fbjq;fisAk;
ePq;fs; Rke;J nry;yyhk;. ePq;fs; Clftpayhsnud;Wk; cq;fSf;F
xj;Jiog;G toq;Fk;gbAk; mth;fs; jq;fs; gilapdhplk; Nfhhp
cq;fSf;Ff; fbjk; juyhk;. tuf;$ba Mgj;Jf;fspd; mbg;gilapy;
,j;jifa fbjq;fspd; cgNahfj;ij ePq;fs; vilNghl Ntz;Lk;. Xh;
Nghuhl;lf; FOj; jiytuhy; cq;fSf;Fj; jug;gLk; mDkjpr; rPl;L
fhuzkhf ePq;fs; mur gilapduhy; ifjhff; $ba Mgj;J Neuyhk;.
mJ cq;fSf;Nfh kw;wtUf;Nfh ghjfkhf mikAk; vd;gJ Fwpj;J
rpe;jpj;J ePq;fs; nraw;gl Ntz;Lk;. Nghuhl;lr; #oypy; Nrhjidr;
rhtbfspy; NrhjidapLk; NghJ Nghuhl;lj;jpy; <Lgl;Ls;s VNjh
FOtpdUf;Fg; ghjfkhd mwpf;if vJTk; cq;fs; iftrk; ,Ug;gJ
cq;fSf;F Mgj;jhf mike;J tplyhk;.
mtruj; njhiyNgrp vz;fs;
fhaNkJk; Vw;gl;lhy; cldbahf miof;f Ntz;ba mtru
njhiyNgrp vz; gl;banyhd;W cq;fs; iftrk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
ePq;fs; Neh;fhzy; nra;Ak; egh;fSf;F mjdhy; Mgj;J cUthFk;
vd;W njhpe;jhy; mth;fs; gw;wpa jfty;fis ePq;fs; ,ufrpakha;
itj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. ngah;fisAk; Fwpg;GfisAk; NtWgLj;Jq;fs;.
my;yJ Gid ngah;fisf; Fwpg;gpLq;fs;. Gid ngah;fs; Xh; ,ufrpaf;
FwpaPl;L nkhopahff; fhzg;glf; $lhJ.
Nghyp gzg;ignahd;W
cq;fSila gzk; kw;Wk; Njitahd vOj;jhtzq;fs; njhpahj
,lj;jpy; ghJfhg;ghf itf;fTk;. vt;thwhapDk; ,yFthf vLj;Jf;
nfhs;sf; $ba rpW njhifg; gzj;jpid kw;Wk; nfhs;isabf;fg;gl;lhy;
nfhLg;gjw;F VjhtJ ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. rpW njhif gzk; kw;Wk;
gioa f;ubl; fhl; ml;ilfisf; nfhz;l Nkyjpfkhd
gzg;ignahd;wpid vLj;Jr; nry;yTk;. cq;fsplk; nfhs;isabf;fg;-
gl;lhy; mjidf; nfhLf;fTk;.
ePh;
Nghh; r ; #o; e piyfspy; Rj; j khd ePH; fpilg; g J fbdkhfyhk; .
cztpy;yhky; ePq;fs; gy ehl;fs; caph; thoyhk;. Mdhy; Rj;jkhd
ePiug; gUFtjw;F xt;nthU ehSk; cq;fSf;Fj; Njitg;gLk; FbePh;
Nghj;jy;fisf; nfhz;L nry;Yq;fs;. my;yJ tbfs;> FbePh; J}a;ik
nra;Ak; kUe;J vd;gtw;iwf; nfhz;L nry;Yq;fs;.

10
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

nghy;Yfs; jbfis Ve;jpath;fs; nghyprhh; ghh;j;Jf;


nfhz;bUf;ifapNyNa jhf;fpdh;
Fz;lh;fspd; jhf;FjYf;F ,yf;fhd uhta gj;jphpifapd; Gifg;glg;gpbg;ghsh; m[pj; nrdtpuj;d
lTd; N`hypy; ,Ue;J ehDk; Ch;tyj;Jld; te;Njd;. Ch;tyk; nrQ;rpYitr; rq;f Rw;W
tl;lj;jpy; epd;wJ. mt;tplj;jpw;F vjph;f;fl;rpj; jiyth; uzpy; tpf;fpukrpq;` tUif je;jhh;.
,e;j Neuj;jpy; nrQ;rpYitr; rq;f fl;blkUNf nghyp]; [Pg; tz;b xd;W epWj;jg;gl;bUe;jJ.
mjpfsT nghyprhh; ,Ue;jdh;. rpwpJ Neuj;jpy; mg; nghyp]; [Pg; tz;b nfhs;Sg;gpl;b gf;fk;
nrd;wJ. Ch;tyj;jpy; ,Ue;jth;fs; fj;jpf; nfhz;L Kd;Ndhf;fp te;jdh;. tPjpapd; tyJ gf;fj;jpy;
rpyh; ,Ue;jdh;. mth;fs; ifapy; ,Uk;GfSlDk;> nghy;YfSlDk;> fw;fSlDk; fhzg;gl;ldh;.
Kjypy; xUth; te;J "Af;jpa" gj;jphpifapd; [dg;hpa rkujpthfutpd; Gifg;glf; fUtpia
gwpg;gjw;F Kad;whh;. [dg;gphpa kPz;Lk; mjid ,Oj;J vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhh;. mjd; gpd;dh;
mt;tplj;jpypUe;J Kd;Ndhf;fpr; nry;tjw;F vk;khy; Kbe;jJ. ehk; Kd;Ndhf;fpr; nrd;Nwhk;.
,th;fs; tPjpapd; kW gf;fj;jpNyNa ,Ue;jdh;. mth;fs; vkf;Fg; gpd;dhy; Xb te;J vk;ikr;
Rw; w p tisj; J f; nfhz; l dh; . mg; n ghOJ Ch; t yk; mt; t plj; j pid neUq; f tpy; i y.
mt;tplj;jpypUe;j midj;J Clftpayhsh;fisAk; mth;fs; nghy;YfshYk; jbfshYk; jhf;f
Muk;gpj;jdh;. vd; mUfpNyNa Af;jpatpd; [dg;gphpaTk;> yf;gpktpd; Gj;jpfTk; ,Ue;jdh;.
vd;idj; jhf;Fk; nghOJ ehd; Ch;tyk; tUk; gf;fj;jpw;F XbNdd;. Vida Clftpayhsh;fSk; mUfpypUe;j
Njhl;lq;fSf;F Xbdh;. mth;fs; mfg;gl;Lf; nfhz;ldh;. mth;fs; midthpd; Gifg;glf;fUtpfisAk; mgfhpj;Jf; nfhz;ldh;.
ehd; XLk; NghJ vdf;F Kd; tPbNah fkpuhit itj;jpUe;j xUth; jhf;fg;gLtjidf; fz;Nld;. mjid ehd; Gifg;glk;
vLj;Njd;. mjd; gpd;dh; vd;id gpd;dhy; Juj;jp te;jth; vd; KJfpy; nghy;yhy; jhf;fpdhh;. ehd; jg;gp XLk; nghOJ
vd;idg; gpd;dhy; Juj;jp te;jdh;. ehd; tPjpf;F te;Njd;. mt;tplj;jpypUe;j Njhl;lnkhd;wpd; kf;fs; vd;id mth;fspd;
tPl;Lf;F mioj;Jr; nrd;W jz;zPh; nfhLj;J cjtpdh;. mjd; gpd;dh; ehd; fWthj;Njhl;l nghyp]; epiyaj;jpy; Kiwg;ghL
nra;Njd;.
jh;kghy khtj;ijapd; rkpf;iQ tpsf;fUfpy; nghyp]; tPjpj;jilnahd;W Nghlg;gl;bUe;jJ. mt;tplj;jpy; nghyp];
mjpfhpfSk; ,Ue;jdh;. vk;ikj; jhf;fpath;fs; me;jg; gf;fj;jpw;Nf nrd;wdh;. ,t; midj;J rk;gtq;fSk; ,lk; ngw;w
Ntisapy; jh;kghy khtj;ijapd; ,U Gwq;fspYk; nghyp]; mjpfhhpfs; ,Ue;jdh;. mth;fs; ,t;tidj;Jr; rk;gtq;fisAk;
ghh;j;Jf; nfhz;bUe;jdh;. vdJ igiaAk; vLg;gjw;F ,lkspf;ftpy;iy. ,d;W mr;rk;gtj;jpid jpUk;gpg; ghh;f;Fk; nghOJ
Clftpayhsh;fspd; ghJfhg;G njhlh;ghf tpsf;fnkhd;W ,Ue;jpUg;gpd; ehk; ghJfhg;ghf ,Ue;jpUf;f KbAk; vd
epidf;fpd;Nwd;.

KjYjtpg; nghjp
kUj; J t trjp ,y; y hj J}u ,lq; f spy; gzpGhpag; NghFk;
Clftpayhsh; KjYjtpg; nghjpia jk;Kld; nfhz;L nry;tJ
mtrpak;. Kbe;jhy; ,uz;L nghjpfis itj;jpUq;fs;. xd;W cq;fSld;
,Uf;fl;Lk;. ,d;ndhd;W thfdj;jpy; ,Uf;fl;Lk;. mj;jpahak; 5 ,jid
NkYk; tpghpf;fpd;wJ.

11
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

njhiyNehf;Ff; fz;zhb
glg;gpbg;ghsh;fs; Nghh;r#
; oypy; jq;fisg; ghJfhf;f njhiyNehf;Ff;
fz;zhbfisf; nfhz;L nry;tJ mtrpak;. J}u ,Ue;Nj epfo;Tfisg;
gjpT nra;a ,J cjTk;. rf;jptha;e;j njhiyNehf;Ff; fz;zhb
,y; y hjNghJ capiug; gzak; itj; J Nkhjy; epfo; T fSf; F
mUfhikapy; glk; gpbf;fr; nry;y Ntz;b NehpLk;. cq;fs; epWtdj;jpdh;
rf;jptha;e;j njhiyNehf;F fz;zhb> ghukpy;yhj glg;gpbg;Gf; fUtp
vd;gdtw;iw cq;fSf;Fj; jUk;gb cWjp nra;J nfhs;Sq;fs;.
Mgj;J rkpf;iQ
Xh; tprpy; cq;fs; iftrk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ftdj;ij cq;fs; trk;
<h;f;f my;yJ mgha mwptpg;Gj; ju ,J cjTk;. cq;fs; FUjp tif
cly; ey tpguq;fs;> xj;Jtuhj kUe;Jfs; vd;gd gw;wpa tpguk; jUk;
Xh; kUj;Jt milahsf; fhg;gpid ifapy; mzpe;jpUq;fs;.
RaNjitg; nghUl;fs;
rth; f ; f huk; > Nghh; i t> Jtha; Nghd; w RaNjitg; nghUl; f s;
njhiytplq; f Sf; F r; nry; Y k; NghJ nfhz; L nry; Y q; f s; .
fopg;gfj;jpw;Fhpa cgfuzq;fis vLj;Jr; nry;Yq;fs;. cq;fs; gw;fs;>
ghjq;fs;> ,uz;ilAk; ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs;.

neUf;fbf;F Kfk; (V) thfdj;ij jahh;g;gLj;Jq;fs;


nfhLg;gjw;F cq;fSila
njhiytplq;fspy; gzpahw;Wtjhdhy; thfdk; iftrk; ,Uf;f
thfdj;jpw;F ,aYkh?
Ntz;Lk;. cq;fs; Nghf;Ftuj;ij Jhpjg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf kl;Lky;y
cq;fSila thfdk; rpwe;j Rkg;gjw;Ff; f\;lkhd nghUl;fis itj;jpUg;gjw;F thfdk; mtrpak;.
juj;jpy; ,Ug;gjid cWjp Kbe;jhy; thfdr; rhujp cq;fs; FOitr; Nrh;e;j mh;g;gzKs;s Xh;
nra;J nfhs;sTk;. uah;fspd; eguhf ,Ug;gJ ey;yJ.
epiyikapid jpdKk;
ghpNrhjid nra;aTk;. thfdKk; rhujpAk; ey;y epiyapy; ,Ug;gJ mtrpak;. rh;tNjr
mjpfsT ntg;gkhd Neuj;jpy; Clftpayhsh; ftr thfdj; i jg; ngWk; tha; g ; G ilath; f sha;
ntbg;gjw;F ,lKz;L. rpwe;j ,Uf; f yhk; . ,j; j ifa thfdk; MWkhjk; njhlh; e ; J Xh; rpwpa
juj;jpy; NkYnkhU uah; njhiyf;fhl;rp epWtdj;ij elj;Jtjw;F nrythFk; gzj;ijAk; tpl
,Ug;gjid cWjp nra;J tpiy mjpfkhdJ. cq;fs; thfdj;jpd; ,ae;jpuk; ey;y epiyapy; ,aq;f
nfhs;sTk;.
Ntz;Lk;. ey;y khw;W lah;fs; iftrk; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. Nkyjpf
vhpnghUs;> jz;zPh; vd;gd ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. cq;fs; thfdj;jpy; Clfk;
my;yJ gj;jphpifahsh; vd;W vOjp xl;Ltjh vd;gij ePq;fs; jPh;khdpf;f
Ntz;Lk;. rpy re;jh;g;gq;fspy; ,J cq;fSf;Fg; ghJfhg;G mspf;Fk;.
rpy re;jh;g;gq;fspy; ePq;fs; jhf;FjYf;F ,yf;fhfyhk;. ,g;gbg;gl;l
gjhiffis ePq;fs; ghtpg;gjha; ,Ue;jhy; cq;fs; thfdj;jpd; Nky;

12
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

$iuapYk; gf;fq;fspYk; xl;Lq;fs;. mg;NghJ jhd; tpkhdq;fs; cq;fis


milahsk; fhzyhk;. ePq;fs; xl;Lk; gjhiffis Njitg;gbd; cld;
mfw; w f; $ba epiyapy; mit ,Uj; j y; Ntz; L k; . thfdk;
gOJgl;lhNyh> Gije;jhNyh ,Oj;Jr; nry;yf; $ba trjp mike;jjha;
,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. xt;nthU thfdj;jpYk; KjYjtpg; ngl;bAk;
jPaizg;G cgfuzKk; ,Uj;jy; mtrpak;.
rhujp mDgtrhypahfTk; epjhdk; cilatuhAk; ,Uj;jy; mtrpak;.
mth; thfdj;ij ftdkhfr; nrYj;Jgtuhf ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. rhujp
kPJ cq;fshy; ek;gpf;if itf;f KbahjpUg;gpd; tpgj;J Neuhj NghjpYk;
ePq;fs; kdf;fisg;gilayhk;. ,J cq;fs; J}f;fj;ijg; ghjpf;fyhk;. ePz;l
fhyj;jpw;nfd Xh; rhujpia epakpj;jhy; cq;fSf;F mspf;fg;gLk;
ghJfhg;G mtUf;Fk; mspf;f;gLtij cWjp nra;Aq;fs;. rhujp ahiu
mioj;Jr; nry;fpd;whNuh mt;tpdj;ijNah ehl;ilNah Nruhjtuha;
,Ug;gpd; Nrhjidr; rhtbfspy; gpur;rpidfSf;F Kfk; nfhLf;f NehpLk;.
(c) rhpahd Milfisf; nfhz;L nry;Yq;fs;
ePq;fs; nfhz;L nry;y Ntz;ba Milfs; fhyepiy> jq;f Ntz;ba
fhy vy;iy vd;gtw;iwg; nghWj;jJ.
fhyzp
Njitg;gbd; ePz;lNeuk; elg;gjw;F trjpaha; cq;fs; fhyzp ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;. ghukw;w> ePiu cwpQ;rhj fhyzpfs; jukhdit. mit fhYf;F
trjpaha; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. ePq;fs; gazj;ij Muk;gpg;gjw;F Kd;
Gjpjhf mtw;iw thq;f Ntz;lhk;. ghjq;fSf;F ,uz;L ciwfis
mzpaf; $bajha; ,ltrjp ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. cq;fs; Mil rk;ge;jkhfg;
ghh;f;Fk; NghJ ghjzp kpf Kf;fpakhdnjhd;whf mikfpwJ.
trjpahd MilAk; E}yhilAk ;
gy re;jh;g;gq;fspy; xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l Milfis ePq;fs; mzpa
Ntz;b tUk;. Nkyhilfs; trjpahditahf mika Ntz;Lk;.
cs;shilfs; E}yhilfsha; my;yJ ,aw;if Jzptifapdjha;
mikjy; ed;W. cq;fs; Mil Nghh; tPuhpd; MilNghy; Njhw;wk;
nfhz;ljha; mikaf; $lhJ. cq;fs; Mil rPUil Nghyy;yhky;
gyth;zk; nfhz;ljha; miktJ ed;W. cq;fs; igapy; ftdj;ij
<h;g;gjw;Fhpa gspr;nrd epwk; nfhz;l JzpNah my;yJ nts;isf;
nfhbaha; ghtpg;gjw;Nfw;w ntz;zpwj; JzpNah iftrk; ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;. nta;apYf;Fk; FspUf;Fk; <LnfhLf;fr; rpwe;j njhg;gpnahd;iw
nfhz;L nry;Yq;fs;.

13
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

ghJfhg;G Mil
Jg;ghf;fpr; #LfSf;F kj;jpapy; ePq;fs; mfg;gl;lhy; cq;fs; Mil
ghJfhg;G juf;$ba Milaha; mika Ntz;Lk;. Jg;ghf;fp uitfs;
Jisf;f Kbahj [hf;nfl;Lfis mzpAq;fs;. ,Uk;Gf; ftrj;ijtpl
kl;ghz;l ftrk; ghukw;wJ. Mdhy; ftdkha;g; Ngzg;gl Ntz;Lk;.
[hf;nfl;Lfs; rpwpa MAjq;fspypUe;J cq;fisg; ghJfhf;Fk;. ftrq;fs;
rf;jptha;ej ; MAjq;fspypUe;J cq;fSf;Fg; ghJfhg;G mspf;Fk;. Mdhy;
[hf;nfl;Lk; ,Ugf;f ftrKk; 12 fpNyh (26 uhj;jy;) vil nfhz;lit.
,j; N jhL jiyf; ftrj; i jAk; mzpe; J nfhz; l hy; mjpfNeuk;
XlKbahJ. ngz;fSf;F ghJfhg;G Milfs; cz;L. ,it mjpf
tpiyahdit. glg;gpbg;ghsh;fs; jkJ fhy;fis cah;j;jp glk; vLf;f
Ntz;b ,Ug;gjhy; jq;fs; fuq;fisg; ghJfhf;Fk; tpNrl Milfis
mzpa Ntz;Lk;. vy;yh [hf;nfl;LfSk; ePiu cwpQ;Rjyha; ,Uf;f
Ntz;Lk;. ,tw;wpd; tpiy mjpfk;. cq;fs; epWtdk; jq;fSf;F
fl; L g; g bahfhJ vd; W $wyhk; . mr; re; j h; g ; g q; f spy; vt; t hW
fl;lzj;ijg; gfpuyhk; my;yJ Clfr; rhh;G epWtdq;fsplk; cjtp
Nfhuyhk; vd;gJ gw;wp mth;fSld; fijAq;fs;.
ghJfhg; G Milfis mzptjh ,y; i yah vd; g J ngUk;
tpthjj; j pw; F hpanjhd; W . ghJfhg; G Milfs; Clftpayhshpd;
Ntfj;ijf; jzpf;fpwJ. Mdhy; ghJfhg;G Milfis mzptjh
,y;iyah vd;w njhpT vy;yh ClftpayhsUf;Fk; fpilg;gjpy;iy.
Fwpg;ghf cs;ehl;L ClftpayhsUf;F ,e;j tug;gpurhjk; ,y;iy.
Clftpayhsuhy; mzpag;glhj ftr Mil thfdj;jpy; tplg;gl;lhy;
thfdj;jpw;Fs; ,Ug;gth;fs; jq;fs; ghJfhg;gpw;fhf mtw;iw mzpayhk;.

14
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

Clftpayhsh;fspd; ghJfhg;ig cWjp nra;af; Nfhhp 1999 Mk;


Mz;L [{iy khjk; nfhOk;gpy; itj;J Clftpayhsh;fspdhy;
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l Mh;g;ghl;lj;jpd; NghJ Kf%b mzpe;J fye;J
nfhz;l ClftpayhsnuhUth;.
glg;gpbg;G : [dg;gphpa rkujpthfu

15
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

nghJthd ghJfhg;Gg; gw;wpa mwpTWj;jy;fs;


vy;yh Neuq;fspYk; ifahsg;gl Ntz;ba jdpegh; ghJfhg;G
topfhl;b

ve;NeuKk; mtjhdj;JldpUe;J> jpBh; vd Njhd;wf; $ba


vt;tpj mghafukhd #o;epiyf;Fk; jahuhftpUj;jy;.
njhlh;r;rpahd fhhpaf; fpukj;jpid jtph;f;f thfdq;fisAk;>
nry;Yk; topfisAk; khw;wpf; nfhz;Nl ,Uq;fs;.
ghJfhg;G topfisAk; kw;Wk; topfhl;bfisAk; iff; nfhs;tjpy;
Neh;j;jpahfTk;> fz;zpaj;JlDk; ele;J nfhs;sTk;.
cq;fisr; Rw;wp ,Ug;gth;fSf;F cq;fs; eltbf;iffisf; Fwpj;J
njhpag;gLj;Jq;fs;. ePq;fs; vq;F ,Ug;gPh;fs; vd;Wk;> vd;d nra;a
cj;Njrpj;jpUf;fpwPh;fs; vd;gjidAk; mth;fSf;F njhpag;gLj;-
Jq;fs;. Jg;ghpTfis Fiwe;jgl;rk; ,d;Dk; xUtUlNkDk;
elhj;Jq;fs;.
eilKiwfisg; gpd;gw;Wq;fs; - Mdhy; Njit Vw;gbd;
fhhpaq;fis Kjd;ik Vw;Wr; nra;a mQ;r Ntz;lhk;.

jdpegh; elj;ij
ey;y cly; kw;Wk; cs MNuhf;fpa epyikiag; NgZq;fs;
(NghjpasT Xa;Tk;> clw;gapw;rpAk; vLq;fs;).
Neh;j;jpahf Mil mzpe;J nghJkf;fSld; [hf;fpuijAld;
ele;J nfhs;sTk;.
Kbe;jsT xU FOTld; ntspapy; nry;Yq;fs; my;yJ rdf;
$l;lk; ,Uf;Fk; ,lj;jpw;Fr; nry;Yq;fs;. kw;wth;fs; cq;fis
kjpf;Fk; tz;zk; ele;J nfhs;Sq;fs;.
kw;wth;fSf;F cq;fs; kPJ re;Njfk; Vw;gLk; tifapyhd
Milfis mzpahjPh; f s; > cjhuzkhf ,uhZt Mil>
Jg;ghf;fpiaNah my;yJ vJtpj MAjj;ijNah cq;fSld;
nfhz;L nry;yhjPh;fs;.
ePq;fs; re;jpf;Fk; egh;fNshL my;yJ cjtp nra;Ak; egh;fNshL
msNthL cwthLq;fs;. xU neUf;fb Vw;gLk; NghJ cq;fs;
czh;Tfisf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jq;fs;.

16
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

cq;fshy; ,ayhj fhhpaj;ij my;yJ cjtpia xU NghJk;


nra;tPh;fs; vd;W rj;jpak; nra;ahjPh;fs;.
vtUk; cq;fSld; gifikAld; ele;J nfhz;lhy; mikjpahf
,Uq;fs;> Neuj;ijf; flf;f Kaw;rpAq;fs;> cah; mjpfhhpfSld;
fijf;FkhW $Wq;fs;> NtnwhU ,lj;jpid cj;NjrpAq;fs;. me;
egiu njhlh; e ; J Nehf; F q; f s; . Mdhy; mth; fz; f is
Nehf;fhjPh;fs;. ePq;fs; me;egUf;F vd;d elf;fpwJ vd;gjid
mwpe;jpUf;fpwPh;fs; vd;gjid czh;j;Jq;fs;.
vtNuDk; cq;fisf; nfhiy nra;tjhf mr;RWj;jpdhy;> mjid
chpa mjpfhhpfsplk; mwptpAq;fs;. jtwhd jfty;fs; VJk;
nfhLf;fhjPh;fs;. jtph;g;G Kiwfisf; ifahSq;fs;. (,lk;
khWq;fs;> nry;Yk; topia khw;Wq;fs;) vq;fpUe;J> ahhplkpUe;J
mr;RWj;jy; te;jJ vd;gjid mwpAq;fs;. me;eghpd; cly;> cs
epiyikfisAk; vz;zq;fisAk; fzpg;gpLq;fs;. KbAkhdhy;
Xh; nghJ ,lj;jpy;> nghyp]; epiyaj;jpy; mtiu
vjph;nfhs;Sq;fs;. my;yJ mtiur; re;jpg;gij jtph;j;Jf;
nfhs;Sq;fs;.

Fz;Lj; jhf;Fjy; mr;RWj;jy; fhzg;gLk; NghJ vLf;f Ntz;ba


eltbf;iffs;

(m) ,de;njhpahj egnuhUth;> Fz;L xd;W itf;fg;gl;Ls;sjhf


njhiyNgrp %yk; mwptpj;jhy; Kaw;rp nra;J gpd;tUk;
Nfs;tpfisf; NfSq;fs;.
Fz;L vg;NghJ ntbf;Fk;?
mJ vq;Nf itf;fg;gl;lJ?
mJ vg;NghJ itf;fg;gl;lJ?
mjd; Njhw;wk; vt;thW ,Uf;Fk;?
mJ vt;tifahd ntb Fz;L?
mJ vt;thW ntbf;Fk;?
ePq;fs;mjid itj;jPh;fsh?
ePq;fs; Vd; mijr; nra;jPh;fs;?
cq;fSila ngah; vd;d?
ahh; ePq;fs;?
ehk; cq;fSld; vt;thW njhlh;G nfhs;tJ?

17
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

(M) njhiyNgrp miog;ig Vw;gLj;Jgtiuf; Fwpj;J my;yJ mth;


vq;fpUe;J miog;ig Vw;gLj;Jfpwhh; vd;gjidf; Fwpj;Jf; nfhs;s
Kaw;rpAq;fs;.
Fuy; (jd;ik> cr;rhpg;G> mOj;jk;> Ntfk; kw;Wk; NgRk; Kiw)
nkhop (njspT> gFj;jwpT> nra;jpia Ghpe;J nfhs;Sk; Kiw>
gjpT nra;jy;).
gpd;dzp (tPjp ,iur;ry;> ,ir> nehbr; rj;jk;)
ePq;fs; Fuypid milahsk; fz;L nfhz;Bh;fsh?
miog;gpd; NeuKk; mjd; fhyKk;
re;Njfj;Jf;Fhpa xU nghUis ePq;fs; fhZk; NghJ nra;a
Ntz;baJ vd;d?
mjid xU NghJk; njhl Ntz;lhk;> mJ ntbf;fg; NghtjhfNth
my;yJ ,aq;fhky; ,Ug;gJ Nghy ,Ue;jhYk; mjid njhl
Ntz;lhk;.
mjpy; nehbr; rj;jk; my;yJ Gif te;jhy;> mt;tplj;ij cldbahf
fhyp nra;Aq;fs;.
mg;nghUisr; Rw;wp Fiwe;jJ 100 mb ghJfhg;G tyaj;jpid
cUthf;Fq;fs;.
njhiyNgrpiaNah> my; y J vJtpj miythpir nfhz; l
cgfuzj;jpidNah mjd; mUfpy; ghtpf;fhjPh;fs;.
nghjp Fz;Lfis mwpe;J nfhs;Sk; Kiw
rk;ge;jkpy;yhj vil> msT kw;Wk; gug;igf; nfhz;bUj;jy;.
nghJthf xU cWjpahd nghjp my;yJ jghy; ciw
ghhpa nghjpia fl;Ltjw;Fg; gad;gLj;jpa ghhpasT nghUl;fs;
ftdj; i j jpir jpUg; G tjw; f hd Fwpg; G f; f s; (rpj; j puk; >
nghpastpyhd gy Kj;jpiufs;)
ghhpa vz;zpf;ifapyhd Kj;jpiufs;"mtruk;"> "me;juq;fkhdJ"
my;yJ "if %yk;" vd Fwpf;fg;gl;l nghjpfs;.
cq;fs; jghy; te;jilAk; ,lj;jpw;F> ,f; Fwpg;Gf;fspd; gpujp
xd;wpidf; nfhLf;fTk;.
eil gazk;
,utpy; Ntfj;ij tpl> epjhdk; kpfTk; Kf;fpakhdJ. fhyepiyf;F
Vw;w tpjj;jpy; cq;fs; Mil mika Ntz;Lk;.

18
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

Nlg; nuf;fhh;lh;fspy;> fkuhf;fspy;> NubNahf;fspy; ,Uf;Fk; rpW


Fkpopfis mizj;J my;yJ kiwj;J tpLq;fs;.
xspj; J f; nfhs; S k; ,lq; f Sf; N fw; g Neu ml; l tiz
mikf;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,Ul;lhd ,lj;jpy; ,Uq;fs;> ,lj;ij
khw;Wtjw;F mQ;r Ntz;lhk;> mbf;fb epd;W> mtjhdpAq;fs;.
FOTld; ,Uf;Fk; NghJ> re;jpf;Fk; ,lq;fis Kd; $l;bNa
jPh;khdpAq;fs;.
ntspr;rk; my;yJ xsp Vw;gl;lhy;> epyj;jpy; Fg;Gu gLj;J ntspr;rk;
mfd;wTld; vOq;fs;. cq;fsplk; ,Uf;Fk; xspfis (fUtpfis)
ftdkhfg; ghtpAq;fs;.
Xh; Aj;jg; gpuNjrj;ijf; flf;Fk; NghJ
jtph;f;f Kbahj re;jh;g;gq;fspy; jtpu Aj;j gpuNjrq;fisf;
flg;gjw;F Kaw;rpf;f Ntz;lhk;. flg;gjw;F Kd;dk; jpl;l
ml;ltizia ftdkhfg; gbAq;fs; (Kbe;jhy; ghlkhf;Fq;fs;)
cq;fs; thfdj;ij ghpNrhjpAq;fs;>
KbAkhdhy; Fz;L Jisf;fhj Xh; ghJfhg;G Milia mzpe;J
nfhs;Sq;fs;. mg;gpuNjrj;ijf; $ba tpiutpy; flTq;fs;.
ePq;fs; Clfj;ij Nrh;e;jth; vd;gjw;fhd milahsj;ij vLj;Jr;
nry;Yq;fs;. c-k; thfdj;jpy; 'Clfk;' vd;w rpd;dj;ijj; jhq;fp
gazpAq;fs;.
Nrhjidr; rhtbiaf; flf;Fk; NghJ
Nrhjid nra;gth;fis mtjhdpAq;fs;. mth;fs; vt;thwhd
MAjq;fis itj;jpUf;fpwhh;fs;> mth;fs; mtw;iw ifapyh
my; y J Njhspyh Rkf; f pwhh; f s; > vt; t sT ,isath; f s;
(gapw;Wtpf;fg;gl;lth;fsh my;yJ mDgtkw;wth;fsh?) Milfs;
(rhjhuz my;yJ ,uhZt)> mth;fs; elj;ij> Nfhgk; my;yJ
gjw;wk; vd;gtw;wpw;Nfw;g cq;fis jahh;g;gLj;jpf; nfhs;Sq;fs;.
ghhpa mghak; Vw;gLk; NghJ jpUk;gpr; nry;Yq;fs;. ,jid
ftdj;ij <h;f;fhky; Jg;ghf;fpr; #l;bw;F mfg;glhky; nra;Aq;fs;.
xd;Wf;F Nkw;gl;l thfdq;fs; ,Ue;jhy;> xd;wpd; gpd; xd;whfr;
nry;Yq;fs;.
Nrhjidapd; NghJ jpBh; vd;W mirahjPh;fs;. iffis vg;NghJk;
njhpAk; gb itAq; f s; . mikjpahfTk; > el; G lDk; ele; J
nfhs;Sq;fs;.

19
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

gae;J> mlq;fp my;yJ %h;f;fj;jdkhf ele;J nfhs;shjPh;fs;.


gy;NtW mDkjpg; gj;jpuq;fis itj;jpUe;jhy; jtwhdijf; fhl;b
tplhjPh;fs;.
cq;fs; nkhopia mwpe;jth; ahNuDk; ,Uf;fyhk; vd;gjid kwe;J
tplhjPh;fs;> vdNt vd;d NgRfpwPh;fs; vd;gjidf; Fwpj;J
ftdkha; ,Uq;fs;.
mtrpakpd;Nwy;> cq;fs; thfdj;ij tpl;L ntspapy; tuhjPh;fs;.
cq;fs; thfdj;jpd; vd;[pid epWj;jhjPh;fs;.
cq;fs; nghUl;fis mth;fs; vLj;Jf; nfhz;lhy;> cq;fs;
tpUg;gkpd;ikia njhpag;gLj;Jq;fs;> Mdhy; msTf;F mjpfkhf
nra;ahjPh;fs;.
Ngrpg;ghUq;fs;> FOj; jiytDld; fijAq;fs;.

rpy Fwpg;Gf;fs;
ePq;fs; epw;Fk; tpjj;jpy; cq;fis Xh; Nghuhsp vd;W fzpg;gplhj
tz;zk; vr;rhpf;ifaha; ,Uq;fs;.
fl;blnkhd;wpd; eLtpy; kiwe;Jnfhs;Sq;fs;. ntspNaWtjw;fhf
gy thry;fs; cs;sdth> vd;W ghpNrhjpAq;fs;. KbAkhdhy; vy;yh
thry;fspYk; jilankhd;wpid itAq;fs;.
ePq; f s; tPnlhd; w pDs; gpuNtrpf; F k; NghJ> fjtpy; my; y J
ad;dy;fspy; epoy; tpohj tz;zk; jtph;j;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs;.
fl;blj;jpDs; EioAk; NghJ> thriy jhz;b cl;nry;Yq;fs;. (,J
nghJthf kdpjg; nghjpfs; itf;fg;gLk; ,lk;). cs;Ns vjidAk;
cldbahfj; njhlhjPh; f s; . kj; j pa miw xd; w py; kiwe; J
nfhs;Sq;fs;> Xl;liwapy; md;wp kj;jpa miwapy; ghJfhg;ig
ngwTk;.
kiwe;jpUe;J jhf;Fjy; elj;jg;gl;lhy;
tPjp %lg;glhky; ,Ue;jhy; : mgha tyaj;jpypUe;J mjpNtfkhf
ntspNaWq;fs;
rukhhpj; Jg;ghf;fpj; jhf;Fjypdhy; tPjp milf;fg;gl;lhy; thfdj;ij
tpl;L ftdkhf ntspNaWq;fs;
thfdj;jpd; mUfpy; ,Uq;fs; (ftdkha; ,Uq;fs; : vd;[pd; gpuNjrk;
khj;jpuNk Jg;ghf;fpf; #l;bypUe;J cq;fisg; ghJfhf;f ty;yJ).

20
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

tPjpNahuq;fspy; kpjpntbfspd; mghak; Fwpj;J vr;rhpf;ifaha;


,Uq;fs;.
rukhhpj; Jg;ghf;fpg; gpuNahfk; fhuzkhf ghij jilg;gl;bUg;gpd;>
cq;fs; thfdj;ij Jg;ghf;fpg; gpuNahfk; ,lk;ngwhj vjph; gf;fj;jpy;
epWj;Jq;fs;.
Jg;ghf;fpg; gpuNahfk; kpjpntb njhlh;ghf vr;rhpf;ifahf ,Ue;J
,aYkhd tiu ghJfhg;ig ehLq;fs;. jhf;Fjypy; <LgLNthh;
thfdq;fis Nrhjid nra;tjw;Nfh my;yJ nfhs;isapLtjw;Nfh
fhakile;jth;fis nfhiy nra;tjw;Nfh mz;kpj;j tz;zk;
,Uf;fyhk;.
ghij gpd; G wj; j py; jil nra; a g; g l; b Ug; g pd; kiwe; j pUe; J
jhf;FjYf;F ,yf;fhfp ,Ug;gpd; thfdk; cq;fSilajy;yhtpbd;
mjid gpd;dhy; vLq;fs; my;yJ jpUg;gpf; nfhs;Sq;fs;. jg;gpNahl
KaYk; Vida thfdq; f Sf; F jil nra; a hky; ,Uf; f
vr;rhpf;ifaha; ,Uq;fs;.

ePq;fs; gzaf; ifjpahf;fg;gl;lhy;


gzaf; ifjpapd; fz;Nzhl;lk; mtiuf; ifJ nra;jth;fspd; jd;ik>
#o;epiyf;Nfw;w tpjj;jpNyNa jq;fpAs;sJ. ,Ue;j NghJk;> fPo;tUk;
Fwpg;Gf;fs; nghJthf gzaf; ifjp xUthpd; elj;ijiaj; jPh;khdpf;Fk;.
vjph;g;Gj; njhptpg;gJk; jg;gpr; nry;tJk; gad; mspf;Fk; vd;W
fUjpdhy; khj;jpuk; mt;thW nra;aTk;.
gjw;wg;glhjPh;fs;> mikjpahftpUq;fs;> cq;fisf; ifJ nra;jth;fs;
Vw;fdNt Xh; gjw;w epiyapy; ,Uf;ff; $Lk;.
,yFthd gaDs;s tplaq;fis khj;jpuk; Qhgfj;jpy; itj;Jf;
nfhs;Sq;fs;. ,J gpd;dh; cjTk; : Fuy;fs;> eWkzk;> Jh;ehw;wk;
rj;jq;fs;> Neuk; kw;Wk; ghtpf;fg;gl;l gpuahd Kiw.
cq;fis ifJnra;jth;fspd; elj;ijia mtjhdpAq;fs;. ePq;fs;
jg;gpf;ff; $ba toptiffisj; NjLq;fs;> mth;fis milahsk;
fz;L nfhs;s Kaw;rp nra;Aq;fs;.
cq;fs; ehshe;j eltbf;iffis kdjpy; jpl;lkpLq;fs;.
cq;fis ifJ nra;jth;fspd; fl;lisfSf;F fl;Lg;gLq;fs;>
Mdhy; mth;fspd; Nehf;fq;fSf;F cjthjPh;fs;.

21
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

mth;fs; cq;fs; ngaiug; ghtpg;gjw;F Cf;FtpAq;fs;. ,J


gjw;wj;ijf; Fiwf;f cjTk;.
nfhiy mr;RWj;jy;fs; my;yJ tpLtpg;G ek;gpf;iffs; Mfpatw;iw
ek;ghjPh;fs;.
ahUldhtJ fijf;f KaYq;fs;. ,J cq;fs; kdij NtW jpirapy;
itj;jpUg;gjw;F cjTk;.
cq; f is ifJnra; j th; f Sld; Njitapd; w p NkhjhjPh; f s; .
mth; f NshL cwthLq; f s; . Nfhgj; J lNdh my; y J Nfhgk;
Vw;gLj;Jk; tpjj;jpNyh ele;J nfhs;shjPh;fs;.
jait vjph;ghh;g;gJ Nghy; ele;J nfhs;shjPh;fs;.
Ngr; R thh; j ; i jfs; (tpLtpg; G ) ,Ogwpahff; fhzg; g l; l hy;
kde;jsuhjPh;fs;. ghjpg;gpd;wp ntspNaWtjw;fhd tha;g;Gf;fs;
mjpfhpj;Jf; nfhz;Nl ,Uf;Fk;.
Nfl;fg;gl;lhy;> cq;fs; Fuiy xypg;gjpT nra;tjw;Nfh my;yJ
cq;fis milahsg;gLj;Jfpd;w nra;jp xd;wpid vOJtjw;Nfh
Kd; thUq;fs;.
tpLtpf;fg;gLtjw;F Kd;ida ehs; gjw;wg;glhky;> cq;fisf; ifJ
nra;jth;fspd; cj;juTfSf;Ff; fl;Lg;gLq;fs;.
tpLtpg; g pd; gpd; d h; ePq; f s; Xh; itj; j pa ghpNrhjidf; F
cl;gLj;jg;gLtPh;fs;. ,J jtph;f;f KbahjJ. ahhplkhtJ cq;fs;
czh;Tfis gfph;eJ ; nfhs;Sq;fs;. cq;fs; mDgtq;fisf; fUj;Jj;
njhptpf;f cq;fSf;F khj;jpuk; fl;Lg;gLj;j Ntz;lhk;.
nra; j p Clfj; j plk; fijf; F k; Kd; d h; > nfhLf; f g; g Lk;
mwpTiufisg; gpd;gw;Wq;fs;.
Kd;ida flj;jy;fhuh;fspd; kPs; eltbf;iffspypUe;J jg;gpj;Jf;
nfhs;s ghJfhg;G eltbf;iffis Nkw; nfhs;Sq;fs;.

22
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

mghafukhd gpuNjrq;fspy; my;yJ


Aj;j #o;epiyfspy; Ntiy nra;Ak;
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd
ghJfhg;G njhlh;ghd cld;ghl;L thrfk;

r h; t Njrr; rl; l q; f s; Aj; j gpuNjrq; f spy; Ntiy nra; A k;


Clftpayhsh;fspd; ghJfhg;G rk;ge;jkhf mKy;gLj;jg;gl;l
NghJk;> ,d;W Aj;jk; nra;Ak; FOf;fs; ,tw;wpw;F kjpg;gspf;fhjjpdhy;
mth;fspd; ghJfhg;gpw;F vJtpj cj;jputhjKkpy;iy. nra;jp | jfty;
jpul;Lgth;fs; jkf;F KOg;ghJfhg;Gk; fpilf;Fk; vd ek;gKbahJ.
vdNt Clftpayhsh;fs; vjph;Nehf;Fk; (KO Neu my;yJ Rje;jpu
Clftpayhsh; f s; ) mghaq; f isf; fUj; j py; nfhz; L mth; f is
Ntiyf; f kh; j ; J gth; f s; mth; f Sf; F ghJfhg; G k; > e\; l <Lk; >
cj;juthjKk; mspf;f Ntz;Lk;. ,jw;F ntWkNd ,uhZtj;jpdiuAk;>
mur mjpfhhpfisAk; kl;Lk; ek;gp ,Uf;ff; $lhJ. Clf eph;thfpfs;
mghaj;ijf; Fiwg;gjw;fhd rfy eltbf;iffisAk; vLf;f Ntz;Lk;.
gpd;tUk; vl;L nfhs;iffSk; ,jDs; mlq;Fk;.

mbg;gilf; nfhs;if 1 - mh;g;gzpg;G


Clftpayhsh;fSk;> Clfk; kw;Wk; nghJ mjpfhurigfis xj;j
#o;epiyfspy; kw;Wk; mghafukhd #o;epiyfspy; mghaj;jpidf;
Fiwg;gjw;fha; ngwg;gl;l jfty;fis ghpkhwpf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.
Clftpayhsh;fs;> Rje;jpu Clftpayhsh;fs;> cs;@h; Copah;fs; kw;Wk;
xj;Jiog;G toq;Fgth;fSf;F NghjpasT jahh;gLj;jy;> jfty;> fhg;GWjp
kw;Wk; fUtpfs; toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

mbg;gilf; nfhs;if 2 - RatpUg;gj;Jld; ele;J nfhs;sy;


Clftpayhsh;fs; mh;g;gzpg;GlDk;> mghaq;fis mwpe;Jk; jk;
tpUg;gj;JlNdNa Aj;jg; gpuNjrj;jpy; Ntiy nra;fpwhh;fs;. ,tw;wpy;
mghak; ,Ug;gjdhy; Clftpayhsh;fs; ,e;j gpuNjrq;fSf;Fr; nry;y
kWg; G njhptpf; F k; NghJ mjid Vw; W f; nfhs; s Ntz; L k; .
ntspj;jsj;jpy; Ntiy nra;J nfhz;bUf;Fk; NghJ> Clftpayhsh;fs;
Ntiyia ,il epWj;jpf; nfhs;s tpUk;gpdhy;> mjid ,U rhuhUk;
(nra;jpahsUk;> Mrphpah;fSk;) Xh; Kbtpw;F te;jjd; gpd;dh; mt;thW

23
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

nra; a yhk; . gj; j phpif Mrphpah; f s; Clftpayhsh; f s; kPJ


msTf;fjpfkhd mOj;jj;ij Vw;gLj;jhj tz;zk; ftdkhftpUj;jy;
Ntz;Lk;.

mbg;gilf; nfhs;if 3 - mDgtk;


Aj;j #o;epiyfspy;> my;yJ mghafu #o;epiyfspy;> mghak;
mjpfkhff; fhzg;gLtjpdhy;> gj;jphpif Mrphpah;fs; ,g;gzpfSf;F
mDgtkpf;f> jpwikkpf;f Clftpayhsh;fisNa mDg;g Ntz;Lk;.
Kjy; jlitahf Aj; j #o; e piyfspy; Ntiy nra; a g; NghFk;
Clftpayhsh;fSld;> mDgtkpf;f> jpwikkpf;f Clftpayhsh;fis
mDg;g Ntz;Lk;. Kjy; jlitahf Aj;j #o;epiyfspy; Ntiy nra;ag;
NghFk; Clftpayhsh;fSld;> mDgtk; kpf;f Clftpayhsh;fSk;
nry;y Ntz;Lk;. ntspf;fsj;jpy; FO nraw;ghLfs; Cf;Ftpf;fg;gl
Ntz;Lk;. Clftpayhsh;fs; fsj;jpypUe;J jpUk;Gk; NghJ gj;jphpif
Mrphpah;fs; mth;fSf;F mDgtj;ija+l;Lk; tpjj;jpy; xOq;FKiwg;gb
kPs mwptpj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

mbg;gilf; nfhs;if 4 - jahh;gLj;jy;


njhlh;r;rpahd jahh;gLj;jy; Aj;j #o;epiyfspy; Clftpayhsh;fspd;
mghaj;jpidf; Fiwg;gjw;F cjTk; Mrphpah;fs; Njrpa my;yJ rh;tNjr
gapw; W tpg; G f; f s; ,lk; n gWk; NghJ mtw; i wf; Fwpj; J jkJ
Copah;fSf;F mwptpf;f Ntz;Lk;. Kuz;ghl;Lr; #o;epiyfspy; Ntiy
nra; A k; midj; J Clftpayhsh; f Sk; Kjw; rpfpr; i r gapw; r p
ngw;wpUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. midj;Jk; mwpag;gl;l Clftpayhsh; gs;spf;
$lq;fSf;Fk; ,tw;iwg; gpd;gw;w Ntz;Lk;.

mbg;gilf; nfhs;if 5 - ghJfhg;G


gj; j phpif Mrphpah; f s; mghafukhd #o; e piyfspy; thOk;
Clftpayhsh;fSf;F ghJfhg;G fUtpfs; (Fz;L - Jisf;fhj -
Milfs;> jiyf;ftrq;fs;> $Lkhdhy; ,ae;jpu thfdq;fs;)> njhlh;ghly;
fUtpfs;> ghJfhg;G kw;Wk; Kjy; rpfpr;ir nghUl;fis toq;f Ntz;Lk;.

mbg;gilf; nfhs;if 6 - fhg;GWjp


mghafukhd #o; e piyfspy; thOk; Clftpayhsh; f Sf; F k; >
mth;fspd; cjtpahsh;fSf;Fk; RfaPdk;> kPs; mDg;Gjy;> caph; ,og;G
Ntiyfspy; fhg;GWjp toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk;. mghafukhd gzpfSf;F

24
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

mDg;Gtjw;F Kd; chpa mjpfhhpfs; ,jw;fhd Vw;ghLfisr; nra;a


Ntz;Lk;. mth;fs; rfy cld;gbf;iffSf;Fk;> xg;ge;jq;fSf;Fk;
iff;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;Lk;.

mbg;gilf; nfhs;if 7 - cstpay; guhkhpg;G


Aj; j my; y J mghafukhd #o; e piyfspypUe; J jpUk; G k;
Clftpayhsh; f Sf; F k; > mth; f s; gjtpahsh; f Sf; F k; cstpay;
guhkhpg;G toq;fg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.

mbg;gilf; nfhs;if 8 - rl;lg;g+h;t ghJfhg;G


n[dpth xg;ge;jj;jpd; 79tJ cWg;Giuf;F gq;fk; tpistpf;fhj
tz;zk;> Aj;jj;jpw;F rhh;gpd;wp> my;yJ csthspahf ,y;yhky; ,Ue;jhy;
mghafukhd #o; e piyfspy; Ntiy nra; A k; Clftpayhsh; f s;
mt;nthg;ge;jj;jpd; fPo; gpui[fshf Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gLthh;fs;.
Clftpayhsiu Fwp itj;J ,lk;ngWk; nfhiy my;yJ ghuJ}ukhd
cly; fhag;gLj;jy;> ,t;nthg;ge;jj;jpd; gb Aj;j Fw;wr; nrayhf
fzpg;gplg;gLk;. '
1998Mk;
Mz;L
eilngw;w tl
Nky; khfhz
Njh;jypy;
thf;F
nfhs;isapy;
<LgLk;
murhq;f
fl;rpapd;
Fz;lh;fs;.
glg;gpbg;G:
[dg;gphpa
rkujpthfu

25
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

Aj;j tyaq;fSk; Nkhjy; gpuNjrq;fSk;

J g;ghf;fp uitfs; gwf;f Muk;gpf;Fk; NghJ Clftpayhsh;fs;


jtwhfNth Ntz; L nkd; N wh ,yf; f hfyhk; . Kd; d zp
Clftpayhsh;fs; Jg;ghf;fp uitfs;> n\y;fs;> Nkhl;lhh;fs; vd;gtw;why;
nfhy;yg;gl;bUf;fpd;whh;fs;. jpBh; jhf;Fjy;fspd; NghJk; Clftpayhsh;
gypahfpapUf;fpd;whh;fs;. mNef gilfs; Aj;jj;jpy; <LgLk; NghJ Aj;jk;
vq;Nf Muk;gpj;J KbtilfpwJ vd;W nrhy;YtJ fbdk;. ,Ug;gpDk;
Mgj;Jf;fs; gw;wp mwpe;J itj;jpUf;Fk; Clftpayhsh; Kd;$l;bNa
rpe;jpg;gjd; %yk; fhag;gLtjpypUe;Jk; capiu ,og;gjpypUe;Jk;
jd;idf; fhg;ghw;wpf; nfhs;syhk;.
Kd; d wpNt Xh; Clftpayhshpd; rpwe; j ghJfhg; G . Nghhpy;
<Lgl;bUg;Nghhpd; kNdhepiy gw;wpa mwpT> ghtpf;fg;glf; $ba
MAjq;fs; gw;wpa mwpT ,it %yk; Clftpayhsh; jdf;F Nehplf;
$ba Mgj;Jf;fisj; jtph;f;fyhk;. Clftpayhsh; ve;j eltbf;if
jk;ik Jg;ghf;fpg; gpuNahf ikaj;jpw;Fs; rpf;f itf;Fk;> ve;j eltbf;if
jk;ik Mgj;jhd ,lj;jpypUe;J ghJfhg;ghd ,lj;jpw;F ,l;Lr; nry;Yk;
vd;gij vilNghl Ntz;Lk;. jhk; epw;Fk; g+Nfhs vy;iy kw;Wk;
,uhZt epiy vd;gJ gw;wpa glk; mtuJ kdjpy; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;.
Aj;j #o;epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk; kw;wth;fs; Nghy Clftpayhsh; Mff;
Fiwe;j Mgj;jhd nray;eltbf;ifiaj; njhpe;J nfhs;syhNk jtpu
Mgj;Nj ,y;yhj eltbf;if vJTk; mth;fSf;Ff; fpilahJ.

Clftpayhsh; gw;wpa Nghuhspfspd; kdg;ghq;F


Clftpayhsh; ,uhZtg;gilapdh; vd;gth;fspd; Nehf;fk; ,yf;F
vd;git NtW Ntwhdit. vd;d elf;fpwJ vd;gJ gw;wp jfty; jpul;l
mZFjiy vjph;ghh;f;fpwhh;fs;. Clftpayhsh; ,uhZtg; gilfs;
epiyikia jq;fs; fl;Lg;ghl;bw;Fs; nfhz;L tUtijg; gw;wpAk; ntw;wp
ngWtijg;; gw;wpAk; Nehf;fha; ,Ug;ghh;fs;. jhq;fs; fhl;ltpUk;Gk;
mk;rq;fisNa Clftpayhsh; mwptpf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;Nw mth;fs;
tpUk;Gthh;fs;.
Nghh;tPuh;fSk; ,uhZtj;jpdUk; mNdfkhf Clftpayhsiu
re;Njff; fz;nfhz;L ghh;ff
; pd;whh;fs;. Kd;dzpapy; epw;Fk; gilapdUf;F
jhq;fs; glk; gpbf;fg;gLtJ tpUg;gkhf ,Uf;fyhk;. Mdhy; ,uhZtj;
jsgjpfs; Clftpayhshpd; gpurd;dj;ij nghpJk; tpUk;Gtjpy;iy.
Clftpayhsiu Xh; Njitapy;yhj jiyapbahfTk; ghJfhg;gpw;F

26
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

Mgj;J cUthf;Fgth;fs; vd;Nw jsgjpfs; mth;fisg; ghh;f;fpd;whh;fs;.


re;jh;g;gj;ij nghWj;J vy;yh ClftpayhsiuAk; my;yJ gyiu
vjphpapd; gpurhufh; f shf jsgjpfs; ghh; f ; f f; $Lk; . mg; g bg; g l; l
re;jh;gg
; q;fspy; Clftpayhsh;fs; Rlg;gl Kbahj mth;fspd; vjphpfshf
fzpf;fg;gLfpd;whh;fs;.
vq;nfy;yhk; KbANkh mr;re;jh;gg; q;fspy; ,uhZtg; gilfs; jkf;Fr;
rhjfkhfNt nra;jp mwptpg;G ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;W tpUk;Gth;.
jsgjpfs; jkJ mYtyfq;fisf; nfhz;L ClftpayhsUf;F jtwhd
jfty; f isj; juTk; > gpurhuk; nra; a Tk; > cz; i kia kiwf; f Tk;
nra;fpd;whh;fs;. Nfhgk; nfhz;l jsgjpfs; xj;Jiiof;f kWg;gNjhL
Clftpayhsiu Rl; L f; nfhy; y Tk; Kd; t uyhk; . ,uhZtq; f s;
ClftpayhsUf;F NritAk; ghJfhg;Gk; je;J mjd; %yk; gzk;
rk;ghjpf;fTk; Kd;tuyhk;.
%j; j jsgjpfSf; F rhjfkhd mwpf; i fapd; kfpik GhpAk; .
nghJkf;fSf;nfjpuhd Fw;wr;nray;fis jk; gilapdh; ,iof;ftpy;iy
vd;Dk; NghJ mJ mth;fSf;F ew;ngaiuj; Njbj; jUfpwJ. Mdhy;
ngUk;ghYk; Nrhjidr; rhtbfspy; mjpfk; gapw;rp> mDgtk; ,y;yhj
midj;J> tpuf;jp mile;j ,sk; tPuh;fs; epWj;jg;gLfpd;whh;fs;. ,th;fs;
Clftpayhsiuf; nfhs;isabf;fTk; nfhy;yTk; $l Kd;tUth;. Aj;j
#oYf;Fs; cl;nry;y Kd;dh; Clftpayhsh; ntt;NtW gilapdh;
ghh;itapy; epyiikia vilNghl;Lf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. fsj;jpypUf;Fk;
gilapdhpd; cw;rhfk;> fl;Lg;ghL> kdg;ghq;F vd;gd gw;wpa mwpT
ClftpayhsUf;F mtrpak;. Nkhjy;> thf;Fthjk; Vw;gLk; NghJ
rkhspf;ff; $ba ey;y cwTfs; ifahL jpwd; mth;fSf;F mtrpak;.

,uhZtg; ghJfhg;NghL my;yJ jdpahf gazk; nra;jy; mth;fspnyhUtnud ePq;fs;


fUjg;gl;L ,yf;fhfyhk;
Aj;j fsj;jpd; Kd;dzpg; gFjpf;F ,uhZtj;jpdh; cq;fis mioj;Jr;
nry;yf; $bath;fs;. ,Ug;gpDk; rpy jlq;fy;fs; gw;wp ePq;fs; mwpe;J ePq;fs; ,uhZtj;JlNdh
itj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. rpy ehLfspy; ePq;fs; gilapdUld; nrd;why; my;yJ Nkhjnyhd;wpd; xU
ePq;fs; nfhy;yg;gLtjw;fhd ,yf;fhf khwyhk;. ,uhZtj;Jld; ePq;fs; jug;gpdnuhUtUld; gazQ;
nrd;why; mth;fs; nrhy;YtijNa ePq;fs; nra;a Ntz;Lk;. Jg;ghf;fpr; nra;jhy;> ePq;fs; giltPuh; vd
#L ,lk;ngw;why; mth;fs; jkJ capiuAk; jq;fs; gilapdhpd; milahsq; fhzg;gLtjpdhy;
capiuAk; cq;fs; capiuAk; fhg;ghw;WtjpNyNa Nehf;fhf ,Ug;ghh;fNs my;yJ ePq;fs; vjphpfSld;
njhlh;Gilath; vd
xopa cq;fs; glg;gpbg;Gf; fUtpiaNah cq;fs; mwpf;if Mtdq;fspd;
fUjg;gLtjpdhNyh ePq;fs;
ghJfhg;igNah mth;fs; rpe;jpf;f khl;lhh;fs;. Aj;j epiyapy; ,y;yhj
,yf;fhff; $ba Mgj;Jf;fs;
rpg;gha;fs; Nghh; tPuh;fSf;F jPh;khdnkLg;Gg; gyk; fpilahJ. vdNt cs;sd.
cq;fSld; gazk; nra;gth; Xh; %j;j epiy mYtyfk; vd;gij cWjp
nra;J nfhs;Sq;fs;. n`ypnfhg;lh;> tpkhdq;fs; rz;il elf;Fk; ,
; lq;fs;

27
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

epyntbfs; kw;Wk; rpW nghwpfs; (


(Booby Trats)
nghwpfs; rk;ge;jkhd nghJthd jfty
jfty; - nghwpfs; ghJfhg;gpd;ikapd;
czh;tpid nfhz;L tUtjw;fhfg; ghtpf;fg;gLfpd;wd.
fPo; Fwpg;gplg;gLgtw;iw <h;j;Jf; nfhs;sNth my;yJ ntspapy;
vLj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;fhfNth rpW nghwpfs; jahhpf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ
J.
cs;Szh;Tfs; (Nguhir> Mir> tho;jy;)
Njitfs; (czT ngw;Wf; nfhs;s> cil mzpa> FsphpypUe;J
jk;ik ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;s> rg;ghj;J mzpa> fjtpid my;yJ
ad;diy Jwf;f Mfpa) czh;Tfis J}z;l> my;yJ Mth;j;ij
J}z;l my;yJ ntspf; nfhzu ghtpff;g;gLfpd;wd.
Jyq;fis cUthf;f ( kpd; Fkpop vhpfpd;wjh vd ghh;gg
; jw;F mjid
gw;witj;jy;> Xh; nghUis cija> Xh; fhiu ,af;Fjy; Nghd;wit)
kpjp ntb tifiar; rhh;e;j xU rpW nghwp ntw;wpfukhf ntbf;f
Ntz;Lkhapd; mjDila Njhw;wj;jpy; xU khw;wk; Vw;gl Ntz;Lk;
mjd; %yk; ,U tifahd tpisTfs; Vw;gLk;. Nghypj;jdkhd
mr;RWj;jYk; mjd; gpd;dh; ntw;wpfukhd Njhw;wKk;.
nghwpfs; ghtpf;fg;gLk; ,lq;fs;
trpg;gplq;fspy; : fjTfs;> ad;dy;fs;> jiu> jsghlk;> njhiy Ngrpfs;>
njhiy fhl;rpfs;> kpd;rhu cgfuzq;fs;> Gj;jfq;fs;> myhu fbfhuq;fs;>
fl;by;fs;> Jzp kzpg; ngl;bfs;. rkayiwfspy; : Nfj;jpy;fs;> rhg;ghl;Lf;
fpz;zq;fs;> Nghj;jy;fs; Mfpad.
ntsp ,lq; f spy; : rhg;ghl;Lf; filfspy;> ghyq;fspy;> ,aw;if
kiwtplq;fspy;> thfdq;fspy;> iftplg;gl;l MAjq;fshy;> iff; Fz;L
kw;Wk; NtW ntb Fz;Lfs;> Mfpad.
rpy Fwpg;Gf;fs;.
ePq;fs; Xh; tah; epyntbAld; nghUj;jg;-gl;bUg;gijf; fz;lTld;
chpa mjpfhhpfSf;F mjidf; Fwpj;J njhptpAq;fs;.
epyntbfs; jdpj;jpUg;gJ mhpJ vd;gjid czh;e;J nfhs;Sq;fs;.
mit miu lrpd;fshf my;yJ gy lrpd;fshf my;yJ thpirahf
(mNefkhf epyj;jpy; Fr;rpfs; ehl;lg;gl;L) Gijf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk;.

28
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

topia tpl; L xU NghJk; tpyfpr; nry; y hjPh; f s; . kyryk;


fopg;gjw;NfDk; nry;yhjPh;fs;.
ntbf;fhky; fhzg;gLk; Fz;bidNah my;yJ uhf;fl;bidNah
xU NghJk; njhlhjPh;fs;.
Qhgfg; nghUl;fshf epyntbfis thq;fhjPh;fs;. gpwiuAk;
mtw;iw nraypof;fr; nra;J Qhgfg; nghUl;fisf; nfhz;L nry;y
Cf;Ftpf;fhjPh;fs;.
Aj;jg; gpuNjrj;jpypUe;J> Clftpayhsh;fs; jfty; mwptpf;Fk; NghJ>
epyntbfspy; my;yJ kdpjg; nghwpfspd; mghaj;Jf;F Kfq;nfhLf;f
Neuyhk;. epyntbfs; fPo; Fwpg;gpl;l tz;zk; my;yJ chpa gapw;rp
ngwhj Nghuhspfshy; Cfpf;f Kbahj tpjj;jpy; Gijf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk;.
Xh; ntb Fz;L; gpd;tUk; fhuzq;fspdhy; nraw;gl KbAk;. Xh; jLf;fy;
tahpdhy;> mKf;fk; (my;yJ mKf;fj;ij ,of;fr; nra;jy;)> fbfhu
ntbFz;L ("smart") ntbFz;Lfs; rpy egh;fs; my;yJ thfdq;fs;
fle;j gpd;dNu ntbf;Fk;).
xUth; epyntbia fz;lTld;> jkJ ghj mbfis kpff; ftdkhf
itf;f Ntz;Lk;.
epyf;fz;zp ntbnahd;wpd; rhjhuz Njhw;wk;
1. ntbj;jy;
2. Njhl;lhtpy; cs;s ntb (Kd;Gwj;jpw;F ce;jg;gLk; ntbAk;
cs;slf;ff; $Lk;) gytpj Nfhzq;fspd;
msTfspy; ntb Fz; L fs;
rpy jdpegh; my;yJ epy ntbfs;
cs;sd. mtw;wpy; mjpfsT rf;jp
PMR kw;Wk; FROM Mfpa epyntbfspd; tah;fs; ntg;gepiyf;Fk;> nfhz;lJ. cNyhfg; ghJfhg;gpy;
mikf; f g; g l; L s; s <akhFk; .
NkNy ,Uf;fpd;w Fz;L
ghtidf;fhf vLf;fg;gLk; ntb
czh;eJ
; f; nfhs;tjw;fhfapUf;Fk; cgfuzk;
ghJfhg;G topKiwfs;
ntbf;Fk; gFjp } 1 Fz;lhFk;. $uhd Fz;L 7.62
nrg;G gilnahd;wpidf;
nfhz;l Rw;whFk;. rpwpa
ntbf;f itf;Fk; cgfuzk;
tl;lq;fisf; nfhz;l Fz;Lfs;
fPo;kl;l ghuk; ifj;Jg;ghf;fp kw;Wk; rg;
2 {
cah;kl;l ghuk;
nk\pd; Jg;ghf;fpfSf;fhd kp.kP.
9 ge; J uitfshFk; . rpwpa
nts;spf; Foha; ntw;W
ghJfhg;G uitahFk;.

29
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

fhyepiyf;Fk; Vw;gNt ntbf;Fk;. kuj;jpypUe;J tpOk; fpisfs;> %L


gdp Mfpad ,e; epyntbfspd; gFjpfis rpwpJ rpwpjhf ntspg;gLj;jp
nraw;gl itf;ff; $Lk;. ,it ve;NeuKk; ntbf;fyhk;. tre;j fhyq;fspy;
,e;j mghak; mjpfkhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. epyntbfs; Neu ntbf;
Fz;Lfshf khWfpd;wd.

PMR- 2 A

,J mjpfkhf gpuNahfpf;fg;gLk;
epyntb. ,J fk;gpapy;> jbapy;
my;yJ kuj;jpy; itf;fg;gLfpwJ
(Njitahd cauj;jpw;F fpisfs;
ntl;lg;gLfpd;wd.)

PMA - 2

,it Vida epyntbfis


ghJfhg;gjw;fhf ghtpf;fg;gLfpd;wd.
gr;ir epwj;jpy; jahhpf;fg;gl;L
(gpsh];bf;)> el;rj;jpu tbt ,f;dp\dp-
dhy; nraw;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. 100 fpuhk;
ntb kUe; J ,jid mjpgaq; f u
ntbahf;Ffpd;wd.

PMA - 3

jdpahfNth> %d; W my; y J


ehd;F mb J}uj;jpNyh> thpir-
ahfNth> Aj;j gpuNjrj;jpypUe;J
20 kPl; l h; J}uj; j pNyh ,it
epyj; j py; Gijf; f g; g Lfpd; w d>
%lg;gl;bUf;Fk;> jd; mOj;jp
(Trigger) vg;NghJk; ntspapy;
fhzg;gLk;.

30
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

PROM - 1

,it Gijf;fg;gl;L my;yJ


fw; f yhy; %lg; g l; b Uf; F k; .
,jd; mOj;jp mt;tsT
,yFtpy; nraw; g Lj; j g; g l
KbahJ.

MRUD

mNdfkhf kuq; f spy; nghUj; j g; -


gl;bUf;Fk> ,it kQ;ry; epw tah;fspd;
%yk; Vidatw;Wld; nghUj;jg;gl;bUf;-
fyhk;. ,t;ntbfspd; Nehf;fk; xUtiu
nfhy;Ytjy;y> khwhf fhag;gLj;JtNj.
ghjpf;fg;gl;ltUf;F fpl;lj;jl;l 7 NghpdJ cjtp Njitg;gLk;. Mdhy;
Fwp ghh;j;J jhf;fg;gLk; NghJ 20 kPw;wh; gug;gpDs; ,J xUtiu nfhiy
nra;aty;yJ.

ePq;fs; epyf;fz;zp ntbfs; mlq;fpa tyaj;jpw;Fs; nrd;why;


,utpy; gazQ; nra;ahjPh;fs;.
kiwe;jpUe;J ntb itj;jy; xUtnuhUtuhf tpyfp jdp
thpirapy; ele;J nry;yTk;.
];idg;gh; Jg;ghf;fp jhhpfs; jkJ Fwpfis Rkhh; 600 kPw;wh; rpwpa ghijfspy; nry;y
J}uj;jpypUe;J jhf;fyhk; ( rpy Neuk; 1>000 kPw;wh;) gfy; Ntisapy;> ,uT Ntz;lhk;. jilfSf;F Nky;
Neuq;fspy; 300 kPw;wh;. Mdhy; mNdfkhf ,th;fs; mz;ikapypUe;Nj Vw Ntz;lhk;. rpijtile;j
,lq;fis Muha;r;rp nra;a
jhf;Fthh;fs;. ,J mth;fs; jtW tpLtij Fiwf;Fk;. ,th;fs; ,utpYk;
Ntz;lhk;. ePhpy; Ko;fpa
gdp Neuj;jpYk; ntt;NtW tifahd Milfisg; ghtpg;ghh;fs;.
,lq;fspy; ftdkhf
,th;fs; mjpfkhf xU fl;blj;jpd; miwapy;> Nky; khbiaAk;> ,Uf;fTk;. ePhpw;F mbapYk;
fl; b lj; j pd; Kd; gFjpiaAk; jtph; j ; J jk; i k jahh; g Lj; j pf; kpjp ntbfs; ,Uf;ff; $Lk;.
nfhs;sthh;fs;. (tiu glk;1) NkYk; ,th;fs; Xl;liwfs;> kz; %ilfs;
mLf;fg;gl;l ,lk; Mfpatw;wpy; ,Ug;ghh;fs;.

31
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

vjpnuhypg; gpur;rpid
Jg;ghf;fp #l;bd; rj;jk; Rkhh; nrf;fDf;F 330kPw;wh; gpuahzk; nra;Ak;

1 tJ tiuglk;

njhiytpypUe;J ntb itf;Fk;


xUth; mNdfkhf ,Uf;ff; $Lk;.

2 tJ tiutlk;

fl;blnkhd;Wf;Fs; ntb
itf;Fk; nghOJ
,Uf;ff; $Lk;.

3 tJ tiuglk;

$iunahd;wpw;Fs; ntb
itf;Fk; ,lq;fs;

32
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

mNj Ntisapy;> Jg;ghf;fpf; Fz;L


Rkhh; nrf; f Df; F 1>000 kPw; w h;
Ntfj;jpy; gpuahzk; nra;Ak. jpwe;j
ntspapy; Jg;ghf;fp #L vq;fpUe;J
te; j J vd; g jid milahsk;
fhz; g J vspJ. RLgtUf; F k; >
cq; f Sf; F -kpilapy; mNdf
jlq;fs; fhzg;-gl;lhy; mr;#L gy
,lq; f spypUe; J k; te; j J Nghy;
vjpnuhypf;fyhk;. RLgth; mjd;
rj;jj;ij Kjypy; Nfl;ghh;. gpd;G
mjd; vjpnuhyp njhlUk;. Kjy; NkypUe;J> ];lh;ypq; kpy;yp kPw;wh; 9.
rj;jk; FWfpajhfTk; njspthfTk; rg; nk\pd; Jg;ghf;fp ];lh;ypq; hP -
,Uf;Fk;> mNjNtis ,uz;lhk; 56 ,yF ,ae;jpu Jg;ghf;fp kw;Wk;
4 tJ tiuglk; rj; j k; ePz; l jhAk; njsptw; W k; V.Nf. 47 Jg;ghf;fpnahd;W

fhzg;gLk;. (tiuglk; 4)

tiuglj;jpy; fhl;lg;gl;lJ
Nghy; ];idg;gUf;Fk; mth;
Fwpf;Fk; ,ilg;gl;l xypapd;
fhyk; FWfpaJ> Mdhy;
5 tJ tiuglk;
vjpnuhypahdJ Fwpiar;
nrd;wiltjw;F mNdf J}uk; gpuahzk; nra;a Ntz;bAs;sJ. ,J
Jg;ghf;fpr; #l;bw;Fk;> vjpnuhypf;Fkpilapy; tpj;jpahrj;ij Vw;gLj;JfpwJ.
,jd; %yk; Jg;ghf;fpr; #l;bd; rj;jj;ij rhpahf mwpa KbfpwJ. Xh;
rpwe;j ];idg;gh; tPud;> gy vjpnuhypfs; Vw;glf; $ba gpuNjrj;ijNa
jdJ Fwpia RLtjw;fha; Njh;e;njLg;ghd;. ,jdhy; vq;fpUe;J rj;jk;
te;jJ vd;gjid mwptJ fbdkhdJ.
NkypUe;J ,lkpUe;J tyj;jpw;F :
mg;ghw; Nghlf; $ba kpy;yp kPw;wh;
56 jhq; f pfis mopf; F k; uhf; f l;
Nyhd;[h;. Nfhy;l; 45 gp];ly; kp.kP. 9
uf rpf; gp];ly;. kr; 10 ,d;fu; k; kp.kPw;wh;
9 uf rg; ,ae;jpu Jg;ghf;fp> v];.Mh;.
6 uf Kf%b kw;Wk; fpNyhfpuhk; 5
uf a+Nfh]; y htpa jhq; f paopg; G
Fz;L.

33
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

gw;wp ePq;fs; thdpypUe;j glk;gpbj;Jf; nfhs;s cjtf; $bath;fs;.


ghJfhg;gpy;yhky; jdpahf ePq;fs; Aj;jfsj;jpy; gazpj;jhy; ePq;fs;
vq;Nf epw;fpwPh;fs; vd;gJ gw;wpAk; gilapdhpd; epiyfs; gw;wpa czh;Tk;
cq;fSf;fpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. ghpr;rakhd xUtUld; elkhLq;fs;. ePq;fs;
Jg; g hf; f pf; F ,yf; f hf khl; B h; f s; vd; W njhpe; j gpd; N g ePq; f s;
Clftpayhsh; vd;gij mwpaj;jhUq;fs;. cq;fs; thfdj;jpy; Clfk;.
gj;jphpifahsh; vd;W vOjp xl;Lq;fs; mJ rhjfkha; mikAk; vd;W
,yf;nfhd;iw jtwhf njhpe;jhy;. Nfs;tp Nfl;fg;gl;lhy; ePq;fs; Clftpayhsh; vd;W cq;fis
milahsq; fhzg;gLtjhf ,dq;fhl;Lq;fs;. NkhJk; gilfis mth;fspd; rPUil> mth;fs;
,Uf;fhjPh;fs; ghtpf;Fk; MAjk;> thfdk; vd;gtw;iw itj;Nj cq;fshy; ,dq;fhz
KbAk; vd;gij cWjpg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;Sq;fs;. rpy re;jh;g;gq;fspy; ,J
cq;fs; cilfs; ,uhZT vspjy;y. rpy gilfSf;F ,dk; fhl;Lk; milahsj;Jtq;fs; fpilahJ.
cilfisg; Nghyy; y hky; rpy Nghuhl; l q; f spy; ,we; j vjphpfspd; cilfs; MAjq; f s;
,Ug;gjw;F ftdQ; nrYj;j- vd;gtw;iwNa gilapdh; ghtidf;F vLj;Jf; nfhs;tJk; cz;L.
Tk;. nfkhg;yh[; cilfis mDkjp ,y;yhky; gilapdiuNah Aj;jk; elf;Fk; gFjpfisNah ePq;fs;
mzpa Ntz;lhk;.
glk;gpbj;jhy; mth;fs; cq;fs; glg;gpbg;Gf; fUtpiag; gwpj;Jf; nfhs;sf;
Gifg;glf;fUtp Jg;ghf;fp-
$Lk;. ePq;fs; ifJ nra;ag;glyhk; my;yJ epiyik mijtpl
nahd;whfj; njhptjw;F ,l-
Kz;L vd;gjid epidtpy; NkhrkhfTk; mikayhk;.
itj;Jf; nfhs;;sTk;.
cldbahf ntspr;rk; ,yf;fhFjy;
Vw;gLtJ Nghy; Gifg;glk;
vLj; j y; . MAjnkhd; w pd; gpd;tUk; 3 fhuzpfspy; xd;Wf;fhf ePq;fs; Xh; gyp ,yf;fhf khwyhk;.
cldb ntspr;rkhff; fUJ-
gpioahd Neuj;jpy; gpioahd ,lj;jpy; ePq;fs; ,Ue;jhy; (,J
tjw; F ,lKz; L . fkuh
Jujp\;lk;)
fz;zhbnahd;Wk;> fz;zh-
bfspd; ntspr; r q; f Sk; > ePq;fs; jkf;F Mgj;J vd;W gilapduhy; jtwhf fzpf;fg;gl;lhy;
kpd;Dk; iff; fbfhuq;fs;
ePq;fs; Xh; Clftpayhsh; vd;gjhy;
(mtw; i w kWgf; f j; j pw; F
jpUg;gTk;) mit #hpa xsp ePq;fs; gilapdhpy; XUth; Nghy; fhl;rp juhky; ,Ue;jhy; Mgj;ijj;
gl;lTld; kpDq;ff; $Lk;. jtph;ff; KbAk;. ,uhZt Milapd;wp fth;r;rpahd epw Milfis
fkuhtpd; ntspr;rk;> mzpAq;fs;. Nkyhil xU epwj;jpYk; fPohil ,d;ndhU epwj;jpYk;
tpNrlkhf ,uT Neuq;fspy; ,Uf;f Ntz;Lk;. glk;gpbf;Fk; NghJ ftdkhapUq;fs;. Vndd;why;
ftdk; nrYj;jg;gLk;. glg;gpbg;Gf; fUtp Xh; MAjk; vd;W jtwhf vil Nghlg;glyhk;. rpy
gw;w itf;Fk; rpfnul; mjp- Ntisfspy; fkuhTk; Sam 7 Fz;L tPr;Rf; fUtpAk; xd;W Nghy;
fsT J}uj;jpypUe;J fhzf;- Njhw;wkspf;fyhk;. cq;fs; glg;gpbg;Gf; fz;zhbapy; #hpa xsp gl;Lj;
$baJld; mit kiwe;-
njwpf;Fk; NghJ mJ Xh; MAjk; vd;W vz;zg;glyhk;. ePq;fs; Xh;
jpUe;J ntb itg;gth;fis
<h;j;Jf; nfhs;tjw;F ,l-
Nfe;jpu ];jhdj;jpd; mUfhikapy; epw;gjhy; ePq;fs; ,yf;fhfyhk;. ,jdhy;
Kz;L. ePq;fs; Fz;Lj; jhf;FjYf;Fk; tpkhdj; jhf;FjYf;Fk; ,yf;fhfyhk;.

34
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

MAjq;fs; gw;wpa mwpT


Aj;jq;fis mwpf;ifapLk; nra;jpahsh;fSf;F gy;NtW MAjq;fs;
gw;wpa mwpT mtrpak;. me;j MAjq;fspd; rf;jp ghtidj; J}uk; vd;gd
gw;wpa mwpT Ntz;Lk;. ,J cq;fs; capiuf; fhg;gw;wNth mopf;fNth
KbAk;. rpwpa MAjq;fspd; ghtidahdJ mjd; tif my;yJ
cw;gj;jpahsh;> fhyepiy kw;Wk; mjid ghtpg;gthpd; jpwd; (rpe;jid>
fisg;G Mfpad) vd;gtw;wpy; mlq;Fk;. 1>000 kPw;wh; J}uj;jpy; kzpf;F
16 fp|kP Ntfj;jpy; tUk; Njhl;lhtpidAk;> fhw;W mjd; FwpapypUe;J
ehd;F kPw;wh; jpir jpUk;Gk;.
Fiwe;j tYTila MAjq;fs; if Jg;ghf;fp my;yJ iua;gy;;
Mfpad xypapd; Ntfj;ij tpl Fiwe;j Ntfj;jpNy Fz;il ntbf;f
itf;Fk;> cly; hPjpahd ghJfhg;G ftrq;fs; ,tw;wpypUe;J ghJfhg;ig
ngw; W j; jUk; . jhzpaf; f kw; W k; jd; d paf; f MAjk; NeuhfTk; >
cah; t hfTk; ,aq; f ty; y NjhL ,tw; i w nfhz; L xOq; f hf
gapw;Wtpf;fg;gl;l tPuDf;F 20 kPw;wh; J}uj;jpw;F Fwpitf;ff; $batdhf
,Uf;fpwhd;. mNj Ntis gapw;rpapy; FiwTila tPud; J}uj;ij
xOq;fhff; Fwp itg;gjpy;iy. Mgj;njd njhpAk; epiyikapy; tpyfpf;
nfhs;tjw;F jPh;khdpj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;F ,j;jfty;fs; cq;fSf;F cjTk;.
,j;jfty;fs; vjph;g;ig czh;e;J> mwpe;J> mjpypUe;J tpLgl cjTk;.
fduf MAjq;fspd; ,af;fkhdJ xypapd; Ntfj;ij tplf; $ba
Ntfj;jpy; ,af;fk; ngWk; (iugy;> my;yJ ,ae;jpu Jg;ghf;fpfs;) ePq;fs;
Njhl;lhtpd; xypiaf; Nfl;lhy; mJ cq;fis jtwtpl;lnjhd;whf
,Uf;Fk;. mjdJ xyp kpf Ez;zpakhapd;> JUg;Gf;fs; mUfpy;
,Uf;fpwhh;fs; vd mh;j;jg;gLk;.
mjpf Ntfj;jpidAila MAjq;fs; (iugy; my;yJ ,ae;jpu
Jg;ghf;fp) xypapd; Ntfj;ij tplf; Fz;Lfis ntbf;f itf;Fk;.
cq;fSf;Fj; Njhl;lhtpd; xyp Nfl;Fkhapd; mj;Njhl;lh mg;nghOJ
cq; f is fle; J nrd; w pUf; F k; . njspthd ntbr; rj; j nkhd; W
Nfl;Fkhapd; mJ mUfpypUe;J ntb itf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

35
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

ghJfhg;Gf;F kj;jpapy; xd;wha; nry;Yk; thfdf; FOf;fs;


ghJfhg;Gf; FOf;fs; vkf;F jtwhdnjhU ghJfhg;gpd; czh;tpidj;
juty;yd. ,uhZtg; ghJfhg;Gf; FOf;fSf;F gy rl;ljpl;lq;fs;
fhzg;gLfpd;wd. jhf;Fjy;fs; Vw;gLk; NghJ cldbahf mwpe;Jnfhs;s>
mg;ghJfhg;Gf; FOf;fspd; thfdq;fs; njhlh;ghly; cgfuzq;fisAk;>
MAjq;fisAk; itj;Js;sd. khwhf Clftpayhshpd; thfdq;fs;
Neh; t hpirapy; nry; Y k; thfdq; f spd; vz; z pf; i fia kl; L k;
ghJfhg;gpw;fhf ek;gp ,Ug;git. ePq;fs; ,uhZt my;yJ If;fpa ehLfs;
ghJfhg;Gf; FOTld; gazpg;gjha; ,Ue;jhy;> mtw;wpd; rl;lq;fisg;
gpd;gw;Wq;fs;. ,uhZt ghJfhg;Gld; ,y;yhj NghJ> vjphpfspd;
ftdj;ij <h;f;fhj tz;zk; ftdkha; ,Uq;fs;. cq;fSila topfhl;b
tiuglj; i j itj; J f; nfhs; S q; f s; . vq; F ,Uf; f pwPh; f s; > vq; F
NghfpwPh;fs; vd;gjid ed;F mwpe;J nfhs;Sq;fs;. ghh;j;Jf; nfhs;sf;
$basT J}uj;jpy; ,Uq;fs;. fhh;fSf;fpilapy; NubNah my;yJ
njhiyNgrp njhlh;gpid itj;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs;. ,uhZt ghJfhg;Gf;
FOf;fs; mNdkhf thfdq;fspd; Kd;dhNyh> gpd;dhNyh nry;y
tpUk;Gtjpy;iy. jhf;Fjypd; NghJ Kd;> gpd; nry;Yk; thfdq;fisj;
jhq;fp ,U KidfisAk; kwpj;Jj; jhf;FtNj ,jw;fhd fhuzkhFk;.

Nrhjidr; rhtbfs;
Nrhjidr; rhtbfis fle;J nry;yy; vd;gJ gPjpia> mghaj;ij
Vw;gLj;jf; $ba jUthahFk;. mtw;wpy; tpOkpa xOf;fkw;w> Nghuhspfs;>
fhpy;yhf;fs; my;yJ rhjhuzg; gilapdh; fhzg;glyhk;. cq;fs; Nehf;fk;
,jidf; fle;J NghtNj. vg;NghJk; Gd;difj;j Kfj;Jld; ,Uq;fs;.
Nkhjy;fisj; jtph;j;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs;.
rhtbia neUq; F k; NghJ> Njitahd gj; j puq; f isj; jtpu
NtnwijAk; ifapy; itj; j pUf; f Ntz; l hk; . cq; f is Xh;
Clftpayhsuhf mwpKfk; nra;Aq;fs;. vt;tpj rpf;fYkpd;wp Nrhjidr;
rhtbia ePq;fs; fle;jPh;fshdhy; vg;NghJk; Gd;difj;j Kfj;Jld;
,Uq;fs;> cq;fsplk; Nfl;fg;gl;lijj; jtpu Ntnwe;j jfty;fisAk;
mspf;fhjPh;fs;> Njitaw;w tplaq;fspy; jiyaplhjPh;fs;. mDkjpapd;wp
xU NghJk; glk; gpbf;fhjPh;fs;.
gpur;rpid VJk; Vw;gl;L> rpg;gha;fs; cq;fsplk; MNtrj;NjhL my;yJ
mtkhpahijahf ele;J nfhz;lhy;> Kjypy; mth;fis
mikjpg;gLj;Jq;fs;. xU rpful;il my;yJ ,dpg;Gg; gz;lj;ijf;
nfhLq;fs;. rpg;ghapdJk;> cq;fsJk; nkhop xNu nkhopahftpUe;jhy;>
ePq;fs; Nkhjiyj; jtph;j;J tpisahl;bidg; gw;wp my;yJ mtuJ

36
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

FLk;gj;jpidg; gw;wp fijf;fyhk;. cq;fs; ngaiu mtUf;Fj; $Wq;fs;.


ePq;fs; vq;fpUf;fpwPh;fs;> kw;wth;fs; vq;fpUf;fpwhh;fs; vd;gjid ePq;fs;
ed;F mwptPh;fs; vd;gjid mtUf;Fj; njhpag;gLj;Jq;fs;.
xOq; f hf gapw; W tpf; f g; g lhj ,uhZtj; j pdhplk; my; y J
Nghuhspfsplk; cq;fSf;fhd Mgj;J mjpfkha; ,Uf;fyhk;. mth;fs;
cq;fs; Kfj;ij ghh;f;fhky; Ngrpdhy;> czh;r;rpfsw;W fhzg;gLk; NghJ
rw;W ftdkha; ,Uq;fs;. mth;fSf;F kdpj caphpd; ngWkjp ,dpNkYk;
Kf;fpakw;wjha; ,Uf;fyhk;. xU rpg;ghapd; khzth;fshy; rPlh;fs; mstpy;
kpfr; rpwpath;fsha; ,Ue;jhy; c\huhftpUq;fs;. mth; Nghijt];J
mUe;jp ,Uf;fyhk;> Nghijt];J tsh;rr; piaf; Fiwf;Fk;. ePq;fs; cq;fs;
milahsj;ij fhl;Lk; NghJ> cq;fs; fzthpd; my;yJ kidtpapd;
my;yJ gps;isfspd; Gifg;glj;ij fhz;gpAq;fs;. ,J ePq;fs; vq;F
Ngha;; ,Uf;fpd;wPh;fs;> cq;fs; tuit vjph;ghh;j;j tz;zk; rpyh;
,Uf;fpd;whh;fs; vd;gjid vLj;Jf; fhl;Lk;. ,jd; %yk; ePq;fs;
cq;fSf;F chpik ,Uf;fpd;wJ vd;gjidAk;> ePq;fs; Jd;GWj;jg;gl;lhy;>
mjw;fhd tpisTfisr; re;jpf;f NehpLk; vd;gjidAk; mth;fSf;F
ePq; f s; vJtpj mghaj; i jAk; nfhz; L tutpy; i y vd; g ijAk;
tpsf;FfpwPh;fs;. vg;NghJk; Gd;difj;j tz;zk; ,Uq;fs;.

Aj;jf; fsj;jpy; nghJ mwpTld; ele;J nfhs;sy;


rz;ilg; gpbg;gth;fs; vq;fpUf;fpd;whh;fs; vd;W ePq;fs; mwptPh;fsh?
vq;fpUe;J Jg;ghf;fpj; jhf;Fjy; tuf; $Lk;? cq;fs; cilikfis vLj;Jf;
nfhz; L Xh; mtruj; j pd; NghJ vt; t hW jg; g pg; g J vd; g jidr;
rpe;jpAq;fs;. thfdj; njhlh;
mjp $ba jd;dk;gpf;ifAld; ,Uf;fhjPh;fs;. cq;fs; tiuaiwfis
mwpe; j pUq; f s; . cq; f s; jPh; k hdq; f Sf; F ePq; f Ns nghWg; N gw; W f; 2001 Mk; Mz;L
nfhs;Sq;fs;. Vida Clftpayhsh;fspd; KbTfspdhy;> capuhgj;J Mg;fhdp];jhdpy; ehd;F
Vw;glf; $ba #o;epiyfspy; rpf;fpf; nfhs;shjPh;fs;. Clftpayhsh;fs; (Mg;fhd;>
mT];jpNuypah> ];ghdpah
epidTg; nghUl; f is Nrfhpf; f Ntz; l hk; . epyntbfs; kpf kw;Wk; ,j;jhyp) nfhz;L
fth;r;rpfukhf Njhw;wkspf;Fk;. nrd;w Nkhl;lhh; Ch;jp
xU NghJk; MAjj; j pidNah> Jg; g hf; f papidNah nfhz; L epWj;jg;gl;L me; ehd;F
nry;yhjPh;fs;. mjd; gpw;ghL ePq;fs; rptpypadhf fUjg;gl khl;Bh;fs;. Clftpayhsh;fSk;
cq; f is Rj; j khf itj; J > cq; f s; vz; z q; f is nkU$l; b f; gLnfhiy nra;ag;gl;ldh;.
mth;fs; gazQ; nra;j
nfhs;Sq;fs;. cq;fs; cly; epiyiag; ghh;j;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs;. ePq;fs;
thfdq;fs; xt;nthd;Wk;
caph;j;jg;Gtjw;fhf Xl Ntz;bapUf;Fk; QhgfkpUf;fl;Lk;.
J}uj;jpypUe;jjpdhy; xd;Wk;
Fz; L j; j hf; F jy; f is mz; i kapypUe; J mtjhdpf; F k; NghJ> nra;J nfhs;s KbahJ
mtw;wpy; NfhshW Vw;gl;L ePq;fs; fhag;glf; $Lk;> ,ijf; Fwpj;Jk; NghdJ.
mtjhdkha; ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.

37
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

Nkhjypd; gpw;ghL
ePq;fs; Nkhjy; ele;j ,lj;ij ghh;itaplr; nrd;why;> mq;F epy
ntbfSk;> n\y;fSk;> fl;blk; ghJfhg;gw;Wk; fhzg;glyhk;.
ntw;wpapd; fspg;gpy; Nghuhspfs; gy rkaq;fspy; thdj;ij Nehf;fpr;
RLtJz;L. Rlg;gLfpd;w Njhl;lhf;fs; kzpf;F 190 fp|kp (120 iky;)
Ntfj;jpy; epyj;jpy; te;J tpOe;J ntbf;Fk; ,t;thW gyh; ,we;Jk;>
fhag;gl;LKs;sdh;.

Clftpayhsh;fs; vd;w tifapy; Fwp itf;fg;gLjy;


Xh; Clftpayhshpd; gpurd;dk;> my;yJ tpNrlkhf xU 'fkuh'tpd;
gpurd;dk; rk;gtq;fisAk; kw;Wk; NghuhspfisAk; ghjpf;Fk;. vjph;g;Gr;
rk; t q; f isf; Fwpj; J vr; r hpf; i faha; ,Uq; f s; . ,uhZtj; j pdhy;
nra;ag;gl;l nfhiyr; rk;gtj;ij ePq;fs; fz;lhy;> mikjpahfTk;>
gjw; w kpy; y hkYk; > 'fkuhit' xopj; J itj; J f; nfhs; S q; f s; .
,uhZtj;jpdh; Aj;jf; nfhiyfspdhy; rl;l eltbf;if vLf;fg;glyhk;
vd;gjid mwpe;Js;sdh;. vdNt mth;fs; cq;fsplkpUe;J midj;J
mj;jhl;rpfisAk; mgfhpf;f my;yJ mopf;f Kidth;. ,jidf; Fwpj;J
mtjhdj; J ld; ,Uf; f Tk; . ePq; f s; vjidAk; fhzhjth; Nghy;
mt;tplj;jpypUe;J tpyfpr; nry;Yq;fs;.

giltPuhpd; ghh;itapy;
cq;fisg; ghh;f;fTk;

"Vidath;fs;
,Uf;Fkplj;jpypUe;J
cq;fis Nehf;fp ghh;f;fTk;.
giltPuh; rhpahf gapw;rp
ngwhj 17> 18 taijf;
nfhz;l gae;j
,isQnuhUtuhf ,Uf;f
KbAk;. Mgj;jhd #oypy;
xUTh; nra;Ak; tplak;
jh;f;fhPjpahf ,Uf;ff; $Lk;".

38
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

rptpy; fytuq;fSk; cs;ehl;L gapw;rp> mOj;jq;fspd; fPo;


Fog;gkilahJ ,Ug;gjw;F

mikjpapd;ikAk; ];NdrhdhTf;F cjtp Ghpa


KbAk;.

c q;fs; gpuNjrj;jpd; efu kj;jpapy; ,lk;ngWk; fytuq;fs;>


cs;ehl;L mikjpapd;ik kw;Wk; vjph;g;Gf; $l;lq;fs; $l>
];Ndrhdh YNgt;];jh rh;tNjr
Clftpayhsh; rk;Nksdk;
Aj;jg; gpuNjrj;ijg; Nghd;W mgafukhdjhff; fhzg;glyhk;. kw;Wk; krpNlhdpah gj;jphpif
epiyaj;jpd; %yk; 2000 Mk;
rpy rk;gtq;fs; Cfpf;f Kbahjit> mtw;wpy; mlq;fp ,Uf;Fk; Mz;L mf;Nlhgh; khjk;
mghaq;fs; kpfg;gaq;fukhd epiyf;F> kpf Ntfkhf mjpfhhpf;fyhk;. epWtg;gl;l krpNlhdpahtpd;
KjyhtJ ghJfhg;G gapw;rp
td;Kiwaw;w $l;lq;fSk; gak;> Nfhgk; Vw;gLk; NghJ mghak;
ghlnewpfspy; fye;J nfhz;ldh;.
tpistpg;gjhf khwyhk;. mikjpahd vjph;g;Gf; $l;lq;fs; jpBh; vd Ie;J khjj;jpd; gpd;dh; A1
gaq;fu fytuq;fshf Njhw;wnkLf;fyhk;. ,df; fytuk; my;yJ njhiyf;fhl;rpf; FOTld;
r%fq;fSf;fpilapy; gpsT fhzg;gLk; NghJ> Clftpayhsh;fs; nfhNrhth vy;iyapy;
ghJfhg;ghd my;yJ ghJfhg;gw;w ,lq;fs; kw;Wk; ghJfhg;ghd kw;Wk; mike;Js;s fDnrt;fp vd;w
krpNlhdpah fpuhkj;jpw;F
ghJfhg;gw;w elj;ijfs; Fwpj;Jk; mwpe;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk;. gaq;futhj nrd;wdh;. ];Ndrhdh kw;Wk;
vjph;g;Gf; $l;lq;fs; nghJ kf;fisAk;> rpy ehLfspy; mtuJ FOtpdh; my;Ngdpah
Clftpayhsh; f isAk; Fwp itf; f pd; w d. glg; g pbg; g hsh; f s; > kf;fs; ,uhZtk; %yk;
nra; j pahsh; f s; MfpNahh; gaq; f uthjpfsplkpUe; J tuf; $ ba jLf;fg;gl;L Nfs;tpfs;
Nfl;fg;gl;ld. mt; ,uhZtj;jpy;
gopthq;fy; elj;ijfisf; Fwpj;Jk; mwpe;jpUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.
rpyh; nfhNrhth Gul;rp
,q;Fk; Aj;j gpuNjrq;fspy; Nghd;Nw Fiwe;j mghaj;jpYk;> ,uhZtj;jpd; ,yl;rpidfis
mzpe;jpUe;jdh;. ];Ndrhdh
$basT ey; y nra; j pfisg; ngWtNj Clftpayhsh; f spd;
,t;thW njhptpj;jhh;. "mth;fs;
Nehf;fkhFk;. vdNt Kd;$l;bNa jpl;lkpl;L> fl;Lg;ghl;bDs; MAjq;fs; itj;jpUe;jdh;.
rfyijAk; itj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,jpy; mjp $ba mghak; thdj;ij Nehf;fp Jg;ghf;fpr; #L
nra;jp FOf;fSf;Nf fhzg;gLfpd;wd. mth;fs; jkf;F gof;fg;glhj> elj;jp vk;ik Rw;wp tisj;jdh;.
ghJfhg; G rk; g e; j khd vJtpj Kd; mwptpj; j Ykpd; w p> jhNk vd;idg; Nghy; vdJ FOTf;Fk;
kpfTk; eilKiw mDgtkhf
Fwpitf;fg;glf; $bath;fshf khWfpd;w #o;epiyf;Fs; nry;Yk; NghJ mike;jik> ehk; mikjpahf
mJ mghafukhdjhf khWfpd;wJ. Nkhjypy; VjhtJ gf;fj;Jf;Fr; ,Ue;jikAk;> el;GwTj;
rhh;ghdth;fs; vd fyff;fhuh;fs; Cltpayhsh;fisf; Fwpj;J mwpe;J jd;ikapid fhl;Ltjw;Fk;
itj;jpUe;jhy; mJ mth;fSf;F Nkyjpf Mgj;jpidj; juty;yJ. kw;Wk; nfhNrhth Gul;rp ,uhZt
cWg;gpdh;fSld; fijg;gjw;F
jk;ik Xh; Clfj;NjhL rk;ge;jg;gl;l ];bf;fh;fis mzpe;jpUg;gpd;
Kaw;rp nra;jikahFk;.
mtw;iwf; fow;wp tpLq;fs;. mjp\;ltrkhf mth;fs; vkf;F
ghJfhg;G kw;Wk; nghyp]; gilfs; fkuhf;fs; my;yJ tPbNah ghjpg;gpid Vw;gLj;jtpy;iy."
fkuhf;fs; fhzg;gLk; NghJ mit fytuj;ij cUthf;ff; fhuzkhf "ghJfhg;G gapw;rp ghlnewp
vdf;F nghpJk; cjtpaJ.
,Uf;Fk; vdTk; mtw;iw cgNahfpf;f Ntz;lhk; vdTk; $wf; $Lk;. Jujp\;ltrkhf ehd; fw;w
fyff; f huh; f spdhy; > my; y J nghyprhuhy; Clftpayhsh; f spd; midj;ijAk; vdJ ehl;bNy
fkuhf;fNs fytuj;ij cUthf;ff; fhuzkha; ,Ue;jJ vd vz;zpdhy;> eilKiwg;gLj;jpNdd;.
Clftpayhsiuj; jhf; f f; $Lk; . glk; gpbf; f g; g Lk; fhl; r pfs;

39
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

nghyprhhplk; ifaspf; f g; g Lk; vd fyff; f huh; f s; vz; z pdhy; >


capiu ghJfhj;Jf;
glg;gpbg;ghsh;fs; Mgj;jpid vjph; Nehf;fyhk;.
nfhs;tjw;fhd MNyhridfs;
jk; i k milahsk; fhl; b f; nfhs; s tpUk; g hj> jhk; glk;
Clf milahs ml;ilia gpbf;fg;gLtij tpUk;ghj fyff;fhuh;fs; jiyapy; Kfj;ij kiwf;Fk;
vLj;Jr; nry;yTk;. MdhYk; ciwfis my; y J jiyf; ftrq; f is mzpe; J nfhs; s yhk; .
ghJfhg; g hd re; j h; g ; g j; j py; nghyprhUk; $l fytuj;jpd; NghJ jiyf; ftrkzpe;J> Kf ciwfs;
kl; L k; mjidf; fhz; - mzpe;J> jkJ milahs ,yf;fq;fisf; $l fow;wp itj;jpUf;fyhk;.
gpAq;fs;. ,g;gbg;gl;lth;fs; jhk; milahsk; fhzg;gl Kbahjjd; fhuzj;jhy;
cq;fSila ifalf;f mjpfsT td;Kiwfis gpuNahfpg;gjw;fhd tha;g;Gf;fs; mjpfk;.
njhiyNgrpia> mtru
,yf; f q; f is cldbahf $l;lj;jpDs; fhzg;gLk; Nfhgj;jpd; fhuzj;jhy; td;Kiw voyhk;.
miof; f f; $ba tpjj; j py; my;yJ nghyprhh; gyhj;fhukhff; $l;lj;ij fiyf;f KaYk; NghJ
jahh; epiyapy; itj; J f; voyhk;. ,U jug;GNk vr;rhpf;if toq;FtJ FiwT. ghJfhg;Gg;
nfhs;sTk;. gilapdh; mjp Ntfj;Jld; jbfspdhy;> ftrq;fspdhy;> fz;zPh;
fz;zPh; Gif tUk; jpirf;F Gifapdhy; > ug; g h; Njhl; l hf; f spdhy; my; y J cz; i kahd
vjph; jpirapy; ,Uf;fTk;. Njhl;lhf;fspdhy; jhf;fg;glyhk;. ePq;fs; rdf; $l;lj;jpDs; mfg;gl;Lf;
<ukhd Jtha; xd; W > ePh; nfhz;lhy; mjpypUe;J ntspapy; cs;s cq;fs; ez;gh;fisAk;>
kw;Wk; rpy vYkpr;ir ghJfhg;ghd ,lj;ijAk; nrd;wiltJ fbdk;.
tifiar; rhh;e;j fha;fis
vLj;Jr; nry;yTk;.
ghJfhg;Gf; fz;zhb mzp- Kd; $l;bNa jpl;lkply;
tJ njhlh; g hff; ftdk;
nrYj;jTk;. Xh; vjph;g;Gf; $l;lj;jpidf; Fwpj;J jpl;lkpLk; NghJ> $l;lj;jpd;
nraw;ghl;bidf; Fwpj;Jk;> ghJfhg;G topfisf; Fwpj;Jk; mwpe;J
MAjq; f is cgNahfpg; -
gjw; f hd ,lk; ,Ue; j hy; itj;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs;. mt;tplj;jpw;F Kd; $l;bNa nrd;W jg;gpr;
ghJfhg;G cilfs; mzptJ nry;yf; $ba topfis Nehl;lkpLq;fs; Xh; ,dj;ijr; rhh;e;j my;yJ
njhlh;ghff; ftdk; nrYj;- kjj; i jr; rhh; e ; j th; f s; vq; F tho; f pwhh; f s; vd; g jid mwpe; J
jTk;. itj;jpUj;jy;> ePq;fs; jg;gpg;gjw;F cjtpaha; ,Uf;Fk;.
KjYjtpg; nghUl;fis
vLj;Jr; nry;yTk;. mtw;-
wpid cgNahfpf;Fk; Kiw
cq;fsJ FO gphpe;J nrd;why;> re;jpg;G ];jyq;fisAk;> Neuj;ijAk;
gw;wp fw;Wf; nfhs;sTk;. $Lkhdhy; Neubj; njhlh;Gk; nfhz;bUq;fs;.
,aw;ifahd gl;Lj; Jzp- Clf milahs ml;ilapid itj;jpUq;fs;. ,J Njitaw;w
fshy; ijf;fg;gl;l ,yFthd gpur;rpidia cUthf;Fk; vd ePq;fs; vz;zpdhy; khj;jpuk; mij
Milfis mzpaTk;. kiwj;J itAq;fs;.
Njhs;> fhy;fs; kw;Wk; fOj;ij Xh; ifalf;fj; njhiyNgrpia cq;fs; trk; itj;jpUq;fs;. mij
kiwj;Jf; nfhs;sTk;.
,yFthf miog;ig Vw;gLj;jf; $ba tpjj;jpy; jahh;g;gLj;Jq;fs;.
ehnshd;wpw;Fj; Njitahd
czT kw;Wk; ePiu vLj;Jr;
fz;zPH;g; Gifapd; mghak; fhzg;gl;lhy;> Xh; eide;j JzpiaAk;>
nry;yTk;. jz;zPiuAk; itj;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs;. KfTiu xd;wpid cq;fshy;
nfhz;L nry;y Kbahtpl;lhy;> ghjpf;fg;gl;l ,lj;jpy; mhpg;Gj;

40
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

jd;ikapid Fiwf;f Njrpf;fha; my;yJ Njhlk;gor; rhhpidg;


Gopayhk;.
cq;fs; kPJ neUg;Gg; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;lhy; mjid mizg;gjw;F
VjhtJ ePq;fs; nfhz;L nry;y Ntz;Lk;.
fz;zPh;g; Gif ghtpf;fg;gLk; ,lq;fspy; fz;fisg; ghJfhf;f
Ntz;Lk;. ePr;ry; fz;zhbfs; my;yJ njhopw;rhiy fz;zhbfs;
,jw;Fg; nghUe;Jk;.
Jtf;F Nghd;w MAjq;fs; ghtpf;fg;gl;lhy;> Aj;jr; #o;epiyapy; Nkhjy; gpuNjrk; xd;wpy;
ghtpj;j Milfis mzpAq;fs;.
Kjy; cjtpg; nghUl;fis vLj;Jr; nry;Yq;fs;. mf; fUtpfis Njitf;F mjpfkhf
vt;thW ghtpg;gnjd;W mwpe;J nfhs;Sq;fs;. jd;dk;gpf;ifia itj;Jf;
nfhs;shjPh;fs;
fhw; N whl; l khd> ,yFtpy; jPg; g w; w pf; nfhs; s hj Milfis
cq;fSila tiuaiwf;F
mzpAq;fs;. if> fhy; kw;Wk; fOj;ij kiwf;Fk; Milfis kjpg;gspf;fTk;.
mzpAq;fs;. ,it cq;fs; clk;gpy; fz;zPh; Gif Vw;gLj;Jk;.
cq; f Sila jPh; k hdq; -
mhpg;gpidf; Fiwf;f cTjTk;. fspd; nghWg;Gf;fis
XU ehSf;Fhpa czT> FbePh; vd;gtw;iwf; nfhz;L nry;Yq;fs;. vLj;Jf; nfhs;sTk;.
ve;jnthU re;jh;g;gj;jpYk;
MAjk; xd;wpiz vLj;Jr;
];jyg;gLj;jy; nry;yhjPh;fs;.
Rj;jkhf ,Uf;fTk;.
fkuhf;fisAk;> nra;jpahsh;fisAk; vt;thW KO rk;gtj;ijAk;
ghh;f;ff; $ba ,lj;jpy; ];jyg;gLj;JtJ vd;gjid jpl;lkpLq;fs;. cq; f sJ vz; z q; f is
cah;thf itj;Jf;
mt;tplj;jpypUe;J ntspNaw gy thapy;fs; fhzg;gl Ntz;Lk;. glk;
nfhs;sTk;.
gpbg; g jhftpUe; j hy; ePq; f s; $l; l j; j pDs; nrd; W glk; g pbg; g J
nry; ntbfs; ntbf;Fk;
rhj;jpag;glhJ. nra;jpahsuhftpUe;jhy; ePq;fs; ,Uf;Fk; ,lj;jpy;
,lq;fSf;F msTf;F
rk;gtk; njspthfj; njd;gl;L> rg;jKk; njspthff; Nfl;lhy; ePq;fs; mjpfkhf neUq;fhjPh;fs;.
$l;lj;jpDs; nry;y Ntz;ba mtrpakpy;iy. ePq;fs; mq;fj;jpdUld;
gpwh; nra;Ak; tplaq;fSf;F
rk;gtj;jpd; Kd; my;yJ gpd; Neh;fhziy Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhs;syhk;. mtjhdk; nrYj;jTk;.
Mdhy; KOr; rk; g tj; j pdJk; glk; jw; N ghJ cq; f Sf; F j;
Nkhjy; Qhgfr; rpd;dq;-
Njitg;glyhk;. fis nghWf;fp vLf;fhjPh;-
fs; . mit ntbg; g jw; F
,lk; cz;L.
rk;gtj;jpd; NghJ NkNy nry;tJ fPNo tuf;
ePq;fs; xU FOtpd; mq;fj;jth; vd;why;> mf;FOTld; Nrh;e;J $baJ.
xj;JioAq;fs;. xd;whf ,Uq;fs; my;yJ ed;whf tpyfpr; nry;Yq;fs;. kfpo;r;rpf;fhf NkNy
,ad;wsT Neuj;NjhL gpd;thq;Fq;fs;. gpd;thq;Fjiy fhyjhkjk; itf;Fk; ntbfspy; ,Ue;J
nra;af; $lhJ. ePq;fs; jdpeguhf Ntiy nra;jhy;> ahUldhtJ ghJfhg;ghf ,Uf;fTk;.
njhlh;gpid itj;jpUq;fs;. cq;fs; ifalf;fj; njhiyNgrpia
41
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

mjw;fhfj; jahh;g;gLj;jpf; nfhs;Sq;fs;.


ntspNaWk; thapy;fs;> Kf;fpa ,lq;fs;> ghJfhg;Gg; gil ,lq;fs;>
kw;Wk; mz;ikapypUf;Fk; itj;jparhiy vd;gtw;iw Qhgfj;jpy;
itj;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs;.
glk; gpbg;git mgfhpf;fg;gLk; vd vz;zpdhy;> ePq;fs; glk;
gpbj;j clNdNa mtw;iw kiwj;J tpLq;fs;. ePq;fs; "b[ply;"
cgfuzq;fs; ghtpg;gjha; ,Ue;jhy;> Nghyp tl;nlhd;wpid itj;jpUe;J>
cq;fis ahUk; ifaspf;FkhW Nfl;lhy; mjidf; nfhLq;fs;. Mgj;J
mjpfkhd rk;gtq;fspy;> ,d;DnkhU glg;gpbg;ghsUld; ,ize;J
nfhs;Sq;fs;> ,J ePq;fs; xUtiu xUth; mtjhdpj;Jf; nfhs;s
cjTk;. ePq;fs; Nghl;bf;fhuuhf ,Uf;fyhk;. MdhYk; ePq;fs; njhopy;
rpNefpjh;fs;.
jdp glg;gpbg;ghsuhf my;yJ nra;jpahsuhff; flikahw;wpdhy;>
ePq;fs; vg;NghJ $l;lj;jpdhy; mtjhdpf;fg;gLfpwPh;fs; vd;gjid
mwpe;jpUq;fs;. $l;lk; vjph;g;Gj; njhptpf;fhj NghJ $l ePq;fs;
Mgj;jpypUf;fyhk;. NtnwhUtUk; Vw;fdNt ehl;by; glj;jpid
vLg;gjw;fha; Njitaw;w fhhpaq;fspy; <LglhjPH;fs;.

rk;gtj;jpd; gpw;ghL
nra;jp miwapy; cq;fs; mDgtj;ij gfph;e;J nfhs;Sq;fs;. ,J
kWKiwf;F cjTk;.
cq;fs; nra;jpapd; cz;ikj; jd;ikapid ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;Sq;fs;.
cq;fs; ehl;by; ghJfhg;Gg; gilapdh; glj;jpid my;yJ tPbNah
glj;jpidf; NfhUtJ rk;ge;jkhd rl;lk; ahJ? ePq;fs; Ntiy nra;Ak;
ehl;bd; gpuNjrj;jpd; rl;lq;fisf; Fwpj;J mwpe;jpUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.
cq;fs; nra;jp epWtdj;jpd; nfhs;if ahJ? ehl;bDs; nra;jpapidg;
ghJfhf;f KbAkh? my;yJ ehl;bw;F ntspNa ,Uf;Fk; VjhtJ
Kiwikapdhy; nra;jpapid ghJfhf;f KbAkh? fytuq;fspd; my;yJ
vjph; g ; G f; $l; l q; f spd; gpw; g hL nghyprhh; cq; f s; nra; j pfis
Muha; t jw; F ,lkspf; f g; g l; l hy; > mJ gy Mgj; J f; f is
tpistpf; f yhk; . fytuj; j py; <LgLgth; f s; cq; f is mj; j hl; r p
Nrfhpf;Fk; xUtuhf Nehf;fpdhy; mJ cq;fSf;F Mgj;J.

42
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

,uhZt mjpfhhpfs;
%yk; Gifg;gl
Clftpayhshpd;
Gifg;glf;
fUtpapypUe;J
Gifg;glr; RUis
ntspapy; ,Oj;Jg;
Nghl;ljd; gpd;dh;.
glg;gpbg;G :
mDUj;j
nyhf;F`g;GMuhr;rp

43
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

gaq;futhj jhf;Fjy;fs;
Clftpayhsh;fSk; nghJ kf;fisg; Nghd;Nw gaq;futhjj;
jhf;Fjypd; NghJ Mgj;jpid vjph;Nehf;Ffpd;wdh;. ,jw;F Nky; Clf
mYtyfq;fs; kw;Wk; Copah;fs; Neubahff; Fwpitf;fg;gl;L Jg;ghf;fpr;
#l;bw;Fk; kw;Wk; Fz;LfSf;Fk; cs;shf;fg;gLk; NghJ> Mgj;J
mjpfhpf;fpd;wJ. nfhiy my;yJ Fz;Lj; jhf;Fjy; ,lk; ngWk;
,lj;jpw;F tp[ak; nra;jYk; Mgj;jpidf; nfhz;L tUk;. Nrhfj;jpy;
,Uf;Fk; $l;lk; glg;gpbg;ghsh;fs; kPJ Nfhgg;gl;L> my;yJ jhf;Fjw;
fhuh;fspd; milahsj;ij kiwf;Fk; nghUl;Lj; jhf;fyhk;. rpy
Ntiyfspy; Xh; rk;gtj;jpid cUthf;fp mjdhy; mq;F tUk;
nghyprhiuAk;> ,uhZtj;jpdiuAk; Nehf;fp jhf;Fjy; ,lk; ngwyhk;.
xU Fz;bid ntbf;f itj;J> mjd; %yk; ghJfhg;Gg; gilapdiu
=ae;j ty;nghy tutioj;J> mjd; gpd;dh; xU nghpa Fz;L ntbf;f itf;fg;glyhk;.
Gifg;gl
,jdhy; nghyprhh;> Clftpayhsh;fs;> itj;jpah;fs; midtUNk
Clftpayhsh;
,uz;lhk; Kiw Fz;Lj; jhf;Fjy;fspdhy; Mgj;jpw;Fs;shfpd;wdh;.
- j ,e;J
KjyhtJ rk;gtk; 1987
Muk;g fhyj;jpy; "Njrpa rkhjhd
Kd;dzp vd;w kj mikg;gpd;
mikjpahd Mh;ghl;lj;jpid
Mtzk; nra;J
nfhz;bUf;ifapy; %d;W
nghyp]; mjpfhhpfs; vd;idr;
Rw;wp tisj;Jf; nfhz;L
Gifg;gl RUis vd;idf;
nfhz;L gyte;jkhf
vLj;jikahFk;."
,uz;lhtJ rk;gtk; 1987
[{iy khjk; 27k; jpfjp ,e;jpa
,yq;if cld;gbf;iff;F
KjyhtJ Mh;g;ghl;lk;
Gwf;Nfhl;il kw;Wk;
kUjhidapy; eilngw;w NghJ
Gifg;glk; vLj;j re;jh;g;gj;jpy;
kUjhid nghyprhhpdhy;
fyff;fhuh; vd fUjg;gl;L ,U
Gifg;gl fUtpfSld; ifJ
nra;ag;gl;likahFk;.
,U Gifg;gl fUtpfSk;
kw;Wk; mjDs; ,Ue;j Gifg;gl
RUs;fs; ,uz;Lk; nghyprhh;
ifapy; mfg;gl;L nfhz;lJ.
45 Mk; gf;fk;&

44
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

44 Mk; gf;fj;jpypUe;J
mth;fs; Gifg;glf; fUtpfs;
,uz;ilAk; vLj;Jf; nfhz;l
gpd;dh; Culq;Fr; rl;lj;jpid
kPwpa Fw;wj;jpw;fhf vd; kPJ
tof;F njhlug;gl;L
tpsf;fkwpaypy; itf;fg;gl;Nld;.
ehd; ifJ nra;ag;gl;l
re;jh;g;gj;jpy; Culq;Fr; rl;lk;
gpwg;gpf;fg;gl;L ,Uf;ftpy;iy.
,t; Muk;g mDgtq;fs;
,uz;Lk; rk;gtq;fisg; gjpT
nra;jypd; nghOJ Gjpa
tpjpKiwfs; kw;Wk; njhopy;El;g
EZf;f Kiwfspy; ,Ue;J ehd;
J}z;lg;gl;Nld;.
Nkhjy;fs; mjpfhpf;Fk;
rhpahd ,lq;fs; njhlh;ghf rpwe;j
tpsf;fj;Jld; ,Uj;jy;> mjw;fhf
njhiyJ}u Gifg;glk; vLj;jy;
Nghd;wtw;iw mUfpy; itj;Jf;
nfhs;sy;> ghJfhg;G
mjpfhhpfSf;F ,ilapy;
1999 brk;gh; khjk; 11Mk; jpfjp nkf;rpNfh efhpy; eilngw;w ,Ug;gij jtph;j;Jf; nfhs;sy;>
Mh;g;ghl;lnkhd;wpid glk; gpbj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;ifapy; Rje;jpu ghJfhg;G mjpfhhpfSf;F
Gifg;glg;gpbg;ghsuhd [{ Md; f];l;bNyh fyfj; jLg;Gg; nghyprhhpd; njhe;juTfis Vw;gLj;jTk;> ifJ
jhf;FjYf;fpyf;fhdJld; mthpd; Gifg;gl cgfuzq;fSk; gwpf;fg;gl;ld. nra;ag;gLtjw;Fk; Vw;w tpjj;jpy;
Fiwe;j gl;rk; %d;W Gifg;glg;gpbg;ghsh;fshtJ ,j; jhf;Fjypy; mz;ika J}uj;jpy;
fhakile;jdh;. ,y;yhjpUj;jy;. Ch;tyq;fs;>
vjph;g;Gg; ghj ahj;jpiufs;
glk; ( AP/ David de la Paz Nghd;witfspd; gq;Fjhuh;
my;yhky; Gifg;gl Clff;
fz;fhzpg;ghsuhf ,Uj;jy;>
Nkhjnyhd;wpd; rk;gtnkhd;wpy;
vdJ gj;jphpiff;Fj; Njitahd
msT Gifg;glq;fs; gjpT
nra;ag;gl;ljd; gpd;dh;
mt;tplj;jpy; ,Wjp jUzk; tiu
jq;fpapUf;fhJ ,Uj;jy;>
,ad;wsT Ntfj;jpy;
mt;tplj;jpy; ,Ue;J tpyfpr;
nry;yy; Nghd;wit mtw;wpy;
rpythFk;. ,t;thwhd ghJfhg;G
cghaKiwfs; fhuzkhff;
Fz;Lfspy; ,Ue;J ehd;
ghJfhf;fg;gl;l re;jh;g;gq;fs;
mjpfkhFk;.

45
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

Clf Rje;jpuKk; caph; tho;tjw;fhd


chpikAk; - Rde;j Njrg;gphpa
thfdj;jpy; ehq;fs; ehy;tNu ,Ue;Njhk;. ehd; cl;gl N[h;kd;
ehl;ilr; Nrh;e;j ,U Clftpayhsh;fs; kw;Wk; Clf
nraw;ghl;lhsnuhUth;. mg;nghOJ ehd; thu ,Wjpapy; gpuRukhFk;
khw;Wf; fUj;Jf;fis nfhz;l gj;jphpifahd 'Af;jpa" gj;jphpifapd;
Mrphpauhf flikahw;wpf; nfhz;bUe;Njd;.
mJ 1995 Mk; Mz;L etk;gh; khjkhFk;. murhq;fk; aho;gg ; hzj;jpy;
,uhZt eltbf;iffis Muk;gpj;jpUe;jJ. 1994 Mk; Mz;L
md; i wa jpdk; mjph; \ ; l - Muk;gj;jpy; murhq;fj;jpw;Fk; kw;Wk;> tpLjiyg; Gypfs; ,af;fj;jpw;Fk;
trkhf ehk; caph; jg;gpNdhk;. ,ilapy; Muk;gkhd rkhjhdg; Ngr;Rthh;j;ijfs; Kwptile;J ,U
gy fhuzq;fs; xd;wpize;- jug;gpdUk; ghhpastpyhd Aj;jnkhd;wpw;F jahuhfpf; nfhz;bUe;jdh;.
jikahy; rpy Ntis
md;iwa jpdk; ghhpa
mg;nghOJ aho;gg ; hzk; tpLjiyg; Gypfs; ,af;fj;jpd; fl;Lg;ghl;bd;
Mgj;jpw;F Kfk; nfhLg;gjw;F fPo; ,Ue;jJ. kPzL; k; aho;gg
; hzj;jpd; gyj;ij ifg;gw;wpf; nfhs;tNj
tha;gg
; pUe;jJ. vt;thwhapDk; murhq;fj;jpd; ,yf;fhf ,Ue;jJ.
md;iwa jpdk; jhf;FjYf;-
,tw;Wf;fpilapy; ,yq;ifapy; rkhjhdk; kw;Wk; ey;yhl;rp
Fs; s hdjhy; epue; j ukhd
KJF typnahd;W vdf;F njhlh; g hff; fhprid nfhz; l mur rhh; g w; w epWtdq; f spd;
chpj;jhdJ. $l;likg;nghd;wpd; tUlhe;j kfhehnlhd;W nge;ju N`hl;lypy;
Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F Vw;ghL nra;ag;gl;bUe;jJ. mk; khehl;bw;F gy
Clftpayhsh;fspd; caph; ntspehl;lth;fSk; tUif je;jpUe;jdh;. vt;thwhapDk; tplaj;ij
ghJfhg;G njhlh;ghd rh;tNjr
jtwhf tpsq;fpf; nfhz;l egh;fspdhy; ehl;by; Nth; tpl;Lf; nfhz;bUe;j
topfhl;ly;fis thrpg;gjw;F
vdf;F re;jh;g;gk; fpilj;j Aj;j #oypd; fPo; mk; khehl;bw;F vjpuhf Mh;g;ghl;lq;fs; Nkw;
nghOJ ehd; tpsq; f pf; nfhs;sg;gl;ld. khehl;bid elj;j Kbahjstpw;F gpuNjrj;jpy;
nfhz;ljhtJ : Mgj;jhd Fz;lh;fs; J}z;lg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUe;jdh;.
#o;epiy xd;W tUtjw;F
Kd; kpff; ftdj;Jld; Nkw;- khehl;by; fye;J nfhs;gth;fs; ,dj; JNuhfpfshf
nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;ba ghJ- rpj;jhpf;fg;gl;ldh;. fyff;fhuh;fSf;F murpay; hPjpapyhd fl;lisfs;
fhg;G eltbf;iffs; ,Uf;fpd;- fpilf;fg; ngWtjhfTk; njhpaf; $bajha; ,Ue;jJ. mur Clfk;
wd vd;gjhFk;. Mgj;jhd khehl;Lf;F vjpuhd Mh;g;ghl;lj;jpd; firabf;fhuh;fshf ,Ue;jJ.
#o;epiyapy; njhopy;
flikapy; <Lgl;Lf; nfhz;- ehk; ehy;tUk; mt; Mh;g;ghl;lj;jpid gjpT nra;tjw;fhf mq;F
bUf;ifapy; caph; ghJfhg;G nrd;W nfhz;bUe;Njhk;. ehk; Clftpayhsh;fs; vd;gjdhy; vkf;F
njhlh;ghf tpsf;fk; ,Ue;jpUg;- ghjpg;Gf;fs; Vw;glhnjdf; fUjpNdhk;. vkJ thfdk; N`hl;ly; g+kpia
gpd; vkf;F mf; Fz;lh;fsplk; neUq;fpa NghJ N`hl;lYf;F mUfpy; FOkpapUe;jth;fs; fyfj;jpy;
mfg; g l; L f; nfhs; s hky;
,Ug; g jw; F tha; g ; G f; f s; <Lgl Muk;gpj;jdh;. thfdj;jpy; ntspehl;lth;fs; ,Ue;jikapdhy;
,Ue;jpUf;Fk;. epiyik NkYk; Nkhrkile; j J. N`hl; l ypy; fhtyhsh; f s;
,y;yhjpUg;gpd; Fz;lh;fs; N`hl;lypw;Fs; Eiotjw;F tha;gg ; pUe;jJ.

46
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

,e; epiyikapid nghyprhUf;F mwptpj;jjd; gpd;dh; vkf;Fg;


ghJfhg;ghf jpUk;gpr; nry;y KbAk; vd MNyhrid fpilj;jJ.
mt;thwhapDk; jpUk;gp te;j vkJ thfdj;ijg; gpd; njhlh;eJ
; nfhz;L
Fz;lh;fs; Nfh\nkOg;gpf; nfhz;L vk;ikj; Juj;jp te;jdh;. mth;fs;
ehd; 'Af;jpa" gj;jphifapd; Mrphpah; vd;gjid ,dq;fz;L nfhz;ldh;.
'Af;jpa" gj;jphpif Aj;jj;jpw;F vjpuhd epiyg;ghl;il nfhz;lnthU
gj;jphpifahFk;.
Jujp\;ltrkhf ePz;l J}uk; nry;tjw;F Kd;dh; Gifapujf;
flitia %bapUe;j fjT vkJ tz;bia epWj;jpaJ. Nfh\q;fis
vOg;gpf; nfhz;L vk;ikg; gpd; njhlh;e;J te;j Nghiu Mjhpf;Fk;
Fz;lh;fs; vkJ thfdj;jpd; fjtpid gyte;jkhfj; jpwe;jdh;.
thfdj;jpd; Kd; Gwf; fz;zhb J}shFk; tiu mbj;J nehWf;fpdh;.
xU fzg;nghOjpy; eLtPjpapy; ,Ue;j Fz;lh;fSf;F kj;jpapy; ehd;
mfg;gl;Lf; nfhz;Nld;. vd;id ntspapy; ,Oj;njLj;J ehyh gf;fKk;
,Ue;J vd; kPJ jhf;Fjy; elj;j Muk;gpj;jdh;.
vkJ thfdk; ghynkhd;wpd; kPNj epWj;jg;gl;lJ. jhf;FjYf;F
,yf;fhfpa vd;idj; J}f;fp Mw;wpy; NghLtjw;F Fz;lh;fs; Kaw;rp
nra;ifapy; uapy; flit fjT jpwf;fg;gl;lJ. N[h;kd; ehl;ilr;
Nrh;ej
; ,UtUk; thfdj;jpy; njhq;fpf; nfhz;bUe;jdh;. mth;fs; ,UtUk;
ghhpa jhf;FjYf;F ,yf;fhfpapUe;jdh;. vdJ kw;iwa rfhTf;Fk;
vdf;F Neh;e;j fjpNa Neh;e;jpUe;jJ.
md;iwa jpdk; mjph;\;ltrkhf ehk; caph; jg;gpNdhk;. gy
fhuzq;fs; xd;wpize;j fhuzj;jpdhy; rpy Ntis md;iwa jpdk;
ghhpa Mgj;jpw;F Kfk; nfhLg;gjw;F tha;g;gpUe;jJ. vt;thwhapDk;
md;W jhf;FjYf;Fs;shdjhy; epue;jukhd KJF typnahd;W vdf;F
chpj;jhdJ.
Clftpayhsh;fspd; caph;g; ghJfhg;G njhlh;ghd rh;tNjr
topfhl;ly;fis thrpg;gjw;F vdf;F re;jh;g;gk; fpilj;j nghOJ
Mgj;jhd #o;epiy xd;W tUtjw;F Kd; kpff; ftdj;Jld;
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;ba ghJfhg;G eltbf;iffs; ,Uf;fpd;wd vd;W
ehd; tpsq;fpf; nfhz;Nld;. Mgj;jhd #o;epiyapy; njhopy; GhpAk;
NghJ caph;g; ghJfhg;G njhlh;ghf tpsf;fk; ,Ue;jpUg;gpd; vkf;F
mf; Fz;lh;fsplk; rpf;fhky; ,Ug;gjw;F tha;g;Gf;fs; ,Ue;jpUf;Fk;.
rpy Ntisfspy; tho;fi; fia ghJfhj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;fhtJ mt;thwhd
ghJfhg;G eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F re;jh;gg ; kpUe;jJ. Mdhy;
vk;kpy; ahUf;Fk; mt;thwhd tpsf;fk; ,Uf;ftpy;iy.
fle;j fhyq;fspy; rl;lj;jij ifapy; vLj;Jf; nfhz;l Fz;lh;
Nfh\;bfs; %yk; Clftpayhsh;fs; kPJ jhf;Fjy;fis elj;jTk;>
mr;RWj;jy;fis Nkw;nfhs;sTk; mth;fspd; Gifg;glf; fUtpfspy;

47
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

gjpT nra;ag;gl;l fhl;rpfis gyte;jkhf mopj;J tpLjy; njhlh;ghd 1999 Mk; Mz;L [{iy khjk;
rk;gtq;fs; gy re;jh;g;gq;fspy; gjpthfp ,Ue;jd. 15Mk; jpfjp vjph;f;fl;rpapd;
vjph;g;G Mh;g;ghl;lnkhd;wpid
Clftpayhsh; f shfpa ehk; vkJ njhopiy ,ad; w sT
nra;jp Nrfhpf;fr; nrd;w Gifg;gl
rpwe;jjhfTk; JhpjkhfTk; nra;jy; Ntz;Lk;. mNj Nghy; vkf;Fg; Clftpayhsh;fs; [dhjpgjp
gy re;jh;gg
; q;fspy; Mgj;jhd #o;epiyfSf;F kj;jpapy; jfty;fis ghJfhg;G gphptpdh; %yk;
NjLtjw;Fk; kw;Wk; gjpT nra;tjw;Fk; NehpLk;. VjhtnjhU rk;gtj;jpid jhf;fg;gl;L Gifg;gl
gjpT nra;a Ntz;b Vw;gbd; my;yJ fl;lisg; gzp gpwg;gpf;fg;gl;lTld; cgfuzq;fSk; gwpf;fg;gl;ld.
mJ Mgj;jhdjh ,y;iyah vd;gJ gw;wp ehk; nghpjhff; ftdk; mt; jhf;Fjiy jkJ gifg;glf;
vLg;gjpy;iy. fUtpapy; gjpT nra;J
mJ Aj;j g+kpapy; ,Ue;J gjpT nra;jNyh my;yJ Fz;L ntbg;G nfhs;tjw;F "uhta" gj;jphpifapd;
xd;whfTk; ,Uf;fyhk;. fyff;fhuf; $l;lk; xd;whfTk; ,Uf;fyhk;. m[pj; nrdtpul;dtpw;F kl;LNk
mikjpahf Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; Mh;g;ghl;lk; xd;wpd; kPjhd nghyp]; Kbe;jJ. NkNy fhl;lg;gLtJ
mg; Gifg;glkhFk;.
jhf; F jyhfTk; ,Uf; f yhk; . MAjjhhpf; FOf; f s; xd; w pd;
Mjpgj;jpaj;jpw;fhf jhf;Fjy; elj;jg;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; gpuNjrj;jpy;
,lk;ngWk; kh;kkhd nfhiyfisg; gjpT nra;tjhfTk; ,Uf;fyhk;.
nghJj; Njh;jy; xd;wpd; NghJ ,lk;ngWk; td;Kiwiag; gjpT
nra;tjhfTk; ,Uf;fyhk;.

48
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

,t;thwhd midj;Jr; re;jh;g;gq;fspYk; ,yq;ifapy; ehk;


nra;jpfisg; gjpT nra;a NehpLk;. ehk; mt;thwhd re;jh;g;gj;ij
jl;bf; fopf;f KbahJ. mt;thW nra;ag;gbd; kf;fSf;fhfj;
jfty;fis ngw;Wf; nfhLf;Fk; nghWg;gpy; ,Ue;J ehk; tpyfpf;
nfhs;tjhf mikAk;.
kWGwj;jpy; vkJ murpay; kw;Wk; r%fr; #oYk; Jujp\;l trkhf
td;Kiwia Nehf;fp khwpf; nfhz;L ,Uf;fpd;wJ. mjd; %yk; epiyik
NkYk; NkhrkilAk; mlhtbj; jdq;fSf;F ,irthd murpay;thjpfs;
rl;lj;ij ftdj;jpy; nfhs;shJ Fog;gq;fis Vw;gLj;Jk; r%f
FOf; f Sk; fle; j fhyq; f spy; Clftpayhsh; f Sf; F vjpuhf
td;Kiwiag; gpuNahfpj;jdh;. kpfTk; Nkhrkhd epiyikahdJ
mt;thwhd egh;fs; gy re;jh;g;gq;fspy; nghyprhh; gy topfs; %yk;
jd; gf;fk; rhh;e;J nfhs;sr; nra;jikahFk;. 1990k; Mz;by;
Clftpayhsh; hp;r;rl; b nrha;rh flj;jpr; nry;yg;gl;L nfhiy
nra;ag;gl;l NghJ mJ KO r%fj;jpidAk; mjph;rr ; pf;F cs;shf;fpaJ.
mr;rk;gtk; ,yq;ifapy; Clfj;Jiw kPjhd Clftpayhsh;fis
nfhiy nra; j y; vd; g jhFk; vd; w fUj; J cyfk; KOtJk;
gpurpj; j khdJ. mg; n ghOJ ehl; b w; F s; S k; ghhpa vjph; g ; G f; f s;
njhptpf; f g; g l; l d. MdhYk; mjd; gpd; d h; ,e; e hl; b y; gy
ClftpayhsUf;F jkJ njhopy; fhuzkhf capiu mh;g;gzpf;f
Nehpl;lJ.
hpr;rl; b nrha;rhtpw;Fg; gpd;dh; kpfg; gpugy;akhd gLnfhiy.
'rld (Satana)" gj;jphpifapd; Mrphpauhd Nuh`d Fkhutpd; gLnfhiy
MFk;. mjd; gpd;dh; epkyuh[d; nfhiy nra;ag;gl;lhh;. aho;gg ; hzj;jpy;
epkyuh[d; nfhiy nra;ag;gl;l gpd;dh; kl;lf;fsg;gpy; eNlrd; nfhiy
nra;ag;gl;lhh;. me;jstpw;F gpurpj;jk; milahj MdhYk; gy
Clftpayhsh;fs; fle;j fhyq;fspy; jkJ njhopy; epkpj;jk; caphpof;f
Nehpl; l J. uNk\; Fkhh; > ghyeluh[h Nghd; w NkYk; gy
Clftpayhsh;fs; gLnfhiy nra;ag;gl;ldh;.
Clftpayhsh; hpr;rl; b nrha;rhtpd; gLnfhiyapidg; Nghy;
ghhpa tpisTfis Vw;gLj;jf; $ba Clftpayhsh; rptuhkpd;
gLnfhiyAk; vk; Kd; cs;sJ. 2005 Vg;uy; 28Mk; jpfjp ,uT
flj;jpr; nry;yg;gl;l rptuhk; md;wpuNt nfhiy nra;ag;gl;lhh;. rptuhk;
njhlh;rr ; pahf mr;RWj;jYf;F ,yf;fhfpapUe;j Xh; Clftpayhsuhthh;.
mtUf; F murhq; f j; j plkpUe; J k; MAj ghzpfshd murpay;
FOf;fsplkpUe;Jk; mr;RWj;jy;fs; ,Ue;jd.
mth; ,uT 10.30 kzpastpNy flj;jpr; nry;yg;gl;lhh;. mr;
re; j h; g ; g j; j py; mth; jdpahfNt ,Ue; j hh; . jkJ ifalf; f j;
njhiyNgrpf;F fpilj;j miog;igaLj;J jkJ ez;gnuhUthplkpUe;J
rw; W j; njhiytpw; F r; nrd; W s; s hh; . mr; r e; j h; g ; g j; j pNy mth;

49
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

flj;jg;gl;lhh;.
ez;gNuhL ,Uf;ifapy; flj;jg;gl;likahy; mJ mk;gykhfpaJ.
rpy rkak; ,UtUlNdh my;yJ %tUlNdh xd;whf ,Ue;jpUe;jhy;
flj;jiy jw;fhypfkhfNtDk; jLj;jpUf;f KbAk;.
Mdhy; ,g; gLnfhiyfs; njhlh;ghf rhpahd tprhuizfs;
elj;jg;gl;L Fw;wthspfSf;Fj; jz;lidfisg; ngw;Wf; nfhLg;gjw;F
,Jtiuapy; ve;jnthU murhq;fKk; eltbf;iffis vLf;ftpy;iy.
epkyuh[d; gLnfhiy nra; a g; g Ltjw; F Kd; d h; ghJfhg; G
eltbf;ififs vLf;f Ntz;bastpw;F mtUf;F mr;RWj;jy;fs;
tpLf;fg;gl;bUe;jJ. mt;thwhd ghJfhg;G eltbf;iffis Nkw;nfhs;sy;
Nfhioj;jdk; vd mth; epidj;jpUf;fyhk;. rhjhuzkhf ruskhd
tho;f;ifia tho;e;j mtUf;F mt;thwhd tho;f;if Kiwf;F
khWtjw;F kdk; ,lkspf;fhJ ,Ue;jpUf;ff; $Lk;. mf; ftdaPdk;
fhuzkhf jkJ capiuNa ,of;f Nehpl;lJ. mjd; %yk; jkpo;
Clfj; Jiwf;F kuz mb xd;W tpOe;jJ.
1980k; Mz;L Kjy; ,e; ehl;bd; r%f murpay; tho;f;ifapy;>
fl;lha mq;fkhf khwpAs;s MAj hPjpapyhd murpay; vjph;g;Gfis
fhl;Ljy; kw;Wk; fyff;fhu murpay; %yk; gy Clftpayhsh;fs;
kw;Wk; fyhrhu nraw;ghl;lhsh;fs; gyp nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sdh;. mth;fs;
gy Nghpd; caph;fs; cah;e;j gl;rk; ghJfhg;G eltbf;if my;yJ
mtw;iw ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;fhd mwpahik my;yJ ftdkw;w jd;ik
fhuzkhfNt nfhiy nra;ag;gl;Ls;sdh;.
rz;Nl yPlh; gj;jphpifap;d; Mrphpah; yre;j tpf;ukJq;f gy jlit
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l nfhiy Kaw;rpfspypUe;J caph; jg;gpj;Jf; nfhz;l
,e; e hl; b d; Kd; d zp Clftpayhsuhthh; . xU jlit mth;
Clftpayhsuhd jdJ kidtpAld; gazpj;j thfdj;ij gyte;jkhf
epWj;jpa murpay; Fz;lh;fs; rpyh; mth; kPJ jhf;Fjy; elj;j
Muk;gpj;jdh;. mtUila kidtp yre;jtpw;F Kd; gha;eJ ; jLj;jjd;
fhuzkhf yre; j tpd; caph; fhg; g hw; w g; g l; l J. vt; t hwhapDk;
Fz; l h; f Sf; F mjpfsT Neuk; tP j papy; ,Uf; f KbahJ
NghdikapdhYk; mth; md;W fhg;ghw;wg;gl;lhh;. gpd; xU re;jh;gg ; j;jpy;
mtUila ,y;yj;jpd; kPJ Jg;ghf;fpr; #Lk; elj;jg;gl;lJ.
mNjNghy; kuz mr;RWj;jYf;Fs;shd mg;NghJ yq;fhjPg
gj;jphpifapd; gpujp Mrphpauhd Mhpauj;d njhk;gfhtj;ij thu ehl;fis
mYtyfj;jpy; fopj;J tpl;L thu ,Wjpapy; jdJ tPl;bw;Fr; rh;tNjr
rkhjhd fz; f hzpg; g hsh; f s; ,UtUld; nrd; W s; s hh; . mth;
mt;tpUtUld; jq;fpapUe;j fhuzj;jpdhy; Nkyjpfg; ghJfhg;G
fpilj;jJ. murpay; mjpfhuj;jpid ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;fhf Clf
fl;Lg;ghL mtrpak; vd MAjf; fpsh;r;rp ,af;fq;fs; rpe;jpf;fpd;wd.

50
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

[dehaf hPjpahf Kd;dpw;fpd;w rpy murpay; fl;rpfSk; mt;thW


Clff; fl;Lg;ghl;il itj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;F gy cghaq;fisf;
ifahSfpd;wd. mjpy; Xh; cghakhdJ RahjPd my;yJ NtW
jug;gpw;Fr; rk;ge;jg;gl;lth;fs; vd njhpAk; Clftpayhsh;fSf;F
vjpuhf gyhj;fhuj;jpidAk; td;KiwiaAk; gpuNahfpj;jyhFk;.
,e; e hl; b d; mNdf Clftpayhsh; f s; Aj; j k; fhuzkhf
caphpof;ftpy;iy. Clff; fl;Lg;ghl;il Nkw;nfhs;Sk; Nehf;fpy;
Ntz; L nkd; N w Nkw; n fhs; s g; g l; l gLnfhiyfs; fhuzkhfNt
caphpoe;Js;sdh;. ,yq;ifapd; ,t;thwhd murpay; Fw;wq;fs;
njhlh;ghf ntspg;gilahfj; njhpAk; gaq;fukhd ajhh;jj ; k; Fw;wj;jpw;Fj;
jz;lid fpilf;fhj rk;gpujhakhFk;. ,t;tplaq;fs; rh;tNjr kdpj
chpik epWtdq;fspw;F kPzL ; k; kPzL ; k; Rl;bf;fhl;bAk; mjw;F vt;tpj
jPh;TfSk; fpilf;ftpy;iy.
Rje;jpu Clf mikg;gpd; mwpf;iffSf;F Vw;g 1992 Mk; Mz;by;
Clftpayhsh;fSf;F vjpuhf Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l nghyp]; jhf;Fjy;fs;
52 MFk;. mg;gbahapd; xt;nthU thuj;jpw;Fk; xd;W vDk; mbg;gilapy;
,yq;ifapy; nghJ kf;fspd; kdpj chpikfis kPWk; gpujhd epWtdk;
nghyp]; epiyakhFk;. cly; hPjpahf rpj;jputij nra;jiy ,yq;if
nghyp]; if tpl Kbahj nfhLikahfTs;sJ. Clftpayhsh;fs;
rk;ge;jg;gl;l tplaj;jpYk; nghyprhh; xU jlitay;y gy jlitfs;
,t;thW nraw;gl;Ls;sdh;.
1996Mk; Mz;L gpujhd vjph;f;fl;rpahd If;fpa Njrpaf; fl;rp
Vw;ghL nra;j vjph;g;G Ch;tynkhd;wpy; nra;jp Nrfhpg;gpy; <Lgl;Lf;
nfhz;bUe;j 11 Gifg;glg; gpbg;ghsh;fs; kPJ jhf;Fjy; elj;jpa
[dhjpgjp ghJfhg;Gg; gphptpdh; mth;fsJ> Gifg;glf; fUtpfisAk;
ifg;gw;wpf; nfhz;ldh;. mr; rk;gtj;jpid Gifg;glnkLj;Jf; nfhz;L
jg;gpr; nry;tjw;F xU Clftpayhsuhy; kl;LNk Kbe;jJ. mJ
mjph;\l ; trkhdjhFk;. mr; re;jh;gg ; j;jpy; fhzg;gl;l Mgj;jhd #oiy
Kd; $l; b Na fz; f hzpg; g jpy; Gifg; g lg; gpbg; g hsh; f s;
ntw; w paile; j pUg; g hh; f shapd; mf; F z; l h; f spd; nraw; g hLfis
mUikahf fhl;rpg;gLj;jpf; nfhz;L mq;fpUe;J nry;tjw;Fk; my;yJ
jkJ Gifg;glf; fUtpfisAk;> Gifg;glr; RUs;fisAk; ghJfhj;Jf;
nfhs;tjw;Fk; Kbe;jpUf;Fk;.
,d; W k; $l nghyprhhpdhy; Clftpayhsh; f Sf; F vjpuhf
Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; njhe;juTfs; ,d;Dk; Fiwtilatpy;iy. 2004Mk;
Mz; L nfh]; n fhilapy; Nkw; n fhs; s g; g l; l nghJkf; f s;
Mh;g;ghl;lnkhd;wpid gjpT nra;J nfhz;bUe;j rpy gpuhe;jpa
Clftpayhsh;fs; kPJ nfh];nfhil nghyprhh; kpff; fLikahf
jhf; f pAs; s dh; . 2003Mk; Mz; b Yk; mt; t hwhdnjhU rk; g tk;
nts;sthatpYk; ,lk; ngw;wJ.

51
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

njhlh;e;J td;Kiwfs; ,lk;ngWk; ,e;ehl;bd; murpay; #o;epiy


Clftpayhsh;fshfpa vk;kplk; NfhUk; xU Kf;fpa epge;jid
caph;ghJfhg;Gj; njhlh;ghf $ba ftdk; nrYj;Jjy;
Ntz;Lnkd;gjhFk;. mJ vkJ capiu ghJfhg;gjw;fhf my;y.
njhopiy rhpahf Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;w fhuzj;jpdhNyahFk;.
2005 Mk; Mz;L khh;r; khjj;jpd; Kjy; ehs; njhiyf;fhl;rp
Nritnad;wpy; jahhpg;Gf; FOnthd;W rpyhgk; kh Xah Mw;wpy;
rl;ltpNuhjkhf kz; mfo;jy; gw;wpa rk;gtk; njhlh;ghf nra;jp
Nrfhpf;fr; nrd;wpUe;jdh;. gpd;dh; gj;jphpiffspy; ntspapl;l jfty;fspd;
gb ,k; kz; mfo;jy; tpahghuj;jpid gpuNjrj;jpd; murpay;thjpfs;>
nghyp]; kw;Wk; gyk;tha;ej ; rl;ltpNuhj tpw;gidahsh;fs; MfpNahUld;
,ize;J Nkw;nfhz;lik ghhpa Fw;wkhFk;.
Kd;dh; Fwpg;gpl;l njhiyf;fhl;rp FOtpdh; Njitahd fhl;rpfis
Gifg;glnkLj;Jr; nry;ifapy; rl;ltpNuhj tpw;gidahsh;fspd;
Fz;lh;fs; ,th;fis Rw;wp tisj;jdh;. mth;fNs Fog;gnkhd;iw
Vw;gLj;jpdh;. njhiyf;fhl;rp Gifg;glf; frl;by; gjpag;gl;bUe;jtw;iw
rl;l tpNuhjkhd ,ae;jpuq;fisf; nfhz;L elj;jpr; nrd;w kz; mfo;jy;
fhl;rpfis gyte;jkhf mopj;J tpl;ldh;. mt;thW nra;tjw;F
,lkspf;fhjpUg;gpd; epiyik Nkhrkiltjw;F tha;g;gpUe;jJ.
vt;thwhapDk; Njitahd glf;fhl;rpj; njhFjpia ghJfhj;Jf;
nfhs; t jw; F mth; f shy; Kbe; j J. mit mth; f spd; jpwik
fhuzj;jpdhy; xspgug;gg;gl;ld. Njitahd Clfq;fSk; ,f;
Fw;wq;fis nra;jp mwpf;ifapLtjw;F mtrug;gl;ld. mjpfhhpfSf;F
nksdkhf ,Uf;f Kbahky; NghdJ kz; mfo;tpw;F vjpuhfg; nghJ
kf;fs; mgpg;gpuhak; Vw;gl;likapdhyhFk;. ,r; rk;gtj;jpDs; vkf;Fs;s
jfty; ahJ? Kuz;ghl;L epiyiknahd;wpid gjpT nra;tjw;Fr;
nry;y Kd;dh; Njitahd jahh;g;gLj;jy;fis Nkw;nfhs;jtjhFk;.
epiyik Nkhrkile;jhy; khw;Wtopfis Nkw;nfhs;tij ftdj;jpw;
nfhs;sy;. midj;ijAk; tpl jkJ Gifg;glf; frl;Lfis ghJfhj;Jf;
nfhs;tjw;fhd topKiwfis rpe;jpj;jy;. mt;thwhd re;jh;g;gj;jpy;
ehk; gad;gLj;Jk; thh;j;ijfs; $l Kf;fpa ,lj;jpid tfpf;Fk;.
mjd; fhuzkhfNt gapw;rp Njitg;gLfpwJ.
2000Mk; Mz;by; chpa mDkjpAld; Gj;jsk; gpuNjrj;jpd;
ghlrhiynahd;wpid Gifg;glnkLj;Jf; nfhz;bUe;j aq; Vrpah
njhiyf;fhl;rp FOTf;Fk; mt;thwhdnjhU mDgtj;jpw;F Kfk;
nfhLf;f Neh;e;jJ. Rdhkpapdhy; ,lk; ngah;e;jth;fSf;F epthuzk;
toq;fy; njhlh;ghf Muha;tjw;fhfg; gpujkUld; aho;gg ; hzk; nrd;wpUe;j
Clftpayhsh;fs; FOtpdh; murpay; Mh;g;ghl;lf;fhuh;fs; kj;jpapy;
mfg;gl;Lf; nfhz;ldh;. jhk; Clftpayhsh;fs; vdj; jk;ik

52
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

,dq;fhl;bf; nfhs;tjw;F Kbe;jikapdhy; mth;fSf;F vt;tpj


Mgj;Jk; Neutpy;iy.
Rdhkp flw;Nfhs; mdh;j;jj;jpd; gpd;dh; Vw;gl;l rpf;fhh;e;j
epiyikfSf;F kj;jpapYk; 2005 ngg;uthp khh;r; khjq;fspy; aho;gg ; hz
kf;fs; gy Mh;gg ; hl;lq;fspy; <Lglyhapdh;. ,t; vjph;gG
; Mh;gg
; hl;lq;fis
gjpT nra;ar; nrd;w %d;W ehd;F Clftpayhsh;fSf;F mur
,uhZtj;jpdhpd; nfLgpbfSf;F Kfk; nfhLf;f Nehpl;lJ.
Mh;g;ghl;lq;fs; Fog;gfukhd epiyf;F ,l;Lr; nry;Yk; nghOJ
Clftpayhsh;fisAk; Ch;tyf;fhuh;fisAk; gphpj;J milahsq;
fhz;jy; fbdkhdjhFk;. vkJ Clftpayhsh;fs; gy re;jh;gg ; q;fspy;
Clf milahs ml;il njhpAk; tpjj;jpy; mzptjpy;iy. gy
re;jh;g;gq;fspy; mth;fSf;F Cltpayhsh;fs; mzpAk; Nkyq;fpAk;
,y;iy. aho;. Clftpayhsh;fs; kPjhd mur ,uhZtj;jpdh;
Nkw;nfhz;l nfLgpbfisf; fz;bj;J chpa tprhuizfis Rje;jpu
Clf ,af;fk; ntspapl;l mwpf;ifapy; jkJ milahs ml;il
njhpAk; tpjj;jpy; mzpAk; gb NfhhpapUe;jJ. gpd;dh; aho;. ,uhZtj;
jsgjp ,jd; %ykhf aho; . Clftpayhsh; f Sld; tpNrl
fye;Jiuahlnyhd;wpid Nkw; nfhz;lhh;.
,yq;ifapy; epyTfpd;w tlf;F fpof;F Aj;j epiyik fhuzkhfNt
,g;nghOJ jkpo; MAjf; FOf;fSf;fpilapy; xUtiunahUth; nfhiy
nra;J nfhs;sy; fhuzkhfNth> tpNrlkhf tlf;F fpof;fpy; Nrit
nra;Ak; Clftpayhsh;fs; Mgj;jhd epiyf;F Kfk; nfhLj;Js;sdh;.
kl;lf;fsg;gpy; Clftpayhsh; eNlrd; gLfnfhiy nra;ag;gl;ljd;
gp;d;dh; me;efhpy; gzpapy; <Lgl;bUe;j gy Clftpayhsh;fSf;F
ghJfhg;Gf; Nfhhp efiuf; iftpl;Lr; nry;y Ntz;b Vw;gl;lJ.
2005Mk; Mz;L ngg;uthp khjk; tTdpahtpy; ,uhZt tPuh;fs;
rpyUf;F ntb kUe;Jfs; fhuzkhf cly; tp\kile;j rk;gtj;jpid
gjpT nra;a itj;jparhiyf;Fr; nrd;w Clftpayhsh;fs; ,uhZt
mjpfhhpnahUthpd; mr; R Wj; j Yf; f pyf; f hdhh; f s; . mth; td; d p
Clftpayhsh; rq;fj;jpw;F mwptpj;J ghJfhg;ig cWjpg;gLj;jpf;
nfhz;lhh;. mtuJ mwpf;ifapd;gb me;j ,uhZt tPuh;fSf;F ntb
kUe;Jfis Urp ghh;fF ; khW fl;lisaplg;gl;ljhf Fwpg;gplg;gl;bUe;jJ.
Kjypy; mr;rk;gtj;jpid %bkiwg;gjw;F mjpfhhpfs; Kaw;rp
nra;Js;sJld; gpd;dh; mjd; gapw;rpahsh; jw;nfhiy nra;J nfhz;ljd;
fhuzkhf mJ ghhpa gpur;rpid vd cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.
mr;rk;gtj;jpid mwpf;ifapLtjw;F Clftpayhsh;fs; eltbf;if
vLf;fhjpUg;gpd; cz;ik epiyik ntspg;glhjpUg;gjw;fhd re;jh;gg ; k;
,Ue;jpUf;Fk;. Aj;j tyag; gFjpfspy; rk;gtq;fis mwpf;ifaply;
kw;Wk; mr;re;jh;gg
; j;jpNy ghJfhg;G njhlh;ghf ftdj;jpw; nfhs;sypd;

53
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b

Kf;fpaj;Jtk; ,jd; %yk; vkf;F njhptpf;fg;gLfpwJ.


Clftpayhsh; f s; kl; L ky; y Clf epWtdq; f isAk;
fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjw;F gaKWj;jiy gad;gLj;Jjy; ,yq;if td;Kiw
murpay; fyhrhuq;fspy; Xh; mq;fkhFk;. rlNl hptPt;> cjad;>
Nyf;`T];> uhta kwWk; jptapd gj;jphpif mYtyfk;> Rth;zth`pdp;
kw;Wk; rpur njhiyf;fhl;rp epiyak; gy re;jh;g;gq;fspy; Fz;Lj;
jhf;FjYf;F ,yf;fhfpAs;sJ. Af;jpa gj;jphpif kw;Wk; mr;rfk;
mopf;fg;gl;lJ.
Af;jpa gj;jphpif me;epiyikfSf;F kj;jpapy; rh;tNjr rkhjhd
fz;fhzpg;ghsh;fs; FOnthd;wpid jkJ mYtyfj;jpy; itj;Jf;
nfhz;L gj;jphpifia njhlh;e;J elj;jpr; nrd;wJ.
uhta gj;jphpiff;F njhlh;r;rpahf tpLf;fg;gLk; mt;thwhd
mr;RWj;jy;fs; fhuzkhf mg; gj;jphpif jkJ mYtyfj;jpd; Kd;
mikf;fg;gl;bUe;j kjpiy mfw;wp ry;yilapyhd Ntypnahd;wpid
mikj;jikf;Ff; fhuzk; mk;kjpYf;Fg; gpd; kiwe;J Fz;Lj; jhf;Fjy;
Nkw;nfhs;sg; glyhk; vd;w fhuzj;jpdhNyahFk;.
,t; midj;J re;jh;g;gq;fspYk; ,r;rk;gtq;fisf; fz;bj;J
cs;ehl;L kw;Wk; ntspehl;L [dehaf r%fj;jpdh; kj;jpapy; Rje;jpu
Clf ,af;fk; gpurhuj;jpid Nkw;nfhz;lJ. Mdhy; mJ kl;Lk;
NghJkhdjd;W. mt;thwhd re;jh;g;gq;fis Kd; $l;bNa mwpe;J
nfhs; s y; > Mgj; J f; f spypUe; J tpyfpf; nfhs; t jw; F k; kw; W k;
Mgj; J f; f isf; Fiwj; J f; nfhs; t jw; F k; Kaw; r p nra; j y;
mj;jpahtrpakhdjhFk;.
,e;ehl;bd; Clftpayhsh;fSf;F rk;ge;jg;gl;l tifapy; Rje;jpu
kw;Wk; mikjpahd #onyhd;wpDs; jkJ njhopiy elj;jpr;
nry;tjw;fhd #o;epiy cUthFk;. vd rpe;jpf;ff; $ba ehnshd;wpid
,Jtiu vz;z KbahJs;sJ. mjd; fhuzkhfNt ehk; vkJ
ghJfhg;G njhlh;ghf ftdj;jpw; nfhs;sy; mtrpak;.

54
Clftpayhsh;fSf;fhd ghJfhg;G topfhl;b