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CONSTITUTIONAL LAW 2

Atty. Rhoda Irene R. Alvar

A. Privacy of Communication (Section 3)

R.A. 4200 (Anti-Wire-Tapping Act)


Ramirez v. Court of Appeals, 248 SCRA 590-Champ Bontia
Gaanan v. Intermediate Appellate Court, 145 SCRA 112-Joseph Artfel Lazo II
Zulueta v. Court of Appeals 253 SCRA 699-Kim Florentino
Ople v. Torres, 293 SCRA 141, 1998-Nur Haron Parao
KMU v. Director-General, 487 SCRA 623, 2006-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa
SJS v. Dangerous Drugs Board, 570 SCRA 410, 2008-Jan Lawrence Olaco
Waterous Drug Corporation v. NLRC, G.R. No. 113271,October 16, 1997-Paulo Jose Villarin
In Re: Wenceslao Laureta, 148 SCRA 382-Enna Alilian
People v. Albofera,152 SCRA 123-Lyndzelle Jane Paniza

B. Freedom of Expression (Section 4)


1. Scope
2. Aspects: freedom from censorship or prior restraint; freedom from subsequent punishment

Tests of valid governmental interference:


1. Content-based restrictions: Dangerous tendency test, Clear and present danger test, Balancing
of interests test

Sanidad v. COMELEC, 181 SCRA 529, 1990-Stephanie Santoalla


Newsounds v. Dy, 583 SCRA 333, 2009-Manuel Alameda
NPC v. COMELEC, 207 SCRA 1, 1992-Jennica Gyrl Delfin
People v. Perez, 45 Phil 599, 1923-Arczft Ran Fuentes
Espuelas v. People, 90 Phil 524, 1951-Marynit Rivera
Chavez v. Gonzales, 555 SCRA 441, 2008-Cesar John dela Serna
Adiong v. COMELEC, 207 SCRA 712, 1992-Champ Bontia
Gonzales v. COMELEC, 27 SCRA 835, 1969-Joseph Artfel Lazo II

2. Content-neutral restrictions: O’Brien Test


Social Weather Stations v. Comelec, G.R. No. 147571, May 5, 2001-Kim Florentino
Osmena v. COMELEC, 288 SCRA, 447, 1998-Nur Haron Parao

Movie/Television Censorship
Gonzales v. Katigbak, 137 SCRA 717
Iglesia ni Cristo v. Court of Appeals, 259 SCRA 529-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa
Pita v. CA, 178 SCRA 362, 1989-Jan Lawrence Olaco
Viva Productions v. Court of Appeals and Hubert Webb, G.R. No. 123881, March 13,1997-Paulo Jose
Villarin
MTRCB v. ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation, G.R. No. 155282, January 17, 2005-Enna Alilian

Public Figures
Lagunzad v. Sotto Vda. de Gonzales, 92 SCRA 476-Lyndzelle Jane Paniza
Ayer Productions v. Judge Capulong, 160 SCRA 861-Stephanie Santoalla
Phil Journalist v. Theonen, 477 SCRA 482, 2005-Manuel Alameda

Criticism Against Public Officials


Vasquez v. CA, 314 SCRA 460, 2000-Jennica Gyrl Delfin
Zaldivar v. Sandiganbayan, 170 SCRA 1, 1989-Arczft Ran Fuentes
In Re: Column Ramon Tulfo, AM No. 90-4-1545-0, April 7, 1990-Marynit Rivera

Media Practitioners
Lopez v. CA, 34 SCRA 116, 1970-Cesar John dela Serna
Eastern Broadcast v. Dans, 137 SCRA 356, 1985-Champ Bontia
Quisumbing v. Lopez, 96 Phil 510, 1955-Joseph Artfel Lazo II

Public Assembly
B.P. 880 – Public Assembly Act
De la Cruz v. Court of Appeals, G.R. Nos. 126183 & 129221, March 25, 1999-Kim Florentino
Bayan v. Ermita, 488 SCRA 226, 2006-Nur Haron Parao
Reyes v. Bagatsing, 125 SCRA 553, 1983-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa
Malabanan v. Remento, 129 SCRA 359, 1984-Jan Lawrence Olaco
Nestle Phil v. Sanchez, 154 SCRA 542, 1987-Paulo Jose Villarin
IBP v. Atienza, 613 SCRA 518, 2010-Enna Alilian

C. Freedom of Religion (Section 5)

Non-establishment clause
Aglipay v. Ruiz, 64 Phil 201, 1937-Lyndzelle Jane Paniza
Garces v. Estenzo, 104 SCRA 510, 1981-Stephanie Santoalla
Manosca v. CA, 252 SCRA 414, 1996-Manuel Alameda
Iglesia v. CA, 259 SCRA 529, 1996-Jennica Gyrl Delfin
Ang Mga Kaanib v. Iglesia, 372 SCRA 172, 2001-Arczft Ran Fuentes
Re: Request of Muslim, 477 SCRA 648, 2005-Marynit Rivera

Free Exercise Clause


Ebralinag v. Division Superintendent of Schools of Cebu, 219 SCRA 256 -Cesar John dela Serna
American Bible Society v. City of Manila, 101 Phil 386 -Champ Bontia
Centeno v. Villalon, 236 SCRA 197 -Joseph Artfel Lazo II
Victoriano v. Elizalde Rope Workers Union, 59 SCRA 54 -Kim Florentino
Estrada v. Escritor, A.M. No. P-02-1651, August 4, 2003-Nur Haron Parao
Pamil v. Teleron, 86 SCRA 413-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa

Intramural Dispute
Gonzales v. Archbishop of Manila, 51 Phil 420-Jan Lawrence Olaco
Fonacier v. Court of Appeals, 96 Phil 417-Paulo Jose Villarin
Austria v. NLRC and Central Philippine Union Mission Corporation of the Seventh Day Adventists, G.R.
No. 124382, August 16, 1999-Enna Alilian
Taruc v. Bishop Porfirio de la Cruz, G.R. No. 144801, March 10, 2005-Lyndzelle Jane Paniza

D. Liberty of abode and of travel (Section 6)

Liberty of Abode
1. Limitation – upon lawful order of the court
Villavicencio v. Lukban, 39 Phil 778, 1919-Stephanie Santoalla
Caunca v. Salazar, 82 Phil 851-Manuel Alameda

2. Art. 13, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and Art. 12,Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
- everyone has the right of freedom of movement and residence within the border of each State
Right to Travel
Mirasol v. DPWH, 490 SCRA 318, 2006-Jennica Gyrl Delfin
Yap Jr v CA, 358 SCRA 564, 2001-Arczft Ran Fuentes
Manotoc v CA, 142 SCRA 149, 1987-Marynit Rivera
Marcos v Manglapuz, 177 SCRA 668, 1989-Enna Alilian
Imelda Romualdez Marcos v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 115132, August 9, 1995-Cesar John dela
Serna

E. Right to Information (Section 7)


Chavez v. PEA and Amari, G.R. No. 133250, July 9, 2002-Champ Bontia
Garcia v. Board of Investments, 177 SCRA 374-Joseph Artfel Lazo II
Legaspi v. CSC, 150 SCRA 530, 1986-Kim Florentino
Chavez v. PCGG, 299 SCRA 744, 1998-Nur Haron Parao
Gonzales v. Narvasa, 337 SCRA 733, 2000-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa
Senate v. Ermita, 488 SCRA 1, 2006-Jan Lawrence Olaco
Vda de Urbano v. GSIS, 367 SCRA 672, 2001-Paulo Jose Villarin
Bantay RA 7941 v. Comelec, 523 SCRA 1, 2007-Enna Alilian

F. Right to Form Associations (Section 8)


Volkschel Labor Union v. Bureau of Labor Relation, 137 SCRA 42-Lyndzelle Jane Paniza
Central Negros Electric Cooperative v. Secretary of Labor, 201 SCRA 584-Stephanie Santoalla
Bel air v Dionisio, 174 SCRA 589, 1989-Manuel Alameda
Jacinto v. Court of Appeals, G.R. No. 124540, November 4, 1997-Jennica Gyrl Delfin
Sta Clara v. Gaston, 374 SCRA 399, 2002-Arczft Ran Fuentes
GSIS v. Kapisanan ng mga Manggagawa sa GSIS, G.R. No. 170132, December 6 2006-Marynit Rivera
In Re: Edilion, 84 SCRA 554-Cesar John dela Serna

G. Non-Impairment clause (Section 10)


Philippine Rural Electric Cooperatives Association v. Secretary, G.R. No. 143076, 2003-Champ Bontia
PNB v. Remigio, G.R. No. 78508, March 21, 1994-Joseph Artfel Lazo II
Ortigas v. FeatiBank, 94 SCRA 533-Kim Florentino
United BF v. City Mayor, 515 SCRA 1, 2007-Nur Haron Parao
Beltran v. Secretary, 476 SCRA 168, 2005-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa
PICOP v. Base Metals, 510 SCRA 400, 2006-Jan Lawrence Olaco
Banat v. Comelec, 595 SCRA 477, 2009-Paulo Jose Villarin

H. Free Access to Courts (Section 11)


This is a social justice provision, implemented by the Rules of Court provision allowing “pauper suits”
Acar v. Rosal, 19 SCRA 625, 1967-Enna Alilian
Martinez v. People, 332 SCRA 694, 2000-Lyndzelle Jane Paniza

I. Custodial Investigation (Section 12)

Miranda doctrine: Miranda v. Arizona, 384 U.S. 436-Stephanie Santoalla


Read R.A. 7438
People v. Judge Ayson, 175 SCRA 216-Manuel Alameda
People v. de la Cruz, G.R. No. 118866-68, September 17, 1997-Jennica Gyrl Delfin
People v. Paynor, 261 SCRA 615-Arczft Ran Fuentes

People v. Arondain, 366 SCRA 98, 2001-Marynit Rivera


People v. Tan, 286 SCRA 207, 1998-Cesar John dela Serna
People v. Bravo, 318 SCRA 812, 1999-Champ Bontia
People v. Bariquit, 341 SCRA 600, 2000-Joseph Artfel Lazo II
People v. Malngan, 503 SCRA 204, 2006-Kim Florentino
People v. Quidato, 297 SCRA 1, 1998-Nur Haron Parao
People v. Mojello, 425 SCRA 11, 2005-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa
Gutang v. People, 335 SCRA 479, 2000-Jan Lawrence Olaco
Ladiano v. People, 393 SCRA 419, 2002-Paulo Jose Villarin

1. Miranda rule not applicable to confessions executed before the 1973 Constitution (January
17, 1973)
Filoteo v. Sandiganbayan, 263 SCRA 222, 1996-Enna Alilian

2. Not applicable to res gestae statements


People v. Dy, 158 SCRA 111, 1988-Lyndzelle Jane Paniza

3. Not applicable to statements given in administrative investigations


People v. Ayson, 175 SCRA 216, 1989-Stephanie Santoalla
Sebastian v Garchitorena, 343 SCRA 463, 2000-Manuel Alameda
People v Ting Lan Uy, 475 SCRA 248, 2005-Jennica Gyrl Delfin

4. Not applicable in police line-ups


People v. Bravo, G.R. No. 135562, November 22, 1999-Arczft Ran Fuentes
People v. Piedad, G.R. No. 131923, December 5, 2002-Marynit Rivera
People v. Pavillare, 329 SCRA 684, 2000-Cesar John dela Serna

5. Not applicable to statements made to private individuals


People v. Taboga, 376 SCRA 505, 2002-Champ Bontia
People v. Endino, 352 SCRA 307, 2001-Joseph Artfel Lazo II
People v. Salonga, 359 SCRA 310, 2001-Kim Florentino-Nur Haron Parao

WHAT RIGHTS ARE AVAILABLE


1. To remain silent

2. To competent and independent counsel (preferably of his own choice)


People v. Barasina, 229 SCRA 450, 1993-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa
People v. Parohinog, 203 SCRA 673, 1991 -Jan Lawrence Olaco
People v. Morial, 363 SCRA 96, 2001 -Paulo Jose Villarin
People v. Matos-Viduya, 189 SCRA 409, 1990-Enna Alilian
People v. Culala, 316 SCRA 582, 1999 -Lyndzelle Jane Paniza
People v. Velarde, 384 SCRA 646, 2002 -Stephanie Santoalla
People v. Labtan, 320 SCRA 140, 1999-Manuel Alameda
People v. Obero, 332 SCRA 190, 2000-Jennica Gyrl Delfin

3. To be informed of such rights


People v. Caguioa, 95 SCRA 2, 1980-Arczft Ran Fuentes
People v. Canela, 208 SCRA 842, 1992-Marynit Rivera
People v. Casimiro, 383 SCRA 390, 2002-Cesar John dela Serna
People v. Sayaboc, 419 SCRA 659, 2004-Champ Bontia
People v. Bagnate, 428 SCRA 633, 2004-Joseph Artfel Lazo II

4. Rights cannot be waived except in writing and signed by the person in the presence of his
counsel
Morales v. Ponce Enrile, 121 SCRA 583, 1983-Nur Haron Parao
People v. Galit, 135 SCRA 465, 1985-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa
Santos v. Sandiganbayan, 347 SCRA 386, 2000-Jan Lawrence Olaco
People v Gonzales, 382 SCRA 714, 2002-Paulo Jose Villarin

5. No torture, force, etc. which vitiates the free will shall be used
People v. Bagnate, G.R. Nos. 133685-86, May 20, 2004-Enna Alilian

6. Secret detention places, etc. are prohibited

7. Confessions/admissions obtained in violation of rights are inadmissible in evidence


(exclusionary rule)
People v. Andan, 269 SCRA 95, 1997-Lyndzelle Jane Paniza
Marcelo v. Sandiganbayan, 302 SCRA 102, 1999 -Stephanie Santoalla
People v. Ramirez, 169 SCRA 711, 1989-Manuel Alameda
People v. Janson, 400 SCRA 584, 2003-Jennica Gyrl Delfin
People v. Luvendino, 211 SCRA 36-Arczft Ran Fuentes

Waiver
1. Must be in writing and made in presence of counsel
People v. Tunday, 157 SCRA 529-Marynit Rivera

2. No retroactive effect
Morales v. Ponce Enrile, 121 SCRA 583, 1983-Cesar John dela Serna
People v. Galit, 135 SCRA 465, 1985-Champ Bontia

3. Burden of proof
People v. Jara, 144 SCRA 516-Joseph Artfel Lazo II
People v. Paule, 261 SCRA 649-Nur Haron Parao

4. What may be waived

Guidelines for Arresting/Investigating Officers


People v. Mahinay, G.R. No. 122485, February 1, 1999-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa

J. Right to Bail (Section 13)


See Rule 114, Revised Rules on Criminal Procedure

People v. Fitzgerald, G.R. No.149723, October 27, 2006-Jan Lawrence Olaco


Manotoc v. CA, 142 SCRA 149, 1987-Paulo Jose Villarin
Government v. Purganan, 389 SCRA 623, 2002-Enna Alilian
Rodriguez v. Presiding Judge, 483 SCRA 290, 2006-Lyndzelle Jane Paniza
Government v. Olalia Jr, 521 SCRA 470, 2007-Stephanie Santoalla
Comendador v. de Villa, 200 SCRA 80 -Manuel Alameda
Arula v. Espino, 28 SCRA 540-Jennica Gyrl Delfin
People v. Donato, 198 SCRA 130, 1991-Arczft Ran Fuentes
People v. Manes, 303 SCRA 231, 1999-Marynit Rivera

Bail as a matter of right, or when bail is discretionary


Sec. 4 and 5, Rule 114, Revised Rules on Criminal Procedure
People v. Donato, 198 SCRA 130, 1991-Cesar John dela Serna
Lardizabal v. Reyes, 238 SCRA 640, 1994-Champ Bontia
People v. Sandiganbayan, 529 SCRA 764, 2007-Joseph Artfel Lazo II
People v. Fitzgerald, 505 SCRA 573, 2006-Nur Haron Parao
Enrile v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 213847, August 18, 2015-Alexand Rhea Villahermosa

Standards for fixing bail


Sec. 9, Rule 114, Revised Rules on Criminal Procedure
Dela Camara v Enage, 41 SCRA 130, 1971-Jan Lawrence Olaco
Yap Jr v. CA, 358 SCRA 564, 2001-Paulo Jose Villarin

K.