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Introduction

Water is universally one of the most influential natural resources, if not the most valuable of all.
As defined in the first paragraph of the European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive
(WFD) established by the European Parliament and the Council of 23rd of October 2000; “Water
is not commercial product like any other but, rather, a heritage which must be protected,
defended and treated as such”. Water is life; no water means no life on the planet earth. The
availability of water is necessary, but the quality of available water is even more critical. In the
year 2000, the United Nations established the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
comprising 8 goals which are to be achieved by 2015. Improved water sources were accessible to
over 2 billion people from 1990 to 2010, thus meeting up with the target of the MDG on drinking
water (UNICEF and WHO report, 2012). The same report confirms that sub-Saharan Africa has
the lowest drinking water coverage compared to all the other regions in the world. In fact, 82%
of the urban population in sub-Saharan Africa has access to improved water sources compared to
95% worldwide. For the rural population, it is about 44% compared to 72% (Carles, 2009).

Unfortunately for mankind, there is an uneven distribution of both human beings and water
resources globally. Therefore, areas which are occupied by human beings are not automatically
areas with abundant water resources. Water scarcity can be further categorized into; physical
water scarcity social and economic water scarcity. Physical water scarcity refers to a situation
where; a country or region naturally has limited access to water. Furthermore physical water
scarcity can be divided into two concepts which include demand-driven scarcity (water stress)
and population-driven scarcity (water shortage) (Kummu et al, 2010). About 25% of the world’s
population is located in areas of physical water scarcity. Arid and semi-arid areas are mostly
characterized by physical water scarcity.

The energy we use can cause good or bad effect depending on how we use it. It is used for a
nation to progress and developed. Energy consumption is a significant contributor to climate
change. Thus, the energy sector is responsible for 60% of greenhouse gas emissions around the
world.

Due to growing economies in most countries, like Malaysia, India, and Philippines there is also a
need to increase its demand in water consumption. At the same time developing countries don’t
have enough resources to modern energy infrastructures. But in order for the countries to cope up
with their energy demand they are required to adjust on their energy sector.

Though there is a need for significant change for these situations, this led to depletion of ground
water which has gone to alerting level. And as a country that has rainy season, runoff from
rainwater is not maximized and being wasted. In which, we can do something to reuse it to
conserve tap water and keep our water bills low as well.

Moreover, climate change is directly affiliated on water resources which concerns human life
and human activities. Decreasing water quality and increasing frequency and intensity of floods
acts major challenges to our community. Radical changes and regional rainfall patterns will
affect the availability of water resources.

The impacts of climate change on water resources and water cycles in a certain community. As
well as the availability of water in sufficient and quality will have broad effects to community,
health, economic conditioning and especially on the environment.