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Web Knowledge bank:

15. What is html?

HTML is the standard markup language for creating Web pages and web applications. (With
Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and JavaScript it forms a triad of cornerstone technologies for the World
Wide Web. Browsers do not display the HTML tags, but use them to interpret the content of the page.)
 HTML stands for Hyper Text Markup Language
 HTML describes the structure of Web pages using markup
 HTML elements are the building blocks of HTML pages
 HTML elements are represented by tags
 HTML tags label pieces of content such as "heading", "paragraph", "table", and so on!
 Browsers do not display the HTML tags, but use them to render the content of the page.
16. What is difference between html and programming language?
(HTML is markup language, other languages are Logical languages.)

HTML is a markup language, It means that its just set of tags which tells the browser how to treat the
data encapsulated between it’s tags. It has no logic associate with it. It doesn't thinks about what to do
with the data stored within it’s tags, it is just for the browser so that it can know what to do with the data
stored between that particular tag.

Other languages like python, JavaScript are logical languages i.e. you can perform logical operation with
it, that is you can perform desired actions you want based on the data. There is now way to do this in
HTML, it just sit’s there without thinking anything or giving a f**k about what is stored within it.

17. What is difference between webpage and website?

The difference between a website and a web page is that a website is a collection of web pages with
information on a subject, and a web page is a smaller part of a larger website usually containing
more specific information. If a website were a book, then a webpage would be a chapter in that book.

18. What is Domain name?

A Domain name is your website name. A domain name is the address where Internet users can
access your website. A domain name is used for finding and identifying computers on the Internet.
Computers use IP addresses, which are a series of number. However, it is difficult for humans to
remember strings of numbers.

19. What is DNS?

Domain Name Servers (DNS) are the Internet's equivalent of a phone book. They maintain a
directory of domain names and translate them to Internet Protocol (IP) addresses. This is
necessary because, although domain names are easy for people to remember, computers or
machines access websites based on IP addresses.

20. What are Add on domains? Give example?

An addon domain is a fully functional domain that can be created from within your control
panel. Think of it as having multiple hosting packages all sharing the same control panel. You can create
email addresses, forwarders and more — the same way you do for your primary domain on the account.
21. What are sub domains? Give examples?
A Subdivision of Domain. An Internet domain which is part of a primary domain. Subdomains are
extensions of your domain name that you can forward to URLs or point to IP addresses and directories
within your hosting account.

Just take an example[1] is a Domain Name. Here we can create a sub-
domain Here Blog is subdomain. Actually www is a subdomain instead of www we can
keep anything as per our requirments.

(A sub domain is an folder followed by domain name, where you can run an individual application or script
like some example: Google is main domain and their subdomain are and mail.
google .com and .com they are running all application on a single domain but main domain is
google .com )


22. What are Parked domains?

Domain parking refers to the registration of an internet domain name without that domain being
associated with any services such as e-mail or a website. This may have been done with a view to
reserving the domain name for future development, and to protect against the possibility of

(Parked domains are additional domains which you host on your account. They will display the same
website as your primary domain and do NOT have separate web statistics, but you can give the parked
domain its own email boxes.)

23. Write atleast 10 html editors?

Adobe Dreamweaver, Komodo Edit, NotePad++ , SeaMonkey, BlueGriffon, PSPad, NoteTab Light,
NetBeans, Eclipse, Coffeecup , Bluefish, Aptana Studio 3, Arachnophilia.

25. What are advantages of JAVA programming?

The advantages of Java are as follows: ... Java was designed to be easy to use and is therefore easy to
write, compile, debug, and learn than other programminglanguages. Java is object-oriented. This allows
you to create modular programs and reusable code.

26. Why php programming is popular for developing websites?

28. Write atleast few disadvantages of java programming?
Like any programming language, Java is not without drawbacks. Section 2.8 mentioned one of
them: Java is an interpreted language, so programs written in Java won't be speed demons. Still, for
most programs that students write, speed is secondary.
24. What are advantages of dot net programming?

Advantages of .NET
Here are some of the compelling advantages of .NET:
 Object Oriented
Everything that you see in the .NET framework is an object. It is the same for what you write
within the framework. This means that you get a powerful tool to not just access but also
control your apps. This also makes it simpler for you to respond to recurring events.

 Caching
The caching system that .NET includes is extremely robust and easy-to-use.

 Easy Maintenance
Pages, with .NET, are extremely simple to write and maintain. This is because the source
code and HTML are both together. In addition to that, the source code executes on the
server. What does this mean? This makes your web pages more powerful and flexible.

 Time-Saving
Time is money, and .NET helps you save a lot of that. The way it is developed, .NET
removes a large part of the coding requirement. This means that the developers save time,
and the app’s time-to-market can be shortened considerably.

 Simplicity
Performing common tasks with .NET is extremely simple and straight forward. Submission
of forms is a breeze and so is site configuration, deployment, and client authentication.

 Feature-Rich
There are a range of features that can be explored by the developers in order to create
powerful apps. Consider the case of its rich toolbox as also the designer in the visual studio.
They let you access such features as automatic deployment, WYSIWYG editing, and drag-
and-drop controls.

 Consistency
The management and monitoring of all the processes is performed by the framework. If one
of the processes is dead, a new process can be created just as easily. This lets your app be
consistently available for handling requests.

 Monitoring
Finally, .NET also stands for its automatic monitoring. It will promptly notice any problems
like infinite loops, memory leaks, etc. Not just this, it will also destroy these activities
automatically and restart itself. In conclusion, there are tons of advantages that .NET offers.
These features make it popular among clients as well as programmers.
Benefits of .NET:

 .NET allows the use of multiple languages

 It has horizontal scalability
 .NET creates a unified environment that allows developers to create programs in C++, Java
or Virtual Basic
 Interfaces easily with Windows or Microsoft
 All tools and IDEs have been pre-tested and are easily available in the Microsoft Developer
 UI best practices are more consistent
 Language integration is seamless, as you can call methods from C# to VB.NET

27. Write atleast few disadvantages of dot net programming?

Disadvantages of .NET
Along with advantages, you will always come across disadvantages of any platform. That’s the case
with .NET too.

Here’s a compilation of some of the drawbacks of using .NET:

 Limited Object Relational (OR) support

It is found to be limited at times, because such support is generally available with entity framework only.

 Slower than Native Code

Managed code that you run with .NET can be slower than native code.

 Vendor lock-in

The framework involves Vendor lock-in. This can mean that future development will be only dependent on

 Expensive

In some cases, migration of apps to .NET can turn out to be expensive.

However, these are all just minor draw-backs when compared to the large range of advantages offered by
the framework.

29. List out popular 5 frameworks available on java??

Play, Grails, Spring Framework, Struts 2, Eclipse. ( and also Vaadin, Hibernate) .

30. What are Single page application and which programming language is
widely used in single page application?
Single-Page Applications (SPAs) are Web apps that load a single HTML page and dynamically update
that page as the user interacts with the app. SPAs use AJAX and HTML5 to create fluid and responsive
Web apps, without constant pagereloads. However, this means much of the work happens on the client
side, in JavaScript.

31. What is open source community?

1) In general, open source refers to any program whose source code is made available for use or

modification as users or other developers see fit. Open source software is usually developed as a public

collaboration and made freely available.

2) Open Source is a certification mark owned by the Open Source Initiative (OSI). Developers of software

that is intended to be freely shared and possibly improved and redistributed by others can use the Open

Source trademark if their distribution terms conform to the OSI's Open Source Definition. To summarize,

the Definition model of distribution terms require that:

 The software being distributed must be redistributed to anyone else without any restriction.

 The source code must be made available (so that the receiving party will be able to improve or

modify it).

 The license can require improved versions of the software to carry a different name or version

from the original software.

32. Give few popular examples which show a significant contribution of open source
33. What is a blog ? Give some examples of sites that promote blogging ?
(a regularly updated website or web page, typically one run by an individual or small group, that is written in an
informal or conversational style.)

A blog (a truncation of the expression "weblog") is a discussion or informational website published on the World Wide
Web consisting of discrete, often informal diary-style text entries ("posts").

Facebook, Instagram promotes blogging.

34. What are social networking websites ? name popular social networking software?
A social networking service (also social networking site, SNS or social media) is an online platform
that people use to build social networks or social relations with other people who share similar personal
or career interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections.

Popular social network software:

Zoho Connect, eXo Platform, Yammer, Clinked, SocialEngine, Jive, MangoApps, Honey, Dolphin,

35. Give atleast 10 popular social networking websites in 5 different category ?

 Vox – Blogging.

 WAYN – travel and lifestyle.

 SoundCloud – repository of original music pieces and networking.

 Quora – questions and answers.

 LinkedIn - Business and professional networking.

 Instagram - A photo and video sharing site.

 Ryze – Business.

36. What are frames in html ?

HTML frames are used to divide your browser window into multiple sections where each section can load
a separate HTML document. A collection offrames in the browser window is known as aframeset. The
window is divided into frames in a similar way the tables are organized: into rows and columns.

37. What are iframes ?

An IFrame (Inline Frame) is an HTML document embedded inside another HTML document on a
website. The IFrame HTML element is often used to insert content from another source, such as an
advertisement into a Web page.

38. What is difference between frames and Iframes in html?

Frame is a HTML tag that is used for dividing the web page into various frames/windows. Used as
<frame>tag, it specifies each frame within a frameset tagIframe as <iframe> is also a tag used
in HTML but it specifies an inline frame, that means it is used to embed some other document within the
current HTML document.

39. What are web 2.0 tools ?

Web 2.0 is the business revolution in the computer industry caused by the move to the internet as a
platform, and an attempt to understand the rules for success on that new platform.”– Tim O’ Reilly.
It’s a simply improved version of the first world wide web, characterized specifically by the change from
static to dynamic or user-generated content and also the growth of social media.
Advantages of Web 2.0:

 Available at any time, any place.

 Variety of media.
 Ease of usage.
 Learners can actively be involved in knowledge building.
 Can create dynamic learning communities.
 Everybody is the author and the editor, every edit that has been made can be tracked.
 User friendly.
 Updates in wiki are immediate and it offers more sources for researchers.
 Provides real-time discussion.
40. What are web 3.0 tools?
According to the Wikipedia, “Web 2.0, a phrase coined by O'Reilly Media in 2004, refers to a supposed
second generation of Internet-based services — such as social networking sites, wikis,
communication tools, and folksonomies — that emphasize online collaboration and sharing among

41. What is SEO?

SEO stands for “search engine optimization.” It is the process of getting traffic from the “free,” “organic,”
“editorial” or “natural” search results on search engines.

42. What is SEM?

Search marketing is the process of gaining traffic and visibility from search engines through both paid and
unpaid efforts. Search Marketing encompasses: SEO: Earning traffic through unpaid or free listings.SEM:
Buying traffic through paid search listings.

43. Give 10 popular gaming sites name ?

Yahoo! Games , Y8, Pogo, MiniClip, BigFishGames, Zynga, Addicting Games, Games, FOG, PopCap,
GameHouse, Shockwave, iplay, Bored.

44. Give some websites that are used to check website ranking?
SEMrush, Ahrefs, SERPWatcher, Google Rank Checker, Alexa,
HTML Knowledge Bank
45. Difference between HTML & XML?
HTML is an abbreviation for HyperText Markup Language. HTML was designed to display data with focus
on how data looks. XML was designed to be a software and hardware independent tool used to transport
and store data, with focus on what data is. XML provides a framework for defining markup languages.

46. Difference between HTML & DHTML?

HTML is a mark-up language, while DHTML is a collection of technology. DHTMLcreates dynamic web
pages, whereas HTML creates static web pages. DHTMLallows including small animations and dynamic
menus in Web pages. ... Whereas,DHTML creates a page with HTML, CSS, DOM and Scripts called

47. List atleast 10 browser names used for accessing internet for desktop computing?
Google chrome, Mozilla firefox, Safari, Opera, Internet Explorer, Maxthon, YouTube browser,
Netscape Browser, UC browser, Avant.

48. List atleast 10 browser used in mobiles?

Google chrome, Mozilla firefox, Opera, Internet Explorer, firefox focus, Puffin, Dolphin, UC browser,

49. What is Flash animation?

A flash animation or flash cartoon is an animated film that is created with the Adobe Flash platform or
similar animation software and often distributed in the SWF file format. The term Flash animation refers to
both the file format and the medium in which the animation is produced

50. What is silverlight?

Microsoft Silverlight (or simply Silverlight) is a deprecated application framework for writing and
running rich Internet applications, similar to Adobe Flash. A plugin for Silverlight is still available for some
browsers. While early versions of Silverlight focused on streaming media, later versions
supported multimedia, graphics, and animation and gave developers support for CLI
languages and development tools. Silverlight was also one of the two application development platforms
for Windows Phone, but web pages that use Silverlight did not run on the Windows Phone or Windows
Mobileversions of Internet Explorer, as there was no Silverlight plugin for Internet Explorer on those
51. Write atleast 50 html tags along with their usability?

Basic HTML:

Tag: Description:

<!DOCTYPE> Defines the document type

<html> Defines an HTML document

<head> Defines information about the document
<title> Defines a title for the document
<body> Defines the document's body
<h1> to <h6> Defines HTML headings
<p> Defines a paragraph
<br> Inserts a single line break
<hr> Defines a thematic change in the content
<!--...--> Defines a comment


Tag Description

<acronym> Not supported in HTML5. Use <abbr> instead.

Defines an acronym

<abbr> Defines an abbreviation or an acronym

<address> Defines contact information for the author/owner of a


<b> Defines bold text

<bdi> Isolates a part of text that might be formatted in a different

direction from other text outside it
<bdo> Overrides the current text direction

<big> Not supported in HTML5. Use CSS instead.

Defines big text

<blockquote> Defines a section that is quoted from another source

<center> Not supported in HTML5. Use CSS instead.

Defines centered text

<cite> Defines the title of a work

<code> Defines a piece of computer code

<del> Defines text that has been deleted from a document

<dfn> Represents the defining instance of a term

<em> Defines emphasized text

<font> Not supported in HTML5. Use CSS instead.

Defines font, color, and size for text

<i> Defines a part of text in an alternate voice or mood

<ins> Defines a text that has been inserted into a document

<kbd> Defines keyboard input

<mark> Defines marked/highlighted text

<meter> Defines a scalar measurement within a known range (a gauge)

<pre> Defines preformatted text

<progress> Represents the progress of a task

<q> Defines a short quotation

<rp> Defines what to show in browsers that do not support ruby

<rt> Defines an explanation/pronunciation of characters (for East
Asian typography)

<ruby> Defines a ruby annotation (for East Asian typography)

<s> Defines text that is no longer correct

<samp> Defines sample output from a computer program

<small> Defines smaller text

<strike> Not supported in HTML5. Use <del> or <s> instead.

Defines strikethrough text

<strong> Defines important text

<sub> Defines subscripted text

<sup> Defines superscripted text

<time> Defines a date/time

<tt> Not supported in HTML5. Use CSS instead.

Defines teletype text

<u> Defines text that should be stylistically different from normal text

<var> Defines a variable

<wbr> Defines a possible line-break

Forms and Input:

Tag Description
<form> Defines an HTML form for user input

<input> Defines an input control

<textarea> Defines a multiline input control (text area)

<button> Defines a clickable button

<select> Defines a drop-down list

<optgroup> Defines a group of related options in a drop-down list

<option> Defines an option in a drop-down list

<label> Defines a label for an <input> element

<fieldset> Groups related elements in a form

<legend> Defines a caption for a <fieldset> element

<datalist> Specifies a list of pre-defined options for input controls

<output> Defines the result of a calculation


Tag Description
<frame> Not supported in HTML5.
Defines a window (a frame) in a frameset

<frameset> Not supported in HTML5.

Defines a set of frames

<noframes> Not supported in HTML5.

Defines an alternate content for users that do not support frames

<iframe> Defines an inline frame


Tag Description

<img> Defines an image

<map> Defines a client-side image-map

<area> Defines an area inside an image-map

<canvas> Used to draw graphics, on the fly, via scripting (usually JavaScript)

<figcaption> Defines a caption for a <figure> element

<figure> Specifies self-contained content

<picture> Defines a container for multiple image resources

Audio / Video:

Tag Description

<audio> Defines sound content

<source> Defines multiple media resources for media elements (<video>,

<audio> and <picture>)

<track> Defines text tracks for media elements (<video> and <audio>)

<video> Defines a video or movie


Tag Description

<a> Defines a hyperlink

<link> Defines the relationship between a document and an external

resource (most used to link to style sheets)

<nav> Defines navigation links


Tag Description

<ul> Defines an unordered list

<ol> Defines an ordered list

<li> Defines a list item

<dir> Not supported in HTML5. Use <ul> instead.

Defines a directory list

<dl> Defines a description list

<dt> Defines a term/name in a description list

<dd> Defines a description of a term/name in a description list

<menu> Defines a list/menu of commands

<menuitem> Defines a command/menu item that the user can invoke from a popup


Tag Description

<table> Defines a table

<caption> Defines a table caption

<th> Defines a header cell in a table

<tr> Defines a row in a table

<td> Defines a cell in a table

<thead> Groups the header content in a table

<tbody> Groups the body content in a table

<tfoot> Groups the footer content in a table

<col> Specifies column properties for each column within a <colgroup>


<colgroup> Specifies a group of one or more columns in a table for formatting

Styles and Semantics:

Tag Description

<style> Defines style information for a document

<div> Defines a section in a document

<span> Defines a section in a document

<header> Defines a header for a document or section

<footer> Defines a footer for a document or section

<main> Specifies the main content of a document

<section> Defines a section in a document

<article> Defines an article

<aside> Defines content aside from the page content

<details> Defines additional details that the user can view or hide

<dialog> Defines a dialog box or window

<summary> Defines a visible heading for a <details> element

<data> Links the given content with a machine-readable translation

Meta Info:

Tag Description

<head> Defines information about the document

<meta> Defines metadata about an HTML document

<base> Specifies the base URL/target for all relative URLs in a document

<basefont> Not supported in HTML5. Use CSS instead.

Specifies a default color, size, and font for all text in a document

Tag Description

<script> Defines a client-side script

<noscript> Defines an alternate content for users that do not support client-side

<applet> Not supported in HTML5. Use <embed> or <object> instead.

Defines an embedded applet

<embed> Defines a container for an external (non-HTML) application

<object> Defines an embedded object

<param> Defines a parameter for an object

52. What is importance of object tag (<object>) and div tag (<div>)?
The <object> tag defines an embedded object within an HTML document. Use this element to embed
multimedia (like audio, video, Java applets, ActiveX, PDF, and Flash) in your web pages. You can also
use the <object> tag to embed another webpage into your HTML document.

The <div> tag defines a division or a section in an HTML document. The <div> tag is used to group block-
elements to format them with CSS.
53. What is a web design?
Web design encompasses many different skills and disciplines in the production and maintenance of
websites. The different areas of web design include web graphic design; interface design; authoring,
including standardised code and proprietary software; user experience design; and search engine

54. Name some popular image editors used for web design purpose?
GIMP, PIXLR, AFFINITY PHOTO, SKETCH(available only for mac).

55. Give popular softwares used by DTP programmer?

Acrobat, FrameMaker, InDesign, PageMaker, Calamus, Corel Ventura, Microsoft Publisher, PagePlus.

56. Give popular softwares used by CAD programmers?

Most popular CAD software

 ArchiCAD. ArchiCAD is a CAD software by the company GraphicSoft. ...

 AutoDesk inventor. Read this post about AutoDesk inventor and its difference
with AutoCAD.
 AutoCAD. AutoCAD is one of the most popular CAD software out there. ...
 AutoDesk MAYA. ...
 F 3DS MAX. ...
 Alibre Design. ...
 AutoDesk Alias. ...
 AutoDesk Revit.
 Bentley Microstation
 Blender CAD,
 BricsCAD

57. Name popular animation softwares available online?

58. Name popular animation softwares used in web based application?
59. Write atleast 5 popular gaming soft wares firms and their products?
60. What is Favicon? Provide some browsers list along with their version that
support favicon?
A favicon (short for favorite icon), also known as a shortcut icon, website
icon, tab icon, URL icon, or bookmark icon, is a file containing one or more
small icons,[1] associated with a particular websiteor web page.] A web designer can
create such an icon and upload it to a website (or web page) by several /ˈfæv.ɪ
ˌkɒn/means, and graphical web browsers will then make use of it.[3] Browsers that
provide favicon support typically display a page's favicon in the browser's address
bar (sometimes in the history as well) and next to the page's name in a list
of bookmarks.[3] Browsers that support a tabbed document interface typically show a
page's favicon next to the page's title on the tab, and site-specific browsers use the
favicon as a desktop icon.
Favicons can also be used to have a textless favorite site, saving space.

61. What is captcha code? What is its relevance in registrations and form
"Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart" is a type
of challenge-response test used in computing to determine whether or not the user is human.

62.What is CSS?
CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets
•CSS describes how HTML elements are to be displayed on screen, paper,
or in other media
•CSS saves a lot of work. It can control the layout of multiple web pages all
at once
•External stylesheets are stored in CSS files

63.What is responsive design ?

Responsive Web Design makes your web page look good on all devices (desktops,
tablets, and phones).
Responsive Web Design is about using HTML and CSS to resize, hide, shrink, enlarge,
or move the content to make it look good on any screen

64.What is bootstrapping?
Bootsrap is a free,opensource and is the most popular html,css and Javascript Framework
developed by twitter for creating responseive web applications.

65.What are advantages of xml?

1) XML separates data from HTML
2) XML simplifies data sharing
3) XML simplifies data transport
4) XML simplifies Platform change
5) XML increases data availability
6) XML can be used to create new internet languages
66.What is XSL ?
XSL is a language for expressing style sheets. An XSL style sheet is, like with CSS,
a file that describes how to display an XML document of a given type. XSL shares the
functionality and is compatible with CSS2 (although it uses a different syntax). It also adds:
•A transformation language for XML documents: XSLT. Originally intended to perform
complex styling operations, like the generation of tables of contents and indexes, it is now
used as a general purpose XML processing language. XSLT is thus widely used for purposes
other than XSL, like generating HTML web pages from XML data.
•Advanced styling features, expressed by an XML document type which defines a set of
elements called Formatting Objects, and attributes (in part borrowed from CSS2 properties
and adding more complex ones.

67.what is AJAX?
AJAX stands for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. AJAX is a new technique for creating
better, faster, and more interactive web applications with the help of XML, HTML, CSS, and
Java Script.

•Ajax uses XHTML for content, CSS for presentation, along with Document Object
Model and JavaScript for dynamic content display.
•Conventional web applications transmit information to and from the sever using
synchronous requests. It means you fill out a form, hit submit, and get directed to a
new page with new information from the server.
•With AJAX, when you hit submit, JavaScript will make a request to the server,
interpret the results, and update the current screen. In the purest sense, the user
would never know that anything was even transmitted to the server.
•XML is commonly used as the format for receiving server data, although any format,
including plain text, can be used.
•AJAX is a web browser technology independent of web server software.
•A user can continue to use the application while the client program requests
information from the server in the background.
•Intuitive and natural user interaction. Clicking is not required, mouse movement is a
sufficient event trigger.
•Data-driven as opposed to page-driven.

68.What are various html tags used for sending information within a form tag? <input>
The <form> element can contain one or more of the following form
69.Difference between HTTP & FTP Protocol?
1. HTTP is used to view websites while FTP is used to access and transfer files.
2. The common HTTP client is the browser while FTP can be accessed via the command line or a
graphical client of its own.
3. Most people use HTTP while only a few use FTP, mostly people who maintain websites.
4. Downloading files can either be via HTTP or FTP.
5. FTP is slowly being replaced by other protocols while HTTP will remain for the foreseeable future.
70.What is POP protocol ?
POP Work:
Incoming messages are stored at a POP server until the user logs in (using an email client and
downloads the messages to their computer.
While SMTP is used to transfer email messages from server to server, POP is used to collect mail
with an email client from a server.
Is POP Also for Sending Mail?
The POP standard defines commands to download emails from a server.

It does not include means to send messages. For sending email, SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer
Protocol) is used.

71.What is SMTP protocol ?

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) is the standard protocol for email services on a TCP/IP
network. SMTP provides the ability to send and receive email messages.
SMTP is an application-layer protocol that enables the transmission and delivery of email over the
Internet. SMTP is created and maintained by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol is also known as RFC 821 and RFC 2821.
72.What is IP address ?
An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a logical numeric address that is assigned to every
single computer, printer, switch, router or any other device that is part of a TCP/IP-based network.
The IP address is the core component on which the networking architecture is built; no network
exists without it. An IP address is a logical address that is used to uniquely identify every node in the
network. Because IP addresses are logical, they can change. They are similar to addresses in a
town or city because the IP address gives the network node an address so that it can communicate
with other nodes or networks, just like mail is sent to friends and relatives.

The numerals in an IP address are divided into 2 parts:

•The network part specifies which networks this address belongs to and

•The host part further pinpoints the exact location

73. Write list of other protocols popular in internet community?

ts of protocols
Topic List

TCP- and UDP-based protocols List of TCP and UDP port numbers

Automation List of automation protocols

Bluetooth List of Bluetooth protocols

Electronic trading List of electronic trading protocols

File transfer Comparison of file transfer protocols

Instant messaging Comparison of instant messaging protocols

Internet Protocol List of IP protocol numbers

Link aggregation List of Nortel protocols

OSI protocols List of network protocols (OSI model)

Protocol stacks List of network protocol stacks

List of ad hoc routing protocols

List of routing protocols

Web services List of web service protocol

74. Write at least 10 FTP softwares that are popularly used?

75. What is the importance of GIF file format for creating images?
76. List of GIF animation software that are popular?
77. What are different ways to show animation on a webpage?
78. What is the significance of index.html file in a website ?
79. What is a horizontal navigation in a website ?
80. What is a vertical navigation in a website ?
81. Why CSS menu are preferred over javascript for navigation on a website ?
82. What is scripting language ? Give its relevance in terms of creating
webpages ?
83. Difference between JAVA & JAVASCRIPTING?
84. What are cookies?
85. List different types of viruses and how they effect the system?
86. What are session variables and importance of session management?
87. What are different types of sessions?
88. Difference between Cookies & sessions?
89. What are meta tags <meta>?
90. What is significance of meta tags <meta>?
91. What are Web Crawlers?
92. What are metacrawlers ?
93. Difference between web crawlers and metacrawlers ?
94. Give list of popular webcrawlers ?
95. What is Pay Per Click?
96. Examples of service providers who are promoting ppc?
97. What is Adobe flex?
98. What is Adobe AIR?
99. Write at least 10 special characters used in html (example : for symbols -“<”, “>”,
“&”, copyright symbol etc?
100. What is File format of Favicon? Write down atleast 5 websites using
which you can create favicon.
101. List atleast few Image formats supported by browsers?
102. List some of browsers which doesn’t support Javascripting?
103. What are Trojans and Malwares?
104. What are various problems while writing sessions?
105. What is software testing ?
106. What is the difference between manual testing and automation testing ?
107. What is the difference between a static website and dynamic websites?
108. What are popular video file formats ?
Software and Hardware:
109. What is LAN ?
A local area network (LAN) is a computer network that interconnects computers within a limited area such
as a residence, school, laboratory, university campus or office building .

110. What is a firewall ?

A firewall is a network security system, either hardware- or software-based, that uses rules to control
incoming and outgoing network traffic. A firewall acts as a barrier between a trusted network and and an
untrusted network. A firewall controls access to the resources of a network through a positive control

111. What is telnet ?

Telnet is a user command and an underlying TCP/IP protocol for accessing remote computers.
ThroughTelnet, an administrator or another user can access someone else's computer remotely .

112. What is WAN ?

a wide area network (WAN) not only covers a larger geographic distance, but also generally
involves leased telecommunication circuits.

113. What are use case diagrams?

UML Use Case Diagrams. Use case diagrams are usually referred to as behavior diagrams used to
describe a set of actions (use cases) that some system or systems (subject) should or can perform in
collaboration with one or more external users of the system (actors).

114. What are use cases in testing environment ?

(Why we are using use cases in software testing?)

A use case is a description of a particular use of the system by an actor or user. It is used widely in
developing tests at system or acceptance level. Use Case Testing, is a technique that helps identify test
cases that cover the entire system, on atransaction by transaction basis from start to the finishing

115. Give list of atleast 10 popular testing tools ?

 Telerik Test Studio (Test Studio is a comprehensive and one of the most intuitive automation
testing tools available)Selenium, Robotium, TestComplete, Watir, Visual Studio Test Professional, QTP
(UFT), SoapUI, FitNesse, TestDrive.

116. What are wireframes ?

Wireframing is an important step in any screen design process. It primarily allows you to define the
information hierarchy of your design, making it easier for you to plan the layout according to how you want
your user to process the information. If you've yet to use wireframing, it's time to get your feet wet. (wiki -
a skeletal three-dimensional model in which only lines and vertices are represented.

an image or set of images which displays the functional elements of a website or page, typically used for
planning a site's structure and functionality.)

117. What are RAD tools?

Rapid-application development (RAD) is both a general term used to refer to alternatives to the
conventional waterfall model of software development as well as the name for James Martin's approach
to rapid development. ... Graphical user interface builders are often called rapid application
development tools.

118. What is Agile framework?

Scrum is a lightweight agile project management framework with broad applicability for managing and
controlling iterative and incremental projects of all types. Ken Schwaber, Mike Beedle, Jeff Sutherland
and others have contributed significantly to the evolution of Scrum over the last decade

119. What is MVC Architecture ?

Model–view–controller (MVC) is a software architectural pattern that divides a given application into
three interconnected parts. This is done to separate internal representations of information from the ways
information is presented to, and accepted from, the user.

120. What is JSON architecture?

JSON (Javascript Object Notation) is a text-based, human-readable data interchange format used for
representing simple data structures and objects in Web browser-based code. JSON is also sometimes
used in desktop and server-side programming environments.

121. What are flat file system ?
every file in the system must have a different name. In Windows 95 and most other operating
system today, files are managed in a hierarchical file system with a hierarchy of directories and
subdirectories, each containing a number of files (or subdirectories). The operating system allows
more than one file to have the same name as long as it is stored in a different directory. Early
versions of the Macintosh and DOS operating systems used a flat file system.

122. Give some examples of flat file system ?

The following example illustrates the basic elements of a flat-file database. The data arrangement
consists of a series of columns and rows organized into a tabular format. This specific example uses only
one table.
The columns include: name (a person's name, second column); team (the name of an athletic team
supported by the person, third column); and a numeric unique ID, (used to uniquely identify records, first
Here is an example textual representation of the described data:
id name team
1 Amy Blues
2 Bob Reds
3 Chuck Blues
4 Richard Blues
5 Ethel Reds
6 Fred Blues
7 Gilly Blues
8 Hank Reds
9 Hank Blues

This type of data representation is quite standard for a flat-file database, although there are some
additional considerations that are not readily apparent from the text:
•Data types: each column in a database table such as the one above is ordinarily restricted to a
specific data type. Such restrictions are usually established by convention, but not formally indicated
unless the data is transferred to a relational database system.
•Separated columns: In the above example, individual columns are separated
using whitespace characters. This is also called indentation or "fixed-width" data formatting. Another
common convention is to separate columns using one or more delimiter characters. More complex
solutions are markup and programming languages.
•Relational algebra: Each row or record in the above table meets the standard definition of
a tuple under relational algebra (the above example depicts a series of 3-tuples). Additionally, the first row
specifies the field names that are associated with the values of each row.
•Database management system: Since the formal operations possible with a text file are usually more
limited than desired, the text in the above example would ordinarily represent an intermediary state of the
data prior to being transferred into a database management system.

123. What is ISAM ?

SAM (Indexed Sequential Access Method) is a file management system developed at IBM that
allows records to be accessed either sequentially (in the order they were entered) or randomly (with an
index). Each index defines a different ordering of the records. An employee database may have several
indexes, based on the information being sought. For example, a name index may order employees
alphabetically by last name, while a department index may order employees by their department. A key is
specified in each index. For an alphabetical index of employee names, the last name field would be the

124. What is innodb ?

125. Difference between Innodb and ISAM ?

1.MYISAM supports Table-level Locking
2.MyISAM designed for need of speed
3.MyISAM does not support foreign keys hence we call MySQL with MYISAM is DBMS
4.MyISAM stores its tables, data and indexes in diskspace using separate three different
files. (tablename.FRM, tablename.MYD, tablename.MYI)
5.MYISAM not supports transaction. You cannot commit and rollback with MYISAM. Once
you issue a command it’s done.
6.MYISAM supports fulltext search
7.You can use MyISAM, if the table is more static with lots of select and less update and
1.InnoDB supports Row-level Locking
2.InnoDB designed for maximum performance when processing high volume of data
3.InnoDB support foreign keys hence we call MySQL with InnoDB is RDBMS
4.InnoDB stores its tables and indexes in a tablespace
5.InnoDB supports transaction. You can commit and rollback with InnoDB

126. give some examples of Database softwares provided by Microsoft

Microsoft SQL Server
Microsoft Access

127. What is the significance of SQL ?

SQL stands for Structured Query Language.
SQL is a language which helps us to work with the databases. Database do not understand English or
any other language.
Just as to create software, we use Java or C#, in the similar way to work with databases, we use SQL.
SQL is the standard language of Database and is also pronounced as Sequel by many people.

128. What is the difference between DBMS and RDBMS?

129. What are first , second and third normal forms?
130. Give some examples of RDBMS softwares ?11
131. What is a query ?
132. What is DDL ? Give examples?
133. What is DML? Provide some examples ?
134. What are Views ?
A view in a database is a "virtual" table. It is created using scripts and
stored in a structural form, but they are not stored as a data in any part of
the database. It can be part or whole of an existing table.
Simply, Views is a query’s code saved under a name,
Basically, every time you call a view, the view’s code which is query is being
executed and you are querying the result set of that code. It is like an
identifier which contains data or stored information as a query.

Technically there might be all kind of performance optimizations involved.

For e.g.:- Let say You want to access marks of those student having

between 40 to 50 in different section of your project then ,

FROM student

Every time you'll have to write this query to make it possible. So, to make
this job easy, we have views. Create a view in the database that stores the
above query with condition of marks between 40 and 50.
So let’s create a view for the above query:

CREATE VIEW marksanalyzer

FROM student

(this will stored in the database)

So, from now, you can simply write the query SELECT * FROM marksanalyzer.
This gives you the illusion of the existence of a table containing data of
student marks 40-50, but there's no such table -- just a "view."

It also gives you the benefits of specifying just the necessary fields. Say, you
need only two fields student_id and student_name columns
from student table for those marks between 45-60, You can go with this:

CREATE VIEW marksanalyzer45to60

SELECT student_id, student_name
FROM student

(resides in the dB)

And later use the simple query SELECT * FROM marksanalyzer45to60

This will give you just the two columns for those student having marks
between 45 and 60.

135. what is the difference between a Query and Views in SQL?

Using a view saves you copying and pasting your queries and adds code reusability, so you
can change a single view instead of 10 queries in the different places of your code.

•Different permissions can be granted on views and tables, so that you can show only a
portion of data to a user
•A view can be materialized, which means caching the results of the underlying query
For example, let's say a lecturer at a university needs access to information on students in her
classes. She shouldn't have access to the "students" table because she could look up or
modify information for any student in the whole university. The database admin makes a view
that only shows students from the lecturers classes and gives the lecturer the appropriate
permissions for the view. Now the lecturer has access to her own students' data, but not the
whole "students" table.

136. What are Triggers?

137. Difference between Query and Views?
Within the query optimizer, there is effectively no difference at all. The view is nothing more
than a mask on top of a query that appears to act like a table. But it is absolutely not a table
and should never be thought of as such. The exception to that is the materialized view which is
actually a table to all intents and purposes.

138. What are Stored procedures?

A stored procedure is a set of Structured Query Language

(SQL) statements with an assigned name, which are stored in
a relational database management system as a group, so it can be
reused and shared by multiple programs.
139. What are Inner joins, Outer joins, Right joins?
INNER JOIN gets all records that are common between both tables based on the foreign key
LEFT JOIN gets all records from the LEFT linked table but if you have selected some
columns from the RIGHT table, if there is no related records, these columns will contain NULL
RIGHT JOIN is like the above but gets all records in the RIGHT table
FULL JOIN gets all records from both tables and puts NULL in the columns where related
records do not exist in the opposite table

140. Difference between Primary key and Unique key?

Primary Key:
•There can only be one primary key in a table
•In some DBMS it cannot be NULL - e.g. MySQL adds NOT NULL
•Primary Key is a unique key identifier of the record
Unique Key:
•Can be more than one unique key in one table
•Unique key can have NULL values
•It can be a candidate key
•Unique key can be NULL and may not be unique

141. What is one to one, many to one, many to many relationships?

. One-One Relationship (1-1 Relationship)

One-to-One (1-1) relationship is defined as the relationship between two tables where both the
tables should be associated with each other based on only one matching row. This relationship can
be created using Primary key-Unique foreign key constraints.

One-Many Relationship (1-M Relationship)

The One-to-Many relationship is defined as a relationship between two tables where a row from one
table can have multiple matching rows in another table. This relationship can be created
using Primary key-Foreign key relationship.

a many-to-many relationship is a type of cardinality that refers to the relationship

between two entities[1] A and B in which A may contain a parentinstance for which there
are many children in B and vice versa.

142. What is ORM ? Give some examples of ORM ?

Object-relational mapping (ORM, O/RM, and O/R mapping) in computer software is a
programming technique for converting data between incompatible type systems in relational
databases and object-oriented programming languages. This creates, in effect, a "virtual
object database" that can be used from within the programming language. There are both free
and commercial packages available that perform object-relational mapping, although some
programmers opt to create their own ORM tools.

143. Difference between Sql and PlSql?

SQL is a Structured Query Language used to issue a single query or
execute a single insert/update/delete.
PL-SQL is a programming language SQL, used to write full programs
using variables, loops,operators etc. to carry out multiple
144. What is the role of DBA ?
Database administrator. ... Database administrators (DBAs) use specialized
software to store and organize data. The role may include capacity planning,
installation, configuration, database design, migration, performance monitoring, security,
troubleshooting, as well as backup and data recovery.

145. What is OLEDB?
OLE DB (OLEDB or Object Linking and Embedding Database) Posted by: Margaret
Rouse. OLE DB is Microsoft's strategic low-level application program interface (API) for
access to different data sources.
146. What is ODBC?

ODBC consists of four components, working together to enable

functions. ODBC allows programs to use SQL requests that access
databases without knowing the proprietary interfaces to the
databases. ODBC handles the SQL request and converts it into a
request each database system understands.
147. What is ADODB?
ADOdb is a database abstraction library for PHP Originally based on the same concept
as Microsoft's ActiveX Data Objects. It allows developers to write applications in a
consistent way regardless of the underlying database system storing the information.
148. What is DAO?
In computer software, a data access object (DAO) is an object that provides an abstract
interface to some type of database or other persistence mechanism. By mapping
application calls to the persistence layer, the DAO provides some specific data
operations without exposing details of the database.
149. What is difference between ODBC and JDBC?
ODBC is an open interface which can be used by any application to communicate with
any database system, while JDBC is an interface that can be used by Java applications
to access databases. Therefore, unlike JDBC, ODBC is language independent.
150. What are web services ?
A web service is a software system designed to support interoperable machine-to-
machine interaction over a network. It has an interface described in a machine-
processable format (specifically WSDL). Other systems interact with the web service in a
manner prescribed by its description using SOAP-messages, typically conveyed
using HTTP with an XML serialization in conjunction with other web-related standards.

151. Give some example of webservices ?

152. What is SCSI? What are its drawbacks?
153. What is ETL ?
154. Give popular ETL softwares ?
155. What is SOAP architecture?
156. What is SAAS?
157. Give popular example of SAAS based application ?
158. What is PAAS? Give some examples ?
159. What is IAAS? Give some examples ?
160. What is Cloud Computing?
161. What is Javascript animation?
162. What is Java applet?
163. What is DNN Frame work?
164. What are Proxy servers?
165. Examples of proxy servers?
166. What is Application server and examples?
167. What is Web server and examples?
168. What is Data base server and examples?
169. What is Lamp?
170. What are Mirror sites?
171. What is distributed RDBMS?
172. What is COM?
173. What is DCOM?
Dot Net Framework
174. What is difference between asp and
175. What is difference between vb and
176. What are the various programming languages supported by dot net.
177. Difference between .net 2.5 and .net 3.5?
178. What is WCF?
179. What is WPF?
180. What is importance of CLR?
181. Difference between OOPS and procedure oriented programming?
182. What are OOPS concept?
183. What is SDLC?
184. Difference between Web based project and client server projects?
185. What are the steps involved in client server application development?
186. What are the various types of applications that you can built using dot net
programming (web , windows etc )
187. What is the significance web.config file ?
188. What is the importance of master file while building web application ?

189. What is e-commerce ?
190. What is B2b and B2c portal? Give example
191. What is difference between shopping cart and e-commerce application?
192. What are CMS Softwares ?
193. What are popular CMS softwares along with the languages they are built
194. What is biztalk server ?
195. What is web-conference?
196. What is popular web conference application?
197. What is an emulator?
198. What the popular mobile brands in market?
199. Give atleast 5 operating systems used in mobile phone?
200. Give atleast 5 programming languages used for developing mobile phone
201. What is blue tooth?
202. What is brew ?
203. What is difference between com port and USB port ?
204. What are embedded softwares ?
205. What is the popular operating system used in embedded softwares ?
206. What is PLC ? Give some examples of PLC softwares ?
PLC means Programmable Logic Controller. It is a class of industrially hardened devices that provides
hardware interface for input sensors and output control element. The field I/p include element like limit
switches, sensors, push button and the final control elements like actuator, solenoid/control valves, drives,
hooters etc. PLC Senses the input through I/P modules, Processes the logic through CPU and memory
and gives output through output module.

Siemens uses Simantic S7 Manager, Allen Bradley uses RS Logix, and Modicon uses PLC pro
programming software.

207. What is SCADA ?

Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) is a control system architecture that uses
computers, networked data communications and graphical user interfaces for high-level process
supervisory management, but uses other peripheral devices such as programmable logic
controllers and discrete PID controllers to interface to the process plant or machinery. The operator
interfaces which enable monitoring and the issuing of process commands, such as controller set
point changes, are handled through the SCADA supervisory computer system. However, the real-
time control logic or controller calculations are performed by networked modules which connect to
the field sensors and actuators.

208. What is the role of a system analyst ?

A systems analyst is a person who uses analysis and design techniques to solve business problems
using information technology. Systems analysts may serve as change agents who identify the
organizational improvements needed, design systems to implement those changes, and train and
motivate others to use the systems.

209. What is the role of a web analyst ?

As a web analyst, your role requires you to perform four major tasks: Trend and data reporting.
Analyzing current online marketing acquisition strategies and exploring new opportunities and/or new

210. What is the role of a Business analyst ?

Requirements Are the Core of the Business Analyst's Role. Business analysis training teaches
requirements management – one of the core skills ofbusiness analysts. Developing technical solutions
tobusiness problems, or to advance a company's sales efforts, begins with defining, analyzing and
documenting requirements.

211. Popular OS in mobile computing ? (name few)
 Android OS (Google Inc.) ...
 Bada (Samsung Electronics) ...
 BlackBerry OS (Research In Motion) ...
 iPhone OS / iOS (Apple) ...
 MeeGo OS (Nokia and Intel) ...
 Palm OS (Garnet OS) ...
 Symbian OS (Nokia) ...
 webOS (Palm/HP)

212. Name atleast 10 popular frameworks used in mobile development?
 Xamarin
 Phonegap
 Intel XDK
 Ionic Framework
 Framework7
 Appcelerator Titanium
 Mobile Angular UI
 Onsen UI
 Sencha Touch
 Kendo UI
 JQuery Mobile.
213. Why are javascript framework popular? Name atleast 10 popular
javascript frameworks.
JavaScript Frameworks are popular among developers for such benefits like
efficiency, safety, and cost. The variety of frameworks for each development
platform is huge. It’s impossible to describe all of them and there is no need for it.
Let’s narrow down our choice. As almost every company tends to have a website
or at least a landing page, it would be good to review the most popular
JavaScript frameworks.
10 popular javascript frameworks are :
 AngularJS 2.0
 ReactJS
 Meteor.js
 Node.JS
 Ember.js
 Mithril.js
 Polymar.js
 Vue.js
 Aurelia
 MobX

214. Name some popular tools for code management, bug management and
project management.
215. Name basic tenets of an IT engineer