Brihadeeswarar temple Brihadeeswarar temple
Name Proper Peruvudaiyaar Kovil - Brihadeeswarar name: Temple Location Location: Thanjavur Architecture and culture Primary ெபருவுைடயார்(Peru vudaiyar)/ deity: Brihadeeswarar (Shiva) History Date built: 11th century AD Creator: Raja Raja Chola
The Peruvudaiyar Kovil or Brihadeeswarar Temple (Tamil: ெபருவுைடயார் ோகாவில், peruvuḍaiyār kōvil [?]), also known as Rajarajeswaram, at Thanjavur in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, is the
Moreover as evidenced by the inscriptions that found in the compound wall of this temple. It is a tribute and a reflection of the power of its patron RajaRaja Chola I. all of whom made a regular supply of their respective goods for the temple for its pujas and during festival seasons. popularly called Rajaraja Chola I. History The temple had its foundations laid out by the Tamil emperor Arunmolivarman. Temples from this period and the following two centuries are an expression of the Tamils (Chola) wealth. The Kalash or 'Chikharam' (apex or the bulbous structure on the top) of the temple is not carved out of a single stone as is widely believed.
. Besides the Brahmin priest. There is a big statue of Nandi (sacred bull). in 1002 CE. The temple stands amidst fortified walls that were probably added in the 16th century. It remains as one of the greatest glories of Indian architecture. these included recordkeepers. scholars. According to tradition. The entire temple structure is made out of hard granite stones. oil merchants. at the entrance measuring about 16 feet long and 13 feet high.world's first complete granite temple and a brilliant example of the major heights achieved by Cholas in temple architecture. The temple maintained a staff of 600 people in various capacities.In those days the temple remained a hub of business activities for the flower merchants. the temple had always been serving as a platform for the dancers who excelled in the traditional dance form of Bharatha Natyam. An axial and symmetrical geometry rules the temple layout. The temple is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site "Great Living Chola Temples" and this temple is an ultimate testimonial for the Tamil architectural cognizance in planning and sculpting this temple.is 216 ft (66 m) high   and is among the tallest of its kind in the world. ghee merchants. The scale and grandeur is in the Chola tradition. The temple was the site of the major royal ceremonies such as anointed the emperor and linking him with its deity. a material sparsely available currently in Thanjavur area where the temple is located. This temple is one of India's most prized architectural sites.or the temple tower . Shiva. the temple was built by the Chola king Rajaraja in compliance of a command given to him in his dream.milk vendors. power and artistic expertise. and the daily rituals of the deities were mirrored by those of the king. The Brihadeeswarar Temple was built to be the royal temple to display the emperor's vision of his power and his relationship to the universal order. The emergence of such features as the multifaceted columns with projecting square capitals signal the arrival of the new Chola style. carved out of a single rock. The 'Vimana' . musicians. and craftsman of every type as well as housekeeping staff. Even today. the Brihadeeswarar Temple remains India's largest. as the first of the great Tamil Chola building projects.
one of the most popular is that the gopuram does not cast a shadow at any time of the day outside its perimeter . The massive size of the main sikhara (although it is hollow on the inside and not meant to be occupied). the walls being built like a fortress. and dominates the main quadrangle. The complex can be entered either on one axis through a five-story gopuram or with a second access directly to the huge main quadrangle through a smaller free-standing gopuram. The temples "testify to the brilliant achievements of the Chola in architecture. sculpture.
.There are many myths about the temple. Pilaster. with 16 severely articulated stories. The complex is made up of many structures that are aligned axially. and attached columns are placed rhythmically covering every surface of the shikhara.a testament to the early Dravidians' mathematical prowess. The temple is also an architectural exemplar showcasing the pure form of the Dravida type of temple architecture and representative of the Chola Empire ideology and the Tamil civilisation in Southern India. piers. painting and bronze casting". Temple complex
Temple gateway The temple complex sits on the banks of a river that was channeled to make a moat around the complex's outer walls. is 63 meters in height.
 Adjoining structures
.The apex of the tower is the octagonal single stone granite piece of 81. Sharing the same stone plinth is a small open mandapa dedicated to Nandi. In the center is placed the image of the deity. The most important part of the temple is the inner mandapa which is surrounded by massive walls that are divided into different levels by sharply cut sculptures and pilasters providing deep bays and recesses. Each side of the sanctuary has a bay emphasizing the principle cult icons. is the inner most sanctum and focus of the temple where an image of the primary deity. The entrance is highly decorated. Shiva. The circumambulation winds around the massive lingam in the garbhagriha and is repeated in an upper story. In the Dravida style. The inside chamber housing the image of the god is the sanctum sanctorum. a Tamil word meaning the interior of the sanctum sanctorum. the garbhagriha. and many sub-shrines. its location calculated to be a point of total equilibrium and harmony as it is representative of a microcosm of the universe. the Karuvarai takes the form of a miniature vimana with other features exclusive to southern Indian temple architecture such as the inner wall together with the outer wall creating a pradakshina around the garbhagriha for circumambulation (pradakshina). presenting the idea that Chola Empire freely offered access to the gods. a pillared hall and an assembly hall (mandapas). The karuvarai.25 tons
The main temple is in the center of the spacious quadrangle composed of a sanctuary. The inner mandapa leads out to a rectangular mandapa and then to a twentycolumned porch with three staircases leading down.  The garbhagriha is square and sits on a plinth. Only priests are allowed to enter this inner most chamber. Shiva's sacred bull mount. a Nandi. resides. Inside is a huge stone linga Literally the word Karuvarai means "womb chamber" from Tamil word Karu for foetus.
each of which is a life like status i. Vayu. is enclosed by a high wall interspersed with huge gopurams axially lined up to the main temple. Origin of Idea The wish to build a mammoth temple like this is said to have occurred to Raja Raja while he stayed at ealam (ஈழம்) (today's Sri Lanka) as a war head. Shiva) but all other deities (Koshta Moorthigal) like Dakshinamurthy. Agni. Brahadeeswar temple is one of the rare temples which has statues for "Ashta dik paalakas" [Lords of all Eight Directions [Indra. Suriya (Sun). Other Not only the temple and the "moolavar". (prime deity. Eesana. Within this a portico. Kubera]. Here is the massive gopuram or gateway mentioned above. Niruthi.e Brihadeeswarar Temple in Historic Novels
1. a barrel vaulted gorpuram with over 400 pillars. Chandra (Moon) are very huge sized. Especially. which would have made him wish to build a great temple to his cordial deity Shiva in such a large scale. Balakumaran has written the story Udaiyar based on the life of Raja
Raja Chola I and the building activities around Brihadeeswarar temple
. Yama.Shrine of Ganapathy Surrounding the main temple are two walled enclosures. He saw a lot of Buddha statues that were very tall and huge. defining the temple complex area. The outer wall is high. Varuna.