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Lecture on Bernoulli's Principle

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whenever appropriate, in obtaining conclusions relating

pressure, elevation, speed and flux.

Today: Fluid Dynamics

We assume the following

-Steady flow (Laminar)

-Density is constant (incompressible)

- No internal friction (Fluid is not viscous)

Continuity Equation:

Mass of fluid flowing does not change

constant

2

Continuity equation

: !"#$!#

Continuity equation

4

Sample Problem: Incompressible fluid flow

As a part of a lubricating system for heavy machinery, oil of

density 850kg/m3 is pumped through a cylindrical pipe of

diameter 8.0cm at a rate of 9.5liters per second.

(a)What is the speed of the oil? What is the mass flow rate?

(b)If the pipe diameter is reduced to 4.0cm, what are the new

values of the speed and volume flow rate?

Assume that the oil is incompressible.

%&'()')

*+,-.,

(a) The volume flow rate dV/dt equals the product A1v1, where A1

is the cross sectional area of the pipe (d = 8.0cm so r = 4.0cm).

Therefore:

(b) Since the oil is incompressible; then the flow rate is 9.5liters/second

in both end of the pipe; decreasing the diameter from 8.0cm to 4.0cm

means decreasing the radius from 4.0cm to 2.0cm. Using the continuity:

Conservation of Energy in Fluids

Derivation of Bernoulli’s

equation

/0 12 3 14 /5

• Change in kinetic energy

1

/6 9/5:;4 4 3 ;2 4 <

2

• Change in potential energy

/= 9/5>:?4 3 ?2 <

• Work-energy theorem

/0 /6 @ /=

Bernoulli's principle states that when an

incompressible, smoothly flowing fluid gains

speed, internal pressure in the fluid decreases,

and vice versa.

If pressure is high -> slow fluid motion

If pressure is low -> fast fluid motion

Sample Problem:

Water enters a house through a pipe with an inside diameter of

2.0cm at an absolute pressure of 4.0x105Pa. A 1.0cm diameter

pipe leads to the second-floor bathroom 5.0m above. When the

flow speed at the inlet pipe is 1.5m/s; find the flow speed,

pressure and volume flow rate in the bathroom.

d1 = 2.0cm

d2 = 1.0cm

p1 = 4.0x105Pa

v1 = 1.50m/s

y2-y1= 5.0m

To solve:

Flow speed: continuity equation

Pressure: Bernoulli equation

Volume flow rate: by definition

Find the speed v2 at the bathroom using the continuity equation:

bathroom ☺

Sample Problem: Venturi meter is used to measure the flow speed in

a pipe. The narrow part of the pipe is called the throat. Derive an

expression for the flow speed v1 in terms of the cross-sectional areas

A1 and A2 and the difference in height h of the liquid levels in the two

vertical tubes.

Use Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 2; relate velocities using continuity equation

Continuity eqn:

Speed increases a

height/pressure drops

Sample Problem: Venturi meter is used to measure the flow speed in

a pipe. The narrow part of the pipe is called the throat. Derive an

expression for the flow speed v1 in terms of the cross-sectional areas

A1 and A2 and the difference in height h of the liquid levels in the two

vertical tubes.

Use Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 2; relate velocities using continuity equation

Substituting this to the LHS;

then solving for v1 gives:

Speed increases a

height/pressure drops

Applications of Bernoulli Principle

Bernoulli and Airplane

lift: Difference in

pressure (above and

below) causes an

upward lift!

Lower pressure; higher

speed;

downward momentum;

reaction force on

airplane is upward

Summary:

= = %&'()')

=

Bernoulli’s equation

1

12 3 14 9 ;4 4 − ;2 4 + 9> ?4 − ?2

2

1 4

1 + 9>? + 9; = constant

2

Bernoulli's principle states that when an incompressible,

smoothly flowing fluid gains speed, internal pressure in

the fluid decreases, and vice versa.

Homework Yesterday

A hollow plastic sphere is held below the surface of a freshwater lake by a cord

anchored to the bottom of the lake. The sphere has a volume of 0.650m3 and the

tension in the cord is 900N. (1) calculate the buoyant force exerted by the water in

the sphere; (2) draw the free-body diagram of the sphere anchored at the bottom;

(3) what is the mass of the sphere?

B = T + Mg

3) M = = 2

= 558kg

g 9.80m / s

Identical-sized lead and aluminum cubes are

suspended at different depths by two wires in a large

body of water.

4. Which cube experiences greater

buoyant force? Same :AB = CDEF<

5. For which cube is the tension in the

wire greater? Lead (CPb>CAl ; heavier)

6. Which cube experiences a greater

force on its lower face? Lead (deeper)

7. For which cube is the difference in

pressure between the upper and

lower faces greater? Same

(same dimension)

19

I 8.90> 4 3 :1.9OI<4

9GH = → I = 9GH 5 = : <:2.00OI<:3.14< :2.5OI<

5 OIP

9.81I

I I> I> 500[>: 4 <

1T 9UVHWX >Y >Y →Z \ 1.63`10a4 I4

5 Z 1T :3<100[]^

Y Y

1 1b @ 9cUVHWX > @ 9defgh >: <

2 2

Seatwork April 19, 2017

- solve problems in your 1. Blah?

notebooks

2. Blah blah!

- write the answers only in

your bluebook 3. Blah blah blah!

- indicate the date

4. Blah blah blah blah!

23

(4) Water runs into a fountain, filling all the pipes, at a steady

rate of 0.750m3/s. How fast will it shoot out of a hole 4.50cm

in diameter?

Given: volume flow rate: v1A1 = 0.750m3/s; use continuity eqn

1

12 − 14 = 9 ;4 4 3 ;2 4 @ 9> ?4 3 ?2

2

ijkl: ml O^i il>nlOk kYl kloI 9> ?1 3 ?2 plO^q\l this is very small

2. Calculate upward force

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