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Literature Review: Conducting & Writing

Many Social Science disciplines use APA format for citing sources. The most recent guide is the Publication Manual
of the American Psychological Association 6th Edition. See our additional page to format in-text or parenthetical

The following examples of the most commons types of citations are adapted from the 6th edition (2010) of the APA
manual. For additional examples, consult chapter 7 (pages 193-224) of the APA Manual or browse the APA Style
online guide at

Book, Ball, P. (2001). Bright earth: Art and the invention of color. New
Single Author York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
Multiple Bird, K., & Martin, J. S. (2005). American prometheus: The triumph and tragedy of
Authors J. Robert Oppenheimer. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
Silverstein, T. (Ed). (1974). Sir Gawain and the green knight. Chicago:
University of Chicago Press.

Demos, J. (2001). Real lives and other fictions: Reconsidering

Chapter in a
Wallace Stegner's Angle of Repose. In Carnes, M. (Ed.), Novel history:
Historians and novelists confront America's past (and each other), (pp. 132-
145). New York: Simon and Schuster.

Journal Article Burns, S. (2005). Ordering the artist's body: Thomas Eakins' acts of self-
7.01.1 portrayal. American Art, 19(1), 90-102.

Murdock, L., & Hobbs, J. (2011, July). Picture me playing: Increasing

Journal Article
pretend play dialogue of children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of
with DOI
Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41(7), 870-878. doi: 10.1007/s10803-

Journal Article Tilak, J.G. (2002). Education and poverty. Journal of Human Development,
without a DOI 3(2), 191-207. Retrieved from

Thesis or Erickson, C. (2008). Critical multiculturalism and preservice teacher

Dissertation education (Doctoral dissertation, University of West Florida). Retrieved
7.05.41 from

Florida Department of Education. (2010). Next generation sunshine state

standards: Grade two, social studies. Retrieved
web document)
APA Intext Citations

In-text citation rule: For paraphrasing and quotations, always include the
author's last name and the date published. Paraphrases do not have to include
page numbers (and some instructors may prefer this method, so check with
them). However, in the new edition of the APA Manual, they are
Single Author
6.11 Referring the author in the text: According to Ball (2001), the earth contains
many bright colors (p.10).
Author not referred to in the text: The earth contains many bright colors (Ball,
2001, p.10).

If a work has only two authors, cite both names each time you reference the
EXAMPLE: According to Bird and Martin (2005), Robert Oppenheimer
led a tragic life.
If a work has three, four, or five authors, you should cite all of the authors by
last name in the first in-text reference. In a subsequent reference, you would
Book, cite the name of the first author listed followed by et al.
Multiple EXAMPLES:
6.12 Johnson, Lee, and Martin (2010) attempted this experiment. [first in-text
Johnson et al (2010) confirmed the number of participants.
If a work has six or more authors, only cite the first author's last name
followed by et al for all in-text citations.
Vidal et al (2010) concluded that working in a library is the best job a student
can have.

For an in-text citation for a source with no identified author, your in-text
Works with no citation will include the first part of your reference, usually the title.
6.15 EXAMPLE: When research is completed in a timely manner, student grades
are better ("How To Succeed," 2010).

author (easily According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH, 2007), high
identified by cholesterol levels are affecting children as well as adults.
In subsequent in-text citations, you should use NIMH (2003).