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RESEARCH ARTICLES

Advantages and disadvantages of national and


international corporate training techniques in
adult education
Alfiya R. Masalimova1,*, Muhammet Usak2 and Almira R. Shaidullina1
1
Kazan (Volga Region) Federal University, Kremlyovskaya Street, 18, Kazan, 420008, Russia
2
Science Education Research Center, Oguzlar Street, 12, Ankara, 06760, Turkey

New technology and Russia’s integration into the world


Significant changes in various spheres of life along
with the dynamic growth of industrial capacity and economy, requires specialists to improve their qualifica-
complexity have contributed to the increasing impor- tion, master new technologies and methods4–7.
tance of corporate training issues in adult and con- The experiences of major developed countries indicate
tinuing education. Here, we identify the benefits and the effectiveness of applying advanced techniques of cor-
difficulties encountered in both national and interna- porate education for promoting leadership of the compa-
tional techniques of training the human resource in nies in the international labour market. Investment into
enterprises, under modern conditions. The leading preparation and retraining of personnel in leading compa-
method in this challenge was a comparative-and- nies, contributes to achieving leading market positions,
contrastive method that allowed us to identify advan- thus ensuring maximum self-fulfilment and pay-off in
tages and disadvantages, of national and international terms of career development. This has proved to be an
techniques of corporate education. Our study also dis-
important factor of professional development8,9. How-
closed the contents, peculiarities and difficulties in the
use of corporate training methods like distance and ever, the qualitative relationship of techniques used in
modular learning; video and case study; business transnational companies cannot be ignored by developing
games, metaphorical games, role-playing games; or developed companies, as the dynamic development of
brainstorming, projects, behavioural modelling, men- HR in any company depends on a constant study of the
toring, learning-by-doing, working groups, basket issue related to the world potential and conditions for
method, training sessions, storytelling, rotation, steady economic development.
secondment and buddying. Selecting the proper
corporate training method or technique, depends on
specific nature of industries and business, and the Features of corporate training experience abroad
country’s development level. Our study hopes to help
managers, mentors in enterprises, and trainers who Before studying foreign techniques used in corporate
are engaged in in-house training of specialists to do training of HR, we highlight its features in developed
their jobs better. countries such as USA, Great Britain, France and Japan.

Keywords: Advantages and disadvantages, corporate Study of corporate training experience in USA
training, enterprises, national and international tech-
niques. In USA, corporate training focuses on further developing
university graduates and interns, primarily managers. The
DEVELOPMENT of personnel, their professional compe- probability of corporate programme success is 50% and
tencies and personal qualities, is a major condition for above, for people with higher education. Managers with
improving and maintaining the competitiveness of a Masters and Ph D degrees earn twice as much as Bachelor
modern enterprise. Therefore, corporate learning is of degree holders. Americans believe that if a management
special importance and value for employees, as it impacts team is small, it can considerably influence and improve
the development of their skills and abilities, required in the company’s profitability.
the external labour market1,2. HR corporate training can be provided only by larger
Contemporary international and Russian experience companies, some of which do not have their own corpo-
shows that it does not matter when a manager or expert rate training systems and hence, they group together to
graduates from the university; his knowledge and skills create intercompany training and further-development
are still insufficient to work successfully in the company3. centres. Unlike Japanese and German companies, the US
HR training is not considered as part of their competitive
*For correspondence. (e-mail: alfkazan@mail.ru) strategy. The per capita annual expenditure on corporate
1480 CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 111, NO. 9, 10 NOVEMBER 2016
RESEARCH ARTICLES
training in German companies is twice as much as in learning-by-doing, working team training, in-basket, rota-
USA, and in the field of worker training, it is 17 times as tion (horizontal, vertical), etc. The benefits of foreign and
much10. In France, the companies imparting corporate domestic techniques in corporate training are presented in
training for their personnel receive tax benefits10 ; in USA Table 1.
the government promulgates flexible policies and strate- The problems and disadvantages occurring while
gic guidance to support employee development and lead- implementing both foreign and domestic techniques may
ership employee engagement strategies10,11. be adapted for use in Russian corporate HR education and
thus contribute to the overall success of corporate train-
ing. Hence, if used reasonably, they might be integrated
Corporate training in France
into the Russian corporate practice of training technical
specialists.
In France corporate training is carried out through short-
term and highly specialized courses. The system is based
on the pressure to train and retrain the HR taking into Discussion
account the specific features of business they work in.
Preference is given to on-the-job training. It should be noted that advanced international experience
The system of in-company (in-house) HR retraining (or related to corporate HR training is used cautiously in
development) and their qualification upgrading is as fol- Russia, because majority of enterprises and companies
lows: training objectives and goals connected with the still remain closed for innovations in the field of training
general strategy of the company are set; training for and developing HR competencies, or qualifications. At
managers of subdivisions is arranged; training is practical the same time, rational organization of corporate HR
and carried out expeditiously with periodic assessment; training contributes to profitability of enterprises, job
there is a balance between the length of training and prestige, developing corporate culture of the enterprise,
coverage of various personnel groups, as specialists improving mentoring, its continuity and positive impact
believe that every year 30% and more of each profes- on competitiveness of the enterprise as a whole.
sional group should improve their competence or qualifi- Mere copying of foreign forms and techniques of
cations7. corporate HR training is not reasonable and advantageous
unless there is constructive analysis of their use under the
conditions of Russian enterprises. This opinion is based
Corporate training features in Great Britain
on the fact that, otherwise, we could lose our own best
practices in the field of engineering pedagogy, which
British companies also prefer to train and develop their
served as trigger and ensured progressive development of
employees in workplace, because out-of-house (external)
Russian advanced companies.
training is associated with problems, e.g. expenditure;
All the above considered techniques popular in foreign
and managers will have to put up with the fact that the
practice of corporate training, make it possible to con-
employee is not in his workplace, and will have to plan
clude that it is not the quantity that is key when transfer-
his off-work time with the period of training programme.
ring or delivering strong and rich experiences, but the
There may be also personal problems. One important
balanced, integral and holistic character of a set of tech-
problem is that knowledge obtained during the course is
niques. This being the case, competitiveness of an or-
not applicable to the work place, because it might not
ganization may be ensured.
meet the existing standards and requirements established
by the company authorities or colleagues5,12.
Training in the workplace is one of the most efficient Conclusion
and cost-efficient ways of improving HR qualification.
Among various popular training techniques and methods, We conclude by reiterating that among the most common
there are two most cost-effective and well-proven ones – and widely used techniques of corporate HR education
advanced experience, know-how sharing and skills mas- and training, there are those that may be distinguished as
tery and mentoring. the most effective ones: secondment (a temporary transfer
to another job, rotation), buddying (assigning a buddy to
a new member of staff), e-learning (remote instruction),
Results business simulations (business-simulation or the imitation
of management), in-basket method, storytelling (inform-
Russian corporate training practice is based on both tradi- ing about the history), etc.
tional and foreign forms and techniques, such as modular In the domestic practice of corporate training, it is
training, case studies, education, training sessions, busi- common to use conventional forms and techniques: train-
ness games, role playing, metaphoric games, brainstorming, ing sessions, business games, role-plays, metaphoric games,
projects, behavioural modelling, mentoring, storytelling, brainstorms, projects, behavioural simulation, training
CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 111, NO. 9, 10 NOVEMBER 2016 1481
RESEARCH ARTICLES
Table 1. Forms and methods of training used in corporate training

Brief description Merits Demerits

Modular learning Independent and complete topical Active participation of the Modules depend on each other;
fragment of training directed toward trainees; Mandatory sequence of modules
solution of specific objectives or Possibility to change the
development of the necessary skills for sequence of modules
specific purposes, tasks and levels of depending on the trainees’
material study, to determine the skills requirements
needed and to achieve necessary results.

Case study Involves an up-close, in-depth, and High level of participation; Time, expenditure when discussion
detailed examination of a subject, as Control and assessment of is not organized properly;
well as its related contextual conditions. knowledge acquired; The result depends on necessary
Is conducted through practical activity, Urgency of issues considered; knowledge and experience
discussions, group or individual Linking learning to practice acquisition, which in turn needs
alternative optimal solutions, to be directed and controlled by a
reinforcing the knowledge and skills trainee;
for further use in practice. Training requirements for trainers

Training sessions Ensures intensive and interactive Opportunity to develop and rein- Difficulties in analysing one’s own
instruction to obtain communicative force the necessary skills; behaviour;
skills, sharing of professional Opportunity to change the Need for conducting post training
experience between trainees, possessing attitude to one’s own classes to reinforce and
skills of practical value and saving time experience and approaches strengthen training effects
and resources.
Business game Training on the basis of themes, situations Connection with professional Requires specific rules and
and materials that simulate real activity; introductory information which
professional activities. It is effective Predicting the eventual results; determines the sequence and
as the method of instruction makes it Comprehensive coverage; content of the game;
possible to reduce operating cycles and Training in simulation of real Printing of the most frequent
demonstrates the eventual solutions situations models of real situations and the
made and actions of participants. It needs constant updating
offers the opportunity for generating
and enriching knowledge through
creative and emotional interaction with
partners.
Metaphoric games Creative immersion into the situation of Develops trainee’s creativity; Requires metaphorical proficiency
changed stereotypes, directed toward Attractive for application with all of participants, i.e. knowledge of
generation of new activities and shift of categories of trainees; legends, parables, and so forth
the attitude. It is accompanied by Participants are free to solve the
introduction of ‘support team’ with the set situations
aim of studying competitors; developing
optimal strategy to expose effective
models of behaviour that can be
transferred into work situation.
Role play Active training of interpersonal The instruction in habits of inter- Requires combination of various
interaction, and simulation, or personal communication; types of trainings;
reproduction of real or typical work Makes it possible to understand Requires appropriate qualification
situations with roles of various leaders the motives of the behaviour of of the trainer (instructor).
and subordinates, considered as one or another worker;
preparation for management jobs. Makes it possible to see typical
errors.

Brainstorming Involves collection of various ideas and Does not require preparation; Is not suitable for solving complex
recording them in written form. Does not require development of problems;
Effectiveness depends on participation ideas; Does not have criteria to evaluate
level of leaders who act as hosts and Can help overcome psychological the strength of solutions;
well informed about the purposes and stress, or barrier; Difficulty in determining the best
objects considered and are capable of Contributes to constructive ideas;
managing the procedure and process of criticism Difficulties in management.
generating new ideas.

(Contd)

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Table 1. (Contd)

Brief description Merits Demerits

Projects Predicts the combination of individual’s Makes it possible to form one’s Requires scientific management;
independent work and the work in point of view, to generalize the Requires high level of
collaboration with small groups, in a material; multi-professional competencies
team. The work with diverse Contributes to forming corporate for developing projects in the
information sources, use search and and research culture team
research methods which make it possible
to expose alternative points of view

Behavioural Involves training concrete skills and Contributes to developing Requires confidence and willing-
simulation attitudes connected with the fulfilment interpersonal communication ness of trainees to follow the
of professional activities via simulated skills; model of the behaviour proposed;
and proposed behavioural models. Takes into account person’s Requires results’ transparency;
Requires trainee’s confidence and individual features; Dependence of this method on the
willingness to follow the model which Is flexible in time level of a trainee’s motivation
can be ensured by the transparency of
desired result.
Mentoring Professional training and adaptation of On-the-job training; Requires experience in training,
young trainees of the company which Contributes to adaptation of high qualification corresponding
implies sharing experiences with highly young specialists; to company requirements related
qualified trainers and being informed Ensures success in developing to personal qualities and
about peculiarities of work in the corporate culture in the competencies which help the
company as well as corporate valuables. personnel; trainer to conduct the activity.
The training is carried out in the Ensures professional growth of
workplace in working hours which colleagues.
contributes to minimization of
adaptation and implementation period.
Story telling Telling stories on the lives of peers and Facilitates the period of Requires high level of qualification,
colleagues to present information about adaptation; knowledge of history, current
traditions, philosophy and corporate Promotes loyalty of new situation and prospects of the
culture of the company13 . It includes colleague to the company. organization; requires skills
study of necessary local regulations. developed within the short period
to moderate the colleagues
Training (learning) Corporate management makes it possible Development of decision making Requires peers, colleagues
through to effectively solve emerging organiza- skills; (assistants) capable of solving
participation tional challenges through participation, Development planning, plan ful- complex real-life problems to
involvement; development of the filment and goal setting skills; overcome the gap, imaginary and
structure and dynamics of changes Opportunity to solve business real in the company.
without removing the employee from problems;
his job. It is characterized by a Close connection with
combination of regular situation professional activity.
analysis, setting new goals and thinking
through steps to achieve them.
Training in work Workgroups, or teams, consisting of Different trainee groups enrolled Requires that the group has been
teams specialists of different levels are formed regardless of their level of qua- previously informed and trained
to solve specific problems in certain lification; on methodology and analytical
time interval; develop the algorithm of Development of methods of problem solving.
the tasks set, and determine the length self-determination and
of time needed to solve them. The team independence of employees;
proposals are considered by the Forming decision making skills;
company management and can be either Increasing their motivation.
accepted or rejected.
In basket Training based on imitation of frequent Develops the capability to Requires preliminary training on
work situations characteristic to senior analyse and select the more how to work with documents and
executives and managers to identify and important factors; objective self-assessment of one’s
train their management talent and High level of motivation; own abilities to analyse, under-
skills. A trainee is given a list of items Involvement into the process of stand the system and select the
(a number of mails, telephone calls, problem solving; most significant factors that help to
documents and memos, planned and Unbiased assessment of consider the problems according to
unplanned meetings, etc.) which must participants degree of their urgency, and
be addressed within a certain time determine ways and methods to
frame. He/she is asked to prioritize the solve them successfully.
(Contd)

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Table 1. (Contd)

Brief description Merits Demerits

items and justify his/her reasons to the


panel, to determine what is important
and what is urgent. A number of
problems are kept in the ‘in basket’.
The worker has to look at the problems
and solve them; he/she transfers them to
the ‘out-basket’.
Rotation Independent and autonomous training Contributes to developing new Requires to create conditions for
through rotational programmes (through poly-professional competen- free systematic movement of
different parts of a company) or cies; employees from one job to
specific, structured training Motivates; another within the structure of the
programmes. The trainee/employee Helps to overcome the stress organization, which in its turn
temporarily rotates in different caused by monotonous work; prevents them from using
departments within the organization, Best application of knowledge, previously acquired skills;
performing different tasks unrelated to abilities, interests; Possible discrepancies between
his original job. The employee acquires Opens new opportunities and desired and proposed jobs or
new skills, polyvalent qualification. He expand contacts, learns positions in the organization.
gains perspective on various areas of necessary skills which can help
organization, overcomes the the employee to advance
consequences of boredom and monot- within a company.
ony, enriching it by new social contacts
that contribute to creation of positive
motivation.
Secondment Similar to rotation, difference is in the fact Developing poly-professional Requires creating conditions for
that a ‘job-swap’ may take place not competencies; free systematic movement of
only in another division of the same Trainee’s personality employees from one job to an-
company, but also in external development; other and prevents them from us-
organization, in different sphere and Improvement of interpersonal ing previously acquired skills;
then returning to previous positions14 . communication skills. Risk of possible discrepancies be-
tween desired and proposed jobs
or positions in the organization.
Buddying A technique to help already capable staff Opportunity to have a detached Requires to ensure objective
to learn how to apply their skills more observer point of view and see feedback and information;
quickly, to reduce floundering at work disadvantages; Constant control by, or on behalf of,
when a new hire starts. Ensures positive Equal rights of the participants; HR department.
feedback and constructive criticism Opportunity for a trainee to
when developing new skills through outline his advance within the
accomplishing a task and new current company.
responsibilities. In contrast to tutoring,
it means equal partnership of trainee
and his guide.
Shadowing Opportunity to immerse for a certain Contributes to rapid adaptation of Requires desire and willingness of
period of time into the role of an execu- a trainee; senior executives and managers
tive a better idea of the job. The trainee Allows to be immersed into the to share their experience;
gains information concerning special real professional activity. Requires necessary conditions to be
features and knowledge necessary for created for trainers to objectively
the position chosen. It is effective in evaluate and assess their abilities.
re-training.

in work teams, training through participation, and instruc- The experience gained in national and international
tions. Companies using their practice modular learning, corporate training, and the study of advantages and dis-
case study, buddying, storytelling, in-basket, secondment, advantages related to the methods applied, make it possi-
or coaching are rather rare. Selection of forms and tech- ble to design and develop the educational and academic
niques in corporate training is determined by the fact that process considering its potential for successful applica-
they are in demand and became an integral part of the tion in the Russian corporate education system. The
system due to specific factor characteristics. The most experience proved to be helpful while developing special
significant reason is their effectiveness in the current methods and techniques, curricula, learning and teaching
stage of development. material in Russian enterprises.

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GmbH & Co.KG, 2012. doi: 10.18520/cs/v111/i9/1480-1485

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