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The Technical and Economic Efficiency of


Using Conductors with Composite Core in the
Transmission Grid
S. Berjozkina, A. Sauhats, V. Bargels, E. Vanzovichs

of the Baltic IPS is integration into the Western European


Abstract—There have been various suggestions for improving electricity market, along with the development of regional co-
existing power line networks with the purpose of increasing their operation [1].
throughput capacity as well as the reliability of power supply. The Baltic States have a purpose to fully open their
This is an important problem that must be considered, especially
electricity market by 2013, which gives a possibility for
if the transmission grid requires the prospective expansion of
new electrical connections. Therefore, the use of High healthier market competition with other European Union
Temperature Low Sag conductors replacing the traditional type member states [2]. However, the low level of capital
conductors can be one of the possible solutions for the posed investments in the building of new transmission lines reduces
problem. the chances of achieving the desirable result.
The paper deals with a comparative analysis of the technical On the one hand, transmission grid expansion will be
(mechanical and heating limitations) and economic efficiency of required both from national and international aspects. Some
using conductors of different types, which is based on two actual
reasons have to be described. Firstly, the significant impact of
overhead line models; both examples are existing lines of the
Latvian power network. The results of the evaluation, which are renewable energy sources, which are expected to dominate
based on the particular calculation conditions, are presented in Europe’s energy supply in a sustainable future energy system
this paper. [3], for example, the sharp increase in the use of wind power
plants. Secondly, the impact of important players such as the
Index Terms- Costs, cost benefit analysis, power transmission, Russian Federation, which is expected to increase its
parameter estimation, transmission line. generation capacities by the construction of a nuclear power
plant (NPP) in Kaliningrad, as well as the Belarus power plant
I. NOMENCLATURE
and Visaginas NPP in Lithuania. Besides, expansion of the
ACCC Aluminium Conductor Composite Core. transmission grid is planned in near future as a result of its
ACCR Aluminium Conductor Composite Reinforced. interconnection it with the Polish power system, which is
ACSR Aluminium Conductor Steel Reinforced. important for the cross-border transmission project between
AS Aluminium Steel Conductor. Lithuania and Poland [4]. Another solution is to utilize new
GTACSR Gap Construction Thermal Resistant transmission line projects in the operation of the grid, like the
Aluminium Alloy Conductor Steel Reinforced. construction of the planned “Kurzeme Ring” – an energy
HTLS High Temperature Low Sag Conductor. infrastructure project in Latvia, which is part of the larger
NordBalt project, with the purpose of establishing the
II. INTRODUCTION interconnection Latvia – Estonia – Sweden for improving the

T HE joint Interconnection of the Power Systems of Estonia,


Latvia and Lithuania as a united power pool (the Baltic
IPS) includes the state–owned power systems of Estonia and
power supply reliability in the Baltic countries [5]. However,
such implementation is a very complicated process with
various factors and prospects to be taken into account.
Latvia as well as Lithuania’s TSO. One of the main objectives On the other hand, it is possible to use the existing
infrastructure of the transmission grid with maximum
This work has been supported by the European Social Fund within the extension of new technologies into the existing power line
project «Support for the implementation of doctoral studies at Riga Technical systems. Upgrading of the existing transmission lines is an
University».
S. Berjozkina is with the Faculty of Power and Electrical Engineering, important subject, which has been widely discussed in the
Riga Technical University, Riga, LV-1010 Latvia recent decades. There have been different propositions for
(e-mail: svetlana.berjozkina@gmail.com). implementing this concept with maximum use of line, for
A. Sauhats is with the Faculty of Power and Electrical Engineering, Riga
Technical University, Riga, LV-1010 Latvia (e-mail: sauhatas@eef.rtu.lv).
example, reconstruction of the overhead line for a higher
V. Bargels is with joint stock Company Siltumelektroprojekts, Riga, LV- voltage, replacing the existing conductors by ones with a
1001 Latvia (e-mail: bargel@sep.lv). larger cross-section, installation of series and shunt
E. Vanzovichs is with the Faculty of Power and Electrical Engineering,
Riga Technical University, Riga, LV-1010 Latvia (e-mail:
compensations [6], [7], construction of new supply
vanzovic@eef.rtu.lv). substations, using control devices for the power network,
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increasing the permissible load current [8]. existing conductor AS-400/51 of the examined line, which are
The task set for the proposed study is to consider the taken as the basis for the simulation task. The technical data of
profitable opportunity of replacing the original power the conductors are presented in Table I.
conductor (AS) with a HTLS conductor [9], [10], [11] as well
as increasing the operational efficiency and reliability of the TABLE I
TECHNICAL DATA OF EXAMINED CONDUCTORS FOR LN 355
grid with the purpose of enlarging the efficient investments in
Sym- Quantity Unit AS- “Brus- “Wa- “Red-
the transmission grid. The presented solution allows winning bol 400/51 sels” bash” wing”
for both sides; firstly, this implementation includes increasing d Conductor diameter mm 27.5 25.14 25.2 27.3
the throughput capacity of the existing network of the Baltic s Conductor cross-section mm2 445.1 469.72 449 447.6
region in normal mode with less capital investment; secondly, E Conductor GPa 77 73.6 73.5 87.4
modulus of elasticity
it improves and extends the market-based relationships with α Coefficient of linear 1 /°C 19.8/ 19.19/ 16.4/ 18.2/
the other European countries. In this way, the first step expansion 106 106 106 106
towards the development of an integrated EU electricity P1 Conductor linear load kg/m 1.49 1.25 1.26 1.67
market and the improvement of power supply reliability will Y1 Conductor reduced kg/m x 3.35/ 2.67/ 2.79/ 3.72/
specific load mm2 103 103 103 103
be accomplished.
P4 Linear load of maximum kg/m 1.028 0.94 0.942 1.021
The evaluation of the described suggestion was based on a wind
comparison of two existing Latvian power lines, which play a P3 Linear load of conductor kg/m 2.868 2.544 2.549 3.037
significant role in the interconnections of the existing Baltic weight and ice weight
transmission network. The estimation results are reviewed and N Conductor quantity in pcs. 2 1 1 1
phase
discussed in the paper.
σd Destructive mechanical N 112.8 105.9 111.8 111.8
stress
III. THE INITIAL DATA OF THE OVERHEAD LINE ROUTES
For technical and economic comparison purposes, two The conductor “Brussels” is of the ACCC type, the
existing overhead lines of the Latvian transmission network conductor “Wabash” is of the ACCR type, and the last of the
were chosen. selected conductors, “Redwing”, is a GTACSR.
The traditional type conductor AS-400/51 consists of a
A. The Overhead Line Route – LN 355
steel core and aluminium strands (see Fig. 2).
The model of the transmission line, named “Valmiera-
Plavinu HES” or LN 355 (see Fig. 1) has been selected
because of the main aim of increasing the throughput capacity
and reliability of power supply of the country from a national Fig. 2. The cross-section of an AS conductor
perspective.
The ACCC conductor consists of a hybrid carbon and glass
fiber core, which is stranded with trapezoidal shaped
aluminium strands (see Fig. 3). The high-strength structural
core carries most of the conductor’s mechanical load, while
the fully annealed aluminium strands carry all of the
conductor’s electrical current. The resin serves to bond the
individual fibers together, which helps transfer and share the
tensile and shear loads between them. The carbon fibers
provide an exceptionally high level of tensile strength and a
low thermal expansion coefficient, while the glass fibers
improve the core’s flexural strength, provide impact
resistance, and prevent galvanic response between the carbon
fibers and the aluminum strands [13]. Besides, the glass fiber
prevents the carbon fiber from high temperature damages so
the operation temperature can be increased.
The composite core is by about 70% lighter and 40%
Fig. 1. Electrical diagram of the existing overhead line LN 355 stronger than conventional steel core, which allows the
incorporation of 20% to 30% more conductive aluminium
The described conductors were selected taking into without a weight or diameter penalty; as a result, the line
account technical parameters, firstly, cross section area – losses are reduced and longer spans between supports are
aluminium, secondly, the ampacity of the particular conductor. applied, reducing the total investments of the overall project
Therefore, as the existing conductor is an aluminium steel [14].
conductor AS-400/51, then HTLS conductors with similar
corresponding parameters were selected [12].
There are four different conductor types, including the
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B. The Overhead Line Route – LN 309


The transmission line model, named “Pleskava–Rezekne”
or LN 309 (see Fig. 6), is taken because of the main purpose
of increasing the throughput capacity of a 330 kV intersystem
transit between Latvia and Estonia from an international
perspective.

Fig. 3. The cross-section of an ACCC conductor

The ACCR conductor relies only on aluminium-based


materials. The core strands are composed of wires formed
from aluminium oxide fibers embedded in high purity
aluminium (see Fig. 4). This type of material is called a fiber
reinforced metal matrix. It contains no polymers or plastic.

Fig. 6. The electrical diagram of the existing overhead line LN 309

Fig. 4. The cross-section of an ACCR conductor


There are four different conductor types, including the
existing conductor AS-240/32 of the examined line, which are
ACCR core is a revolutionary aluminium alloy that has the taken as the basis for the simulation task. The technical data of
strength and stiffness of steel with a lower coefficient of the conductors are presented in Table II.
thermal expansion and less weight. The core is composed of
TABLE II
aluminium composite wires, surrounded by hardened, TECHNICAL DATA OF EXAMINED CONDUCTORS FOR LN 309
temperature-resistant aluminium-zirconium. The aluminuim- Sym- Quantity Unit AS- “Casa- “Glas- “Hawk
zirconium may be heated to high temperatures without bol 240/32 blanca” gow” 477”
softening (annealing). Thus, when the aluminium-zirconium d Conductor diameter mm 21.6 20.5 19.53 21.6
s Conductor cross-section mm2 275.7 309.74 284.42 277
alloy cools to ambient temperatures, it keeps the aluminium
E Conductor GPa 77 74.5 76.4 78
mechanical resistance and improves its high temperature modulus of elasticity
operating capacity [15]. α Coefficient of linear 1 /°C 19.8/ 18.63/ 17.49/ 16.7/
Concerning the GTACSR, it is a unique conductor to up- expansion 106 106 106 106
rate the existing transmission line's capacity with similar sag P1 Conductor linear load kg/m 0.921 0.823 0.743 0.793
Y1 Conductor reduced kg/m x 3.34/ 2.66/ 2.61/ 2.86/
by simply replacing the existing ACSR. It has a gap filled with
specific load mm2 103 103 103 103
grease between the core and the aluminum strand, therefore P4 Linear load of maximum kg/m 0.808 0.767 0.797 0.808
being stable at high temperature aluminium can slide over the wind
core. As a result the whole stress is supported by the core, P3 Linear load of conductor kg/m 1.814 1.685 1.578 1.686
when the conductor exceeds installation temperature (see Fig. weight and ice weight
N Conductor quantity in pcs. 2 1 1 1
5) [16]. phase
σd Destructive mechanical N 122.6 144.2 176.5 136.3
stress

The presented conductors were selected in a similar way as


for the overhead line route LN 355, yet in this case the
existing conductor is AS-240/32; the conductors “Casablanca”
and “Glasgow” are of the ACCC type, whereas “Hawk 477” is
of the ACCR type. All the technical characteristics of each
conductor type have been described previously for line route
LN 355.
Based on the initial data of the two particular overhead line
1 – Thermal –resistant aluminium alloy; 2 – Gap filled with grease; routes, the evaluation of the technical and economic efficiency
3 – Galvanized steel of the examined conductors was presented.
Fig. 5. The cross-section of a GTACSR conductor
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IV. EVALUATION OF THE TECHNICAL EFFICIENCY OF THE case of “Redwing” (8.25 m), because of the smallest clearance
EXAMINED CONDUCTORS span (Lcl.) of “Redwing” – only 325.9 m.
For calculation purposes, the weather conditions in the Secondly, the thermal limitations are described. In this case
transmission line route area are assumed as follows: it is necessary to determine the phase cross-section of each
1. Wind pressure: 40 kg/m2 (wind region II); conductor according to the allowable long-term current.
2. Ice thickness: 10 mm (icing region II); For the comparison purposes, the throughput capacity of
3. Minimum air temperature: –40°С; 1200A of the examined power line LN 355 was installed.
4. Maximum air temperature: +35°С; Firstly, it is known that the allowable long-term current of
5. Average operating temperature: +5°С [17]. the conductor АS–400/51 is 825 А, but at the given condition,
As 330 kV overhead line supports, ПВС-330А type the line has to carry 1200 A current. Therefore, such capacity
concrete intermediate support was adopted. provides a phase divided into two conductors АS–400/51. So,
The technical efficiency of the examined conductors was 2xАS–400/51 will provide a current 1650 A that is greater
based on two main criteria: firstly, the mechanical limitations than 1200 A, but as it is an aluminium steel conductor, the
like conductor sag, clearance to the ground, the allowed maximum permissible conductor temperature is only 70°C.
tension in line, the permissible span; secondly, the heating Secondly, the conductor “Brussels” is of the ACCC type,
limitation like the capacity of the line, the permissible which has a maximum current of 1220 A with 120°C. Thirdly,
conductor temperature. “Wabash” is of the “ACCR type, which has the permissible
current 1681A with 240°C. Fourthly, “Redwing” is of the
A. The Technical Efficiency of LN 355 GTACSR type, which can provide 1414A with 210°C.
The obtained calculation results regarding the mechanical Therefore, the higher the permissible conductor temperature,
and thermal limitations of the power line LN 355 are shown in the higher the capacity that can be transmitted over a
Table III. particular overhead line, of course without worsening the
electrical parameters (see Table III).
TABLE Ш
COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT CONDUCTOR TYPES FOR LN 355 It can be concluded, that “Brussels”, “Wabash” and
Installation of Installation of Installation of Installation of “Redwing” conductors satisfy the required conditions of
conductor conductor conductor conductor installation capacity of 1200A without a phase dividing.
АS-400/51 “Brussels” “Wabash” “Redwing”
Mechanical limitations B. The Technical Efficiency of LN 309
Allowable conductor tension, N The calculation results regarding the mechanical and
σ max 112.8 σ max 105.9 σ max 111.8 σ max 111.8
σ- 112.8 σ- 105.9 σ - 111.8 σ - 111.8
thermal limitations of the overhead line LN 309 are shown in
σ op 79.5 σ op 84.4 σ op 87.3 σ op 109.8 Table IV.
Spans, sags and ground clearance, m
L wind 417.7 L wind 456.8 L wind 455.8 L wind 420.5 TABLE IV
COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT CONDUCTOR TYPES FOR LN 309
L weight 415.2 L weight 468.1 L weight 467.2 L weight 392.1
Installation of Installation of Installation of Installation of
L cl 338.2 L cl 359.5 L cl 362.5 L cl 325.9
conductor conductor conductor conductor
F cl 8.32 F cl 9.81 F cl 9.52 F cl 8.25
АS-240/32 “Casablanca” “Glasgow” “Hawk 477”
C cl 7.5 C cl 7.5 C cl 7.5 C cl 7.5
Mechanical limitations
Thermal limitations
Allowable conductor tension, N
Permissible conductor temperature, ºC
σ max 119.2 σ max 144.2 σ max 176.5 σ max 136.3
70 120 240 210
σ- 119.2 σ- 144.2 σ - 176.5 σ - 136.3
Permissible capacity, A
σ op 79.5 σ op 96.1 σ op 119.7 σ op 91.2
2 1 1 1
Spans, sags and ground clearance, m
conductors 1650 conductor conductor 1681 conducto 1414
1220 L wind 531.4 L wind 559.8 L wind 538.7 L wind 531.4
per phase per phase per phase r per
L weight 656.5 L weight 706.7 L weight 754.6 L weight 706.3
phase
L cl 344.3 L cl 419.1 L cl 454.9 L cl 384.5
F cl 6.56 F cl. 8.81 F cl 7.38 F cl 7.52
Firstly the mechanical limitations are discussed. Table III C cl 7.5 C cl 7.5 C cl 7.5 C cl 7.5
shows that the clearance spans (Lcl.) are the decisive spans of Thermal limitations
AS–400/51, “Brussels”, “Wabash”, and “Redwing” conductor. Permissible conductor temperature, ºC
For example, Lcl. of AS-400/51 type conductor is 338.2 m, 70 120 120 240
Permissible capacity, A
which is the worst parameter as compared with the wind span 2 1 1 1
(Lwind), which is 417.7 m, and the weight span (Lweight), which conductors 1210 conductor conductor 852 conducto 1293
922
is 415.2. For other conductors, this comparison has the same per phase per phase per phase r per
behaviour. The conductor ”Wabash” is preferable, because the phase
maximum allowable span is 362.5 m, which is by about 24.3
m more than in the case of using АS–400/51, or by about 36.6 Table IV presents a similar tendency of behaviour
m more than in the case of using “Redwing”, if all the other clearance span as was described for line LN 355. In this case,
conditions remain the same. The largest clearance to the for example, conductor AS-240/32 has the smallest clearance
ground is observed in the case of an ACCC type conductor span – 344.3 m, whereas “Glasgow” has the largest – 454.9 m,
“Brussels” (9.81 m), which is by 1.56 m higher than in the which is by about 70.4 m more than in the case of using
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“Hawk 477”, or by about 35.8 m more than in the case of of five main parts and is determined by the following formula:
using “Casablanca”, provided that all the other conditions C = Cc + Cs + C f + Cstr + C i , (2)
remain the same. The largest clearance to the ground is ∑ ∑
observed in the case of an ACCC type conductor where Cc – the cost of a conductor, r.v. *.;
“Casablanca” (8.81 m), which is by 2.25 m higher in the case Cs – the cost of a support, r.v.;
of AS-240/32. Cf – the cost of a foundation, r.v.;
In this model of an overhead line route for LN 309, the Cstr – the cost of a string, r.v.;
heating limitation is determined in the same manner as in the CΣi – the total installation costs, r.v..
previous example, but with the main difference – installing the Each component of the (2) is determined by a corresponding
throughput capacity of 850 A. expression, which is presented below.
As a result, the conductor АS–240/32, which is heated up The cost of a conductor (Cc):
to 70°С, can provide only 605A, it means that need 2xАS– Cc = nc ⋅ 3N ph ⋅ L ⋅ cc , (3)
240/32, which will provide 1210A; “Casablanca” (ACCC) has where nc – the number of circuit in line (single circuit (n=1);
a permissible current of 922 A at 120°C; the capacity of the double circuit (n=2) or more);
conductor “Glasgow” (ACCC) at a temperature of 120°C is Nph – the number of conductor per phase;
852A; “Hawk 477” (ACCR) can be heated up to 240°С, and it L – the length of the power line route, m;
provides 1293A (see Table IV). cc – the price of conductor for 1 m, r. v.
The cost of a support (Cs):
V. EVALUATION OF THE ECONOMIC EFFICIENCY OF THE
Cs = ms ⋅ N s ⋅ cs , (4)
EXAMINED CONDUCTORS
The economic efficiency is based on saving on the quantity where ms – the metal weight for one particular support, t;
of intermediate supports and estimation of the cost of total Ns – the total quantity of supports, pc;
required material and equipment. cs – the price of metal of support for 1 t, r. v.
Firstly, the number of intermediate supports is determined. The cost of a foundation (Cf):
It depends on the calculated clearance span of the examined C f = v f ⋅ Ns ⋅ c f , (5)
conductor of a particular line, and it can be calculated by the where vf – the volume of reinforced concrete foundation for
following expression: one particular support, m³;
L
N= , (1)
Lcl cf – the price of reinforced concrete foundation for
where L – the length of the power line route, m; 1 m³, r. v.
Lcl – the clearance span, m; the values of this parameter The cost of a string (Cstr):
are presented in Table III and Table IV. Cstr = nc ⋅ nstr ⋅ N s ⋅ cstr , (6)
Secondly, when the number of intermediate supports is
known, the total investments for line construction can be where nstr – the number of strings for one circuit, pc;
found. cs – the price of string for 1 pc, r. v.
The total installation costs (CΣi):
A. The Economic Efficiency of LN 355
C i = Cic + Cis + Cif + Cistr , (7)
The length of the existing route of the line LN 355 is ∑
111.7 km. The obtained values of the number of intermediate where Cic – the installation costs of a conductor, r.v.;
supports are as follows: Cis – the installation costs of a support, r.v.;
a) if the conductor AS-400/51 is used, the quantity of Cif – the installation costs of a foundation, r.v.;
intermediate supports (Ns) is 330; Cistr – the installation costs of a string, r.v.
b) if the conductor “Brussels” is used, the quantity of The presented comparative evaluation is of approximate
intermediate supports (Ns) is 310; nature, since the prices are subject to change.
c) if the conductor “Wabash” is used, the quantity of The total investment for the construction of a 330 kV
intermediate supports (Ns) is 308; overhead line LN 355 (see Fig. 7), in the case of using the
d) if the conductor “Redwing” is used, the quantity of conductors “Brussels”, “Wabash”, “Redwing”, turned out to
intermediate supports (Ns) is 343. be higher than the costs of constructing a 330 kV overhead
For example, using the conductor “Wabash” (ACCR) for line, when using the traditional type conductor AS–400/51,
the examined route saves 22 intermediate supports, as and the difference varies from 6.6% between AS–400/51 and
compared with the case of using the conductor АS–400/51, or “Wabash” – up to 9.5% between AS–400/51 and “Brussels”.
35 intermediate supports, as compared with the conductor As a result, for these initial data of the particular line
“Redwing”. model, economic efficiency of using conductors with
Therefore, if the number of intermediate supports is known, composite core is not observed. This effect might be caused by
then, based on the initial data of the examined transmission the high price of the ACCC, ACCR and GTACSR conductor
line, the overhead line construction costs can be found. An
*
approximate calculation of the total investments (CΣ) consists Avoid indexer disclosure commercial information, the prices are given
in relative value (r.v.)
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types; in the simulation task it was taken to be about three overhead line, when using the conductor “Glasgow”. This
times higher as compared with the traditional AS type percentage difference varies from 2.2% between AS–240/32
conductor. and “Glasgow” up to 5.2% between “Glasgow” and
“Casablanca”.
The total investments for a transmission line model did not
take into account power line losses, lighting cable and its
installation, the land and transportation costs, as well as
operational costs. However, these parameters may significant
influent the total costs, but in this case it was not taking into
consideration, because of some main reasons. Firstly, the case
of a study was to evaluate how a saving of the quantity of
intermediate supports as well as total required material and
equipment including the chosen type of a conductor does
influent the total construction costs of a particular line.
Secondly, there is a changeable nature of a price of these
parameters depending mostly of the companies, which provide
such service.
Fig. 7. Overhead line LN-355 construction costs
VI. CONCLUSIONS
B. The Economic Efficiency of LN 309 This comparative assessment of ACCC, ACCR, GTACSR
The length of the presented route of the line LN 309 is and AS was based on the technical and economic efficiency.
175.1 km. The obtained values of the number of intermediate The calculation results of the technical efficiency of the
supports are as follows: first transmission line model (LN 355) show that, if the initial
a) if the conductor AS-240/32 is used, the quantity of conditions remain the same, except the allowable conductor
intermediate supports (Ns) is 509; temperature, in the case of constructing a 111.7 km long
b) if the conductor “Casablanca” is used, the quantity of 330 kV overhead line with new conductor designs, like a
intermediate supports (Ns) is 418; ACCC (“Brussels”) , compared to traditional type conductor
c) if the conductor “Glasgow” is used, the quantity of AS–400/5, the clearance span is increased by 21.3m or by
intermediate supports (Ns) is 385; about 5.9%; correspondingly, the number of supports
d) if the conductor “Hawk 477” is used, the quantity of diminishes by 20 and the number of insulator units – by about
intermediate supports (Ns) is 456. 60 (3%). The conductor ACCR (”Wabash”) is preferable,
There is a reserve of 124 intermediate supports, if the because the maximum allowable span is 362.5 m, which is by
conductor “Glasgow” (ACCC) is to be used, compared with about 24.3 m more than in the case of using АS–400/51,
the case of using the conductor АS–240/32. therefore the intermediate support quantity diminishes by 22.
As a result, there is an economic estimation, which has the Concerning the economic efficiency results of the first
same calculation process as for the power line LN 355 variant, it can be concluded that while the high price of the
(see Fig. 8). new conductor eliminates the negative economic effect, still
by reducing the costs owing to conductor–length reduction (by
hanging one conductor instead of two traditional conductors of
the АS–400/51 type), the expenses of building a 330 kV
overhead line by using the HTLS conductors will only
increase.
The calculation results regarding the technical efficiency of
the second transmission line model (LN 309) show that, if the
initial conditions remain the same, except the allowable
conductor temperature, construction of a 175.1 km long
330 kV overhead line with new conductor designs, for
example, ACCC (“Glasgow”) is preferable, because the
clearance span is increased by 110.6m or by about 24.3%;
correspondingly, the number of supports diminishes by 124,
compared to the traditional type conductor AS–240/32.
Fig. 8. Overhead line LN-309 construction costs As far as the economic efficiency is concerned, in this case
we can see that the optimal variant is the ACCC (“Glasgow”)
Fig. 8 shows that the total investment for the construction
type conductor, which is characterized by the minimum
of a 330 kV overhead line (LN 309), in the case of using investment in line construction (6352 r.v.). Such a positive
conductors “Casablanca”, “Hawk 477”, and AS–240/32, -
effect is caused by increasing the length of the line model (the
turns out to be higher than the cost of constructing a 330 kV first model – 111.7 km, the second one – 175.1 km, thus the
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length increase is 63.4 km). VIII. BIOGRAPHIES


The use of HTLS conductors replacing the traditional type
conductors can be more economically justified if the price of Svetlana Berjozkina received B.Sc., M.Sc. in
conductors with composite core is reduced, yet at the same Power Engineering from Riga Technical
University, Riga, Latvia in 2008 and 2010
time, it can be one of the possible solutions for increasing the respectively. Now she continues studying as PhD
limited capacity of the existing overhead lines. student in RTU and works as an engineer at joint
stock company „Siltumelektroprojekts”. Her
VII. REFERENCES research interests include power supply,
transmission lines state evaluation, analysis of
[1] Hans Auer, Nenad Keserić, Reinhard Haas, GustavResch, Claus Huber, power systems as well as their mathematical
Thomas Faber. Medium- andLong-Term Effects of EU-Electricity modeling.
Enlargement,Energy Economics Group, Vienna University of
Technology. [Online]. Available:
www.sessa.eu.com/documents/wp/D33_3_Haas_final.pdf Antans Sauhats received Dipl. Eng.,
[2] Herbert Smith, “Special edition on the EU Third Energy and Climate Cand.Techn.Sc., and Dr.hab.sc.eng. degrees from
Change Packages”, European energy review, 2010. [Online]. Available: Riga Technical University (former Riga
http://www.herbertsmith.com/NR/rdonlyres/54046A53-CFCB-438D- Polytechnic Institute) in 1970, 1976, and 1991
A1DB-40E122736E48/0/7847EER2010d1Estonia.pdf respectively. Since 1991 he is Professor at Electric
[3] Ozge Ozdemir, Karina C. Veum, Jeroen de Joode, Gianluigi Power Systems. Since 1996 he is the Director of
Migliavacca, Andrea Grassi, Alessandro Zani, “The impact of Large- the Power Engineering Institute of Riga Technical
scale Renewable Integration on Europe’s Energy corridors”, in Proc. of University.
IEEE PowerTech Confrence, Trondheim, 2011, pp. 1-8.
[4] H. Moora, V. Lahtvee, “Electricity scenarios for the Baltic States and
marginal energy Technology in life cycle assessments – a case study of
energy production from municipal waste incineration”, Estonian Vladimirs Bargels received Dipl.Eng. Degree from
Academy Publishers; Vol. 26, pp.331-346, 2009. [Online]. Available: Riga Technical University (former Riga
http://www.kirj.ee/public/oilshale_pdf/2009/issue_3s/oil-2009-3S-331- Polytechnic Institute) in 1974. Since 1998 he works
346.pdf as a leading specialist at joint stock company
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pp. power networks, as well as influence of lighting on
[9] Dale A. Douglass, Practical application of High-Temperature Low-Sag
these networks.
(HTLS) Transmission Conductors. New Haven, Connecticut: 2004, p.
53.
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Current of the Transmission Line”, in Proc. of 10th International
Conference on Environment and Electrical Engineering Conference,
Roma, 2011, pp. 911-914.
[12] Welcome to HTLS conductor. OHM TEKMIN. [Online]. Available:
http://www.ohmtekmin.com/nuevo/documento/HTLSC_STACIR_Rev1.
pdf
[13] Home page – Composite Technology Corporation. [Online]. Available:
www.compositetechcorp.com
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(HTLS) conductors. Final project report. Ravi Gorur, Barzin Mobasher,
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