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Tank Spreadsheet

3/23/2010

Instructions to Users

>The purpose of this spreadsheet is to summarize tank characteristics, assess water


storage tank turnover time and mixing, and determine operational strategies to
improve turnover time and mixing.

>Enter information into the Summary worksheet about the storage tanks.

>Enter data into the Tank worksheets for the storage tanks in the distribution
system. Tank diameter, inlet diameter, and water level changes over a period of
time are required inputs. Water system SCADA data is typically used to determine
the changes in tank water levels.

>If the tank turnover time calculations (in the Tank worksheet) determine that
turnover time is high, the Turnover Time Analysis should be used to determine
operational changes to improve turnover time.

>If the tank mixing calculations (in the Tank worksheet) determine that mixing is
poor, the Mixing Analysis should be used to determine solutions to improve mixing.
Guidelines

>The tank turnover time and mixing calculations are not applicable for every tank.
The following are guidelines for these calculations:

Tank Mixing Assessment CAN Be Done On: Turnover Time


Calculation CAN Be Used On:

-- Tanks that operate in a fill/ draw mode -- Tanks


that operate in a fill/ draw mode

-- Tank inlets oriented horizontally or vertically. --


Tanks with any inlet orientation and baffling
-- Cylindrical, rectangular, or hydropillar tanks or certain tanks having
SCADA that report changes in volume (i.e., elliptical or spherical)
-- Cylindrical, rectangular, or hydropillar tanks or tanks having SCADA that
report changes in volume

-- Tanks with a submerged inlet. -- Tanks with any


inlet/outlet configuration

-- Under neutrally buoyant conditions (no temperature difference between the


inlet water and tank water) -- Under any buoyancy conditions
(temperature differences between the inlet water and tank water)

Tank Mixing Assessment CANNOT Be Done On: Turnover Time


Calculation CANNOT Be Used On:

-- Flow-through tanks (tanks operating with simultaneous inflow and outflow)


-- Flow-through tanks (tanks operating with simultaneous inflow
and outflow)

-- Irregular-shaped tanks.

-- If the tank is baffled or has pillars.


>Care should be taken to apply these calculations in the following cases:

-- If you do not know the configuration of the tank inlet or if you do not know if
there are any baffles inside the tank.

-- If the inlet is located near the tank wall, mixing will be reduced.

-- If the age of the water entering the tank is significantly old, the turnover
time will not approximate the total water age in the tank.

-- If the temperature difference between the water coming into the tank and the
water in the tank is significantly different. This may decrease tank mixing due to
buoyancy.
>In situations where the tank is not well mixed or when the mixing calculations
cannot be used, the tank turnover time calculations only show the average turnover
time of the tank. There may be much older "dead-zones" of water in the tank.

Date Modified: Modifications & By Whom:

10/24/2003 LDD modified tank worksheets to simplify data entry requirements.


Provided space for up to 15 tank fill periods.

9/13/2004 MWS added guidelines

10/6/2004 MWS added Data Summary worksheet


12/13/2004 MWS added Summary, Prioritization, and Analysis worksheets. Also
revised Data Input worksheet's error in turnover time calculations.

1/27/2005 MWS added calculations for rectangular tanks. Made minor modifications
to all sheets for increased functionality.

7/5/2005 MWS added tanks #2-#8. Made minor modifications to other sheets.

9/22/2005 MWS changed H/D ratio to H/D>1, not H/D>=1.

1/19/2006 MWS added calculations for spheriod and hydropillar tanks. Deleted
Prioritization Analysis. Added glossary.

9/12/2006 MWS fixed logic on applicability of turnover time and mixing equations
of tank spreadsheet.

9/26/2007 MWS fixed calculations for fill and draw time. Added "Helpful Hints"
and "Glossary" worksheet.
4/9/2009 MWS modified the Step 2: turnover time and mixing analysis. Added Step
3: Chlorine Residual Analysis and made modifications to mixing calcs to include
standpipes (H/D ratios greater than 1).

2/10/2010 MWS modified the Step 2 analysis so that the fill rate could be
modified by the user.

3/23/2010 MWS modified the Tank Summary to alert users to turnover times over 5
days (versus 4 days, previously). This is more in line with the operations goal of
turnover time being less than 3-5 days.

References

Grayman, W.M., Rossman, L.A., Deininger, R.A., Smith, C.A., Arnold, C.N., Smith,
J.F., and Schnipke, R. (2000). Water Quality Modeling of Distribution System
Storage Facilities, Denver, CO: American Water Works Research Foundation.

Grayman, W.M., Rossman, L.A., Deininger, R.A., Smith, C.A., Arnold, C.N., and
Smith, J.F. (September 2004). Mixing and Aging of Water in Distribution System
Storage Facilities, Journal AWWA.

Roberts, P.J.W., Tian, X., Lee, S., Sotiropoulos, F., and Duer, M. (2005).
Physical Model of Mixing in Water Storage Tanks, Denver, CO: American Water Works
Research Foundation.

Rossman, L.A. and Grayman, W.M. (August 1999) Scale-Model Studies of Mixing in
Drinking Water Storage Tanks, Journal of Environmental Engineering.

Tank Spreadsheet
3/23/2010
Instructions to Users

>The purpose of this spreadsheet is to summarize tank characteristics, assess water


storage tank turnover time and mixing, and determine operational strategies to
improve turnover time and mixing.

>Enter information into the Summary worksheet about the storage tanks.

>Enter data into the Tank worksheets for the storage tanks in the distribution
system. Tank diameter, inlet diameter, and water level changes over a period of
time are required inputs. Water system SCADA data is typically used to determine
the changes in tank water levels.

>If the tank turnover time calculations (in the Tank worksheet) determine that
turnover time is high, the Turnover Time Analysis should be used to determine
operational changes to improve turnover time.

>If the tank mixing calculations (in the Tank worksheet) determine that mixing is
poor, the Mixing Analysis should be used to determine solutions to improve mixing.
Guidelines

>The tank turnover time and mixing calculations are not applicable for every tank.
The following are guidelines for these calculations:

Tank Mixing Assessment CAN Be Done On: Turnover Time


Calculation CAN Be Used On:

-- Tanks that operate in a fill/ draw mode -- Tanks


that operate in a fill/ draw mode

-- Tank inlets oriented horizontally or vertically. --


Tanks with any inlet orientation and baffling

-- Cylindrical, rectangular, or hydropillar tanks or certain tanks having


SCADA that report changes in volume (i.e., elliptical or spherical)
-- Cylindrical, rectangular, or hydropillar tanks or tanks having SCADA that
report changes in volume

-- Tanks with a submerged inlet. -- Tanks with any


inlet/outlet configuration

-- Under neutrally buoyant conditions (no temperature difference between the


inlet water and tank water) -- Under any buoyancy conditions
(temperature differences between the inlet water and tank water)

Tank Mixing Assessment CANNOT Be Done On: Turnover Time


Calculation CANNOT Be Used On:

-- Flow-through tanks (tanks operating with simultaneous inflow and outflow)


-- Flow-through tanks (tanks operating with simultaneous inflow
and outflow)

-- Irregular-shaped tanks.

-- If the tank is baffled or has pillars.


>Care should be taken to apply these calculations in the following cases:

-- If you do not know the configuration of the tank inlet or if you do not know if
there are any baffles inside the tank.

-- If the inlet is located near the tank wall, mixing will be reduced.

-- If the age of the water entering the tank is significantly old, the turnover
time will not approximate the total water age in the tank.

-- If the temperature difference between the water coming into the tank and the
water in the tank is significantly different. This may decrease tank mixing due to
buoyancy.

>In situations where the tank is not well mixed or when the mixing calculations
cannot be used, the tank turnover time calculations only show the average turnover
time of the tank. There may be much older "dead-zones" of water in the tank.
Date Modified: Modifications & By Whom:

10/24/2003 LDD modified tank worksheets to simplify data entry requirements.


Provided space for up to 15 tank fill periods.

9/13/2004 MWS added guidelines

10/6/2004 MWS added Data Summary worksheet

12/13/2004 MWS added Summary, Prioritization, and Analysis worksheets. Also


revised Data Input worksheet's error in turnover time calculations.
1/27/2005 MWS added calculations for rectangular tanks. Made minor modifications
to all sheets for increased functionality.

7/5/2005 MWS added tanks #2-#8. Made minor modifications to other sheets.

9/22/2005 MWS changed H/D ratio to H/D>1, not H/D>=1.

1/19/2006 MWS added calculations for spheriod and hydropillar tanks. Deleted
Prioritization Analysis. Added glossary.

9/12/2006 MWS fixed logic on applicability of turnover time and mixing equations
of tank spreadsheet.

9/26/2007 MWS fixed calculations for fill and draw time. Added "Helpful Hints"
and "Glossary" worksheet.

4/9/2009 MWS modified the Step 2: turnover time and mixing analysis. Added Step
3: Chlorine Residual Analysis and made modifications to mixing calcs to include
standpipes (H/D ratios greater than 1).
2/10/2010 MWS modified the Step 2 analysis so that the fill rate could be
modified by the user.

3/23/2010 MWS modified the Tank Summary to alert users to turnover times over 5
days (versus 4 days, previously). This is more in line with the operations goal of
turnover time being less than 3-5 days.

References

Grayman, W.M., Rossman, L.A., Deininger, R.A., Smith, C.A., Arnold, C.N., Smith,
J.F., and Schnipke, R. (2000). Water Quality Modeling of Distribution System
Storage Facilities, Denver, CO: American Water Works Research Foundation.
Grayman, W.M., Rossman, L.A., Deininger, R.A., Smith, C.A., Arnold, C.N., and
Smith, J.F. (September 2004). Mixing and Aging of Water in Distribution System
Storage Facilities, Journal AWWA.

Roberts, P.J.W., Tian, X., Lee, S., Sotiropoulos, F., and Duer, M. (2005).
Physical Model of Mixing in Water Storage Tanks, Denver, CO: American Water Works
Research Foundation.

Rossman, L.A. and Grayman, W.M. (August 1999) Scale-Model Studies of Mixing in
Drinking Water Storage Tanks, Journal of Environmental Engineering.

Tank Spreadsheet
3/23/2010

Instructions to Users

>The purpose of this spreadsheet is to summarize tank characteristics, assess water


storage tank turnover time and mixing, and determine operational strategies to
improve turnover time and mixing.

>Enter information into the Summary worksheet about the storage tanks.

>Enter data into the Tank worksheets for the storage tanks in the distribution
system. Tank diameter, inlet diameter, and water level changes over a period of
time are required inputs. Water system SCADA data is typically used to determine
the changes in tank water levels.

>If the tank turnover time calculations (in the Tank worksheet) determine that
turnover time is high, the Turnover Time Analysis should be used to determine
operational changes to improve turnover time.

>If the tank mixing calculations (in the Tank worksheet) determine that mixing is
poor, the Mixing Analysis should be used to determine solutions to improve mixing.

Guidelines
>The tank turnover time and mixing calculations are not applicable for every tank.
The following are guidelines for these calculations:

Tank Mixing Assessment CAN Be Done On: Turnover Time


Calculation CAN Be Used On:

-- Tanks that operate in a fill/ draw mode -- Tanks


that operate in a fill/ draw mode

-- Tank inlets oriented horizontally or vertically. --


Tanks with any inlet orientation and baffling

-- Cylindrical, rectangular, or hydropillar tanks or certain tanks having


SCADA that report changes in volume (i.e., elliptical or spherical)
-- Cylindrical, rectangular, or hydropillar tanks or tanks having SCADA that
report changes in volume
-- Tanks with a submerged inlet. -- Tanks with any
inlet/outlet configuration

-- Under neutrally buoyant conditions (no temperature difference between the


inlet water and tank water) -- Under any buoyancy conditions
(temperature differences between the inlet water and tank water)

Tank Mixing Assessment CANNOT Be Done On: Turnover Time


Calculation CANNOT Be Used On:

-- Flow-through tanks (tanks operating with simultaneous inflow and outflow)


-- Flow-through tanks (tanks operating with simultaneous inflow
and outflow)

-- Irregular-shaped tanks.

-- If the tank is baffled or has pillars.

>Care should be taken to apply these calculations in the following cases:


-- If you do not know the configuration of the tank inlet or if you do not know if
there are any baffles inside the tank.

-- If the inlet is located near the tank wall, mixing will be reduced.

-- If the age of the water entering the tank is significantly old, the turnover
time will not approximate the total water age in the tank.

-- If the temperature difference between the water coming into the tank and the
water in the tank is significantly different. This may decrease tank mixing due to
buoyancy.

>In situations where the tank is not well mixed or when the mixing calculations
cannot be used, the tank turnover time calculations only show the average turnover
time of the tank. There may be much older "dead-zones" of water in the tank.
Date Modified: Modifications & By Whom:

10/24/2003 LDD modified tank worksheets to simplify data entry requirements.


Provided space for up to 15 tank fill periods.

9/13/2004 MWS added guidelines

10/6/2004 MWS added Data Summary worksheet

12/13/2004 MWS added Summary, Prioritization, and Analysis worksheets. Also


revised Data Input worksheet's error in turnover time calculations.

1/27/2005 MWS added calculations for rectangular tanks. Made minor modifications
to all sheets for increased functionality.
7/5/2005 MWS added tanks #2-#8. Made minor modifications to other sheets.

9/22/2005 MWS changed H/D ratio to H/D>1, not H/D>=1.

1/19/2006 MWS added calculations for spheriod and hydropillar tanks. Deleted
Prioritization Analysis. Added glossary.

9/12/2006 MWS fixed logic on applicability of turnover time and mixing equations
of tank spreadsheet.

9/26/2007 MWS fixed calculations for fill and draw time. Added "Helpful Hints"
and "Glossary" worksheet.

4/9/2009 MWS modified the Step 2: turnover time and mixing analysis. Added Step
3: Chlorine Residual Analysis and made modifications to mixing calcs to include
standpipes (H/D ratios greater than 1).

2/10/2010 MWS modified the Step 2 analysis so that the fill rate could be
modified by the user.
3/23/2010 MWS modified the Tank Summary to alert users to turnover times over 5
days (versus 4 days, previously). This is more in line with the operations goal of
turnover time being less than 3-5 days.

References

Grayman, W.M., Rossman, L.A., Deininger, R.A., Smith, C.A., Arnold, C.N., Smith,
J.F., and Schnipke, R. (2000). Water Quality Modeling of Distribution System
Storage Facilities, Denver, CO: American Water Works Research Foundation.

Grayman, W.M., Rossman, L.A., Deininger, R.A., Smith, C.A., Arnold, C.N., and
Smith, J.F. (September 2004). Mixing and Aging of Water in Distribution System
Storage Facilities, Journal AWWA.
Roberts, P.J.W., Tian, X., Lee, S., Sotiropoulos, F., and Duer, M. (2005).
Physical Model of Mixing in Water Storage Tanks, Denver, CO: American Water Works
Research Foundation.

Rossman, L.A. and Grayman, W.M. (August 1999) Scale-Model Studies of Mixing in
Drinking Water Storage Tanks, Journal of Environmental Engineering.