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# /conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.

doc

## First Order Concerns

"Scalar properties"
Definitions
Weight: wi
Volume: vi
Volume fractions: Vf Vm Vvoid ... or Vi
Weight fraction: Wi
Density of composite: r c
Burnout
n
r c =�r iVi
i =1

1
rc = n

�W / r i i
i =1

wi =r i / r cVi
rc
Vi = wi
ri

## Some "General" Equations

Note: There are lots of ways to express these relationships. (For example, two forms
are given for r c .
/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

## Micromechanics and Macromechanics

Continuous fiber composites

## Goal: To determine the composite

behavior from the properties of the
constituents. (i.e. to determine the
"effective" or "homogenized"
properties) Typical requirement:
periodicity of the material structure.
(unit cell) Examples

## How are effective properties equivalent to the original heterogeneous configuration?

Consider the following comparisons
 Simulated experiment of composite vs. equivalent material
 Volume averaged stress vs. volume averaged strain of composite vs. that for
equivalent material
 Strain energy of composite vs. equivalent material

## Micromechanics: constituents = fibers + matrix

Result = effective engineering properties

## Macromechanics: constituents = lamina of different types and orientations

Result varies: effective engineering properties, ABD matrices
/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc
/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

## What is the source of error

for the fiber-direction
effective modulus?

## What are the sources of

error for the effective
modulus perpendicular to
the fiber direction?

## What stresses are assumed to exist?

What variations of stresses are assumed?
…Ditto for strains

Approximate analyses for determining effective properties violate reality in one or more
ways:
 Distribution of constituents
 Shape of constituents
 Compatibility of displacements
 Equilibrium
 Dimensionality (e.g. 1D or 2D analysis)
/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

## E11 * Matrix and fibers loaded in parallel

* Same axial strain
* Determine average stress

## E 22 * Matrix and fiber loaded in series

* Same axial stress
* Determine average strain

## v12 * Matrix and fiber loaded in parallel

* Same axial strain
* Determine v12 from net contraction
 Because the constitutive matrix is symmetric,

v12 v E
 21  v 21  22 v12
E11 E 22 E11

## G12 * Matrix and fiber loaded in series

* Same shear stress
* Determine average strain

## * In each case we assume only one  and  exist.

* In each case we assume either constant  or . Also, within a single constituent both
the stress and strain are constant.

## Notation for solutions

 superscript “c”  composite value … either same for all constituents or is the
“effective” value
 subscript f  fiber value
 subscript m  matrix value
 Vf, Vm = volume fractions of fiber and matrix, respectively
/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

C
Effective Longitudinal Modulus, E11

c
 f   m  

 f   m
b
P
E f af
Em am

P  f da bi  ba bg
f m m

 f  Ef c

 m  E m c
P
c 
da b  a bi
f m

## Use these in definition

c c
E11 
c
c
Result: E  V f E f  Vm E m

General: E   Vi E i
c
/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

C
Effective Transverse Modulus, E 22

 f  m

 f m c
E f a f
E m a m
b

d i
 c a f  am   f a f   mam

c c
Also,  f  , m 
Ef Em

## Combine these with definition

c
Ec 
c
Result
1
Ec 
1 1
Vf  Vm
Ef Em

General
1
Ec 
V
 Ei
i
/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

C
Effective Shear Modulus, G12

x2

P b g b g
12 f 12 m

a G
x1 b g b g 
12 f 12 m
C

f f
a m G m
b
x3
L

C
 12 d
a f  a m   12 i b ga  b gaf f 12 m m

 12 
u1 F
Gu IJ
Hx K
2
0
x 2 1

b g G
12 f
C

b g G
12 m
C

C
GC  C
 12
Result:
1
GC 
1 1
Vf  Vm
Gf Gm

##  Same form as transverse modulus

 not considered very accurate
/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

C
v12

X2

f af X1
m am

Load in x1 direction
 22c
v12C  -
 11c
11 f  11m  11
 22 f  - v12f 11
 22 m  - v12m 11
Du2  22 f a f   22 m am
 22
C
 
a f  am a f  am
  22 f V f   22 mVm
 22
C
 - v12f 11V f - v12m 11Vm

- C22
 C
v12   v12f V f  v12
m
Vm  rule of mixtures
 11
C
C E 22
and v 21  C
v12  consequence of symmetry of constitutive matrix
E11
C
Challenge: Calculate v21 directly using SOM.
/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

## Some Simple Formulas for Transport Properties

Transport Properties
p.105
 heat conduction
 electrical conduction
 moisture diffusion
 transport of electrical and magnetic fields

Estimate
Longitudinal: k L  V f k f  Vm k m (i.e. rule of mixtures)
Transverse: Use Halpin-Tsai equations
kf
-1
k T 1   V f km
 ;n
km 1 - V f kf

km
a
and log   3 log
b
 natural log?

## Moisture Absorption (mass transport … diffusion)

p.106
 Fickian … like heat conduction
 Non-Fickian
 Text gives solution for 1-D Fickian (I think).
 Some “useful” equations for estimating moisture content of plate vs. time (how long
for saturation)
 We will return to this if time permits.
/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

Thermal Expansion

p. 101 Schapery

L 
1
EL
d i
 f E f V f   m E mVm (3.67)

d i
 T  1  f  f Vf b
1  g
 V m m m (3.68)

- L LT

For V f  25%

b g
 T   f V f  1   m  mVm

## We may return to derivation later.

How would you calculate thermal expansion coefficients using finite elements?
/conversion/tmp/scratch/383337191.doc

## Moisture Induced Expansion

p. 104
Usually assume  L  0 (since fibers prevent expansion)

T 
C
m
b g
1m m

densities
Compare with thermal expansion equation
b g
 T   f V f  1   m  mVm

assume  f  0

b g
  T  1   m  mVm