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Water Distribution System

The essence of water distribution system is to supply adequate amount of water of safe quality
under sufficient pressure to meet the demands of a certain community or a building. So, in the
design and analysis of a water distribution system the quality and quantity of water available and
the pressure and rate of use must be considered and also determine the problems that may occur
in constructing or operating of the actual water distribution system

Gravity Pressure System

The gravity pressure system is possible only when the source of supply is located substantially
above the level of the demand community. This is the most dependable method, provided
thatthere are multiple-
protected pipelines carrying the flow (Mc Ghee, 1991). This system isinherently associated with
elevated storage or tank. The storage facility provides the reservoir in which the inflow and
outflow of water can better match the hourly consumer demand and act as a supply source during
emergency situations. Elevated storage are located within or adjacent to areas of high demand of
the distribution grid to meet water demands in those areas without causing high velocities and
head losses in the distribution mains. Also, booster pumps may be required if the pressure in the
gravity system supplying the storage facility is not enough to fill the reservoir. There are two
types of tanks that are commonly used in a gravity pressure system.

a.) Elevated Steel Tank – are usually considered when the surrounding terrains are relatively
uniform. Elevated steel tanks are manufactured in a variety of ellipsoidal and spherical
shapes with capacities ranging from 200 to 12, 000 m (Hammer, 1986). The height of the
tank will be determined based from the topography of the area served, the height of the
buildings and the pressure losses in the distribution system. Altitude valves, check valves
and shut off valves are necessary to control the level of water in the tank and to provision
or isolate portions of the distribution system during emergencies (USCE, 1986).
b.) Ground level storage – are considered when the difference in the elevation of the supply
facility and the area of demand is sufficient to provide adequate pressure in the
distribution system. Steel standpipes are usually available in sizes up to
20,000m3(Hammer, 1986). Concrete reservoirs can be used in any size system, but are
more often used for larger sizes (USCE, 1986)