You are on page 1of 11


TAMESH Submitted to:
10BTD5060161 Er. Ankush Kapoor
Electronics And Communication
Email id:

Nanoelectronics is perceived as one of the the existing microelectronic technology)
key technologies of the 21stcentury with an for their production without the use of
enormous potential to flourish dramatically in advanced lithography and how it can be
the near future. arranged to host molecular devices.
Albert Einstein first proved that each Potential applications are in digital radar,
molecule measures about a nanometer (a electronic support measures (ESM)
billion of a meter) in diameter. And in receivers, ATM data stream processing,
1959, it was Richard P. Feynman who wide bandwidth communications, digital
predicted a technological world composed image processing, waveform generation, a
of self-replicating molecules whose nd the broad area of analog to digital
purpose would be the production of nano- (A/D) applications. This paper presents a
sized objects. scenario on existing studies
on Nanoelectronics with its importance in
This breakthrough technology enables making a new class of smaller, faster and l
creation of things one atom or molecule at ower power consumed computer chips
a time. It offers a broad set of illustrated. Carbon tubes, which are the
opportunities by focusing on quantum heart for this technology, is highlighted
devices and addressing their potential for which possesses extraordinary physical
high performance through increases in and chemical properties because of which
density(factors of 5 to 100), speed (factors it is possible to make incredible
of 10 to 100), and reduced power (factors components. Most of the preceding
of more than 50).The definition of features discussion is premised upon the implicit
on the nanometer length scale (NLS) is assumption that future quantum effect
impossible via conventional lithography, nanoelectronics devices will be fabricated
but can be done using extreme ultraviolet, in nanometer scale using molecules. The
synchrotron-radiation, or electron beam paper also presents that it is the different
lithography. However, since these construction which is based on helical
techniques are very expensive and barely logic, atomic scale motion of electrons in
in their infancy, their exploitation in an applied rotating electricfield. Finally,
integrated circuit (IC) processing is still the latest developments taken place in the
highly putative. Geometries on world are exemplified, ending with an
the NLS can however be produced with rel interesting conclusion about the
ative ease using the spacer patterning tech performance of this elegant technology in
nique, that is,transforming vertical features the immediate future.
(like film thickness) in the vicinity of a
step of a sacrificial layer into horizontal
features. This work is devoted to 1.
describing a scheme (essentially based on
In 1965 Gordon Moore observed that
What is “Nano”?
silicon transistors were undergoing a
Nano in Greek means ‘dwarf’…..but in continual process of scaling downward, an
actual Nano is even smaller than dwarf i.e observation which was later codified
atomic level of anything. as Moore's law. Since his observation
transistor minimum feature sizes have
What is Nanoscale ? decreased from 10 micrometers to the 28-
22 nm range in 2011. The field of
The nanoscopic scale (or nanoscale)
nanoelectronics aims to enable the
usually refers to structures with a length
continued realization of this law by using
scale applicable to nanotechnology,
new methods and materials to build
usually cited as 1-100 nanometers. A
electronic devices with feature sizes on
nanometer is a billionth of a meter. The
the nanoscale.
nanoscopic scale is (roughly speaking) a
lower bound to the mesoscopic scale for The volume of an object decreases as the
most solids. third power of its linear dimensions, but
the surface area only decreases as its
For technical purposes, the nanoscopic
second power. This somewhat subtle and
scale is the size at which fluctuations in
unavoidable principle has huge
the averaged properties (due to the motion
ramifications. For example, the power of
and behavior of individual particles) begin
a drill (or any other machine) is
to have a significant effect (often a few
proportional to the volume, while
percent) on the behavior of a system, and
the friction of the
must be taken into account in its analysis.
drill's bearings and gears is proportional to
NANOTECHNOLOGY their surface area. For a normal-sized drill,
the power of the device is enough to
** Nanotechnology is the study of handily overcome any friction. However,
manipulating matter on an atomic scale. scaling its length down by a factor of
**Nanotechnology refers to the 1000, for example, decreases its power by
constructing and engineering of the 10003 (a factor of a billion) while reducing
functional systems at very micro level or the friction by only 10002 (a factor of only
we can say at atomic level. a million). Proportionally it has 1000 times
less power per unit friction than the
** A Nanometer is one billionth of a original drill. If the original friction-to-
meter, roughly the width of three or four power ratio was, say, 1%, that implies the
atoms. The average human hair is about smaller drill will have 10 times as much
25,000 nanometers wide. friction as power; the drill is useless.

Fig. 1
What makes the Nanoscale special? Need of Nanotechnology in Electronics ?

*High density of structures is possible Today microelectronics are used and they
with small size. solve our most of the problems.
*Physical and chemical properties can be
The two exceptional disadvantages of micro
different at the nano-scale (e.g. electronic, electronics are:-
optical, mechanical, thermal, chemical).
*The physical behavior of material can be Physical size
different in the nano-regime because of the
Increasing cost of fabrication of integrated
different ways physical properties scale
with dimension (e.g. area vs.volume).
To overcome these disadvantages
nanotechnology can be used.

Nanotechnology in Electronics.

Nanoelectronics refer to the use of

nanotechnology on electronic
components, especially transistors.

Nanoelectronics often refer to transistor

Fig. 2 devices that are so small that inter
Carbon Nanotube? atomic interactions and quantum mechanical
properties need to be studied extensively.
A Carbon Nanotube is a tube-shaped
material, made of carbon, having a Besides being small and allowing more tra
diameter measuring on the nanometre nsistors to be packed into a single chip, the
scale. uniform and symmetrical structure of
nanotubes allows a higher electron mobilit
Carbon Nanotubes are formed from y, a higher dielectric constant
essentially the graphite sheet and the (faster frequency), and a symmetrical
graphite layer appears somewhat like a electron/ hole characteristic.
rolled-up continuous unbroken hexagonal
mesh and carbon molecules at the apexes Advantages of Using Nanotechnology in
of the hexagons. Electronics :

Nanotubes are members of the fullerene *Increasing the density of memory chips
structural family. *Decreasing the weight and thickness of
the screens

*Nanolithography is used for fabrication

of chips.

*Reducing the size of transistors used in

integrated circuits.

*Improving display screens on electronics


Fig. 3 *Reducing power consumption. 3.

AREAS OF NANOELECTRONICS * Very large surface to volume ratio
AND NANOSENSORS making them superior materials for
fabrication of electromechanical and
Graphene transistor : electrochemical sensors with higher
• Graphene is a single sheet of carbon sensitivities, lower limits of detection,
atoms packed in a honeycomb crystal and faster response time.
lattice, isolated from graphite.

• Allows electrons to move at an

extraordinarily high speed.
• With its intrinsic nature of being one-
atom-thick, can be exploited to fabricate
field-effect transistors that are faster and
smaller. Computer processing :

Moore’s Law describes a trend of


It states that the number of transistors that

can be put on a single chip will double
every two years.

Fig. 4

Single Electron Transistor :

• A single electron transistor needs only

one electron to change from the insulating
to the conducting state.

• Deliver very high device density and

power efficiency with remarkable
operational speed.

• Quantum dots with sub100 nm

dimensions have to be fabricated
Fig. 5

*Because of nanotechnology, the speed of

Carbon-based nanosensors : computers has increased while the price of
Graphene and carbon nanotubes have: computing has decreased

*Excellent thermal conductivity

*High mechanical robustness

Displays : Carbon Nanotube Screens
Carbon nanotubes on a glass or plastic In carbon nanotube screens the metal point
sheet allow manufacturers to make clear
based electron arrays of FEDs are replaced
conductive panels for displays that are
with a self assembled array of carbon
extremely thin.
nanotubes. The tips of each of these
emitters is only 3 nanometers in diameter.

Electrochromatic Screens :

Electrochromatic screens are composed of

a sandwich of layers. The outer layers are
glass and the inner layers electrodes, ion
storage layers and the electrochromatic
layer. Applying electricity moves electrons
from the ion layers into the
Fig. 6 electrochromatic layer changing it’s colour
Field Emission Displays or from clear to dark. Selective switching
allows an image to be displayed. New
Field Emission Displays (FED) and carbon
developments have resulted is
nanotube screens are high-definition
electrochromatic materials that only alter
colour displays with CRT screen like
their state with an electric signal. The
vibrant colour, rich contrast and fast
screen can be turned off and still retain the
response – but they are flat. These screens
image. Alternatively only the area on the
actually work similarly to a conventional
screen that changes will be drawing
CRT screen. CRT screens use a single
electricity. The result is a dramatic
electron ‘gun’ to scan back and forth
reduction in the amount of power required
across and down the screen to selectively
to run a screen.
illuminate a phosphor coated screen. Both
FED and carbon nanotube screens shoot Electronic Paper :
electrons from an array of millions of
Electronic paper or electronic ink is
electron emitters at a phosphor coated
currently a black and white only
screen. The electron emitting array in
technology. It uses a layer of special
FEDs are made from tiny sharp metal
microcapsules sandwiched between two
points. FEDs have been around since the
large, flat electrodes. At least one of these
1990s but manufacturing large screens was
electrodes is transparent. The capsules too
expensive and difficult, plus the screens
are transparent and contain a clear fluid
used extremely high voltages. Several
plus charged black pigment and white
manufacturers are reporting that they have
pigment holding the opposite charge.
developed new technologies that overcome
Depending on the charge applied to each
these difficulties ad that FEDs are very
close to hitting the market.
capsule by the electrodes, either the black FUTURE SCOPE IN
or the white pigment is attracted to the NANOTECHNOLOGY
surface. Each capsule then becomes a *Nanotechnology for flexible Electronics
single black or white pixel. When the
*Nanotechnology for wireless devices
charge is removed from the electrode the
microcapsule retain their state and *Nanotechnology for molecular devices
therefore the image on the ‘electronic
*Nanotechnology for flexible
Both terms are used to refer to
Stretchable electronics or flexible
internal storage space on a electronics is likely to be the future of
computer. Memory, usually referred to as mobile electronics.
Random Access Memory (RAM), is the
Potential applications include wearable
place where an application loads its data electronic devices, biomedical uses,
during processing, while a hard disk drive compact portable devices, and robotic
(HDD) is usually the place where data is devices.
stored for long or short term retention. In the future, it is likely that graphene will
become a dominant material in flexible

Graphene is nothing but an allotrope of

carbon that has superb electrical
conductivity, flexibility, and physical

Fig. 7(a)

Fig. 8

Fig. 7(b)

*Nanotechnology for molecular *Carbon Nanotubes In Healthcare
devices :
Researchers are improving dental implants
Reducing size of electronics is the need of by adding nanotubes to the surface of
era and this can be achieved with the help the implant material. They have shown
that bone adheres better to titanium
of molecules that can be used in active
dioxide nanotubes than to the surface of
devices. standard titanium implants. As well they
have demonstrated to the ability to load the
These molecules behave as diodes or
nanotubes with anti-inflammatory drugs
programmable switches that make that can be applied directly to the area
connections between wires and consume around the implant.
less current.
Reseachers at MIT have developed a
Thousands of molecules can be sensor using carbon nanotubes embedded
sandwiched between two crossing micro- in a gel; that can be injected under the skin
scale wires to create an active devices. to monitor the level of nitric oxide in the
Since molecular devices fit between the bloodstream. The level of nitric oxide is
wires, large area savings could be important because it indicates inflamation,
achieved. allowing easy monitoring of imflammatory
diseases. In tests with laboratory mice the
sensor remained functional for over a

Researchers have demonstrated artificial

muscles composed of yarn woven with
carbon nanotubes and filled with wax.
Tests have shown that the artificial
muscles can lift weights that are 200 times
heavier than natural muscles of the same
Fig. 9(a) size.

Nanotubes bound to an antibody that is

produced by chickens have been shown to
be useful in lab tests to destroy breast
cancer tumors. The antibody-carrying
nanotubes are attracted to proteins
produced by one type of breast cancer cell.
Once attached to these cells, the nanotubes
absorb light from an infrared
laser, incinerating the nanotubes and the
Fig. 9(b) attached tumor.

Researchers at the University of

Connecticut have developed a sensor that
uses nanotubes and gold nanoparticles
to detect proteins that indicate the
presence of oral cancer. Tests have

shown this sensor to be accurate and it magnitude by virtue of EPR-based
provides results in less than an hour. targeting and its engineered tumor-
preferred doxorubicin release properties. It
is in human clinical trial in Europe.
Contemplated embellishments to this and
similar polymer therapeutics include use of
monodisperse nanopolymers (dendritic
polymers) to enhance control of EPR
properties, incorporation of protein
docking domains that recognize tumor
associated antigens to tether the complex
following its delivery to the tumor, and
incorporation of additional antitumor
agents thought to have synergistic effects
with cytotoxins, that is, angiostatic agents,
Fig. 10 among others (Duncan 1997).
A Biological Nanodevice for Drug
Delivery :
The nanobiological anticancer agent PK1
(Figure 6.14) exploits the enhanced
permeability and retention (EPR) effect
associated with disease tissues with low
integrity vasculature in order to deliver
cytotoxin (doxorubicin) to tumors. The
synthetic backbone of PKI (N-2-
(hydroxypropyl) methacrylimide or
HPMA) gives the complex a size
(diameter in the mid-nanometer range) that
makes it unable to extravasate efficiently
into healthy tissues with normal
Fig. 11
vasculature. Tumor vasculature is
abnormally permeable, allowing
preferential accumulation of PK1 in tumor
tissue. HPMA-bound doxorubicin is non- Nano-antennas for
toxic, limiting toxicity to healthy tissue, optoelectronics and
and active doxorubicin is released from the
nanophotonics :
complex preferentially in tumor tissues.
The labile peptidic linker tethering The evolution of the design of radio and
doxorubicin to HPMA was selected microwave antennas has allowed new,
because it is the substrate for a protease diverse, and ubiquitous applications of
known to be over-expressed in the target great added value, ranging from global
tumor types. PK1 increases the tolerated positioning systems to cellular-phone
doxorubicin dose by more than an order of networks. Scaling these designs down
towards optical wavelengths has faced two
main practical restrictions. On one hand,
until recently there have been

technological and fabrication issues. On they work at room temperature. A
the other, they could not compete against comparison of the performance of these
the prevailing semiconductor-based devices with other detectors is shown
emitters (light-emitting diodes, laser in Figure 12. Based on this analysis,
diodes) and detectors (PIN detectors, optical antennas are set to detect light in
avalanche photo diodes, etc.). It is now a polarimetric imaging systems, multiband
time of new opportunity for optical or and multispectral applications from the
nano-antennas. visible to the millimeter-wave bands
(see Figure 12), optical probes in near-
An optical antenna, also called an antenna- field optical microscopy, optical sensors,
coupled optical detector, is the marriage of etc. Moreover, once several technological
two clearly distinguishable elements problems have been solved, nano-antennas
working conjointly: a metallic antenna should contribute to the improvement of
structure that collects the optical radiation, light emitters in the future.
and a transducer that turns the received
power into an electric signal. Each of these
elements can be optimized for a given

Nano-antennas are the smallest detectors

available, scaled to a fraction of the
received wavelength. By nature they are
direction-, wavelength-, and polarization-
sensitive elements. The transduction
mechanism has a potential response time
in the order of tens of femtoseconds.
Optical antennas have the advantage that
they are integrable with diffractive and
conventional optical elements,
waveguides, and read-out electronics, and

Fig. 12(This fractal bow-tie antenna array

is designed to detect five bands centered at

wavelengths of λ0, 2λ0, 4λ0, 8λ0, and 16λ0.) 9.



Jawaharlal Nehru Government
Engineering College Sundernagar Mandi
(H.P.) -175018


SESSION (2017-2018)


(E.C.E. DEPARTMENT) 10BTD5060161