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# Lecture 37 Objectives

## 1. Apply Bernoulli’s principle and continuity equation,

whenever appropriate, in obtaining conclusions relating
pressure, elevation, speed and flux.
Today: Fluid Dynamics
We assume the following
-Steady flow (Laminar)
-Density is constant (incompressible)
- No internal friction (Fluid is not viscous)

Continuity Equation:
Mass of fluid flowing does not change

    

## Volume flow rate


   constant

2
Continuity equation


   :      !"#\$!#

Continuity equation

4
Sample Problem: Incompressible fluid flow
As a part of a lubricating system for heavy machinery, oil of
density 850kg/m3 is pumped through a cylindrical pipe of
diameter 8.0cm at a rate of 9.5liters per second.
(a)What is the speed of the oil? What is the mass flow rate?
(b)If the pipe diameter is reduced to 4.0cm, what are the new
values of the speed and volume flow rate?
Assume that the oil is incompressible.

    %&'()')

      *+,-.,
(a) The volume flow rate dV/dt equals the product A1v1, where A1
is the cross sectional area of the pipe (d = 8.0cm so r = 4.0cm).
Therefore:

## The mass flow rate is:

(b) Since the oil is incompressible; then the flow rate is 9.5liters/second
in both end of the pipe; decreasing the diameter from 8.0cm to 4.0cm
means decreasing the radius from 4.0cm to 2.0cm. Using the continuity:
Conservation of Energy in Fluids
Derivation of Bernoulli’s
equation

## • Work done on fluid:

/0  12 3 14 /5
• Change in kinetic energy
1
/6  9/5:;4 4 3 ;2 4 <
2
• Change in potential energy
/=  9/5>:?4 3 ?2 <
• Work-energy theorem
/0  /6 @ /=
Bernoulli's principle states that when an
incompressible, smoothly flowing fluid gains
speed, internal pressure in the fluid decreases,
and vice versa.
If pressure is high -> slow fluid motion
If pressure is low -> fast fluid motion
Sample Problem:
Water enters a house through a pipe with an inside diameter of
2.0cm at an absolute pressure of 4.0x105Pa. A 1.0cm diameter
pipe leads to the second-floor bathroom 5.0m above. When the
flow speed at the inlet pipe is 1.5m/s; find the flow speed,
pressure and volume flow rate in the bathroom.
d1 = 2.0cm
d2 = 1.0cm
p1 = 4.0x105Pa
v1 = 1.50m/s
y2-y1= 5.0m

To solve:
Flow speed: continuity equation
Pressure: Bernoulli equation
Volume flow rate: by definition
Find the speed v2 at the bathroom using the continuity equation:

## reasonable flow rate for a

bathroom ☺
Sample Problem: Venturi meter is used to measure the flow speed in
a pipe. The narrow part of the pipe is called the throat. Derive an
expression for the flow speed v1 in terms of the cross-sectional areas
A1 and A2 and the difference in height h of the liquid levels in the two
vertical tubes.
Use Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 2; relate velocities using continuity equation

Continuity eqn:
    

Speed increases a
height/pressure drops
Sample Problem: Venturi meter is used to measure the flow speed in
a pipe. The narrow part of the pipe is called the throat. Derive an
expression for the flow speed v1 in terms of the cross-sectional areas
A1 and A2 and the difference in height h of the liquid levels in the two
vertical tubes.
Use Bernoulli equation for points 1 and 2; relate velocities using continuity equation

## Note that p1-p2 = ρgh.

Substituting this to the LHS;
then solving for v1 gives:

Speed increases a
height/pressure drops
Applications of Bernoulli Principle
Bernoulli and Airplane
lift: Difference in
pressure (above and
below) causes an
upward lift!

## ABOVE the wing:

Lower pressure; higher
speed;
downward momentum;
reaction force on
airplane is upward
Summary:

=   = %&'()')


  =  
Bernoulli’s equation
1
12 3 14  9 ;4 4 − ;2 4 + 9> ?4 − ?2
2
1 4
1 + 9>? + 9; = constant
2
Bernoulli's principle states that when an incompressible,
smoothly flowing fluid gains speed, internal pressure in
the fluid decreases, and vice versa.
Homework Yesterday
A hollow plastic sphere is held below the surface of a freshwater lake by a cord
anchored to the bottom of the lake. The sphere has a volume of 0.650m3 and the
tension in the cord is 900N. (1) calculate the buoyant force exerted by the water in
the sphere; (2) draw the free-body diagram of the sphere anchored at the bottom;
(3) what is the mass of the sphere?

B = T + Mg

## B − T 6.37 ×103 N − 900 N

3) M = = 2
= 558kg
g 9.80m / s
Identical-sized lead and aluminum cubes are
suspended at different depths by two wires in a large
body of water.
4. Which cube experiences greater
buoyant force? Same :AB = CDEF<
5. For which cube is the tension in the
wire greater? Lead (CPb>CAl ; heavier)
6. Which cube experiences a greater
force on its lower face? Lead (deeper)
7. For which cube is the difference in
pressure between the upper and
lower faces greater? Same
(same dimension)
19
I 8.90> 4 3 :1.9OI<4
9GH = → I = 9GH 5 = : <:2.00OI<:3.14< :2.5OI<
5 OIP

9.81I
I I> I> 500[>: 4 <
1T  9UVHWX >Y  >Y  →Z  \  1.63`10a4 I4
5 Z 1T :3<100[]^
Y Y
1  1b @ 9cUVHWX > @ 9defgh >: <
2 2
Seatwork April 19, 2017
- solve problems in your 1. Blah?
notebooks
2. Blah blah!
- write the answers only in
your bluebook 3. Blah blah blah!
- indicate the date
4. Blah blah blah blah!

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(4) Water runs into a fountain, filling all the pipes, at a steady
rate of 0.750m3/s. How fast will it shoot out of a hole 4.50cm
in diameter?
Given: volume flow rate: v1A1 = 0.750m3/s; use continuity eqn

## 1. Calculate p2-p1 with Bernoulli equation:

1
12 − 14 = 9 ;4 4 3 ;2 4 @ 9> ?4 3 ?2
2
ijkl: ml O^i il>nlOk kYl kloI 9> ?1 3 ?2 plO^q\l this is very small
2. Calculate upward force