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Atty. Rhoda Irene R. Alvar

A. Privacy of Communication (Section 3)

R.A. 4200 (Anti-Wire-Tapping Act)

Ramirez v. Court of Appeals, 248 SCRA 590-Champ Bontia
Gaanan v. Intermediate Appellate Court, 145 SCRA 112-Joseph Artfel Lazo II
Zulueta v. Court of Appeals 253 SCRA 699-Kim Florentino
Ople v. Torres, 293 SCRA 141, 1998-Nur Haron Parao
KMU v. Director-General, 487 SCRA 623, 2006-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa
SJS v. Dangerous Drugs Board, 570 SCRA 410, 2008-Jan Lawrence Olaco
Waterous Drug Corporation v. NLRC, G.R. No. 113271,October 16, 1997-Paulo Jose Villarin
In Re: Wenceslao Laureta, 148 SCRA 382-Enna Alilian
People v. Albofera,152 SCRA 123-Lyndzelle Jane Paniza

B. Freedom of Expression (Section 4)

1. Scope
2. Aspects: freedom from censorship or prior restraint; freedom from subsequent punishment

Tests of valid governmental interference:

1. Content-based restrictions: Dangerous tendency test, Clear and present danger test, Balancing
of interests test

Sanidad v. COMELEC, 181 SCRA 529, 1990-Stephanie Santoalla

Newsounds v. Dy, 583 SCRA 333, 2009-Manuel Alameda
NPC v. COMELEC, 207 SCRA 1, 1992-Jennica Gyrl Delfin
People v. Perez, 45 Phil 599, 1923-Arczft Ran Fuentes
Espuelas v. People, 90 Phil 524, 1951-Marynit Rivera
Chavez v. Gonzales, 555 SCRA 441, 2008-Cesar John dela Serna
Adiong v. COMELEC, 207 SCRA 712, 1992-Champ Bontia
Gonzales v. COMELEC, 27 SCRA 835, 1969-Joseph Artfel Lazo II

2. Content-neutral restrictions: O’Brien Test

Social Weather Stations v. Comelec, G.R. No. 147571, May 5, 2001-Kim Florentino
Osmena v. COMELEC, 288 SCRA, 447, 1998-Nur Haron Parao

Movie/Television Censorship
Gonzales v. Katigbak, 137 SCRA 717
Iglesia ni Cristo v. Court of Appeals, 259 SCRA 529-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa
Pita v. CA, 178 SCRA 362, 1989-Jan Lawrence Olaco
Viva Productions v. Court of Appeals and Hubert Webb, G.R. No. 123881, March 13,1997-Paulo Jose
MTRCB v. ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation, G.R. No. 155282, January 17, 2005-Enna Alilian

Public Figures
Lagunzad v. Sotto Vda. de Gonzales, 92 SCRA 476-Lyndzelle Jane Paniza
Ayer Productions v. Judge Capulong, 160 SCRA 861-Stephanie Santoalla
Phil Journalist v. Theonen, 477 SCRA 482, 2005-Manuel Alameda

Criticism Against Public Officials

Vasquez v. CA, 314 SCRA 460, 2000-Jennica Gyrl Delfin
Zaldivar v. Sandiganbayan, 170 SCRA 1, 1989-Arczft Ran Fuentes
In Re: Column Ramon Tulfo, AM No. 90-4-1545-0, April 7, 1990-Marynit Rivera

Media Practitioners
Lopez v. CA, 34 SCRA 116, 1970-Cesar John dela Serna
Eastern Broadcast v. Dans, 137 SCRA 356, 1985-Champ Bontia
Quisumbing v. Lopez, 96 Phil 510, 1955-Joseph Artfel Lazo II

Public Assembly
B.P. 880 – Public Assembly Act
De la Cruz v. Court of Appeals, G.R. Nos. 126183 & 129221, March 25, 1999-Kim Florentino
Bayan v. Ermita, 488 SCRA 226, 2006-Nur Haron Parao
Reyes v. Bagatsing, 125 SCRA 553, 1983-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa
Malabanan v. Remento, 129 SCRA 359, 1984-Jan Lawrence Olaco
Nestle Phil v. Sanchez, 154 SCRA 542, 1987-Paulo Jose Villarin
IBP v. Atienza, 613 SCRA 518, 2010-Enna Alilian

C. Freedom of Religion (Section 5)

Non-establishment clause
Aglipay v. Ruiz, 64 Phil 201, 1937-Lyndzelle Jane Paniza
Garces v. Estenzo, 104 SCRA 510, 1981-Stephanie Santoalla
Manosca v. CA, 252 SCRA 414, 1996-Manuel Alameda
Iglesia v. CA, 259 SCRA 529, 1996-Jennica Gyrl Delfin
Ang Mga Kaanib v. Iglesia, 372 SCRA 172, 2001-Arczft Ran Fuentes
Re: Request of Muslim, 477 SCRA 648, 2005-Marynit Rivera

Free Exercise Clause

Ebralinag v. Division Superintendent of Schools of Cebu, 219 SCRA 256 -Cesar John dela Serna
American Bible Society v. City of Manila, 101 Phil 386 -Champ Bontia
Centeno v. Villalon, 236 SCRA 197 -Joseph Artfel Lazo II
Victoriano v. Elizalde Rope Workers Union, 59 SCRA 54 -Kim Florentino
Estrada v. Escritor, A.M. No. P-02-1651, August 4, 2003-Nur Haron Parao
Pamil v. Teleron, 86 SCRA 413-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa

Intramural Dispute
Gonzales v. Archbishop of Manila, 51 Phil 420-Jan Lawrence Olaco
Fonacier v. Court of Appeals, 96 Phil 417-Paulo Jose Villarin
Austria v. NLRC and Central Philippine Union Mission Corporation of the Seventh Day Adventists, G.R.
No. 124382, August 16, 1999-Enna Alilian
Taruc v. Bishop Porfirio de la Cruz, G.R. No. 144801, March 10, 2005-Lyndzelle Jane Paniza

D. Liberty of abode and of travel (Section 6)

Liberty of Abode
1. Limitation – upon lawful order of the court
Villavicencio v. Lukban, 39 Phil 778, 1919-Stephanie Santoalla
Caunca v. Salazar, 82 Phil 851-Manuel Alameda

2. Art. 13, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and Art. 12,Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
- everyone has the right of freedom of movement and residence within the border of each State
Right to Travel
Mirasol v. DPWH, 490 SCRA 318, 2006-Jennica Gyrl Delfin
Yap Jr v CA, 358 SCRA 564, 2001-Arczft Ran Fuentes
Manotoc v CA, 142 SCRA 149, 1987-Marynit Rivera
Marcos v Manglapuz, 177 SCRA 668, 1989-Enna Alilian
Imelda Romualdez Marcos v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 115132, August 9, 1995-Cesar John dela

E. Right to Information (Section 7)

Chavez v. PEA and Amari, G.R. No. 133250, July 9, 2002-Champ Bontia
Garcia v. Board of Investments, 177 SCRA 374-Joseph Artfel Lazo II
Legaspi v. CSC, 150 SCRA 530, 1986-Kim Florentino
Chavez v. PCGG, 299 SCRA 744, 1998-Nur Haron Parao
Gonzales v. Narvasa, 337 SCRA 733, 2000-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa
Senate v. Ermita, 488 SCRA 1, 2006-Jan Lawrence Olaco
Vda de Urbano v. GSIS, 367 SCRA 672, 2001-Paulo Jose Villarin
Bantay RA 7941 v. Comelec, 523 SCRA 1, 2007-Enna Alilian

F. Right to Form Associations (Section 8)

Volkschel Labor Union v. Bureau of Labor Relation, 137 SCRA 42-Lyndzelle Jane Paniza
Central Negros Electric Cooperative v. Secretary of Labor, 201 SCRA 584-Stephanie Santoalla
Bel air v Dionisio, 174 SCRA 589, 1989-Manuel Alameda
Jacinto v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 124540, November 4, 1997-Jennica Gyrl Delfin
Sta Clara v. Gaston, 374 SCRA 399, 2002-Arczft Ran Fuentes
GSIS v. Kapisanan ng mga Manggagawa sa GSIS, G.R. No. 170132, December 6 2006-Marynit Rivera
In Re: Edilion, 84 SCRA 554-Cesar John dela Serna

G. Non-Impairment clause (Section 10)

Philippine Rural Electric Cooperatives Association v. Secretary, G.R. No. 143076, 2003-Champ Bontia
PNB v. Remigio, G.R. No. 78508, March 21, 1994-Joseph Artfel Lazo II
Ortigas v. FeatiBank, 94 SCRA 533-Kim Florentino
United BF v. City Mayor, 515 SCRA 1, 2007-Nur Haron Parao
Beltran v. Secretary, 476 SCRA 168, 2005-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa
PICOP v. Base Metals, 510 SCRA 400, 2006-Jan Lawrence Olaco
Banat v. Comelec, 595 SCRA 477, 2009-Paulo Jose Villarin

H. Free Access to Courts (Section 11)

This is a social justice provision, implemented by the Rules of Court provision allowing “pauper suits”
Acar v. Rosal, 19 SCRA 625, 1967-Enna Alilian
Martinez v. People, 332 SCRA 694, 2000-Lyndzelle Jane Paniza

I. Custodial Investigation (Section 12)

Miranda doctrine: Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436-Stephanie Santoalla

Read R.A. 7438
People v. Judge Ayson, 175 SCRA 216-Manuel Alameda
People v. de la Cruz, G.R. No. 118866-68, September 17, 1997-Jennica Gyrl Delfin
People v. Paynor, 261 SCRA 615-Arczft Ran Fuentes

People v. Arondain, 366 SCRA 98, 2001-Marynit Rivera

People v. Tan, 286 SCRA 207, 1998-Cesar John dela Serna
People v. Bravo, 318 SCRA 812, 1999-Champ Bontia
People v. Bariquit, 341 SCRA 600, 2000-Joseph Artfel Lazo II
People v. Malngan, 503 SCRA 204, 2006-Kim Florentino
People v. Quidato, 297 SCRA 1, 1998-Nur Haron Parao
People v. Mojello, 425 SCRA 11, 2005-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa
Gutang v. People, 335 SCRA 479, 2000-Jan Lawrence Olaco
Ladiano v. People, 393 SCRA 419, 2002-Paulo Jose Villarin

1. Miranda rule not applicable to confessions executed before the 1973 Constitution (January
17, 1973)
Filoteo v. Sandiganbayan, 263 SCRA 222, 1996-Enna Alilian

2. Not applicable to res gestae statements

People v. Dy, 158 SCRA 111, 1988-Lyndzelle Jane Paniza

3. Not applicable to statements given in administrative investigations

People v. Ayson, 175 SCRA 216, 1989-Stephanie Santoalla
Sebastian v Garchitorena, 343 SCRA 463, 2000-Manuel Alameda
People v Ting Lan Uy, 475 SCRA 248, 2005-Jennica Gyrl Delfin

4. Not applicable in police line-ups

People v. Bravo, G.R. No. 135562, November 22, 1999-Arczft Ran Fuentes
People v. Piedad, G.R. No. 131923, December 5, 2002-Marynit Rivera
People v. Pavillare, 329 SCRA 684, 2000-Cesar John dela Serna

5. Not applicable to statements made to private individuals

People v. Taboga, 376 SCRA 505, 2002-Champ Bontia
People v. Endino, 352 SCRA 307, 2001-Joseph Artfel Lazo II
People v. Salonga, 359 SCRA 310, 2001-Kim Florentino-Nur Haron Parao


1. To remain silent

2. To competent and independent counsel (preferably of his own choice)

People v. Barasina, 229 SCRA 450, 1993-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa
People v. Parohinog, 203 SCRA 673, 1991 -Jan Lawrence Olaco
People v. Morial, 363 SCRA 96, 2001 -Paulo Jose Villarin
People v. Matos-Viduya, 189 SCRA 409, 1990-Enna Alilian
People v. Culala, 316 SCRA 582, 1999 -Lyndzelle Jane Paniza
People v. Velarde, 384 SCRA 646, 2002 -Stephanie Santoalla
People v. Labtan, 320 SCRA 140, 1999-Manuel Alameda
People v. Obero, 332 SCRA 190, 2000-Jennica Gyrl Delfin

3. To be informed of such rights

People v. Caguioa, 95 SCRA 2, 1980-Arczft Ran Fuentes
People v. Canela, 208 SCRA 842, 1992-Marynit Rivera
People v. Casimiro, 383 SCRA 390, 2002-Cesar John dela Serna
People v. Sayaboc, 419 SCRA 659, 2004-Champ Bontia
People v. Bagnate, 428 SCRA 633, 2004-Joseph Artfel Lazo II

4. Rights cannot be waived except in writing and signed by the person in the presence of his
Morales v. Ponce Enrile, 121 SCRA 583, 1983-Nur Haron Parao
People v. Galit, 135 SCRA 465, 1985-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa
Santos v. Sandiganbayan, 347 SCRA 386, 2000-Jan Lawrence Olaco
People v Gonzales, 382 SCRA 714, 2002-Paulo Jose Villarin

5. No torture, force, etc. which vitiates the free will shall be used
People v. Bagnate, G.R. Nos. 133685-86, May 20, 2004-Enna Alilian

6. Secret detention places, etc. are prohibited

7. Confessions/admissions obtained in violation of rights are inadmissible in evidence

(exclusionary rule)
People v. Andan, 269 SCRA 95, 1997-Lyndzelle Jane Paniza
Marcelo v. Sandiganbayan, 302 SCRA 102, 1999 -Stephanie Santoalla
People v. Ramirez, 169 SCRA 711, 1989-Manuel Alameda
People v. Janson, 400 SCRA 584, 2003-Jennica Gyrl Delfin
People v. Luvendino, 211 SCRA 36-Arczft Ran Fuentes

1. Must be in writing and made in presence of counsel
People v. Tunday, 157 SCRA 529-Marynit Rivera

2. No retroactive effect
Morales v. Ponce Enrile, 121 SCRA 583, 1983-Cesar John dela Serna
People v. Galit, 135 SCRA 465, 1985-Champ Bontia

3. Burden of proof
People v. Jara, 144 SCRA 516-Joseph Artfel Lazo II
People v. Paule, 261 SCRA 649-Nur Haron Parao

4. What may be waived

Guidelines for Arresting/Investigating Officers

People v. Mahinay, G.R. No. 122485, February 1, 1999-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa

J. Right to Bail (Section 13)

See Rule 114, Revised Rules on Criminal Procedure

People v. Fitzgerald, G.R. No.149723, October 27, 2006-Jan Lawrence Olaco

Manotoc v. CA, 142 SCRA 149, 1987-Paulo Jose Villarin
Government v. Purganan, 389 SCRA 623, 2002-Enna Alilian
Rodriguez v. Presiding Judge, 483 SCRA 290, 2006-Lyndzelle Jane Paniza
Government v. Olalia Jr, 521 SCRA 470, 2007-Stephanie Santoalla
Comendador v. de Villa, 200 SCRA 80 -Manuel Alameda
Arula v. Espino, 28 SCRA 540-Jennica Gyrl Delfin
People v. Donato, 198 SCRA 130, 1991-Arczft Ran Fuentes
People v. Manes, 303 SCRA 231, 1999-Marynit Rivera

Bail as a matter of right, or when bail is discretionary

Sec. 4 and 5, Rule 114, Revised Rules on Criminal Procedure
People v. Donato, 198 SCRA 130, 1991-Cesar John dela Serna
Lardizabal v. Reyes, 238 SCRA 640, 1994-Champ Bontia
People v. Sandiganbayan, 529 SCRA 764, 2007-Joseph Artfel Lazo II
People v. Fitzgerald, 505 SCRA 573, 2006-Nur Haron Parao
Enrile v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 213847, August 18, 2015-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa

Standards for fixing bail

Sec. 9, Rule 114, Revised Rules on Criminal Procedure
Dela Camara v Enage, 41 SCRA 130, 1971-Jan Lawrence Olaco
Yap Jr v. CA, 358 SCRA 564, 2001-Paulo Jose Villarin