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12/10/2013

• Definition of a volcano
• Types of volcanic eruptions
• Volcanic hazards
• Resources from volcanoes

The word volcano comes from the Roman It is an opening or vent through which
god of fire, Vulcan. molten rock and associated gases are
expelled (USGS)

Mountainous 1. Influx of magma


accumulation of 2. Melting of
materials resulting from surrounding rock
successive eruptions of 3. Exsolution of gas
4. Contact with water
lava from a central vent.

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 Pacific Ring of Fire


 Hot spots
 Spreading centers

- Lavas
WHAT do volcanoes erupt? - Pyroclastics
- Gas
What factor determines what will be erupted? “Stony rough lava” that has a rubbly surface
MAGMA composed of broken lava blocks
COMPOSITION
SILICIC MAGMAS  HIGH VISCOSITY MAFIC MAGMAS  LOW VISCOSITY
and HIGH GAS CONTENT  and LOW GAS CONTENT  EFFUSIVE
EXPLOSIVE
LAVA FLOWS
PYROCLASTICS

 smooth, billowy, Formed when lava emerges


undulating, or ropy from an underwater volcanic
surface vent
 Indication of Low viscosity

Nangka River,
Rizal

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1. Shield
2. Cinder cone  slopes are gentle (15o or less)
3. Composite or Strato-  made up of successive lava flows
volcano  resembles a Roman shield lying on the
ground

 relatively small (<300 m high)  Also known as a strato-volcano


 steep slopes (30 – 40o)  layered structure (tephra and lava flows)
 made up of pyroclastic material  Some of the most beautiful and well-
formed volcanoes

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FISSURE VOLCANO has a steep, convex slope from thick, fast-cooling lava

A long crack in the earth's surface through Relatively small, bulbous masses of formed
which magma erupts. from viscous lava.

Pu`u `O`, Hawaii Krafla Volcano, Iceland


Mt. St. Helens

Crater Lake, Oregon, USA

Volcanic Explosivity
Index or VEI - is
based on a number of
things (e.g. plume
height, volume, etc.)
that can be observed
during an eruption.

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VEI Desc.
Plume
Volume Class. How often Example Mt. Pinatubo
Height
(1991) ~ 10km3
non-
0
explosive
< 100 m 1000s m3 Hawaiian daily Kilauea - biggest eruption
100-1000 in the 20th century
1 gentle 10,000s m3 Haw/Strombolian daily Stromboli
m
2 explosive 1-5 km 1,000,000s m3 Strom/Vulcanian weekly Galeras, 1992 Mt. Tambora (1815)
10,000,000s ~ 100km3
3 severe 3-15 km Vulcanian yearly Ruiz, 1985
m3 -10x bigger than
4 cataclysmic 10-25 km
100,000,000s
Vulc/Plinian 10's of years
Galunggung, Pinatubo eruption
m3 1982
5 paroxysmal >25 km 1 km3 Plinian 100's of years St. Helens, 1981 PREHISTORIC
6 colossal >25 km 10s km3 Plin/Ultra-Plinian 100's of years Krakatau, 1883 ERUPTIONS
7
super-
>25 km 100s km3 Ultra-Plinian
1000's of
Tambora, 1815 Ex. Yellowstone
colossal years
mega- 10,000's of Yellowstone,
100x or more
Ultra-Plinian
8
colossal
>25 km 1,000s km3
years 2 Ma bigger than that of
Pinatubo!

Hawaiian Icelandic
Shield Volcanoes Fissure Volcanoes

Low viscosity lava is ejected


Effusive eruption

 Short-lived, explosive outbursts of pasty


lava ejected a few tens or hundreds of
meters into the air
 No sustained eruption column

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Large amounts of gas, dust, ash, and lava


fragments are blown out the volcano's central
crater
 Accompanied by massive pyroclastic flows

Water instantly evaporates


into steam, causing
sudden increase in
pressure.

Mt. St. Helens, 1980

Generated by the interaction of magma with


abundant surface water.
 Expels vapor, rocks, ash, as well as lava.

Kavachi, SURTSEY,
Southwest Pacific 1963

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"...Explosions like cannon fire at irregular


intervals...“ – Mercalli
 Often with high-velocity ejections of bombs
and blocks.

Sakurajima

 Eruptive columns, with some


reaching heights of ~45 km.

Redoubt Volcano

• Magmatic explosive eruption on


15 June 1991 forms enormous
eruption column of gas and ash
above the volcano.
• 800 people are killed
• 8000 houses destroyed
• 800,000 livestock and poultry
killed
• 17 million tons of SO2 injected
into the atmosphere, global
temperature drops by about 10C

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www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph

No. of
Elevation
Name of Volcano Province Historical Latest Eruption/Activity Leonard Kniaseff Davao del Norte 0.200 No Data 1800 years ago
(Km)
Eruptions
Babuyan Claro Cagayan 0.843 4 1917
Makaturing Lanao del Sur 1.940 10 1882
Banahaw Laguna, Quezon 2.169 3 1843 Matumtum Cotobato 2.286 1 1911 March 07
Biliran Biliran Island 1.340 1 1939 Sept. 26 Mayon Albay 2.460 49 2009 Dec.
Buddajo Sulu 0.62 2 1897
Bulusan Sorsogon 1.565 17 2010 Nov.-2011.Feb. Musuan Bukidnon 0.646 2 1867
Cagua Cagayan 1.160 2 1907 Parker Cotobato 1.784 1 1640 Jan. 04
Cabalian Southern Leyte
Camiguin de Babuyanes Cagayan 0.712 1 1857 Boundaries of
1992 July 09 -
Cagayan (Babuyan Pinatubo Pampanga, Tarlac 1.445 3
Didicas 0.843 6 1978 Jan. 6-9 August 16
Island Group) and Zambales
Hibok-hibok Camiguin 1.332 5 1948 Sept. 31 - 1953 July
Ragang Cotobato 2.815 8 1916 July
Iraya Batanes 1.009 1 1454
Iriga Camarines Sur 1.143 2 1642 Jan. 4 Cagayan(Babuyan
Smith 0.688 5 1924
Kanlaon Negros Oriental 2.435 26 2006 June Island Group)
Taal Batangas 0.311 33 1977 Oct

 16 volcanoes in the world which have been


designated for particular study (IDNDR)
 If a decade volcano erupts, massive damage
and loss of life is expected

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Volcanic steam plumes


rise from new fumaroles
on the north flank of
Pinatubo after steam-
driven explosions on 2
April 1991.

Increase in CO2
and SO2
concentrations

Increase in the
frequency of volcanic
quakes.

Why?

Magma rises into Rising magma and High pressure causes


reservoir beneath volcanic gases exert rocks to break,
volcano pressure triggering
earthquakes

Volcanoes change shape before and Volcano deformation


during eruptions is measured using
electronic distance
Volcanoes can “inflate” due to magma measurements.
movement

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The Global Positioning System


(GPS) can pinpoint horizontal
and vertical movement of the
ground.

• Increase in the frequency of volcanic quakes with rumbling


• Localized landslides, rockfalls and
sounds; occurrence of volcanic tremors
landslides from the summit area not
• Increased steaming activity; change in color of steam attributable to heavy rains
emission from white to gray due to entrained ash
• Noticeable increase in the extent of drying
• Crater glow due to presence of magma at or near the crater
up of vegetation around the volcano's
• Ground swells (or inflation), ground tilt and ground fissuring upper slopes
due to magma intrusion
• Increase in the temperature of hot springs,
• Noticeable variation in the chemical content of springs, wells (e.g. Bulusan and Kanlaon) and crater
crater lakes within the vicinity of the volcano
lake (e.g. Taal) near the volcano
• Drying up of springs/wells around the volcano www.phivolcs.dost.gov.ph

1. Volcanic gases – SO2,


CO2, HCl, etc.
2. Lava flow – streams of
molten rock
3. Pyroclastic flow – hot, dry
rock fragments
4. Lahar – mixture of water
and rock fragments
5. Tephra – volcanic rock
that are blasted into the
air

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CO2 -> greenhouse gas, warming effect Gases – health problems


SO2 -> albedo effect, reflecting sun radiation Lahars – severe flooding, destruction to lives and
back to space, cooling effect. Can also be a property
cause of ozone depletion Lava flows – destruction to lives and property
Tephra – obscure sunlight, impassable roads,
Pinatubo Eruption: infrastructure damages
released 20 million
tons of SO2, caused
a global cooling of
about 0.5oF

Image: SAGE II map of the distribution of stratospheric aerosols


from the Pinatubo eruption between June 14 and July 26, 1991.
Image supplied by Pat McCormick, Langley Research Center.

 Fertile
agricultural lands

 Mineable
volcanic material

Cretaceous Dawn © 1996 George Arthur Bush

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Steam is converted into electricity.

http://seekingalpha.com/article/123371-is-geothermal-the-next-hot-energy-source

 Geothermal energy in the Philippines


contributes 12% of our total energy needs

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