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Edited and Published by Shri S.K. Nirmal, Secretary General, Indian Roads Congress, IRC HQ, Sector-6, R.K. Puram,
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Indian Highways
Volume : 46 Number : 2 ● February, 2018 ● ISSN 0376-2756
Indian Roads Congress
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 From the Editor's Desk 4-5
 Advertisements 2, 6-9, 18, 67 & 68
 Membership Notice 10
 Advertisements Tariff and Empanelment of Referees 38
Technical Papers
 Evaluating the Use of High Strength Concrete Pavement Quality Course Made with  11-18
Steel Fiber and Silica Fume
By S.S. Kadam & Dr. V.V. Karjinni
 Equivalent Slope Method for Construction of Master Curve 19-28
By Dr Nikhil Saboo & Dr Praven Kumar
 Exploring the Feasibility for Introducing Electric Buses in Delhi 29-37
By Pintu Saini & Dr. P. K. Sarkar
 Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil with Sand and Non Woven Coir 39-44
By Dr. Vandana Tare, Diwakar Singh & Dr. Kundan Meshram
 MoRTH Circular 45-48
 Tender Notices 49-61
 Announcement 61
 Book Review/New/Revised IRC Publications 62-66

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design. Road Safety Audit is an important aspect of Quality Assurance which is applied to the implementation of a road project. Copy of Detailed Project Report (DPR) . drawings of project and design data used in design of road and bridge etc. Some road junctions are very safe during day time but become traffic hazard at night. If not. The principal method of ensuring this objectivity is through an independent assessment of schemes by persons who are independent of the design team. Manual on Road Safety Audit IRC:SP:88-2010. The concept of drive. The suggested improvements are to be implemented by the road authority after considering all aspects. identification of deficiencies after site visit by road safety expert and recommendations to remove the same is in the scope of Road Safety Audit (RSA). The audits are to be carried out objectively and the recommendations made with sufficient reasoning based on relevant data/information. RSA should form an integral part of highway planning. The Road Safety specialist along with local engineers should conduct road safety audit to identify the locations which require improvement. Quality assurance is ensured by the implementation organization by adhering to set of designed procedures and construction standards. construction and maintenance. In this Manual various aspects of road safety audit such as quality assurance. it is possible to know the vehicles plying on a stretch of road in different seasons. and it requires an objective approach to the assessment of accident risk. For existing roads site visit during day and night and wet/dry season which affect the movement of traffic is required. For existing roads. The existing roads with known accident problems should be addressed first as this is where the actual accidents are occurring that warrants action. During site visit and discussions with locals. The cost of audit and implementation of safety measures will be offset by saving due to reduction in number of accidents. After implementation of the road safety improvement work there is a need to check whether the safety measures were effective or not. The main aim is to ensure that all new highway schemes and existing roads operate as safely as possible. Getting it right the first time is the underlying theme of quality assurance. The objective of safety audit is to ensure that the existing road/bridge caters for the movement requirements of all vehicles moving on the road. ride & walk is vital for identifying the deficiencies in existing road/bridge in relation to movement all road users. Road safety audit of accident prone locations will identify the deficiencies which are contributing towards occurrence of road accidents. what is done and what is not 4 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 . Salient features and principles for safe road design are covered in this Manual. The recommendations of such audits be translated into Guidelines for similar type of projects. are very useful in audit study. From the Editor's Desk ROAD SAFETY AUDIT Road Safety Audit is a formal procedure for assessing accident potential and likely safety performance of design of new and existing road/bridge scheme. The outcome of a road safety audit is the identification of deficiencies which are likely to contribute towards road accidents and recommendations to remove the same. then some other road safety improvement works need to be implemented to make the roads accident free. Road Safety Audit seeks to ensure the road operates with a level of protection from unsafe design and construction.

client and an auditor. Ministry of Road Transport & Highways vide Circular dated 14th January. choice of alignment. to conduct road safety audit to reduce possibility of road accidents through corrective measures. Check list for different stages of projects such as planning. The judgement can be downloaded from website of Hon’ble Supreme Court of India. In the judgement delivered on 30th November. road side hazards. Implementation of Ministry’s notification dated 23rd June. various stages of safety audit are covered in detail. Detailed procedure for conducting audit of existing road sections are given with illustrations. (Sanjay Kumar Nirmal) Secretary General INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 5 . vulnerable road users. This Circular was printed in Indian Highways. development proposal. 2016 has issued guidelines for conducting Road Safety Audit on National Highways. the court passed an order on 22nd April. 2016 issue. organizations involved. what type of projects should be audited. holding of safety audit commencement meeting and holding of completion meetings with the clients etc. publicity of universal accident helpline number 108 etc. cross-section. Recently Ministry has decided to impart training to 1500 officers in Road Safety Audit and invited nominations from user agencies. inspection of site. road side facilities. In a writ petition (civil) no. maintenance work are given for the benefit of auditors. 2017 on lane driving.S. We must realize that road safety audit require dedicated and trained highway engineers to recommend safer measures for our highways so that Indian Highways become user friendly and safer to use. size of safety audit team. to undertake traffic calming measures at accident prone locations. lighting. size of RSA team. 2014 constituting a committee on road safety under the Chairmanship of Justice K. The court directions are on setting up of road safety council and permanent road safety cell in each state and district road safety committee in each district by 31st January. This document also covers road safety process such as selecting road safety audit team. a former judge of Supreme Court. training of auditors required and training contents. The manual is very useful in conduct of Road Safety Audit. 2018. 2017. intersection and interchanges. Radhakrishan. role of designer. design stage audit of new road project of length 5 km or more. 295 of 2012 filed in Hon’ble Supreme Court of India. IRC is also considering updation of Manual by incorporating the best international practices and experience gained in conduct of Road Safety Audit of ongoing projects. the court has issued directions on 25 issues which have direct bearing on road safety. road signs and markings. From the Editor's Desk done. February.

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Roads can be used for fiber with aspect ratio 80 was used for the present traffic earlier which helps to reduce inconvenience study. Increase in flexural strength was observed 60 N/mm2. Kolhapur and Asst. For 1.. High strength concrete was Steel fiber was hooked end and circular in cross prepared whose compressive strength greater than section. V. Technical Paper EVALUATING THE USE OF HIGH STRENGTH CONCRETE PAVEMENT QUALITY COURSE MADE WITH STEEL FIBER AND SILICA FUME S. concrete road is that due to fatigue action of wheel compressive strength of concrete decreases.V. The thickness of rigid pavement was found by guidelines given in IRC:58-2015. KIT’s College of Engineering. Pandharpur • E-mail: shriganeshkadam@gmail.5% percentage of steel fiber. 10% and 15% of silica fume was used as a replacement for cement with 0. Slump cone test was conducted on fresh state of concrete and compressive strength test. Though initial cost and ferrosilicon alloys. Kolhapur E-mail: karjinni@yahoo.0% and 1. Maintenance cost of concrete road of cement in concrete. At one third depth from top of the pavement surface it was observed that beam undergo maximum displacement and increase in ductility was observed. Kadam1 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 11 . 1. Silica as crack arrester and helps to minimize the crack fume in concrete is used to increase the strength and enhance the quality of concrete roads. It was experiential that compressive strength. flexural strength of concrete was increased due to partially replacement of cement by silica fume. flexural strength test was conducted on hardened concrete at randomly and one third position of steel fiber from top of the pavement 2 Principal. At this depth reinforcement was found concrete is difficult to handle. segregation of ingredients was observed and best result. With steel fiber and silica fume used in concrete pavement the thickness of pavement was considerably reduced. For greater percentage of is almost negligible.5% steel fiber and 15% silica fume in high strength concrete best possible results were obtained in both the position of steel fiber. Steel fiber in concrete increases the flexural strength and ductility.5% steel fiber and 15% silica fume used in of CRCP with steel reinforcement at one third concrete. 1 INTRODUCTION product of the reduction of high purity quartz with Roads are incredibly important from coal in electric furnace in the production of silicon communication point of view. segregation of the ingredients was observed and concrete is no longer workable. The properties of concrete in fresh and hardened states were investigated. Sinhgad College of Engg. Karjinni2 ABSTRACT Steel fiber and silica fume was incorporated in high strength concrete pavement quality course to enhance properties of the structures. Steel of concrete in early days. Silica fume is a by to be mainly effective in holding the cracks firmly 1 Research Scholar. Due to loads cracks are occurred which leads to depreciate the use of steel fiber thickness of concrete pavement is considerably reduced which helps in reduction of the concrete road. Shivaji University.S. Prof. Researchers found that performance at 1. The steel fiber in concrete acts required material for pavement construction. to the people. Many researchers have of concrete road is high it is beneficial for long restricted use of silica fume up to 15% by weight term concern. The major problem with silica fume it was observed that flexural strength. Optimum percentage of steel fiber was found to be 1. 5%.5% by volume of the specimen beyond which balling effect. For more percentage of steel fiber balling depth of slab from top of pavement surface gave effect.

No.4 Steel Fiber of coarse aggregates were tabulated in Table1. Test conducted Test value randomly reinforced steel fibers and also reinforced 1 Specific gravity 2. No.60% as per IS specifications. For the 9 concrete mixes of cement were tabulated in Table 3 as below: other than controlled concrete steel fibers were Table 1 Properties of Coarse Aggregate reinforced randomly and at one third position S.8 was used for mix design to prepare concrete having cube compressive strength greater than 2 Impact value 15. For this study coarse 2 Diameter 0.83 and silica fume according to guidelines given by Table 3 Properties of Cement IRC:58-2015 and suggest proper percentage of steel fiber and silica fume for construction of S. 1 Specific gravity 3. It is circular in cross section passing through IS sieve 4. There are different Table 4 Properties of Steel Fiber types of shape of coarse aggregates like rounded aggregate. 4 Final setting time 160 min.75 mm and retaining on hooked end type and different properties of steel IS sieve 150 micron was used in the investigation. Physical properties fume for comparison. Another objective is to design pavement 2 Bulk density 1660 Kg/m3 thickness for various percentages of steel fiber 3 Fineness modulus 2. The proportion of different 4 Bulk density 1657Kg/m3 ingredients were shown as below in Table 5. A comparison was made between 60 and 80 aspect ratio of steel fiber and Locally available river sand which is free from it was observed that steel fiber with aspect ratio 80 organic impurities was used for present work. Ingredients of concrete were selected 3 Crushing value 17. The size of aggregate greater than 4. Property value aggregate. Technical Paper together. 5 Tensile strength 1000 Mpa impact value.15 2 MATERIALS 2 Soundness 3 mm 2. angular or crushed S. No. No. fiber as shown in Table 4. The objective of the study is to evaluate Table 2 Properties of Fine Aggregate mechanical properties of pavement containing S.5 mm and retained 3 Aspect ratio 80 on 10mm were used.1 Coarse Aggregates 3 Initial setting time 58 min.75 mm is considered as coarse aggregate.3 Cement mixes were prepared by varying percentage of steel fiber and silica fume.76 at one third depth from top of the pavement with silica fume. crushing value were tested in accordance with IS: 2386. bulk density. Test conducted Test value concrete pavement. The physical properties of 4 Young’s modulus 210 GPa coarse aggregate like specific gravity. Tests were conducted on fine aggregate 2. Care shall be taken to ensure that the sieve is clean before use.20% 60 N/mm2.75 mm aggregates passing through 16. flaky aggregate. ACI method 1 Specific gravity 2. In this experimental programme 1 Length 60 mm crushed aggregates were used. Steel fibre used for steel fibre reinforced concrete 2. 12 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 . For the present investigation total 10 concrete 2. Test conducted Test value from top of the pavement surface.2 Fine Aggregate having aspect ratio 80. Sand gives superior result. Controlled Concrete Ordinary Portland Cement 53 grade conforming mix was prepared without steel fiber and silica IS:269 were used in the study.5 Preparation of Mix as per IS:2386. The physical properties 2.

5ST 1.5ST 0.23 5. Workability of concrete in fresh state was 3. The results of compressive strength test were of fiber increases less space is available for summarized in Table 7 as mean value of three aggregate particles to shift during mixing.52 0. Technical Paper Table 5 Mix Proportion and Designation CC:Controlled Concrete.31 0. 39 39 39 78 78 78 118 118 118 Water (Lits/m3) 183 183 183 183 183 183 183 183 183 183 Super plasticizer 5.23 5. SF:Silica Fume.23 (Lits/m3) W/C ratio 0.43 1.0ST 1.5ST Slump in mm 55 33 35 37 30 33 34 28 30 32 Table 7: Compressive Strength Test Percentage Compressive strength Percentage Mixture ID Compressive strength Position of fiber Without silica fume of silica with silica fume of fiber (N/mm2) fume (N/mm2) 0% 64.23 5.0ST 1.23 5.92 10 10SF0. The slump values of different 3.0ST 1.0ST 74. 29 59 88 29 59 88 29 59 88 Fine aggregate 527 527 527 527 527 527 527 527 527 527 (kg/m3) Coarse aggregate 1159 1159 1159 1159 1159 1159 1159 1159 1159 1159 (kg/m3) Steel fiber (kg/m3) -.67 5 5SF1.31 0.5ST 1.0ST 1.12 Random 15 15SF0. Table 6 Slump Cone Test Mixture ID CC 5SF 10SF 15SF 5SF 10SF 15SF 5SF 10SF 15SF 0. The was taken on compressive testing machine.31 0.31 0. CC - 5 5SF0.5ST Cement (kg/m3) 588 559 529 500 559 529 500 559 529 500 Fly ash (kg/m3) 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 65 Silica fume (kg/m3) -.5ST 72.0ST 1.5ST 0. As the percentage Cube specimens of size 150 mm X 150 mm X 150 of fiber increases in fiber reinforced concrete it mm were casted and compressive strength test was observed that slump value decreases.31 0.31 0.5% 71.5ST 1.55 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 13 . The surface area of fiber increases therefore more water compressive testing machine had capacity of 3000 required to lubricate the fibers.2 Compressive Strength Test measured with slump cone test.0ST 75.23 5.31 3 LABORATORY TESTS and compacting.5ST 1.23 5. ST:Steel Fiber Ingredients CC 5SF 10SF 15SF 5SF 10SF 15SF 5SF 10SF 15SF 0.31 0.31 0.31 0.5ST 1.1 Slump Cone Test mixtures are shown in Table 6. As the percentage KN.0% 74.23 5. placing tests.5ST 1.5ST 73.5ST 73.89 .5ST 0.23 5.29 10 10SF1.23 5.0ST 1.5ST 0.

33 10 10SF1.5ST 73.20 15 15SF1.66 Fig.18 1.11 third 15 15SF1.10 5 5SF1.5ST 69.46 5 5SF0.5ST 74.70 5 5SF1. Technical Paper Percentage Compressive strength Percentage Mixture ID Compressive strength Position of fiber Without silica fume of silica with silica fume of fiber (N/mm2) fume (N/mm2) 15 15SF1.0ST 76.5ST 76.53 10 10SF1.0ST 72.29 10 10SF1.33 15 15SF1.2 Compressive Strength for Different Percentage of Steel Fiber and Silica Fume (One Third Position) 14 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 .5ST 75.0% 71.22 One 1.33 5 5SF1.5ST 72.1 Compressive Strength for Different Percentage of Steel Fiber and Silica Fume (Random Position) Fig.0ST 73.5ST 74.5ST 62.22 15 15SF0.5ST 74.11 10 10SF0.5% 71.0ST 73.5% 73.88 1.5% 67.77 0.

5ST 5 6.9 30.47 1.3 Flexural Strength Test: found to be increasing as the percentage of fiber The specimens of size 150mmX150mmX700mm increases in both the position of steel fiber.43 2.7 0.13 1. The deflection of beam at centre of span in diagram 1.5% 8.5ST 10 5.5ST 15 8.9 5SF1.0ST 10 6.0% 6.0 7.2 3.57 0.5 14.35 10SF0.57 5.6 31.8 0.5ST 5 5. -- 5SF0.4 34.45 16.2 16.72 1. Max.3 7.62 1.2 21.5% 5.40 10SF1. Table 8 Flexural Strength Test % of Flexural Disp.07 1.5ST 10 8.28 1. The were tested on universal testing machine of capacity steel fibres placed at one third position as shown 1000KN. -.4 15SF1.5 5SF1.75 1. displacement at peak load and maximum speed at no load is 0 to 150 mm per minute.0 1.1 28. Max.0ST 10 6.43 1.3 15SF1.25 1.4 5SF0.0% 6.3 5SF1.5ST 10 7.66 1.7 20.3 One 1.92 0.3 1.5 9. Diagram1: One Third Position of Steel Fibre in Beam X Section.1 2.53 1.0ST 15 7.5ST 5 8.6 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 15 .2 25.9 25.30 10SF1.63 0.5ST 15 6. The results of flexural strength was directly measured by using digitized UTM of test.3 1.8 15SF0. The displacement at ultimate failure were tabulated in flexural strength of fiber reinforced concrete was table 8 as mean value of three sets.25 10SF1.0ST 15 7.32 CC -. Position fiber strength at displacement ID of silica strength at displacement without peak at ultimate fume with peak at ultimate silica load failure in mm silica load failure in fume in in mm fume in in mm N/mm2 N/mm2 mm 0% 6.87 0.6 25.48 0.08 2.25 10SF0.0ST 5 6.5% 5. -.3 third 15SF1.3 Random 15SF1.15 0.5ST 15 8. Mixture Percentage Flexural Disp.4 5SF1.06 1.18 1.93 1.1 16.03 1.2 25.5ST 15 6.60 10SF1.0ST 5 6. -.5% 7. Technical Paper 3.2 18.9 15.7 7.5ST 5 7.4 35.8 15SF0.18 2.5ST 10 6.15 0.4 12.

4 Flexural Strength for Different Percentage of Steel Fiber and Silica Fume (One Third Position) 4 PAVEMENT ANALYSIS 5 RESULT: For the design of rigid pavement optimum value For the concrete in fresh state it was observed that of flexural strength from each of above group were as percentage of steel fibre increases slump value selected and design of 4 lane with 2 lane in each decreases. Minimum value of slump was noticed direction was carried out according to IRC:58-2015. rate of traffic increase. Load bearing capacity of concrete 16 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 . axle observed at 1. Steel fibre arrest the micro crack and the design flexural strength considered for deciding protract the micro crack under the action of thickness of road. As percentage of steel fiber At high percentage of fibre volume fraction like increases flexural strength of concrete increases 1.3 Flexural Strength for Different Percentage of Steel Fiber and Silica Fume (Random Position) Fig. at random position. The design parameters strength of concrete increases as percentage of such as effective modulus of subgrade reaction silica fume increases with fiber placed at random of the DLC subgrade.5% of steel fiber whereas greatest slump For 1. Technical Paper Fig.5% steel fiber and 15 % silica fume load spectrum value were taken from IRC: 58-2015. Compressive flexural strength achieved.Concrete get dip in strength at first crack occurs ) so instead of confined in compression zone due to steel fiber in peak flexure strength first crack flexure strength also compressive zone. tyre pressure. with 1.5% of steel fiber.5% strain hardening (increase in strength after a in both the position of steel fiber. As per IRC guidelines concrete. Maximum compressive strength was cracking. Also steel fiber in compressive need to be considered while deciding road thickness zone arrest the micro cracks that occurs in and this need further research. poissons ratio temperature position and at a depth one third from top of the differential for bottom up cracking and top down surface.5% steel fiber and 15 % silica fume maximum value with 0. flexuralload.

5% steel IRC:58-2015 it was observed that as percentage fiber. Pavement thickness analysis was carried ii] For one third position of steel fiber from top out for different values of flexural strength. It was concluded that combined effect silica fume and 1.6 mm at one third position of steel fiber from top flexural strength of steel fiber reinforced concrete of the surface for 1.024 0. Randhavaneshrikant B “Steel of the conclusions.5ST 6. Technical Paper in compression zone increases which results Silica fume for steel fibres randomly reinforced increase in flexural strength.093 0.75 200 One third 0.021 0.06 260 One third 0. With the help of guidelines provided in of steel fiber for 15% silica fume and 1.5% steel fiber and 15% silica fume at random iv] Finally it is accomplished that though flexural position. displacement at ultimatefailure. Pavement thickness analysis carried out strength was observed at 1.93 230 Random 0.263 0. Atul Desai.397 Safe 05SF0. Kolase Pramod K.014 0. iii] Maximum flexural strength was achieved at 6 CONCLUSIONS: 15% silica fume and 1.5% steel fiber at one third position of silica fume 15% and steel fiber 1.062 0. Mr. Following are some Shivamanth. The pavement placed at one third position from top of the surface thickness reduced by 20% for 15% silica fume and concrete has greater capacity to absorb energy and 1.03 230 One third 0. Table 9: Pavement thickness analysis Flexural Pavement Total CFD Total Sum of Mixture ID strength thickness Position For BUC CFD For BUC and Remark (N/mm2) (mm) Case TDC Case TDC CFD CC 6. TDC: Top down cracking Maximum displacement of concrete at failure was i] As percentage of steel fiber increase the 35.854 Safe 15SF1.5% steel was observed. thickness considerably with a smaller value 0. Fiber Reinforced Concrete Pavement A Review INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 17 .079 Safe 15SF0.116 Safe 15SF1.028 0. Analysis for thickness of pavement was strength of concrete at one third position of steel fiber carried out by guidelines provided in IRC:58- is slightly less than randomly reinforced position 2015. fume.079 randomly reinforced position lesser displacement was observed for 15% silica fume and 1.480 Safe 15SF1.5ST 6.0ST 7.454 0. Fibers at one third position helps to increase REFERENCES ductility of pavement as it undergo greater maximum 1.156 0.5% effectively from top of the surface would be effectively used used for concrete pavement which reduces pavement for pavement quality concrete.284 Safe 15SF1.5ST 8.47 250 --. Minimum CFD value 0.200 0.5% steel fiber at randomly High strength steel fibre reinforced concrete reinforce position. Dr. Therefore for the construction of was prepared for pavement quality concrete by pavement quality concrete15% silica fume and 1.5% steel fiber and 15% as shown in Table 9. BUC: Bottom up cracking.5ST 8. The results show that steel fibre at randomly reinforced position would be maximum compressive strength was observed at effectively used.Maximum flexural position.079 of CFD. It indicates that when steel fiber fiber at randomly reinforced position. Mr.5% steel fiber and 15% silica increases in both the position of steel fiber. the structure.197 0.0ST 7. 1. 0.017 0.023 0.28 220 Random 0. Mr.170 Safe CFD: Cumulative fatigue damage. it gives considerable enhancement in ductility.877 0.5% incorporation of steel fiber.92 200 Random 0. of fiber increases the concrete pavement thickness Therefore steel fiber reinforced concrete with 15% decreases.5% steel fiber at both the position of steel fiber as compared with pavement thickness without silica to endure deformation which enhances ductility of fume and steel fibre. As the of the surface increase in maximum displacement percentage of steel fiber increases the pavement at ultimate failure was observed whereas at thickness decreases.

Prof.S.4R:1993 Method for Mix Design of High 5 Sanjay Kumar Athya. Technical Paper IJIRST ”. Indian Standard Code on Methods of Test for of Steel Slag Concrete”. 2015. C. Bongirwar. Indian Standard Code on Methods of Tests for Pavement with Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Strength of Concrete IS:516-1959. of Silica Fume on Different Strength Parameter 12. Ragini Mishra “Effect Strength Concrete. Roger M. Zishan Raza Khan. May 2017. K.V. 18 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 . 9. Kulkarni. Indian Journal of Applied Research. 240-250. Volume 1. September 2005. Issue 8. volume 91. Srivastava “Application of Steel Fiber Increasing Volume 3. October 2015. Volume 66-2. August 2012. August 2014. Shumank Deep Sciences & Emerging Technologies. Volume 3. of Innovation in Engineering Research & Bureau of Indian Standards. Smith.. New Delhi Volume 4. pp 233-235. Ravindra Jointed Rigid Pavement for Highways. “Evaluating the Use of Fiber Reinforce Properties of High Strength Concrete” The Indian Polymer bars in Continuously Reinforced Concrete Journal.L. Karjinni “Effect of Different 3. E. pp: 60-68. Abdul Ahad. Administration. the Strength. P. Congress. Amudhavalli1.. Solanki. Indian Standards. Deepa Sinha. “Comparision of Normal Concrete 10. 11. Dr. Larson. pp: 28-35.International Journal for Innovative 6. IRC 58-2015 Guidelines for the Design of Plain 4. and Kurt D. Bureau of Pavement”. Aspect Ratio of Steel Fiber on Mechanical P. Management Volume: 02 Issue: 05. V. ACI 211. Indian Road Engineering and Technology. S. Momin. P. Issue 1. International Journal Aggregates for Concrete IS:2368 part I-1963. Federal Highway 5.E. B. N. NewDelhi. Kadam and V.R. V. Number Concrete Pavement”. World Journal of for Mumbai Pune Expressway”. 2009. Life-Period and Reducing Overall 7. Mishra. Jeena Mathew “Effect of Research Science and Technology. 8. S. of Concrete” International Journal of Engineering 2. Silica Fume on Strength and Durability Parameters Issue 10. S. March 2015. Cost of Road Construction (by Minimizing “Rigid Pavement Construction Technology the Thickness of Pavement)”.

Dynamic Shear temperature that could cover many decades of Rheometer (DSR) has been used since a long time frequency/time.1 Vertical shift factor on the speed of molecular motion. The temperature response from the high frequency end of the plateau dependent. zone to the low-frequency terminal INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 19 . T0 ) from a molecular rearrangement process. Engineering behavior of any material can be judged a master curve could be plotted at a single reference by its stress and strain analysis. all the processes Research (Doi and Edwards) has shown that contributing to the viscoelasticity of a material stress functions of linear viscoelastic materials are accelerated to the same extent by temperature are proportional to the product of density and rise (Lakes). can be mathematically written as Airey G.1 Shift Factors under stress. that is the value at the reference temperature tool for describing the viscoelastic behavior of linear chosen. Thus.1) occurs from a stress or from a diffusion process 1. a time or multiplies a frequency to yield a reduced by shifting data obtained at several temperatures to frequency/time scale of ω aT or t / aT .. the horizontal shift factor divides polymers over a broad range of time and frequency. Civil Engg Deptt. Similarly. A new method has been developed through MATLAB program which can automatically create master curve at any reference temperature provided the material obeys thermorheological simplicity. this data is insufficient to material functions. vertical shift factor multiplies a stress. In linear polymers viscoelasticity arises bT E (aT . The speed of these processes depends 1. The new method has been compared with other existing shift factor laws using graphical interpretations.1. The vertical shift factor represents 1 Ph. where temperature is a measure. This principle a common reference temperature (Benedetto et al. Transportation Engg Group.D). IIT Roorkee 2 Professor and Coordinator. T )  E (. For bitumen and modified binders frequency (horizontal shift) on log-log plots of comprising polymers. Scholar. It was found that this method can be successfully employed for master curve construction at any reference temperature chosen.. 1 INTRODUCTION temperatures for a measurable range of frequency.. Transportation Engineering A material to which this technique is for judging and describing the rheological properties applicable is said to be thermorheologically simple of polymers like bitumen. A single rheometer can be (Maxwell. email:pkaerfce@iitr. Airey). Civil Engg Deptt. IIT Roorkee. by obtaining data at several temperature. operated to give values only over a range of three Temperature dependent shift factors are used for to four decades at a particular temperature (Dealy the magnitude of stresses (vertical shift) and time/ and Plazek). In such materials.D. Time determined at temperature T to yield a “reduced Temperature Superposition (TTSP) is a competent stress”. Technical Paper EQUIVALENT SLOPE METHOD FOR CONSTRUCTION OF MASTER CURVE Dr Nikhil Saboo1 Dr Praven Kumar2 ABSTRACT Time Temperature Superposition (TTSP) has been used since a long time for construction of master curves for polymers which are thermorheologically simple. like complex modulus. which  (1. Relationship between shift factor and temperature was established using mathematical equations. phase describe the complete rheological and viscoelastic angle and creep compliance.

mastercurve construction 1. Different researches had been conducted in finding a suitable value of aT for Where. The 1.6) reference temperature T0. The bituminous materials which could be employed implication of this model lies in the determination based on its thermal behavior.1.314 directly from the variation with temperature of J/0K-mol. Williams et al. R is the universal gas constant 8. is close to Tg. is the Where Ea is called the activation energy. Also meaningful Determining horizontal shift of loss angle. the glass transition temperature Tg. ρ0 and ρ are the corresponding densities. T0 is the reference T temperature.2 Horizontal shift factor relation between aT and temperature dependency of Horizontal shift factor aT is a number which is bitumens. which could have some significance regarding the However.7) shift factor can be written as.303R (1. This Observation of the dependence of viscosity of implies that the vertical shift factor can be written liquids on temperature led to the empirical Arrhenius as relationship that can be expressed as bT  (T0 0 ) / (T  ) Ea  (1. 250 kJ/mol for bituminous binders (Airey).1. It has been widely used to describe 1. required to be multiplied to the time/ frequency −C1 (T − Tref ) to shift data at a particular temperature T to the log aT = C2 + (T − Tref )  (1. fit data at the terminal and plateau zones for linear such as a maximum or minimum in loss modulus. into consideration one can write. angle versus log |G*| plot (Van Gurp-Palmen plot) Variation in Ea with frequency and modulus has also is another way of determining vertical shift factor been reported. Many universal constants have been proposed based on the reference temperature.1. vertical Tr − Tg = 500 C  (1. This defining temperature is not very clear and is ω aT .86 and Viscosity is a parameter which comprises of stress 101. and time.2. most of the research to date on binders physical and/or chemical nature of bitumen.2) aT (T ) = exp[ (1/ T − 1/ TR )] 2. Technical Paper temperature induced density changes and involves 1. This limits the use of 20 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 .4) reference temperature desired.1.3) Considering the vertical shift factor as unity. It requires the application of both the These values have shown good fit when T-Tr>-20oC. C1 and C2 are empirical constants. polymers as long as the temperature is well above Plateau of the material functions can also be used. Arrhenius equation has been found to a distinctive value of a modulus or compliance. Moreover. typically temperature at which shift factor has to be applied. one must η (T ) be able to view the rheological behavior at any aT (T ) = 0 η0 (T0 )  (1. in loss activation energy has not been defined so far.2.2.3 William-Landel-Ferry equation does not normally consider vertical shift and it is assumed to be unity (Airey).2 Arrhenius equation shift along the modulus or stress function axis. So a logical value must be chosen that is independent of time or frequency shift. this equation has been from the physical molecular aspect of the binder to mainly found suitable when reference temperature its chemical behavior.1 Shift based on viscosity most famous and frequently used values are 8. But master curve should be such that. and bituminous materials. If complex viscosity η is used as the Another values proposed by Anderson were 19 and * rheological parameter then the master curve for 92 which were based on some defining temperature bT complex viscosity is plotted between aT η (T ) and * Td. It is the minimum energy required for any intermolecular The vertical shift factor is also sometimes determined movement.6 for C1 and C2 as proposed by Williams et al. This implies that if zero shear viscosity is taken bitumen specific. This equation is based on the free volume concept of Doolittle.5) Where. These studies focuses of these constants. proposed that the reference bT (T ) temperature is related to glass transition temperature η0 (T ) = η0 (T0 ) as aT (T )  (1. shift factors.

The smoothness principle. the master curve at a reference temperature which The algorithm adopted for preparing the program for is under service conditions. k ] Appreciating the fact that thermorheological j → Temperature. it would be more convenient selection of reference temperature.2 Equivalent Slope Method (ESM) be used to plot master curve for any rheological The shift factor laws. to introduce a process which will provide shift till a 1. Given the rheological obtaining shift factor is presented below. j → Value of Y variable at Frequency i and Temperature j Input Frequency sweep data from excel sheet and p lot Parameter Y versus Frequency i ↓ Select the reference temperature. i ∈ [1. R⊂ j is obtained after shifting the data at a particular Yi . programmed using MATLAB. c ∈ [x +1. R +1 ] ↓ Find the value of m for which the above is minimum. a user should be able to construct master curve are defined formerly to understand the procedure.1. and will return the shift factors once the shifting process is accomplished. Bitumen as a binder is the curve till the slope at few desired points become exposed to service temperatures ranging from about similar would yield a smooth master curve. 70] simplicity can be validated if a smooth curve TR → Reference Temperatrure . Let it be called p th point. j ∈ [10. Few terms data. R Shift factor f or temperature TR +1 = [ ] Frequencyx −( k +1− x ). Technical Paper WLF equation which has strong dependence on the reference temperature. R − Yx −( k +1− x ).1]. provided -50C to 600C.2.25] ↓ Find [Yc .1) p oint and assuming a straight line find 25 points between them Let it be called cm th p oint. R +1 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 21 . Finally. i → Frequency . Mostly the this procedure is that.4 Manual shift procedure best fit is obtained.k] ↓ th th Take (x +1) and (x . as given by Arrhenius and parameter requiring horizontal shift at any reference WLF equations give satisfactory results provided the temperature. shifting as polymer modified binder. If smooth curve cannot be obtained. let it be x th p oint. the stress function for two laws are valid near the glass transition temperature different temperatures merges to a single or nearly of the polymer. x ∈ [1. which is very low for bitumen as well similar value. p ∈ c ↓ Frequency p . but at different frequency. it is more appropriate to construct thermorheological simplicity prevails. So. it implies that the binder is not A new procedure was hence introduced and was thermorheologically simple. TR ↓ For curve R and R +1.m ∈ [1. R +1 ] ↓ Find the value of i for which the above is minimum. This is a simple procedure in which the data are the graph so obtained can be analyzed visually to see shifted manually in MS EXCEL or similar workbook if the material obeys time temperature superposition till a best and smooth fit is obtained. of the curved is judged visually. The method is named as ‘Equivalent Slope Method’ (ESM) and could 1. calculate [Yi .x . The base behind the development of reference temperature is chosen properly. at any reference temperature under interest. R − Yi −( k +1−i ). So.

This indicates that higher shift factor point D36 has to be employed at each temperature to obtain Specific ASTM 1. 30. (8. be found by optimization techniques for different 25mm dia. Properties Standard VG 10 VG 10+ VG 10+ SBS . strain was measured using strain sweep test at different frequencies and temperatures for all the WLF equation showed the highest deviation at all binders. it was found that for Penetration ASTM 82 62 55 modified binders the decrease in stiffness with D5 increase in temperature is lower as compared to Softening ASTM 46 55 63 base binder. Frequency: 0.01 0. 30. 20. 50. at any chosen reference temperature.86 response of the base binder. This method can be used to construct temperature to obtain a smooth complex modulus master curve for stress functions in which horizontal master curve. 2 and 3 shows the deviation of different shift 3 EXPERIMENTAL factor laws with respect to the manual shift for VG- 10. linear viscoelastic (LVE) though plotted. used to see its application at different reference The conventional properties of these binders are temperatures considered in the study. Deviation from the equality line and was modified with an elastomer SBS and a would mean poor correlation.07 0. EVA . As the reference temperature sweep test was chosen to ensure that the asphalt increased the shift factor obtained by WLF equation binders remain in the LVE domain. as the abscissa and the shift factors of various other A VG-10 viscosity graded binder was used models as ordinate. SBS PMB and EVA PMB. at 30 and 40 °C. In the and 70°C.86 and 101. below and above the reference Manual shift was employed first at each reference temperature. The magnitude of strain in the frequency reference temperatures. 50 using a Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR).1 Validation of Shift Factors temperatures. these constants cannot be used Spindle specification: 8mm dia. The respective Williams et al.1-100 rad/sec that the Williams constant adopted is only suitable for temperatures near the glass transition temperature Test Temperature: 10. The following were found to be much higher than that required for test variables were chosen for the study getting a smooth curve. The plots at other reference temperature. reference temperatures. 60 and of the binder. The deviations were found to be least 70 °C. Technical Paper The above concept is extended similarly for other 3. The graphical plots Frequency sweep test was done on all the binders are shown for reference temperatures of 10. 40. plastomer EVA.52 1. 1. Variation of shift of different shift factor laws in construction of factor was found by plotting the manual shift factors master curves.99 1 master curve. and 1mm gap for 40-70 °C. These values were percentages for SBS and EVA were 3% and 5%. initial part of the study. 22 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 . The concentration of polymers William-Landel-Ferry (WLF) shift factors were were optimized in an earlier study with respect to obtained using the universal constants given by proper homogeneity to be obtained. This may be attributed to the fact Gravity D70 that modification leads to increase in viscoelastic Penetration . Index Figs. The value of presented in Table 1. and 2mm gap at operating temperatures and the constants need to for 10-30 °C. -1.6). Next. Conventional Properties of Binders the sum of least squares with respect to manual shift using SOLVER function in MS EXCEL. different shift factors as shift is required. mentioned above were used to make a comparison 2 MATERIALS and their validation in obtaining master curves at Three binders were used in the study for validation any reference temperature chosen. This may be due to the fact. but are not shown for space limits. So. 4 RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 3% 5% From the isothermal plots. Ea in Arrhenius equation was found by optimizing Table 1.

Very smooth master curves were example. Though the deviation were not very indicating least deviation from the manual shift high for Arrhenius plot. the highest successful at temperatures near to the glass transition value being obtained for EVA PMB. 1 (a-d) Validation of Shift Factor Laws for VG 10 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 23 . This should of the polymer. obtained from MATLAB program using this Both WLF and Arrhenius plot were found to be method at three different reference temperatures sensitive to the reference temperature chosen. As an for VG 10. 6 shows the master curve plots was not obtained. Technical Paper Arrhenius equation gave better results than the poor for construction of master curves at pavement WLF equation. which will at all the reference temperatures. The shift require higher energy for triggering intermolecular factors almost coincided with the equality line movements. though they have been found found to be higher for modified binders. master curve obtained by using these shift obtained by using the shift factor obtained by factor laws are presented in Figs. be true because modification leads to increase in It can be seen that ESM yielded the best fit stiffness and crosslinking of polymers. It was found to be successful tool different reference temperature of 10. Fig. The optimized value of Ea were working temperatures. 4 and 5 at three the method. (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig. 30 and 70 °C for plotting master curve for thermorheological for VG 10. still a smooth master curve factors. These shift factor laws were found to be simple binders.

2 (a-d) Validation of Shift Factor Laws for SBS PMB (a) (b) 24 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 . Technical Paper (a) (b) (c) (d) Fig.

Technical Paper (c) (d) Fig. 4 (a-c) Master Curves Obtained Using WLF Shift Factor INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 25 . 3 (a-d) Validation of Shift Factor Laws for EVA PMB (a) (b) (c) Fig.

6 (a & b) Master Curves Obtained Using ESM in MATLAB 26 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 . 5 (a-c) Master Curves Obtained Using Arrhenius Shift Factor (a) (b) Fig. Technical Paper (a) (b) (c) Fig.

The study also attempted in development of an automated process for construction of master curve for polymers resembling thermorheological simplicity (a) and modelling the same. (c) Fig. Y = log aT . It has been named as INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 27 . It should be found with curve fitting techniques. A2. The constants represent the amount of shift required for any particular binder at a specific temperature. 6 (c) Master Curves Obtained Using ESM in MATLAB 4. 7 (a-c). A3 are the coefficients whose value depend on the type of binder and the reference temperature. X= logT A1. So no universal constants could be assumed for them.1 Modelling of Shift Factor The factors obtained by the equivalent slope method were used for plotting log-log graph between aT and Temperature. It was found that the plot followed a polynomial function irrespective of the type of binder and reference temperature. 5 CONCLUSIONS The study mainly focused on the validation of various shift factor laws most commonly used for construction of master curves. Technical Paper (c) Fig. SBS and EVA PMB at all three reference temperatures are shown in Fig. The shift factor can be written mathematically as Y = A1 X 2 + A2 X + A3 (b) Where. As an example plot for VG 10. 7 (a-c) Log aT versus Log T at the three reference Temperatures Chosen in the Study for all the Binders.

(2013). In addition.. Roads Congress currently has limited guidelines 9. The methodology developed in this study can 6. Also. Clarendon Press. Yusoff N. University of Nottingham. temperature.T. Viscoelastic Linearity Limits for successfully used in construction of master curves Bituminous Materials.A Users Guide. Ferry J. Pouget properties of polymer such as bitumen. (1980). Viscoelastic Properties of hence be used to judge the thermorheological Polymers.. Rompu J.. shift. International Journal of Roads be practically and successfully employed in and Airports.D. However. Mangiafico S. Time-Temperature working temperatures. Airey G. temperatures. Value of Ea obtained by optimization for Arrhenius equation were higher 1. Airey G. Quotes for Road Safety "Do not use Cell Phone During Driving" "Your Destination is reward for Safe Driving" _________ 28 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 ..C.D. appropriate shift factors could be arrived at using this methodology. Oxford. curve. understanding the complex behavior at ambient 4. (1997).. thermorheologically simple. 3. at which the most Superposition. Ph. Doi M.. The laws are very sensitive to the References choice reference temperature. Technical Paper “Equivalent Slope Method”. where knowledge regarding the and Arrhenius laws for obtaining shift factors cannot construction and study of mastercurves will become be used for plotting master curves at operating important. Nguyen V.F. Dealy J and Plazek D. 174-188.D. (2009).H... (2009). With higher interest in study of rheological Buannic M. Rheological Characteristic for polymer modified binders indicating presence of of Polymer Modified and Aged Bitumens.. Construction and bitumen will be an inherent part of various upcoming Building Materials.R.D. Jakarni F.C. Maxwell J. ESM was Thesis. Tapsoba N. and Edwards S. Lakes R. which use the rheology of asphalt binders to assess Hainin M.. Indian 8. Modelling the the performance of bitumen. Viscoelastic materials. (2010).M.I. (1986). (1886). Airey G. Sauzeat C. S.D.S.M. The shift factors obtained using ESM can be (2003). and Callop A. found to give excellent fit with respect to manual 2. General construction of master curve is one of the starting Overview of Time-Temperature Superposition steps in characterizing the enhanced viscoelastic Principle Validity for Materials Containing response. Rahimzadeh B. simplicity of asphalt binders and will aid in smooth 7.. Benedetto H. Rheology common methods fails to give a smooth master Bulletin. in the near Rheological Properties of Bituminous Binders future it is expected that studying the rheology of Using Mathematical Equations. Linear Viscoelasticity. Materials and Structures at any reference temperature. 3rd edition.. Bilodeau K.D tough polymer network after modification. The method so developed can hence Bituminous Binder. It was found that WLF specifications. The Theory of whether or not the material under consideration is Polymer Dynamics. construction of mastercurves at any desired reference Cambridge University Press..V. the same can be used in judging 5. Nguyen Q. John Wiley & Sons.

2012. lack of technology and government incentives are the major barriers for easy adoption of e-buses. 2009). it and CSTEP. Robert Earley. gasoline based fuels. the target of zero emmission. 2016. fare increment. The paper also talks about strategies for promoting e-buses like electricity subsidisation. and unhealthy conditions. Email: pintusaini43@yahoo. vehicles have been plying on Kang. Adheesh. by replacing the conventional i. noise pollution. In the has created various issues like congestion. P. One of the ways of achieving this is. R. T. advancement in vehicle and fuel technology is very important. Sarkar2 ABSTRACT The Oil dependency in the field of transport is a serious concern which is leading to increasing emissions and as a result of that. As the vehicles Feng An and Lucia Green-Weiskel.V. This coupled with rapid GGGI and CSTEP. 2015. the use which primarily are meant to provide comfort of renewable energy sources as fuel can bring convenience but instead. emissions. at one point and are easy to control through various National Energy Policy. has around 6000 buses in operation which if replaced with Electric buses will privide notabble benefits to the society. these provide congestion tremendous changes (Robert Earley. Liping Since centuries. 2011. Feng An and Lucia Green-Weiskel. Ramachandra and Shwetmala. Kadafa. In this regards. there electric vehicles for Indian cities. K. The research end with suggestng the best combinationconcludes with recommendation of strategies which should be immediately adopted by evaluating and comparing each combination. fuels in order to reduce the emissions and achieve Cities are choked with more and more vehicles. adoption of solar charging. T.e. 2015. 2011. zero emissions (Aber. Technical Paper Exploring the feasibility for Introducing Electric Buses in Delhi Pintu Saini1 Dr. In this background.V. 2011. increase in number of vehicles is the source is However there will be certain emissions at the generating tons of pollutants in environment and source of electricity generation but those are only has become serious threats for cities (CSE. pollution. accidents. Liping Kang. vehicles have gained success due to their zero Singh. air practices of exploring alternate fuels for vehicles. Electric vehicles have zero tailpipe emissions which makes them appropriate for the current situation. GGGI ownership and use is increasing day by day. bus cost reduction initiatives. the pollution capital of India. In this case. New Delhi. 2013). 2 Professor. UN-Habitat. New Delhi INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 29 . 2016). The analysis highlights that high capital cost. 2001. As these vehicles work on a chargeable 2009). resulting in un-sustainability of the transportation system. 2015. School of Planning & Architecture. this research evalutes the financial and economical feasibility of electric buses in Delhi. environmental the recent experiments of developing electric degradation etc. These ill-effects of these are leading to battery. In such a case. This sets the immediate need of adopting Ramachandra and Shwetmala. 1 Project Associate. by renewable energy sources. all Indian cities are confronted with the problems of air pollution. 2012. S. Delhi. oil. 1 INTRODUCTION is an immediate need to tackle the issue of emission Traditional approaches of Urban and Transport generated by vehicles and to explore the alternative planning have put the Indian cities in Chaos. School of Planning & Architecture. Hence. (Rameshwar Dayal Sharma. there is no combustion engine. Electric vehicles can be a good option in this scenario.

contribute around 14% of total pollution and it Average income generated by electric bus is higher ranks at second place for producing PM 2. 2016. Liping Kang. than the normal diesel bus and it also offers less 2015. vehicles. Ambient Air Quality (NAAQ) and around 13 times Schiphol. diesel buses have significantly higher to assess the feasibility of adopting electric bus in emissions as compared to CNG buses. and CSTEP. 2015). industrial stack. Among vehicular pollution. however very few studies are available for Indian context. Adheesh. Aber. Gothenburg. R. 2016. cars and jeeps (CPCB. in this context adoption of electric buses in Delhi can successful adoption of e-buses in Indian fleet. which attractive public transport. Madrid etc.5 (CSE. cars. Further yet. It also emphasises on of further reducing the emissions to zero. Barcelona. These are already running successfully in China. two wheelers and 3 wheelers as well. since buses make a very great that buses and Omni buses contribute higher CO2 contribution in overall emissions. In 2015 Delhi. Some for practitioners and policy makers for informed parts of Europe and American cities have also decision making. China is (Cara) Wang. 2015). There provide a notable improvement in environment. 2016. than that of the level of World Health Organisation Some initiatives related to electric bus trial have (WHO) (Greenpeace. Technical Paper some experiments have been conducted for electric primarily due to the process of combustion of fuel. Xiaokun was estimated to be around 1. 2011. Feng An and Lucia Green-Weiskel. PM10 levels were almost Los Angeles in USA whereas trials are going on 4 times than the permissible levels of National in cities like New York. 2016). the aim of the present research is buses. Similar trials have also taken 73% is constituted by road traffic which is place in Delhi for around 4 months in 2016 where 30 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 .Cooperation for sustainable and India had the Air Quality Index (AQI) as 246. Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation The reason mainly includes dust from construction (BMTC). these buses have been experimented (Aber.73. The research provides financial CNG buses also emit certain pollutants like CO. As already established. Hence there is a scope over convention CNG bus. The environment. 2016. and used for operation in many parts of the world. MoEFCC. CARB. 2016. Centere for Transportation Research. However. Recently. 2016). 2016. lies in the poor category (MoEFCC. initiated electric buses in order to reduce carbon 2 NEED OF ELECTRIC BUSES IN DELHI emission from the transport sector (CARB. electric buses feasibility outside India. 2016. CSE. 2011. 1995. passenger light motor buses must also be explored for Indian cities. have been many similar studies for evaluating Hence electric buses must be explored for Delhi. however Old vehicles and diesel and petrol based vehicles electric buses have not gained much importance have a higher contribution in emissions. Research has evaluated the potential bus was provided by Chinese manufacturer (Build reasons for degrading air quality and increasing Your Dream) BYD and was made to ply under pollution levels in Indian cities especially Delhi. In the same year. and NMHC etc. Analysis of the trials by researcher activities. case study area. In light of above the current pioneering in the field of adoption of electric buses research becomes very important as it which will and has also stepped forward in the cost reduction provide great contribution for further research. 2017). London. the worldwide fleet of electric buses GmbH Rail and bus Consultant. strategies (Robert Earley. especially indigenously manufactured electric emission analysis based on the vehicle type reveal buses. This makes it a prominent maintenance cost (S. Among In this context. emission form transport demonstrated that adoption of e-buses will provide sector and Industrial sources. also called the pollution capital of ELECTRICITY. GGGI cause for air pollution. 2016. hence electric compared to two wheelers. 2010). Marcon. 2013). 2016). Transport sector significant reductions in emission levels by buses. However. In 2014 a trial run was done pollutants have serious implications on health and in Bangalore for a period of around 3 months. In 2015. and economic analysis for adoption of electric bus NOx. Tan.000. Such high levels of been adopted in India. IEA. This barriers in adopting these buses and also provides provides the need for exploring different types of strategies which need to be adopted for easy and fuels for buses in Delhi.

operating and maintenance there is a need for a suitable and rational initiative cost of the bus has been taken from Delhi Transport towards formulation of relevant policy and strategy Corporation (DTC) whereas data related to BYD for electric buses. Hence. and bus users 3. R. 2016). However. as the for adoption of e-buses. however. Life Cycle Analysis Leyland. Therefore. For the e-bus. CSTEP.000 km per annum. there is no electric bus in AC bus manufactured by Ashok Leyland has commercial operation in any Indian city.e. The current various secondary sources and interview with research has explored the financial and economic concerned officials. Data related to bus cost. This presents high cost of the electric various stakeholders in order to identify the barriers bus. which are plying on CNG. Along with this. been selected.3. maintenance coupled with high operational cost in Delhi may costs. Technical Paper again the bus was provided by BYD (DTC. The Due to this reason. operators. This must be explored by manufactured electric bus has been used from demonstrating a case of electric bus. This high capital costs taking into account the capital costs. The existing depots has been included as provided by financial and economic analysis has been carried the manufacturers and operators. 2016). S.61 on analysis of perceptions of various stakeholders Cr whereas for CNG Bus. there is no need to bear extra costs for battery replacement. As a case study. at present. the battery life of the bus is of 4000 3 DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS cycles i. Adheesh. Life cycle for both conventional diesel and CNG buses (GGGI and type of the buses has been taken as 12 years (DTC. the electric bus. the currently plying CNG base However. on Manali-Rohtang road by BYD and Ashok 3. Bjorn Nykvist & Mans Nilsson. this research provides the strategy and with 200 kms a day (DTC. one day trial has been completed survey section of the paper. INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 31 . The data collection and sampling details for maintenance cost. Life cycle analysis of electric buses for of the bus. it is assumed that the Delhi has been carried out in comparison to present buses will be charged at the existing depots. It has a purchase cost of around 70 Lac.68 Cr. lead to financial failure of the system. cost of installing the charger in the benefits of electric buses over the CNG bus. All the calculations have been feasibility of electric bus and also the stakeholders’ made for a travel distance of 68. 2016)). it is around Rupees - like bus manufacturers. it can be put into use for a lifetime of 12 3. Financial analysis has been carried out by 2015. The purpose of conducting DTC is currently running into loses as shown in stakeholder survey was to assess the perception of Table 1. manufactured Trials have provided ample evidence for successful by Chinese manufacturer BYD has been chosen operation of electric buses.2. By which is the distance being covered by a DTC bus analysing the operational feasibility of electric in Delhi in a year (taking 340 days of operation buses. operating costs and total revenue generated. This mainly no costs has been added for providing space for the involves assessing the financial and economic bus. The study has been carried out in two phases. stakeholder survey are explained in stakeholder Other than these. According to the discussion with bus manufacturers and operators. policy level intervention required to make the system sustainable. hence buses. It buses have high capital cost in comparison to offers a cost of around 3 Cr.1 Data Collection years which is same as the life of bus. A successful one day trial of electric bus has also been carried out by Tata Motors in Shimla. electric because of its successful trials in Indian Cities. out by using the secondary data provided by DTC’s annual reports 2015-16 and also by extracting Financial analysis between the two shows that data from various reports related to electric bus total net operating income for 1 electric bus after operation worldwide. This is negative in both the cases. however the overall operating income is that need to be addressed for adoption of electric found out to be less negative due to very less buses. opinion on adoption of electric buses for Delhi. 2016). 2015. The second phase focuses 12 years of operation is around Rupees . battery replacement cost is not first phase includes the life cycle analysis of electric considered while considering maintenance cost buses.

This Electric buses. Operating Costs and Maintenance Costs of Cng and Electric Bus.98 lacs in one year just by replacing one CNG bus by electric bus Table 2. emission data of electric buses and corresponding cost of health has been adopted from various literatures ( T. Ramachandra and Shwetmala. Ramprasad Sengupta and Subrata Mandal. Earning per km around half of the CNG bus whereas operating is also observed to be higher for electric bus than costs works out to be of a little higher due to high that of CNG. In order to Electric Bus Over CNG Bus. this will facilitate a saving in electric bus has also been worked out by considering health cost of around Rupees 2. The maintenance cost for the electric bus is exactly electricity costs in Delhi (Fig. saving in fuel by adoption of an around 100 buses. 2005. Geetam Tiwari and Vrajaindra Upadhyay. the study also there can be a savings of around 52 tons of air involves conducting the economic analysis for pollutants per year just by replacing one CNG bus adoption of e-buses. study analyses health benefits and fuel savings Table 2: Emission Cost Savings Calculation for associated with adoption of e-buses.90 Cr per year. there will be a 32 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 .V. Technical Paper Table 1: Comparative Financial Analysis between CNG and Electric Buses. 2010).1). 2009. Economic analysis involves with electric bus giving rise to notable benefits to assessment of benefits that will be accrued by the be accrued if all the buses are being replaced by adoption of electric buses over CNG buses. The analysis shows. As DTC’s current plan involves buying Along with this. assess savings in health. The analysis show that there will be a savings in health cost of around Rupees 2. the cost of CNG that will be saved by adoption of The quantification in health benefits shows that electric buses. Fig. Other than the financial analysis. 1: Comparative Analysis of Capital Costs. Akshaya Kumar Sen.

Tata. bus operators. representatives (Rs/kg) from DTC and Cluster service by DIMTS were interviewed. it will provide saving conducted for bus users. 7. Table 4: Effects of Various Scenario on Net Operating Income and Benefits. The study involved various electric Table 3: Fuel Cost Savings for Electric Bus Over bus manufacturers mainly 4. Ashok Leyland and Volvo. As part of operator’s survey. It can as given to DMRC) be improved for electric buses to up to 1. Stakeholder survey was adoption of 100 such buses.4 Km/Rs • Bus cost should be reduced up to 50% if electricity is provided on subsidized rate as it is • Fare increment up to 33% or by 1/3rd given to Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC).0. bus manufactures and in fuel of around Rs. Other than these benefits.2. The whole process helped and have very less noise pollution benefiting the formulate three options/scenarios which can be society. By of all the stakeholders. Tata. there is a need to assess the perception just by adoption of one electric bus (Table 3). These options when applied to financial and 3. existing and future plans of operators for environment however these could not be quantified adopting electric buses. Leyland and BYD and interviews were conducted with the representatives from major manufacturers namely BYD. All these surveys were conducted in the month of January and February.84 Cr. This involved surveying all type of bus users at 2-3 bus stops (randomly picked) wherein a total of 120 samples were collected. users views on adoption in the current study due to lack of reference studies of electric buses and willingness to pay higher on the same topic. Bus users were also surveyed in terms (Rs/km) of their willingness to use electric buses and to pay higher. 2017.7 Km/Rs for electric). there can be remarkable barriers to be overcome for adoption of electric improvements in overall regional and global buses. Also.e. The survey provided an insight of existing market status of various manufacturers.8 Km/ • Electricity Subsidisation (50% subsidy/Grant Rs for CNG and 0. INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 33 . Technical Paper savings in fuel cost of around Rs 7. electric buses are silent for improved services.84 lacs per year model. Ashok CNG Bus. Stakeholders Perception Survey Analysis economic analysis provide the conditions of To develop a commercially viable market feasibility of the system. The study of fuel efficiency of both types explored for improving feasibility and reducing of buses shows that the fuel efficiency is almost overall costs in Delhi as follows: found to be same for both the buses (i.Volvo.

Tax exemption must be adopted for electric vehicles. Battery technology is being also improved the existing fare is 0.2. In Contrast. improvement in battery technology. Subsidy is already available CARB. tax As scenario 1+2+3 provides the highest benefit exemption and battery technology explora- cost ratio. 34 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 . from 1000$/KwH in 2009 to 410$/ Bus cost can be reduced by providing subsidy on KwH in 2014 and projections say it can go up to bus. Electricity Subsidisation can be adopted for making operation of electric Electricity subsidization by the government on buses feasible. This will per the reviews of bus users. Fare Increment to 66 lakhs.China provided surveys. tion 4 STRATEGY AND RECOMMENDATIONS • Solar panel based charging system. This strategy has already been reduction of purchase cost and fare increment as adopted in the case of Delhi Metro. This will for electric cars. it will be financially feasible. Globally it has been adopted As per the responses received from the user by many countries. France in 2013 started offering raise the revenue and hence profits for the system.1.3. The strategies for system (Table 4). tax. Globally. All the conditions of Economic developing a commercially viable market model evaluation shows that scenario 2+3 and 1+2+3 for electric buses are as following: provide the economic feasibility of the system • Electricity Subsidisation with positive NPV.e. exemptions and use of solar panel based charging it provides the net operating income as positive system are also to be explored. scenario and combination of these scenarios have combination of any two scenarios (except scenario been assessed on net operating income and net 1+3) would provide the economic feasibility of the operating income after benefits. Cars emitting zero CO2 1 ` per km which makes it an increment of about at the tailpipe are exempt from paying registration 1/3rd existing rates as shown in Fig 2. day by day. which varies from 30 lakhs 4. operational costs. Effects of all these i. purchase incentives of 6300 euros for BEVs and More than 75% of the users are ready to pay up to PHEVs and in Netherlands. it strategies. Fig. there could be a possibility of fare exemption from acquisition tax and excise tax increment by 1/3rd of the current price. For example. for electric buses. tax exemption and by exploring and improving 100$/KwH (Bjorn Nykvist & Mans Nilsson.e. Reduction in Bus Cost significantly. tax will be doubled as shown in Fig 2. However. battery costs have reduced 4. The study involves developing strategies which 4. the battery technology. 2015. 2016) . Other than these three improve the overall fuel efficiency by 100% i. • Reduction in Bus cost through subsidy.75 ` per km. Major strategies involve electricity the 50% rates can bring significant changes in the supply on subsidised rates as in the case of DMRC. Technical Paper If all the three options are implemented together. 2: Comparison of Fuel Efficiency (Left) and Result of User's Willingness to Pay Higher (Right). higher Economic Internal Rate • Fare Increment of Returns (EIRR) and Benefit cost ratio (BCR).

NPV. adoption of electricity if these 25 buses are being charged on electricity subsidisation. BHEL will set up a All the five scenarios as discussed above have been production plant.e.5. Solar Panel Based Charging when combined as 1+2+3 and 1+3+4 provide the If solar panels are installed at the depot for charging financial feasibility of the system. of scenario 1. 3+5 and 2+3+5. scenarios are as under: research and development for alternate chemistry 1.4. which is the lifetime of an electric bus. that the combination of scenario 1. Technical Paper Current initiatives for battery technology savings in emission which were due to production improvement will also lead to significant costs of electricity at grid. Fare increment in collaboration with ministry have developed 4. BHEL will develop 2. The combination total expenditure of around Rs. Economic Rate of returns (EIRR) and bring the cost of electric buses equal to the cost of Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR).36 Cr. This is currently being but after crossing the threshold of 12 years. which is nearly 65% more than that desired case. Table 5: Evaluation of Various Scenarios and their Combinations INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 35 . Reduction of bus cost to half the battery for commercial applications. 2. All this can (FIRR). use minister have emphasized on the use of Lithium of electricity is cheaper due to high cost of solar ion battery for buses. IIT The evaluation was carried out on the basis of Net Madras.77 Cr. the used for aviation sector. Organization (ISRO) finalized MoU with Bharat 4. this can also lead to significant savings combination of any scenarios in most of the cases in cost in the long term. along with fare increment and bus for 25 years. Hence the solar based system will be very result with highest FIRR. Bus Cost making equal to normal bus batteries costing Rs. Current recommendation by transport years. ISRO and BHEL are in the Present Value (NPV). for the case of 12 reduction. the the buses. However. Financial Rate of Returns process of developing Li-ion batteries. EIRR and BCR as beneficial for long term and will lead to notable presented below in table 5. However. while ISRO will provide support evaluated in combination with each other. there will except 1+2. about less than a 5. The evaluation shows normal bus. Electricity Subsidisation and buyback commitment. The for scale-up.5 lakh. ISRO 3. IIT Kharagpur. Taking the life of solar as provide the economic feasibility of the system 25 years and taking a case of 25 buses. 2+5. Indian Space Research benefits of solar will be more.66. 3 and 4 i. Solar panel based charging tenth of the imported ones which was 55 lakh. the total expenditure will be around cost becoming equal to normal bus will provide the Rs.102. 3 and 4 4. joint effort in cost optimization. However. Evaluation of Scenarios Heavy Electrical Limited (BHEL) to help develop low-cost lithium ion batteries. This case (1+3+4) provides the best of solar.

fare increment the subsidy provided under Faster Adoption and coupled with bus cost equal to normal bus and Manufacturing of Electric Vehicles (FAME) adoption of solar based system provide the highest 36 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 . Table 6: Results of the Sensitivity Analysis Carried Out for the Scenario 1+3+4. certain the environmental degradation occurring in the strategies must be adopted as discussed above. In opposition to this case. cities. 5 CONCLUSIONS scheme. noise free and energy efficient mode. cost due to continuous reduction in electric bus/ The results of the sensitivity analysis are presented battery cost. over the conventional buses due to less number of it is concluded that electric buses are environment spare parts available. the case is quite on feasibility of the system. Technical Paper This case is chosen as the final case and sensitivity viable in all the conditions except the one case. However. Electric buses have reduced by subsidy on electricity as in the case of higher fuel efficiency over conventional modes Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC). analysis is carried for the same in order to assess where revenue decreased by 20% and costs the effect of uncertainties in cost and revenues increased by 20%. Sensitivity analysis hypothetical.e. Hence. sensitivity analysis proves the below in the table 6. Evaluation of scenarios can be reduced to significant levels by availing shows that the scenario 3+4+5 i. This shows that project in feasibility of the project under various conditions. These buses have lower maintenance cost From the points emerging in the literature review. which make them very important for controlling To make these commercially viable. Operating costs for the case friendly. there are assumes reduction and increment in costs and chances of increment in revenue and reduction in revenues of the project to a level of up to 20%. Higher capital cost electric bus operation. These have very high manufacturing cost Analysis shows that the combination of any three as compared to conventional buses due to high scenarios placed together will lead to financial cost of the battery. of Delhi are found to be more than that of CNG hence must be adopted in current deteriorating buses due to high electricity costs which can be environmental conditions. Higher capital cost of electric feasibility of the system whereas combination of buses makes them financial non-feasible as the net any two will provide the economic feasibility of operating incomes are negative.

M. 18-28. Robert Earley. S. (2009). Challenges. pp. Aber. S. (2012). 7. Lexterna Lcosts of Transport in Delhi. S. MoEFCC. Annual Report. A. A. Nature Climate Change. Draft. CNG: An Alternatie Fuel for Public Transport. Urban Transport in India: Status Report. Vol.Cooperation for 426-431. Assessing 15. 1. (2015). Library. STATUS OF THE VEHICULAR 21. Geetam Tiwari and pp. ELECTRICITY. (2001). (2006). National Energy Policy Delhi. 137-150. (1995). Electric Bus Feasibility Report. 52). Sustainable and Attractive Public Transport. Columbia University. 24. (2015). International Journal of Analysis. Electric Bus Analysis for New Demographic and Economic Development. Pollution : Cost Benefit Analysis of Fuel Quality 3. Bjorn Nykvist & Mans Nilsson. Vol. 23. (2016). Planning and Design for Delta of Nigeria. IEEE Xplore-Digital Air Pollution in Indian Cities. J. 6. Atmospheric Environment.V. 9. H. and Environmentally Sound Energy economic feasibility of electric buses operation for for America’s Future. York City Transit. Kadafa. Delhi Clean Air Action Plan. J. pp. 22. 17. (2010). Vol. DTC. Vrajaindra Upadhyay. 110. R. Air Pollution in Delhi-An Sized Communities. Rapidly Upgradation for Indian Cities. INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 37 . 18. 65. (2011). Estimating Margina 19. (2016). u. Environmental Impacts 1-8. 5. 27. Santosh A Jalihal and T S Reddy. of Scientific and Industrial Research. Feasibility of Electric Buses in Small and Medium- 16. Falling Costs of Battery Packs for Electric 20. India: Technology. Development Group. Marcon. 27-37. Vol. (2011). J. INDIA. (2016). Growth REFERENCES rate of Motor Vehicles in India -Impact of 1. (2016). Global Journal of Science Sustainable Urban Mobility. A. Liping Kang. Study for an Electric Bus Operation. (2012). Journal of Economic and Social Studies. Emissions from India’s Transport Sector: 13. Ramachandra and Shwetmala. 2. Human Settlements. T. Technical Paper Benefit Cost Ratio and desired IRR. ENVIS Centre CPCB. (2016). GmbH Rail and Bus Consultant. (2015). 3). Sustainable Transportation. Commission on Sustainable Development. CPCB. Policy and Benefits. G. Seoul. Republic of Korea. Issues. Background Paper CSD19/2011/BP9. Greenpeace. K. Nations Department of Economic and Social Electric Bus Opration: A Feasibility Study. 329-332. Akshaya Kumar Sen. (2011). 12(Issue. Rameshwar Dayal Sharma. CSE. Feng An and Lucia Vehicles. GGGI and CSTEP. Discussion China. Transport (2005). Journal 8. o. (2016). 14. UN-Habitat. Singh. Global EV Outlook . IEA. Adheesh. of Oil Exploration and Exploitation in the Niger 26. Statewise synthesis. Electric Vehicles in 4. 12. T. (2013). Ramprasad Sengupta and Subrata Mandal. Affairs. GGGI. Tan. Electric Buses in European Transport \ Trasporti Europei (Issue. GPET. National Energy Policy. Global Report on Frontier Research Environment & Earth Sciences. Air-pollution and POLLUTION CONTROL PROGRAMME IN Economics: Diesel Bus Versus Electric Bus. S. Feasibility study on Electric 11. This is the 17. Centere for Transportation Research. Advanced Clean Transit Battery the Context of Sustainable Development in Cost for Heavy-Duty Electric Vehicles. CARB. pp. Current Science. (2016). best case and must be adopted for financial and Affordable. (2017). Green-Weiskel. (2010). 7(6). 858-862. Feasibility 25. Airpocalypse: Assessment of Buses in Hong Kong. (2013). (2016). 10. Xiaokun (Cara) Wang. Health Damage Cost of Automotive Air Policy. (2016). Reliable. United 5. and the Way Forward.

Bridge Design Features. Rural Roads Development. Traffic Engineering. Concrete 38 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 . are invited to show their interest for evaluation of Technical Papers. Road Technocrats who are already members of the IRC and have experience and expertise in the field of Transport Planning. Flexible & Rigid Pavements. Safety & Design. The interested technocrats are requested to send their brief resume including their experience in related field with their IRC Membership Number to IRC on E-mail: secygen. the Indian Roads Congress (IRC) is in the process of formulating a Panel of Experts/Referees who can review the Technical Papers received in IRC from Authors. Road Maintenance. EMPANELMENT OF REFEREES Call of Expression of Interest from the experienced Road & Bridge Technocrats for Formulating a Panel of Experts/Referees to Review the Technical Paper. Maintenance &Rehabilitation of Bridges etc.irc@gov. voluntarily: In order to align with the globally best practices and promote the excellence in road construction. Mechanization & Instrumentation.

E.S. Mishra et al. 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2014). had got more stability when confined than other soil fills and show negligible long term settlement and also used as stabilizing agent. coir mixing of different additives like.I. (a) Woven Coir. 1 INTRODUCTION Eme et al.S. The available solutions have Expansive soils are highly problematic because of limited applicability because of mixing problem. & Applied Mechanics Deptt.e. Dif and of the mass and improve strength to the soil. Indore 2 Former M.. Vandana Tare1 Diwakar Singh2 Dr. Terzaghi et al. 1983). can virtually replaceable by any of the modern Black Cotton (BC) soil is also expansive soil. Kundan Meshram3 ABSTRACT The aim of the present study to explore the influence of Non Woven Coir (NWC)/coir fibre mixed with black cotton soil used in sub grade.75%. 1999). shrinkage and low To alleviate this problem uses of Non Woven Coir strength when wet.G. 2013). Indore & presently Asst. The aim of present study is to improve CBR of They are cohesive non-swelling soil layer (Katti black cotton soil by using NWC and sand.. Zemenu et al. sand cushion method (Satyanarayana 1969). a single versatile solution is content. excessive swelling.75% and sand of 3%-15% and properties of soil evaluated.polluting material and it embankments due to non availability of suitable soil. Prof. Sridharan et al.S.T.I. It is Bluemel 1991.. deep The natural coir geotextile has two types. Deptt. are many methods/techniques for soil stabilization. (Cokca 2001. The results of the study indicated that NWC can be constructed over soft ground. & Applied Mech. Heavy financial investments are required biodegradable. S. Student. to be made for construction of roads. The use of natural geotextiles has not gained fly ash. namely soil mixing method (Madhyannapu et al. Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology. It was observed that CBR of black soil increased approximately linearly with increase when inclusion of NWC and sand. 2006. Phanikumar and Sharma of coir fiber and their use for geotechnical and 2004.S. et al. 2016). 2009. Civil Engg. found to be best alternative for sub grade or sub 2010. where it will provide the bulk for construction material (Chen 1988. Mathur et al. IES IPS Academy Indore 3 Former Research Scholar.G. highway engineering applications is possible. Civil Engg. lime. plasticity. Due to its peculiar characteristic of high yet to be developed.. cheap.. (b) Non Woven Coir (NWC) i.15%-0. In other case soil mixed with NWC of 0. Deptt. 2012. For this purpose black cotton soil mixed with coir fibre in varying percentage of 0. cement. faster binding with soil.T. chemical stabilization (Estabragh et al. S. the soil is regarded unsuitable (NWC)/coir fibre. Meshram et base in pavement. al. Civil Engg. bio enzymes (Lopez-Lara et al. 2016. The 1 Prof. There polymeric substitutes (Meshram et al. popularity though India produces large quantities 2008. Agarwal et al.15%-0. Bhopal INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 39 . Therefore. canals and eco friendly and non. Mokhtari and Dehghani 2012. 2013). Coir fibre is 100% natural. stone dust etc. Technical Paper Stabilization of Black Cotton Soil with Sand and Non Woven Coir Dr. the susceptibility of these soils to undergo large depth to be stabilized and reliable results are not changes in volume due to variation in the moisture obtained. 2009). fiber.

pond ash etc.e. which was Plasticity Index (%) 18 sand. The results of the tests were analyzed. The (a) Black cotton soil. 3 (Sections 1): 1980). 1 and other relevant properties are mixed in different percentage viz. CBR (IS: 2720 (Part reinforcement ratio value of the geotextiles sub 16) .e. were sieve analysis. It was found Optimum Moisture Content (%) 27 that the geotechnical properties improvement in clay with different percentages of sand and coir Maximum Dry Unit Weight (kN/m3) 1. specific gravity (IS 2720 . grade-gravel and soft sub grade-geotextiles.45%. The physical properties of the clay were determined Kumar and Devi (2011) conducted on the by conducting following tests on the soil: Atterberg utilization of the needle punched nonwoven limit test (IS: 2720 (Part 5)-1985). 6%. clay of high plasticity and compressibility. The nonwoven geotextiles have (Part 7)-1980).45%. 0.60% and 0. 2014). Kumar and Rajkumar (2012) conducted the performance of woven and nonwoven geotextiles. 10%. and a the reinforcement ratio is obtained based on the summary of the physical properties of the soil is CBR load.e. 40 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 . 0. 3%. Compaction The tests conducted on the sand in the laboratory and CBR values were determined. 0. minimum and maximum dry 0. Plastic Limit (%) 37 Shankar and Chandrasekhar (2012) studied the most commonly used additives.30%.15%. Index properties of soil. Specific gravity geotextiles made of coir and jute fibre. The sand is identified as SP i. mixed in soil to increase the shear and tensile strength of soil (Maher and Ho 1994. 0. from Particle Size Distribution Curve. 0. for stabilization of Specific Gravity 2.1987). particle size corresponding to evaluated. In first stage. In second stage. Table 1 Properties of Soil gravel. and 15% and OMC-MDD and CBR values were and D60 values (i. 12% classifying the soil (IS: 1498-1970). In third stage.80 3 EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME Free Swell Index (%) 33 In present study main focus on improvement in (b) Properties of sand CBR of black cotton soil used as subgrade material.e.penetration relation of both soft sub given in Table 1. D10. and CBR values were determined. 0. (c) Non-woven Inclusion of randomly distributed fibers has been coir. cement. given in Table 2. and the Standard compaction test (IS: 2720 the geotextiles.30%. For different percentages viz. The particle size distribution curve of the sand is Soil mixed with NWC and sand in which NWC shown in Fig. Free swell test (IS: 2720 (PART XL) grade obtained by conducting CBR test with 1977).15%.72 lithomarge clay using sand and coir.. 1498-1970) and is identified as CH i. Comparison of reinforcement ratio Properties Test determined using the CBR strength test show that Results the performance is improved with the inclusion of Liquid Limit (%) 55 woven and nonwoven geotextiles. The soil is classified as per (IS: improved CBR of the soil. Ziegler et (a) Properties of Soil al. for woven and nonwoven geotextiles. The NWC was randomly distributed 10. separately. 30 and 60 % finer respectively) were calculated with BC soil and sand.75% and sand mixed with poorly graded sand as per (IS: 1498-1970). 1998).40 additions. the CBR test (IS: 2720 (Part 3)-1980). D30. Soaked CBR (%) 1. (b) Sand. 0.Part soil is mixed with NWC in different percentage i.60% and then compaction unit weight test (IS: 2720 (Part 14)-1983). Technical Paper utility of coir geotextiles for performing different 4 MATERIAL USED functions to improves the engineering behavior The materials used in the investigation consist of of black cotton soil (Meshram et al.

45%.5 Fig. D30 (mm) Particle size corresponding to 60% 0. and 0. D60 (mm) Coefficient of Uniformity.5 3%. CC 1. and 15% shown in Table 4 to 5 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 8.60%.60%.15 mixed with BC soil in different percentages viz. D10 (mm) Fig.0 (b) Tests on Soil Mixed with NWC and Sand Moisture at 65% RH (%) 10. 3 Variation of MDD with Percentage NWC (mixed (c) Properties of Non Woven Coir in BC soil) Physical properties of NWC are shown in Table 3.45%. 12%.15%.29 (mixed in BC soil) finer. Sand Specific gravity 1. G 2. 0. 0. and CBR for different percentage of NWC shown in Fig. 0.0 Breaking elongation (%) 30.19 finer. MDD. 0. In a different percentage of NWC.8924 Swelling in water (diameter)-(%) 5.30%.15%.75%.5 NWC mixed in BC soil in different percentage viz. 10%. 1 Particle Size Distribution Curve for Sand Table 2 Properties of Sand Properties of Sand Particle size corresponding to 10% 0. 0.10 Specific Gravity. INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 41 .2 to Fig. Young’s modulus (GN/m2) 4. Technical Paper test series.280 Density (g/cc) 1. MDD. 0.4 Tenacity (g/tex) 10.40 finer. 0. γ min (kN/m3) 14. Fig. 0. γ max (kN/m3) 16. Two series of tests were carried out to accomplish The samples tested for OMC. 2 Variation of OMC with Percentage of NWC Particle size corresponding to 30% 0.0 Diameter (mm) 0. (a) Tests on BC Soil Mixed with NWC NWC was mixed in soil in different percentage viz.67 Maximum Density.16 Fig. The samples were tested for OMC. and 0. BC soil mixed with NWC and sand.l.30%.46 Minimum Density. 4 Variation of CBR with Percentage NWC (mixed in BC soil) Rigidity modulus (dynes/cm2) 1. 6%. and CBR for the desired study on CBR of black cotton soil.1 -1.10 Coefficient of Curvature. CU 2.15 . Table 3 Physical Properties of NWC PROPERTY VALUE Length (mm) 15 . NWC randomly mixed with BC soil and other series.75%.4.

75% coir and 19.45% coir and 20. Technical Paper Table 4 CBR Value for BC Soil Mixed with 0.07 15% sand 12% sand Table 6 CBR Value for BC Soil Mixed with 0.45% coir and 24.20 and MDD 6% sand When coir mixed with soil.520 2.690 5. 0.93 10% sand 6% sand Soil.40 Soil.45% coir and 21. MDD and CBR is given below: Soil.15% coir and 19.680 6.12 certain limit it decreased because coir was soaking 12% sand water. 0.30 1.98 10% sand 12% sand Soil. 0.60 1.22 1.10 1.30% coir and 20.45% coir and 23.32 1.60% NWC and Varying Percentage of Sand NWC and Varying Percentage of Sand Soil Mixed With OMC MDD Soaked Soil Mixed with OMC MDD Soaked NWC and Sand (%) (gm/ CBR NWC and Sand (%) (gm/ CBR cc) (%) cc) (%) Soil.02 Soil.79 1. 0.664 5.535 3.77 1.557 4. 0. 0.75% coir and 18.580 5.31 Table 5 CBR Value for BC Soil Mixed with 0. the effect of BC soil cc) (%) mixed with NWC and sand on OMC.60% coir and 22.30% coir and 17.15% Table 7 CBR Value for BC Soil Mixed with 0.610 5.1 On the basis of results.579 4.75% coir and 20.60% coir and 23. 0.710 7.77 1. 0. 42 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 .45% coir and 18. OMC decreased and MDD increased with Soil.87 1.73 1.25 3% sand 3% sand Soil.15% coir and 20.31 10% sand Soil.60% coir and 20.670 4.600 3. 0.75% coir and 23.635 4.540 2.60% coir and 18.39 Soil.30% 15% sand NWC and Varying Percentage of Sand Table 8 CBR Value for BC Soil Mixed with 0. In case of MDD first increased and after Soil.12 Soil.40 1.10 6% sand Soil.30% coir and 22.551 4.438 3. 0. 0.75% Soil Mixed with OMC MDD Soaked NWC and Varying Percentage of Sand NWC and Sand (%) (gm/ CBR cc) (%) Soil Mixed with OMC MDD Soaked NWC and Sand (%) (gm/ CBR Soil.620 3.34 15% sand Soil Mixed with OMC MDD Soaked NWC and Sand (%) (gm/ CBR 5.12 6% sand Soil.44 12% sand 10% sand Soil. 0.597 6. it was observed that Soil.60% coir and 19.54 1.30% coir and 19.15% coir and 16.532 2. 0.34 1.75% coir and 22.41 1.15% coir and 18.45% NWC and Varying Percentage of Sand Soil.59 1.49 Soil.23 Soil.27 1.20 Soil.35 cc) (%) 3% sand Soil. 0.28 6% sand 3% sand Soil.28 1.520 2. 0. 0.49 OMC firstly decreased and after a limit the OMC 10% sand increased.720 6.83 1. 0.30 1. 0.44 1. 0.610 6.579 5.555 4. 0.37 1.21 1. 0.53 1.24 12% sand 15% sand Soil. 0.410 2. 0. 0.40 increase of sand percentage because it created 15% sand more voids.40 1.35 3% sand (a) Effect of BC soil mixed with NWC on OMC Soil.87 1.30% coir and 23. 0.15% coir and 22.

when 127 (7). India. New in sand and non woven coir for different per. (1970). Eme. 2. Dif. 16). 21 (3). S. A.” 1. Coir content in %. “Treatment of an Expansive Soil  (R2 = 98%) by Mechanical and Chemical Techniques. Indian Standards. “Use of Class C fly Ashes for value the Stabilization of an Expansive Soil. C = Non Woven Delhi. “Classification and CBR= -12. “Indian Standard Code soil properties. India. 233-243. R. and Jain. Nwofor. 568-573.K. First Revision. H.” Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Laboratory Determination of CBR”. K. S. A. Technical Paper (b) Effect of BC soil mixed with NWC on CBR 3.17 MDD. 3(3). A. “Indian Standard 0..48 S (R2 = 94%) Purposes. centage. K. (1983). The maximum CBR value was found 2.. . and Sule. H.” IS 2720 (Part XL). (1985). Bhangle. India. (2016). Lateral Pressure of Expansive Soil INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 43 .” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. Amsterdam. “Indian Standard 6 CONCLUSIONS Code of Practice for Methods of Test for Soils: 1.” Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co.48%. (1980). Indian Standards. Cokca. Indian Standards.” IS 2720 (Part 14). 7-13.03 + 0. R. India. (2016).” IS 1498. Relation Using Light Compaction. “Indian Standard References Code of Practice for Methods of Test for Soils: Determination of Liquid Limit and Plastic Limit. CBR = California Bearing Ratio in %. of Practice for Determination of Density Index 3. “Foundations on Expansive Soils. New Delhi. New Delhi. Indian Standards.. content of non woven coir was found to be 10. “Expansive the CBR value decreased because after a certain Soils Under Cyclic Drying and Wetting.” Geosynthetics International. and Javadi. Addition of non woven coir in BC soil im. ven coir mixtures. New Delhi. “An Experimental and Analytical Study on California Bearing Ratio of Lime Stabilized Black 13. (b) For NWC Mixed with BC soil and sand 7. A.” Geotech.. OMC 8.. India. the multiple linear Ratio (Cbr) and Unconfined Compressive regression models were developed for Strength (Ucs) of Stabilized Sand-Cement of the prediction of CBR: Niger Delta. (2001).45% NWC and after that 4. The CBR value increased with increase in sand 5. (1991).97 C A.42 OMC + 2. 6583-6599.” SSRG International Journal of Civil Engineering. W. there is improvement in 11.018 OMC +3. New Delhi. Indian Standard (1987). 14 (1). (1988). F.0.. Second Revision.” IS 2720 (Part 3/section 1).2 Based on results. Muley. (a) For NWC mixed with BC soil 6. Rafatjo.16 MDD + 35.” IS 2720 (Part 2. P.. 21(20). Katti. D.B.76 C + Identification of Soils for General Engineering 0. On addition of sand in BC soil and non wo. P. E. Agarwal. 96-102.C. limit the coir will break down and will not take load. (1980).45%. India. 14. Indian Standards. Estabragh. K. Reaffirmed 2002. New Delhi. S = Sand content in %. E. MDD = Swell Index of Soils. IS2720 (Part Engineering. (1983)..89 . and Moza. BC soil was mixed with 0.0. New Maximum Dry Density in gm/cc. “Correlation Between the California Bearing 5. (2014). 9. 7). Delhi. India. The Optimum Soils. T. Determination of Specific Gravity of Fine Grained proved the properties of soil. 2007. E. Reaffirmed Where. “Methods of Test for Soil Cotton Soil. In this case CBR increases 67. F. CBR value gradually increases with increase of Cohesion-Less Soils. percentage as sand was took more load then soil.8% as Code of Practice for Methods of Test for Soils: Determination of Water Content Dry Density compare to CBR of virgin soil.1977 “Indian Standard Methods of Test for Soils: Determination of Free = Optimum Moisture Content in %. Bluemel. Indian Standards. IS 2720 (Part 5). 12. CBR= -1. Testing Journal. Chen.

I. Mokhtari.U. and Dehghani.C. Oriental Foundations. “Analysis of Swelling and Shrinkage Behavior of ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Compacted Clays. Technical Report 32. Electronic Journal of and Control. and Chandrasekhar. Dams (Studies of K0 Condition).. and 26. R.K. D. 29.. Geotextiles on Cbr Strength of Soft Sub Grade”. Jain. A. Puppala.” Electronic Journal of Geotechnical Geotechnical Engg. S. Mittal. “Effect of Short Polymeric P..K. Madhyannapu. Jain. P. 1163–1179. Dhawan. 298. “Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice.. P. G. of Geotechnical Engineering. H. Kumar. T. and Sharma.” J.” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering.. (1994). “Behaviour of 136 (1). A. K. (2012).. Castario.. R. Soosan. 289– Sciences. K. 16.K. 24. Zemenu. (2006). (2013). 32. C. R... 25-29. 21. (1998). 2nd National Conference on Expansive 19. Mittal. “Application of Coir Geotextile Fibers on Crack Development in Clays.K. and Arun. Jain... Terzaghi..K. International Journal of Engineering and Eng. (2012). Environ.. and Rao. M. B. (2008)..” Geotechnical and “Lime/Cement Stabilisation for Soil and Granular Geological Engineering. Materials. (2004). (1999). 28. Expansive Soil Treated or Cushioned with Sand.K. Phanikumar. 17..” Electronic Journal environmental Engineering.. Jose. 1(1). P. Abraham.. and Rajkumar. 114-116. Delhi. B. 4(5).. K. U. 26. S.M.. (2014). Inc. U. Eng. NICMAR-Journal of Construction Management. “Experimental Investigation on Lithomarge Clay and Yuan.. 17. B.K. A. J. Geol. T. Engineering. B. “CBR Improvement of Expansive Irrigation and Power. Soil Under Cyclic Drying and Wetting. 1355-1363.” Bull. Central Board of P. Sridharan. “A Comparative Study “Effect of Flyash on Engineering Properties of of the Effectiveness of Different Additives on the Expansive Soil. S. Leshchinsky. (2013).. S. and Agarwal. Maher.Garrido.. P. India.. Kumar. S. Conventional Material/ Technologies.. Satyanarayana..” Soils and for Road Construction: Some Issues”. New Black Cotton Soil Using Coir Geotextile”. V.” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 2673-2682.J. G. T. Meshram. Wiley & Sons.” National Workshop on Non – 30.R. (1969). “Application of Coir Geotextile in “Analysis of the Behaviour of a Natural Expansive Rural Roads Construction on BC Soil Subgrade”. “Effect of 25... K. “Mechanical Soils. Meshram. 264-268. 15.. of Needle Punched Nonwoven Coir and Jute 24. 68 (3). Martine. Zepeta.K. 119-128. 38 (1). 17. A. Ziegler. “Shear Strength Studies 20. M. on Soil-Quarry Dust Mixtures. D. NRRDA. P. 130 (7). S. and Mesri.” Proc. 18. S. Ravi Shankar.K. (2009). (2012). E. M. 27. and Agarwal.” Geotech. Swami.” John New Delhi.. R.. S. Geol. S. G. “Quality Assessment and Stabilized with Sand and Coir. Y. K. (2011) “Effect XXIX (III). A. Mathur.” Indian Highways. Damage with Soft Sub Grade”. 247–253. Properties of Kaolinite/Fiber Soil Composite. S.. paper 9904. and 1381–1393. 31. 764-767.. 21-31. Ling. and Devi. Meshram. for Stabilizing Expansive Subsoils. (2009). A.. S. R. Innovative Technology. Texas... Perry.S. 421-436. and Roger. P. Nazarian. and Ho. Peck. (2010). and 22. P. 6(6). Mittal. Technical Paper with and without Cohesive Non-Swelling Soil International Journal of Innovation Engineering Layer Applications to Earth Pressures of Cross Research. and Agarwal. Mishra. 44 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 . A. S.B. Drainage Structures of Canals and Key Walls of 23.. M. of Geotechnical and Geo- Expansion Behavior of Clays. 3(4). 45-50..K.. 56-74. Quality Control of Deep Soil Mixing Construction 40(2). M.K. B. “Swell- Geotextiles on Cbr Strength of Unpaved Road Shrink Behavior of Expansive Soils. 308-316. Lopez-Lara.120 (8). H.. (2012).

MoRT&H Circular INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 45 .

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gov. White topping pavements.02. short panel cement concrete pavements and Overlay design approach using FWD Technique will be covered apart from Laboratory demonstration (Bituminous mix Course Coordinator — DiPAV. Mohali-160 055 Tel. Tender Notice PUNJAB ROADS & BRIDGES DEVELOPMENT BOARD (PRBDB) INVITATION FOR SUBMITTING ON-LINE PROPOSALS CONSULTING SERVICES FOR CARRYING OUT OF STUDIES TO DEVELOP A “CORRIDORS OF GROWTH” (COG) VISION FOCUSED ON UPGRADING OF STATE ROADS NETWORK IN PUNJAB AND TO PREPARE A PRIORITIZED ROAD NETWORK IN THE STATE RFP NO.Dr. of Punjab/Punjab Roads and Bridges Development Board (PRBDB) plans to engage a Consultancy firm to carry out requisite studies and analyses to prioritize the State road network. For any clarification please contact:. FWD etc).manreddy@iitkgp. M. Phase 2. Phone: 03222 – 283450 (O). Kharagpur is organizing a “Three Day Workshop on Developments in Pavement Engineering at IIT Khargapur on 12th to 14th 61-62.: 91 172 6626620. PRBDB/1/2018 Government of Punjab intends to avail financial assistance from the external financial agencies for upgrading its State Road network (SH. Sector 54.eprocpbpwd. Civil Engineering Department. Towards this objective.02.01.2018 (0900) hrs IST (1700) hrs IST (1500 hrs IST) (1530 hrs IST) Sd/- (Mukesh Kumar Goel) Joint Secretary .eprocpbpwd. advanced binder testing. Email : & http://prbdb.03222 – 282254/255303.2018 26. 283451 (R).in INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 61 . Kharagpur. Govt. IIT.2018 27. PRBDB Punjab Roads and Bridges Development Board as per the following schedules: Availability of RFP document Last date & Time for Date & Time of opening of From To submission of proposals Technical Proposals 10. Relevant topics such as design of flexible and rigid pavements – Current practices and future Eligible consulting firms are requested to submit their proposals for the consultancy services on-line on www. The Detailed Notice and RFP document including forms can also be downloaded from www. West Bengal. Fax : 91 172 6626640 Web site : Announcement The Transport Engineering Section. Amaranatha Reddy. 2018. 27. Email:.MDRs. Indian Institute of Technology.02.

air content. ground granulated blast furnace slag. The recommendation is to adopt the higher value given by these equations for design. The document includes preparation of the subgrade and subbase underneath these pavements. trial mixes. Anchor beam and terminal slab adjoining bridge structure storage and handling of construction material. 62 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 . Illustrative examples of concrete mix proportioning for standard grade of concrete based on flexural strength/ compressive strength. tie bars and joint sealing etc. illustrative examples for design of mixes have been reviewed and accordingly modified. mix proportioning. The following major modifications have been made in this document. coarse and fine aggregates. The adjustment in water and aggregate content due to change in the moisture in stored aggregates has been explained. types of joints with illustrations showing placement of dowel bars. Joints are essential for construction and for better performance of pavement. Combined aggregate grading for mix of coarse and fine aggregate has been incorporated in the document. silica fume. weather limitations for good concrete are covered in detail. flyash. for high strength concrete (Graded M65 and above) and pervious concrete with illustrative examples have been introduced. two different equations are given. IRC:44-2017 “Guidelines for Cement Concrete Mix Design for Pavements” (Third Revision) The second revision of this document was published in 2008. chemical and mineral admixtures. In the third revision. water content and estimation of quantity of coarse and find aggregate. It also covers with various aspect of construction like materials for mix design. tools. plant and equipment required for construction. water. surface textures were also covered. To fix the target mean strength for mix proportioning based on flexural/compressive strength. type of cements. precaution to be taken for concreting in hot/ cold weather and in frost affected areas. dowel bars and tie bars. During laying of concrete. high strength concrete and pervious concrete are given as Annexure. construction of fully mechanized and with slip form paver. Book Review of Latest IRC Publication IRC:15-2017 “Code of Practice for Construction of Jointed Plain Concrete Pavements (Fifth Revision) The revised code of practice is intended to bring uniformity in construction of jointed plain concrete pavements. temperature reinforcement. reinforcement. water-cement ratio. The requirements for selection of standard deviation. materials for joint sealing. metakaolin.

General Approach-Total Quality Management 2. Book Review of Latest IRC Publication IRC:SP:93-2017 “GUIDELINES ON REQUIREMENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL CLEARANCES FOR ROAD PROJECTS” (First Revision) The existing document has been revised mainly due to: increased project length requiring environmental clearance from 30 km to 100 km and increased width of additional land acquisition from 20 m to 40 m for widening and 60 m for realignment. Third Party Quality Audit 12. Contents of the document are: 1. Procedure for Obtaining Environment Clearance 3. Procedure for Obtaining CRZ Clearance 4. Calibration of Inspection. Statistical Analysis 10. Documentation and Communication 9. Other Relevant Clearances. parallel processing of all clearances such as forest clearances de-linked from wildlife clearance. Field Laboratory Set Up 6. Contents of the document are: 1. Health and Environment INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 63 . It is hoped that Manual will ensure equal attention to delivery of project. Products and Specialized items 5. Acceptance/ Non Conformance/Rectification 11. Procedure for Obtaining Forest Clearance 5. Measuring and Testing 7. Environment and Social Legal Framework 2. Personnel 3. delegation of powers of issuing forest clearance for linear projects to Regional Offices and treating the First Stage Forest Clearance as working permission for cutting of trees and commencement of work. Quality Assurance Plan 4. Safety. Quality Requirements for Factory Manufactured Materials. Some other provisions relaxed in the meantime include de-linking of various clearance processes. IRC:SP:112-2017 “MANUAL FOR QUALITY CONTROL IN ROAD & BRIDGE WORKS” Manual for Quality Control in Road and Bridge Works cover various aspects of quality control. Procedure for Obtaining Wildlife Clearance 6. dispensing with the requirement of specific TORs for highway widening projects. Inspection and Testing 8.

The Contents of the document mainly include Dozer’s Classification. dozer attachments. typical average power requirement of various parts of the plant. This document covers dozer selection. maintenance and its safety. field personnel with road construction agencies and contractors entrusted with the task of road construction and maintenance. field personnel within road construction agencies and contractors entrusted with the task of road construction and maintenance. maintenance schedules as well as tips for safe operation of dozers. pug mill performance. This document is intended for use by highway engineers. are achieved. blade operation and performance. plant maintenance and safety. IRC:126-2017 “Guidelines on Wet Mix Plant” This document “Guidelines on Wet Mix Plant” caters to the mechanization aspect of preparation of Wet Mix Macadam in a central mixing plant so that the laid down requirements of end result specifications in respect of sizes and grading of aggregates. performance productivity. Book Review of Latest IRC Publication IRC:125-2017 “GUIDELINES ON DOZERS FOR HIGHWAY WORKS” This document is intended for use by the highway engineers. This document covers advantages and major assemblies of a Wet Mix Plant. optimum moisture content. Power Requirement 4. Advantages of Wet Mix Plant 2. Pug Mill Performance 5. dozer components and type of blades. blades. components. Major Assemblies of Wet Mix Plant 3. Plant Maintenance 6. dozer productivity. proper mixing etc. Plant Safety 64 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 . Contents of the document are: 1.

highly variable sub-surface ground conditions assisting bridge engineers in pin-point borings. Precautions and Safety Measures 5. Quality Management 4. Contents of the document are: 1. on account of its simplicity and advantages over traditional methods Geophysical methods can be used to provide volumetric knowledge of unforeseen. limitations and method selection criteria. Specifications for Concrete Mix 2. Geophysical Tools 2. Maintenance IRC:123-2017 “GUIDELINES ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION FOR BRIDGES” Geophysical investigations are becoming increasingly acceptable and implemented in the field of geotechnical engineering world over. especially in inclined beds for foundations. brief principle. The document details various geophysical methods. Contents of the document are: 1. These guidelines deal with the construction methodologies for single-cell (or) multi-cell precast reinforced concrete box sections. Construction Methodology 3. capabilities. The document also deals with investigation of existing bridges using geophysical methods. Integrating Geophysical Methods INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 65 . Geophysical Methods for Investigating the Existing Bridge Conditions 4. Book Review of Latest IRC Publication IRC:122-2017 “GUIDELINES FOR CONSTRUCTION OF PRECAST CONCRETE SEGMENTAL BOX CULVERTS” These guidelines cover the requirements related to Precast Concrete Segmental Box Culverts. Geophysical Methods for Bridge Site Investigation 3. operations.

Title of the Document Price Packing & Postage IRC:7-2017 Recommended Practice for Numbering Culverts.00 Tunnels (Second Revision) IRC:15-2017 “Code of Practice for Construction of Jointed Plain Concrete 1000. requirements for Roundabouts Single lane and Multi lane. NEW/REVISED PUBLICATIONS OF IRC – NEW ARRIVALS The IRC has brought out the following New/Revised Publications. Bridges and 100. Capacity estimation. Our country is undertaking massive road development programme to improve mobility and connectivity. Four-Arm junction and Rail-Crossings.00 Road Projects (First Revision) IRC:SP:111-2017 Capacity Building of Road Agencies In Charge of 300.00 40.00 40.00 40. The contents of the document are definition and terminologies of Geometric parameters. Landscaping and Safety which include General consideration and Speed control. Y-junction. a need was felt to revise the IRC:65 for rotary which is a safer junction control where two or more roads of comparable traffic volume are intersecting as well as a junction having considerable right turning traffic.00 IRC:125-2017 Guidelines on Dozers for Highway Works 400.00 (Third Revision) IRC:65-2017 “Planning and Design of Roundabouts” (First Revision) 400. about 37% of total accidents took place on the junctions itself during the year 2016.00 40.00 20.00 40. Non-motorized transportation. For more details please contact + 91 11 2338 7759 and E-mail: ircsale1934@gmail. Level of Service (LOS) illumination.00 Implementation of Road Projects in Urban Areas IRC:SP:112-2017 Manual for Quality Control in Road and Bridge works 1500. These prestigious publications will be quite useful to the Highway Professionals.00 Culverts IRC:123-2017 Guidelines on Geophysical Investigation for Bridges 600. Road junctions are points of traffic merging and hence are prone to 66 INDIAN HIGHWAYS│February 2018 . As reported in Ministry of Road Transport & Highways. Planning consideration. Therefore. Geometric Design.00 40. Design speed. Book Review of Latest IRC Publication IRC:65-2017 “Planning and Design of Roundabouts” (First Revision) The document was published by IRC in the year 1976. Flow parameters. The road junctions include T-junction.00 IRC:121-2017 Guidelines for Use of Construction and Demolition Waste in 300.00 40.00 IRC:126-2017 Guidelines on Wet Mix Plant 400.00 40. Transport Research Wing document entitled “Road Accident in India – 2016”.00 40.00 IRC:SP-93-2017 Guidelines on Requirements for Environmental Clearance for 1200.00 Pavements (Fifth Revision) IRC:44-2017 “Guidelines for Cement Concrete Mix Design for Pavements” 500.00 Road Sector IRC:122-2017 Guidelines for Construction of Precast Concrete Segmental Box 300.00 40.00 Copies of these publications can be obtained from IRC Office against cash payment. Roundabout performance indicators. Delay.00 40. Driver behavior parameters and Performance parameters.


Printed by Shri S. Indian Roads Congress. PSO on dated 28-29. No. Feasibility Study. Uttar Pradesh India Tel : +91-120-6148000 / Fax : +91-120-6148090 www. Ltd along with its subsidiary UPHAM International Corporation and QUEST Engineers & Consultants are focused on delivering multi-disciplinary infra projects with innovative ideas of International Standards. Ground water exploration. Public Transport Planning and Management. Traffic Management Plans. infra corridors.Delhi Postal Registration No dl-sw-17/4194/16-18 under ‘u’ Number u(sw)-12/2016-2018 At Lodi Road. Water Resources : Including irrigation Flood Control. Urban Infrastructure Development : Including preparation of Plans. Sector-6. Flyovers. Environmental and Social Aspects.K. 2018 Indian Highways sa infrastructure consultants pvt. Nirmal. Project Management under BOT/Annuity Model. Structures and Email . R. 2018 `20/. BOT/Annuity : Including project identification. 25597/73 without prepayment February. Highways : Including Access Controlled Expressway and upgradation of existing 2/4 Lanes. Secretary General. The Group forms an ambious consortium of consultancy firms with commitment to provide high quality specialized consultation into the field of Highways. Economic and Financial Viability analysis.nic.sainfra. IRC HQ. Tower A-II. primary & secondary highway networks. ROB and Inspection Report and Conditional Survey. Road Safety Audit. February. viaducts.1. Detailed Survey. Nirmal on behalf of the Indian Roads Congress at M/s. Volume : 46 Number : 2 Total Pages : 68 Sectors Highways Bridges Waterways Railways Sewage Treatment Plant Services SA Infrastructure synchronizes every aspect of engineering with imbibed commitment to deliver high quality infrastructure and development consultation that glorifies a new world.110 022. Land-use Transport Modeling for Policy Testing and Traffic Predictions. Kama Koti Edited and Published by Shri S. New Delhi .info@sainfra.K. 2018 dl-sw-17/4194/16-18 Indian Highways published on 22 January.2018 licence to post ISSN 0376-7256 Newspaper Regd. We have successfully carried out numerous consultancy projects in Civil Infrastructure development transportation. Social aspects including poverty alleviation and institutional support.K. sanitation and power supply etc.working towards better tomorrow About saicpl SA infrastructure Consultants Pvt. rehabilitation. architect design of stations and technical services. ltd (An ISO 9001-2008 Certified Company) smart innovative infra solutions . Corporate Address : 1101.irc. Resource Management.Including preparation of Urban and Regional Transportation Plans. Projects Bridges : Including VUP. Sector . Puram. Ansal Corporate Park. development of townships. Detailed Engineering and Design. water supply. New Delhi-110 064 https://www. Noida .201 301. India Offset Press. 11th Floor. Metro-Rail Services : Including design of underground and elevated metro stations. Traffic & Transportation and intelligent Transport System .