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Political, Legal and Economic Condition of Bangladesh

Economics Condition
Despite political and social unrest in the country, the economy
of our country is really doing very well. There are mainly few
factors that has been playing the key role for this current level
of growth (GDP growth). First of all, the remittance from our
working class people who are sending their lion part earnings
to our country. Then the readymade garments industry. Due
to poor labor cost we are getting relatively higher orders from
developed country. Finally growth of our internal private
sector. The size of our private sector business is increasing at a rapid rate despite various shortcomings.

Bangladesh has reduced its poverty rate from over half to less than a third of the population and grown
at an average 6% of GDP over the last two decades. Growth amounted to 7.05% in 2016 supported by
remittances from nearly 10 million Bangladeshi living abroad (USD 14.93 billion in 2016), garment exports,
increased wages and low inflation. Continued growth is expected given macroeconomic stability along
with credit growth and increased private investment. According to the Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics,
per capita income grew from USD 1,465 to USD 1,602 from fiscal year 2015 to fiscal year 2016 (a 9.4%
growth). The inflation rate is 5.31% as of February 2017 while the interest rate sits at 6.75%. The
government debt to GDP ratio closed at 27.2% at the end of 2016.

Measures are being implemented to strengthen governance and improve risk management in the banking
system. Strengthening the financial system, increasing energy production capacity, improving price
stability and reducing poverty are among the country’s major challenges. Given the government's limited
financial capability, aid from bilateral and multilateral donors will be crucial to achieving these short- and
medium-term objectives.

Bangladesh also suffers from other challenges: frequent social strikes, terrorist threats, poor-quality
infrastructure, an under-performing financial system, public sector inefficiency, inadequate exploitation
of the country's natural resources, limited availability of capital and population growth (even though it
has slowed down considerably in recent years). Moreover, Bangladesh is among the most exposed
countries to climate change worldwide. A three-foot rise in sea level would flood almost 20% of
Bangladesh and displace more than 30 million people, which led the country to include a carbon tax in its
2017-2018 budget.

Bangladesh remains a poor, overpopulated country. The elimination of poverty is a priority: it represents
almost half of budget expenditure. However, significant progress has been made since 1990; life
expectancy has risen by 10 years and the infant mortality rate has been halved. Over 15 million illegal
Bangladeshi immigrants live in India due to the porous border between both countries. On this note,
disputes for Teesta River water distribution continue, with India claiming 55% of the river's water and
Bangladesh trying to negotiate a higher water share since 1983.
Political Condition of Bangladesh
Bangladesh is going through a pretty stable political condition
which is really a blessing for the business and economy. The
only thing is that there is an absence of a strong opposition
party which could be BNP if they participated in the last
election. Not having a powerful opposition party means the
ruling party feels safe and don’t feel the urge for peoples vote
for the next election.

AL government gave national election on 5 January in 2014,

but BNP didn’t participate in that election because BNP was
claiming election under caretaker government. Other political
parties also did not participate in the election and AL
government is continuing his power till now. Few election had
been held under ruling AL government and present election commission such as municipal election, mayor
election and Upozela election but all elections were controversial because of prejudiced and
manipulation. The intellectual persons and media criticized the election commission and government
because of unfair election and international communities also highly criticized AL government for
organizing this type of unfair election. According to constitution Election Commission conducts the
election and government helps the commission .For this reason, Election Commission was criticized highly
for their misconduct.

However, president recently have appointed new election commissioners including chief election
commissioner, Mr Nurul Huda, after long days discussion with some political parties including major
opposition party BNP who are registered by election commission but chief Election Commissioner Mr
Nurul Huda has been controversial because of his involvement with ruling party AL alleged by main
opposition party BNP that he worked for AL during 2009 and 2014 election and returned job and got
another job during this government time by the AL government . BNP claimed that Mr Huda will not
neutrally because BNP gave him forced retirement in 2006 during BNP government time as a punishment
, so he will not act now honestly with BNP believing strongly by BNP . On the other hand, CEC Mr Huda
said that he will act neutrally with all political party .

We can observe whether the next national election will be held free and fair under this Election
Commission. Now can remember the last election commissioner’s activities . Mr Rakibuddin Commission
could hold good five city corporation election which was free ,fair and credible election and acceptable to
all . On the other hand , Mr Rakibuddin commission held controversial nation election on 5 January in
2014. Therefore, same commission can hold controversial and uncontroversial election if they want . Now
question is that how it possible ?

My view is that it depends on totally government desire who is in government during that election time.
If government wants free and fair election , Mr Rakib commission can hold free and fair election . So
without neutral government national election will not be free and fair under present commission , Mr
Nurul Huda. If government wants free and fair election under Nurul Hada commission , the election will
be held fair . But government will not want , if government knows that he will be defeated in election .
This is reality in our country because all najor political party do not like to transfer the power , all party
like to continue their regime for unlimited time at any cost . Therefore , national election in our country
will not be free , fair and credible under political party like AL,BNP . If AL and BNP both make a all party
government for national election during election time , nation election may be free and fair and
acceptable to all . But election will not be held only AL, only BNP government during election period.

Legal Condition of Bangladesh

According to a survey conducted by the Bangladesh Institute of Development Studies, the corrupt
autocratic regime of former President H.M.Ershad fell when he was forced to resign on December 6, 1990
following a popular democratic movement affecting 80% of the country. An interim government under
the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Shahabuddin Ahmed, was formed which was scrupulous in its
impartiality. It conferred on the Election Commission autonomous powers to run free and fair elections.
The parliamentary election of February 27, 1991 was the best ever held so far in Bangladesh. Although
vote rigging and ballot stuffing were not an issue in the
eleven by-elections on September 11, 1991 and in Union
Council elections in 1992, the display of naked violence by
the two major parties (the Bangladesh Nationalist Party
(BNP) and the Awami League) was an ominous sign for the
future. In spite of strong evidence of faulty voters lists in
the parliamentary elections, no corrective measures were
taken in the two subsequent elections. In 1992, the
Election Commission announced a short period of time
(seven days) for voters to register if their names were
missing from the lists.

Meanwhile, Bangladesh has become the unwitting victim of a massive human rights violation campaign
in Burma (Myanmar). Thousands of Muslim refugees, perhaps more than 200,000 (the Muslim population
of Burma is up to 16%), have been driven over the border through persecution and oppression, both at
the local level and by the army, which claims to be trying to suppress all insurgency movements along the
border. The refugees complain of killings, forced labour, forced destruction of their own homes and
mosques, land confiscation, rape and various forms of torture.