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The Harvard European Law Association (HELA) is excited to welcome you to the 2018 Harvard
European Law Symposium, taking place on Friday April 6, 2018, entitled "Europe and the US:
isolationism first?"

Throughout the past decades, Europe and the US have enjoyed relative welfare from an economic,
social, and cultural perspective. As a result, foreign citizens and companies regularly seek access to
the European Single Market as well as US territory. However, from travel bans to trade wars on
both sides of the Atlantic, such requests for access have been met with various isolationist

In search of common legal and policy approaches to EU and US isolationism in the 21 st century, two
speeches and four high-level panel discussions will host a wide array of leading US and European
experts in international trade, migration, antitrust law, integration, data protection, and national

This Symposium is funded by the Harvard Law School Dean of Students Grant Fund; Fulbright
Belgium / Luxembourg; the Real Colegio Complutense at Harvard University; and the Jean Monnet
ad Personam Chair in European Union Law and Government at Harvard University. It is organized
by the Harvard European Law Association, and institutionally supported by the Harvard Association
for Law and Business; the Harvard International Law Journal; and the Harvard Human Rights

In case of any questions, please contact Mr. Richard Steppe (President of the Harvard European
Law Association) at


Keynote Address by Judge Paul Nihoul (9:30 – 10:30)

Breakfast and Coffee provided

Paul Nihoul is a Judge at the General Court since 19

September 2016. Prior to joining the General Court,
Judge Nihoul was Professor at the University of
Groningen (1999-2001), then at the Université
catholique de Louvain (2001-16); Visiting Professor at a
number of universities, in particular at Paris Dauphine
University (2013-16), Chair of the Academic Society for
Competition Law (2013-16), Legal Secretary at the Court
of Justice of the European Communities (1991-95) and
researcher at the Université catholique de Louvain
(1995‑99). Judge Nihoul serves as chief editor of a
number of legal journals.

Judge Nihoul graduated in law from the Université

catholique de Louvain (1988); Master of Laws, Harvard
University (1989); Doctor of Laws (1998); and graduated
in philology (1984) and philosophy (1984) from the
Université catholique de Louvain.

Panel I. Access Denied: Recent Trends in EU and US Deportation Policies and
Practices (10:30 – 11:45)

Europe and the US have, throughout the past few years, grown into beacons of relative welfare,
stability, and safety. As a result, various third-country nationals seek access to the EU single
market as well as US territory. Nevertheless, it is sometimes questionable to what extent the EU,
US, and various nations are willing to share their “own” achievements. As demonstrated by the
recent US travel ban, as well as the EU’s reaction to the refugee crisis, both US and EU
governments invoke—among others—reasons of national security as a means to curb migration
flows. This panel therefore explores the nature and boundaries of such ‘isolationist’ claims and
anti-immigration measures in general, likewise covering human rights perspectives. In examining
this subject, the panel discussion aims to compare and learn from similar situations in the EU,
US, and other parts of the world.


Spencer P. Boyer is a Nonresident Senior Fellow in the

Center on the United States and Europe at the Brookings
Institution. He is also an Adjunct Assistant Professor in
the BMW Center for German and European Studies at
the Edmund A. Walsh School of Foreign Service at
Georgetown University and a Senior Fellow at the Penn
Biden Center for Diplomacy and Global Engagement at
the University of Pennsylvania. His areas of research and
analysis include transatlantic security relations, Russian
influence in Europe, populism, extremism, Turkey, and
U.S. public diplomacy. In addition, Mr. Boyer has
affiliations with public affairs and security-focused
consulting firms based in Washington, D.C. and Silicon

Mr. Boyer served in senior roles in both terms of the

Obama administration. From 2014 – 2017, he was the
National Intelligence Officer for Europe in the National
Intelligence Council—the center for long-range strategic
thinking within the U.S. Intelligence Community. During

the first term of the administration, he served as a
Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for European and
Eurasian Affairs. He has been the executive director of a
Georgetown University-based NGO and a senior analyst
or visiting scholar with numerous think tanks, including
the Center for American Progress, the Center for
Transatlantic Relations at Johns Hopkins School of
Advanced International Studies, and the Woodrow
Wilson International Center for Scholars. He began his
career as a lawyer with international courts and
tribunals in The Hague, Zurich, and Paris.

Deborah E. Anker is Clinical Professor of Law and the

Founder and Director of the Harvard Law School
Immigration and Refugee Clinical Program (HIRC).
Professor Anker is one of the most widely known asylum
practitioners, teachers and scholars in the United States
and a pioneer in the development of clinical legal
education in the immigration field, training students in
direct representation of refugees and creating a
foundation for clinics at law schools around the U.S.
Author of the leading treatise, Law of Asylum in the
United States, Anker has co-drafted groundbreaking
Gender Asylum Guidelines and amicus curiae briefs. Her
historical work on U.S. ratification and implementation
of the UN Refugee Convention in The Forty Year Crisis is
a classic that has shaped the interpretation of U.S.
asylum law, especially in an internationalist direction.

Professor Anker work has been cited by federal courts,

including the U.S. Supreme Court as well as by various
international tribunals. Professor Anker has received
numerous awards for, among other achievements, her
human rights work and teaching. Anker was designated
a Woman of Justice by the Massachusetts Bar
Association, and in 2011, she was elected as a Fellow to
the American Bar Foundation. She is a Senior Research
affiliate of the London-based, Refugee Law Initiative.

Boldizsár Nagy teaches refugee law and international law
at the Central European University in Budapest. He read
law and philosophy and received his PhD in law at the
Eötvös Loránd University (ELTE) in Budapest. He has
acted as expert for UNHCR, the Council of Europe and
the EU and was counsel for Hungary in the Gabcikovo-
Nagymaros Project case in front of the ICJ. Ankara,
Beijing, Brussels, Geneva, Kazan, Luxembourg, Moscow,
New York, Tbilisi, Yekaterinburg, and Yerevan are among
his former teaching venues.

Professor Nagy is one of the founders of the European

Society of International Law and editor in chief of the
Refugee Law Reader. Most of his research centers on
refugee law and migration law, but he has also published
on a wide variety of other international law subjects
including sovereignty, the common heritage of mankind
and nationality.

Sabrineh Ardalan is an assistant clinical professor at

Harvard Law School and assistant director at the Harvard
Immigration and Refugee Clinical Program. At the clinic,
Ardalan supervises and trains law students working on
applications for asylum and other humanitarian
protections, as well as appellate litigation and policy
advocacy. She has authored amicus briefs submitted to
the Board of Immigration Appeals, as well as to the
federal district courts and circuit courts of appeal on
cutting edge issues in U.S. asylum law. She teaches
courses on immigration and refugee law and advocacy,
on international labor migration, as well as on trauma,
refugees, and asylum law.

Prior to her work with the clinic, Ardalan clerked for

Hon. Michael A. Chagares of the Third Circuit Court of
Appeals and Hon. Raymond J. Dearie, district judge for
the Eastern District of New York. She previously served
as the Equal Justice America fellow at The Opportunity
Agenda, where she worked on advocacy around a right
to health care under U.S. and international law and as a
litigation associate at Dewey Ballantine LLP. She holds a
J.D. from Harvard Law School and a B.A. in history and
international studies from Yale College.

Panel II. David v. Goliath: Protectionism through EU and US Antitrust
Enforcement (12:00 – 13:15)
Non-pizza, warm lunch provided

By removing barriers to trade and competition, antitrust legislation has served as a prominent
instrument to catalyze growth and welfare in both EU and US economies. In recent times,
however, the US has highlighted an alleged protectionist focus by EU competition enforcement,
which increasingly targets US firms (e.g., Google, Starbucks). Simultaneously, the EU faces
important internal challenges, as its member states frequently provide financial incentives to
their ‘own’ companies. While EU competition enforcement addresses these issues through state
aid legislation, similar provisions do not exist in US antitrust law. More generally, the panel aims
to explore antitrust concerns of protectionism in a variety of (comparative) settings.


Tara Reinhart is a partner at Skadden, Arps, Slate,

Meagher & Flom in the Antitrust and Competition
group. Her practice focuses on civil litigation and
government investigations, with an emphasis on
complex antitrust litigation and international cartel
probes. Ms. Reinhart recently returned to Skadden after
serving as Chief Trial Counsel at the Federal Trade
Commission’ Bureau of Competition, where she led a
team to victory in the Staples-Office Depot merger
litigation. Most recently, at Skadden, Ms. Reinhart led
the Energy Solutions trial team in its defense of the
Department of Justice Antitrust Division’s merger
challenge. Ms. Reinhart has handled many large
litigations in a number of major industries, including
telecommunications (merger challenge); transportation
(multi-district price-fixing claims); and pharmaceuticals
(monopolization claims). Ms. Reinhart is a graduate of
the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the
Columbus School of Law at Catholic University.

Wouter Devroe is full professor at Maastricht University
and at KU Leuven, where he is also Vice Dean and Chair
of the Economic Law department. Professor Devroe has
always combined academia with practice, currently as
an attorney at the Brussels Bar (Allen & Overy) and as an
Expert Member at the Belgian Competition Authority.
Teaching and research primarily concern EU law, in
particular EU economic law. As an attorney, he
represents undertakings as well as national and EU
institutions at the European Commission, the General
Court and the Court of Justice in Luxembourg.

Professor Devroe holds a Ph.D. (2000) and Master of

Laws (1990, summa cum laude) from KU Leuven, and
obtained an LL.M. degree while working as Teaching
Fellow at Northwestern University (1991, Fulbright
fellowship). He started his career clerking for Advocate
General Van Gerven and Judge Sevon at the European
Court of Justice in Luxembourg.

Romano Subiotto is a partner based in the Brussels and

London offices of Cleary Gottlieb Steen & Hamilton LLP.
He advises companies on a wide range of issues under
European law, in particular European antitrust law, and
under national antitrust law, and represents companies
in arbitrations and before the European Commission,
national antitrust authorities, the European Courts in
Luxembourg and the English courts in London. Mr.
Subiotto joined Cleary Gottlieb in 1988 and became a
partner in 1997. He was appointed Queen’s Counsel in

Mr. Subiotto received his Diploma de Estudios

Hispánicos from the University of Málaga, Spain in 1980;
his LL.B., First Class Honours, from the University of
London, King’s College, in 1984 (Harold Potter Prize in
Property Law, Laws Exhibition, Second Maxwell Law
Prize); his Maîtrise en Droit, Mention Bien, from the
University of Paris I, Panthéon-Sorbonne, in the same
year; and his LL.M. from Harvard Law School in 1986,
where he was a John F. Kennedy Memorial Scholar.

Mr. Subiotto is a member of the Bar of England and

Wales and Brussels. He is fluent in English, French,
Italian, Spanish and German.

Einer R. Elhauge is a Petrie Professor of Law at Harvard
Law School, where he writes and teaches on Antitrust
Law and Economics. Professor Elhauge is author of U.S.
Antitrust Law & Economics, co-author of Global Antitrust
Law & Economics, co-author of Areeda, Elhauge &
Hovenkamp, Vol X, Antitrust Law, editor of the Research
Handbook on the Economics of Antitrust Law, and the
author of articles on antitrust law and economics that
have won awards and appeared in peer-reviewed
economics journals and top law reviews. He is also
President of Legal Economics, LLC, former FTC Special
Employee on Antitrust Issues, member of the editorial
board for Competition Policy International, and member
of the advisory boards for the Journal of Competition
Law & Economics and for the Social Sciences Research
Network on Antitrust Law & Policy.

Before coming to Harvard, Professor Elhauge was a

Professor of Law at the University of California at
Berkeley, and clerked for Judge Norris on the 9th Circuit
and Justice Brennan on the Supreme Court. He received
both his A.B. and his J.D. from Harvard, graduating first
in his law school class.

Panel III. The Future of EU and US Integration: State, National, and
Supranational Power Balances (13:30 – 14:45)
Coffee / tea, cookies, muffins, and pie provided

The European Union owes a lot to its single market. Free movement of goods, capital, people,
and services, combined with free and fair competition, have paved the way for its economic
success. However—as shown by, e.g., Brexit, the rise of populism, as well as increased
protectionist tendencies—it appears that vital elements of this internal market are challenged. It
would be erroneous, however, to assume that such struggles are brand-new; conversely, the
balance between national and supranational competences lies at the core of the EU and is
reflected in many of its instruments. In the US, various frictions likewise exist between the state
and federal levels. More generally, this panel explores the future of EU single market integration
while comparing similar situations across the globe.


Wouter Devroe is full professor at Maastricht University

and at KU Leuven, where he is also Vice Dean and Chair
of the Economic Law department. Professor Devroe has
always combined academia with practice, currently as
an attorney at the Brussels Bar (Allen & Overy) and as an
Expert Member at the Belgian Competition Authority.
Teaching and research primarily concern EU law, in
particular EU economic law. As an attorney, he
represents undertakings as well as national and EU
institutions at the European Commission, the General
Court and the Court of Justice in Luxembourg.

Professor Devroe holds a Ph.D. (2000) and Master of

Laws (1990, summa cum laude) from KU Leuven, and
obtained an LL.M. degree while working as Teaching
Fellow at Northwestern University (1991, Fulbright
fellowship). He started his career clerking for Advocate
General Van Gerven and Judge Sevon at the European
Court of Justice in Luxembourg.

Peter M. Huber is a Supreme Court Justice on the
German Federal Constitutional Court, the highest court
in Germany for constitutional issues. Prof. Huber was
appointed to the Court in November 2010 and serves in
the Court’s Second Senate. Prior to that appointment,
he served as Minister of the Interior for the State of
Thuringia. From 2007-2009, he served as a member of
the Constitutional Court (Staatsgerichtshof) of the Free
Hanseatic City of Bremen. From 2003-2004, he served as
an expert member of the Commission on the Reform of
the Federal System of Government established by the
German Federal Legislature (Bundestag and the
Bundesrat). From 1996-2002, in addition to his regular
duties, Prof. Huber served as a judge at the Higher
Administrative Court (Oberverwaltungsgericht) of the
State of Thuringia.

Throughout his years of service, Prof. Huber has been a

professor at such universities as: Augsburg University,
Friedrich Schiller University of Jena (as dean from 1994-
1995), Bayreuth University, and Ludwig-Maximilians
University Munich. He has been a visiting professor at
various universities and has served on a number of
judicial associations and commissions. Born in 1959,
Prof. Huber studied law at Ludwig-Maximilians
University Munich and at the Université de Genève.

Fernanda G. Nicola is Professor of Law at the

Washington College of Law, American University and she
is the Director of the Program on International
Organizations Law and Diplomacy. Her research and
teaching interests are in European Union and
Comparative Law, Transnational Legal Theory and Local
Government Law. She received her PhD from Trento
University and her SJD degree from Harvard Law School
where she was the recipient of the Mancini Prize in
European Law, and the Justice Welfare and Economics
fellowship at the Weatherhead Center for International

Professor Nicola is a member of the American Society of

Comparative Law (ASCL) and the International Academy
of Comparative Law (IACL). During the spring of 2017
she was a Fernand Braudel Senior Fellow at the

European University Institute (EUI) in Florence and a
Visiting Professor at LUISS in Rome. She wrote National
Legal Traditions at Work in the Jurisprudence of the
CJEU (AJCL 2017) and co-edited EU Law Stories:
Contextual and Critical Histories of European
Jurisprudence (CUP 2017). She is currently the AALS
Chair of the EU law section.

Daniel Francis is a Climenko Fellow and Lecturer on Law

at Harvard Law School, where his scholarship centers on
the status of competition as a constitutional value in the
United States and European Union. His recent articles
have dealt with, among other things, the salience of exit
rights in liberal political theory, the erosion of
constitutional prohibitions on state and local
protectionism in the United States, and the value of
litigation as a political process in American federalism.
Daniel served until recently as Associate Editor of the
International Journal of Constitutional Law, and
previously taught EU constitutional law and history at
the Government Department of Harvard College. Daniel
holds degrees in law from Trinity College, Cambridge,
and Harvard Law School.

Daniel is also Counsel to the law firm of Shearman &

Sterling LLP, where he represents and counsels
multinational clients on antitrust matters of all kinds,
with a focus in the defense, oil & gas, and entertainment
industries. Daniel is a member of the bar in New York
and Washington DC, and is a membre associé of the
Brussels bar.

Panel 4. Global Digital Trade: The New Role of Data Protection in Trade
Agreement Negotiations (15:00 – 16:15)
Coffee / tea, cookies, muffin, and pie provided

The European Union has greatly benefited from globalization. An important catalyst of the latter
phenomenon is the increase in digital commerce, characterized by an expansion of both digital
commodities and currencies. These tendencies, however, likewise introduced fresh policy
challenges. The trade implications of the 2016 invalidation of the US–EU Safe Harbor Framework,
by the EU Court of Justice, were undisputed. Similarly, data localization laws are
considered—among others, by the US—as effective barriers to trade. Furthermore, in January
2018, the European Commission endorsed horizontal provisions for cross-border data flows and
personal data protection in trade negotiations: considering the fundamental status of personal
data protection in the EU, the Commission held that it cannot be subject to EU trade agreement
negotiations. The panel aims to discuss these elements, in which the EU and various nations
safeguard and impose their own data protection standards, in relation to major trade partners
such as the US and China.


Jonathan (Josh) S. Kallmer is a senior vice president for

global policy at the Information Technology Industry
Council (ITI), leading ITI’s efforts to influence policy
developments around the globe in ways that enable
innovation and economic growth, while supporting
governments in achieving their public policy objectives.
With a team of experienced professionals, he is
responsible for crafting and executing policy strategies
in every region of the world and on a wide range of
issues, such as privacy and data protection,
cybersecurity, trade and market access, standards, the
Internet of Things (IoT), artificial intelligence, and
taxation, among others. This includes, for example,
working with the European Union and its Member States
to develop global approaches to privacy and data

protection and reduce regulatory fragmentation on
digital issues; engaging with China to build trust and
understanding on issues related to cybersecurity and
cloud computing; supporting the efforts of governments
in India and Brazil to develop regulatory approaches to
encryption and IoT; and representing the global tech
sector in multilateral settings such as the G7, G20, Asia-
Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum, and World
Trade Organization (WTO) on issues affecting technology
and innovation.

Before joining ITI in February 2015, Josh Kallmer was

counsel in the International Trade and International
Dispute Resolution groups of Crowell & Moring LLP.
From 2007-2012, Josh Kallmer served as Deputy
Assistant U.S. Trade Representative for Investment. He
co-chaired the United States’ bilateral investment treaty
(BIT) program, was lead U.S. negotiator for several
international investment agreements, and represented
the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) on
the Committee on Foreign Investment in the United
States (CFIUS). From 2004-2007, Mr. Kallmer was
Assistant General Counsel at USTR, where he served as
lead counsel for the United States in disputes before the

Josh Kallmer graduated with honors from Stanford

University and received his law degree, cum laude, from
Georgetown University.

Daniel Crosby is a partner in the International Trade

Practice Group at King & Spalding, and manages the
firm’s Geneva office. He specializes in international
trade, investment and matters related to public
international law. and works with sovereign and
commercial clients to achieve practical economic
objectives around the world by applying and negotiating
international agreements. Mr. Crosby has worked in the
area of international trade for over 25 years and has
practiced in Switzerland since 2000. A significant portion
of Mr. Crosby’s practice relates to services trade, e-
commerce and digital trade, including current World
Trade Organization (WTO) negotiations. He is the
founding Chairman of Business for eTrade Development,

an industry liaison group founded to interact with the
United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
in order to promote economic development through e-
commerce and digital trade. Daniel also advises clients
regarding national trade remedy proceedings and WTO

Fluent in English, Russian, Hungarian and French, Mr.

Crosby enjoys teaching, speaking and writing on
international trade and investment issues. He also
provides technical assistance and pro bono legal services
to Least Developed Countries and to countries
negotiating accession to the WTO or implementing WTO
obligations. Mr. Crosby is listed as a leading practitioner
in international trade by Chambers Global, Chambers
Europe, Chambers Switzerland, Who’s Who Legal, the
International Trade Expert Guide and Best

Daniel Crosby holds a J.D. from Washington College of

Law, American University and B.A. from Union College
and is admitted to practice in D.C., Massachusetts and
New York.

Joshua Paul Meltzer is a senior fellow in the Global

Economy and Development program at the Brookings
Institution in Washington D.C. At Brookings. Mr. Meltzer
is an expert on digital trade law and policy issues and
leads Brookings Digital Economy and Trade Project. Mr.
Meltzer is also an expert on international trade law and
policy issues arising under the World Trade Organization
and free trade agreements. He also works on the legal
and regulatory aspects of financing sustainable
infrastructure projects to meet climate change and
development needs. Mr. Meltzer has testified on trade
issues before the U.S. Congress, the U.S. International
Trade Commission and the European Parliament. He has
been an expert witness on digital trade and privacy
issues in the EU and a consultant to the World Bank on
digital trade matters.

Mr. Meltzer teaches digital trade law at Melbourne

University Law School, has taught international trade law
as an adjunct professor at Georgetown University Law

School and Johns Hopkins School for Advanced
International Studies, and has been a guest lecturer on
digital trade at Columbia University Law School. Prior to
joining Brookings, Meltzer was posted as a diplomat at
the Australian Embassy in Washington D.C., worked as
an international trade lawyer and trade negotiator in
Australia’s Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, an
attorney at Sackville Wilks & Co in Melbourne, Australia.

Meltzer holds an S.J.D. and LL.M. from the University of

Michigan Law School in Ann Arbor and law and
commerce degrees from Monash University in
Melbourne, Australia.

Vigjilenca Abazi is an Emile Nöel Fellow at NYU School of

Law and Assistant Professor of European Law at
Maastricht University, the Netherlands. She obtained
her PhD degree at University of Amsterdam and was a
Fulbright Scholar at Columbia Law School (2014). On
issues of privacy and whistleblower protection, Dr Abazi
has been an adviser to the European Union institutions
and the Council of Europe. She is a Board member in
many leading academic journals and has more than
twenty scientific publications, including a monograph on
'Official Secrets and Oversight in the EU' (Oxford
University Press, 2018). Upon invitation, Dr Abazi has
given over 40 lectures and talks including at Oxford
University, Harvard Law School, Columbia University,
NYU (Paris, Florence, Abu Dhabi campuses). She has also
been invited to present her research at the European
Parliament and the Dutch Parliament.

Mark Wu is an Assistant Professor at Harvard Law

School. His research focuses on international trade law,
including issues concerning emerging economies, digital
trade, intellectual property, trade remedies,
environment, and investment. At Harvard, Wu is a
Faculty Director of the Berkman Klein Center for Internet
and Society. He serves as a member of the Faculty
Advisory Committees of the East Asian Legal Studies
Program and the Fairbank Center for Chinese Studies.
He is also a Faculty Associate of Harvard University’s
Center for the Environment.

In 2016, he was appointed by the World Trade
Organization to serve on the Advisory Board for the
WTO Chairs Programme. Professor Wu also serves on
the World Economic Forum’s Global Future Council on
Trade and Foreign Direct Investment. In addition, he
works with the World Bank on assessing trade
agreements and serves on multiple expert groups
convened by the International Centre for Trade and
Sustainable Development. He is an Editorial Board
member of the World Trade Review and of the World
Intellectual Property Organization’s series on intellectual
property, innovation and economic development.

Prior to academia, Wu served as the Director for

Intellectual Property in the Office of the U.S. Trade
Representative. He was the lead U.S. negotiator for the
IP chapters of several free trade agreements. He
continues to serve as a principal liaison to the Trade and
Environment Policy Advisory Committee.

Wu received his J.D. from Yale Law School, his M.Sc. in

Development Economics from Oxford University (where
he studied as a Rhodes Scholar), and his A.B. summa
cum laude in Social Studies and East Asian Studies from
Harvard University.

Closing Address by Prof. Enrico Spolaore (16:20 – 17:00)

Enrico Spolaore is the Seth Merrin Chair and Professor of

Economics at Tufts University. He is also a Research
Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research
(NBER) in Cambridge (MA), a CESIfo Fellow at the
University of Munich, and an External Associate at the
University of Warwick’s Centre for Competitive
Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).

Spolaore received an undergraduate degree (Laurea) in

Economics and Commerce from the University of Rome,
a doctoral degree (Dottorato di Ricerca) from the
University of Siena, and a Ph.D. in Economics from
Harvard University. His main research interests are in
political economy, economic growth and development,
and international economics.

Before joining the Tufts faculty in 2004, Spolaore held

faculty positions at the Université Libre de Bruxelles,
Ohio State University, Boston College, and Brown
University. He also worked as a consultant for the
Confederation of Italian Industries (Confindustria) and
the European Commission. At Tufts he served as Chair of
the Economics Department between 2006 and 2012.

Spolaore was born in Italy, and holds Italian and U.S.

citizenships. He lives in Lexington, Massachusetts with
his wife Deborah and their golden retriever Alfred.

Networking Cocktail Reception (17:00 – 18:30)
Both alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks provided

At the end of the conference, the Harvard European Law Association hosts a cocktail reception
for the audience to interact with the speakers as well as with one another.

During this reception, original posters of the US Marshall plan will be displayed. These posters,
printed in 1950 to help promote the Marshall Plan among recipient European nations, comprise
a beautiful set of designs that promote European peace, cooperation, and integration. As the bill
enacting the Plan was signed by US President Truman on April 3, 1948, this Symposium takes
place in the week of the 70th anniversary of the Plan’s implementation. The posters are
generously offered for display by Mr. Andres de Riva (see below).

Andres de Riva is a current graduate

student in Public Administration at
the Harvard Kennedy School of
Government. He is a dual Spanish
and American citizen and is highly
passionate about transatlantic
relations. His grandfather Roy was
deployed to Italy during WWII and
believed that helping Europe
reconstruct was a noble cause all
Americans should uphold. This belief in cooperation between Europe and the US has been
deeply rooted in Andres’ upbringing.

Andres came to know of the 1950 poster competition to help promote the Marshall Plan when
browsing vintage poster stores in New York City more than four years ago. He instantly fell in
love with the messages of peace and cooperation conveyed by the impactful designs. His interest
in the posters and their potential effect on viewers increased with time, and he decided he’d
slowly collect an original copy of each of the 25 winning designs to allow others to enjoy and
reflect, and hopefully feel inspired to take action.

Four years later, Andres completed the collection with the generous support of the Harvey
Family. The posters were exhibited for the first time as part of the 2018 European Conference at
HKS. His purpose behind the collection is threefold: (1) to celebrate the 70th anniversary of the
Plan’s implementation as well as to honor this act of generosity, diplomacy, and daring vision;
(2) to remind viewers of the power of art in delivering a unifying message and in promoting a
noble endeavor; and (3) to instill in Europeans and Americans today the importance of discussing
shared values while reinforcing the need to build social and cultural cohesion within Europe.


The 2018 Harvard European Law Symposium is generously sponsored and supported by several
institutions and faculty members, to whom we would like to offer our sincerest gratitude.

The Harvard Law School DOS Grant Fund is a highly

competitive fund allocated specifically for HLS officially
recognized student organizations and journals planning
conferences or symposia in relation to their organization’s
mission and goals.

Real Colegio Complutense at Harvard (RCC) is a Spanish

center affiliated to Harvard University since 1990, under
the presidency of Derek C. Bok. It is the only World Class
Excellence Center in the US and has an exclusive
relationship with the Ivy League university.

RCC is a non-profit organization, aimed at providing

academic, scientific, and cultural cooperation between
Harvard University and the Spanish system of Higher
Education. It promotes and develops activities in every
realm of the knowledge triangle.

The Jean Monnet Programme is part of the European

Lifelong Learning Programme (LLP) in the field of education
and training. This platform stimulates teaching, reflection,
and debate on the European integration process at higher
education institutions. In 2013, José Manuel Martínez Sierra
was awarded the Jean Monnet ad Personam Chair in
European Union Law and Government, which contributes to
a deeper understanding of the EU in the US. These

activities particularly focus on Harvard and MIT. The Chair
is one of the few Jean Monnet ad personam Chairs existing
in the United States, and is part of the EU Jean Monnet
Network in the US.

The Fulbright Program is the flagship international

educational exchange program sponsored by the US State
Department. It was created with legislation introduced by
US Senator J. William Fulbright in 1946. The goal of the
program is to increase mutual understanding and cultural
awareness between students and researchers in the United
States and those abroad. The Commission for Educational
Exchange between the United States of America, Belgium
and Luxembourg administers several Fulbright Scholarship
Programs for citizens of Belgium and Luxembourg as well as
the Fulbright-Schuman Program in European Union affairs.

José Manuel Martínez Sierra is the Jean Monnet ad

personam Professor for the Study of European Union Law
and Government, Director of the Real Colegio Complutense
at Harvard, Faculty Affiliate of the Minda de Gunzburg
Center for European Studies at Harvard and Faculty
Associate of the David Rockefeller Center for Latin
American Studies. He teaches different courses about
Europe and Spain at Harvard College. He is a Member of
the IGLP Advisory Council at Harvard Law School, chair of
the Internationalization and Innovation in Higher Education
Study Group, co-chair of the European Union Law and
Government Study Group and co-chair of the Study Group A
Center-Periphery Europe? Perspectives from Southern

Europe at the Minda de Gunzburg Center for European
Studies at Harvard. Martínez is Academic Advisor of the
European Horizons at Yale University, and one of the
faculty members involved in the European Conference at
Harvard University. He is the principal investigator of the
European Union Project "Enhancing governance of EU
policies: legal and institutional learnings from a US-EU

He has an M.A. in Law, M.A. in Political Science and

Sociology, a J.D. and a Ph.D. in Law (Doctor Europaeus)
from Complutense University of Madrid. He received his
LL.M. Eur. from Alcalá University and a Specialist Degree in
International and Comparative Law from the University of

David Kennedy is Manley O. Hudson Professor of Law and

Faculty Director of the Institute for Global Law and Policy at
Harvard Law School where he teaches international law,
international economic policy, legal theory, law and
development and European law. He joined the Harvard Law
faculty in 1981 and holds a Ph.D. from the Fletcher School
at Tufts University and a J.D. from Harvard. He is the author
of numerous articles on international law and global
governance. His research uses interdisciplinary materials
from sociology and social theory, economics and history to
explore issues of global governance, development policy
and the nature of professional expertise.


Richard Steppe is the President of the Harvard European Law

Association and chief organizer of the Symposium. He currently
pursues an LL.M. degree at Harvard Law School as a Fulbright, Frank
Boas, and BAEF Fellow. Having obtained his Master of Laws at the
KU Leuven (2015, magna cum laude), he is currently completing a
Ph.D. on EU price discrimination law at the KU Leuven Institute for
Consumer, Competition & Market as a Fellow of the Research
Foundation Flanders. Richard has published on a variety of topics,
ranging from data protection to intellectual property and
competition law, and pursued legal internships and clerkships with
several firms and institutions (e.g., UNICEF, Baker & McKenzie, the
Belgian Supreme Court of Cassation).

Nuna Van Belle is Vice President of the Harvard European Law

Association. She is currently enrolled in the LL.M. Program at
Harvard Law School and obtained her qualifying law degree from
Ghent University, holding an additional LL.M. in EU Competition and
Intellectual Property Law from the University of Liège. Prior to her
graduate studies at Harvard, Nuna worked as a researcher at the
World Health Organization and as a legal advisor at the Global Fund
to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Her interests include
antitrust, intellectual property, and trade law.

Tetyana Payosova is an Executive Board Member of the Harvard

European Law Association, as well as an LL.M. Candidate at the
Harvard Law School. Originally from Ukraine, she graduated from
National University “Odesa Law Academy” in 2007. Tetyana
continued her education in Switzerland, where she received a
Master in European and International Law from the University of
Bern, and is about to complete her PhD in WTO law. Tetyana
worked as a research fellow at the Institute of European and
International Economic Law and the World Trade Institute of the
University of Bern, and as legal adviser for the International Rail
Transport Committee (CIT). She has extensive experience in WTO
law, EU economic law, and EU – Swiss bilateral relations.

César Álvarez Alonso is Vice President of the Harvard European Law
Association, Executive Director of the Real Colegio Complutense at
Harvard University, Visiting Researcher at the Institute for Global
Law and Policy at the Harvard Law School, as well as co-chair of the
“Internationalization and Innovation in Higher Education” and
“Private Investment in Education” Study Groups. He holds an M.A.
in Law, M.A. in Political Science and Public Administration from
Complutense University in Madrid, M.A. in University Management
from Alcala University, and J.D. in Law from University of Valladolid.
He holds a Ph.D. in Law and Political Science from University Pablo
de Olavide with international mention. César is also chair and
Steering Group Member of the Strategy and Management Expert
Community at the European Association for International Education
based in Amsterdam.