Data to Tank

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Data to Tank

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 24

3/23/2010

Instructions to Users

storage tank turnover time and mixing, and determine operational strategies to

improve turnover time and mixing.

>Enter information into the Summary worksheet about the storage tanks.

>Enter data into the Tank worksheets for the storage tanks in the distribution

system. Tank diameter, inlet diameter, and water level changes over a period of

time are required inputs. Water system SCADA data is typically used to determine

the changes in tank water levels.

>If the tank turnover time calculations (in the Tank worksheet) determine that

turnover time is high, the Turnover Time Analysis should be used to determine

operational changes to improve turnover time.

>If the tank mixing calculations (in the Tank worksheet) determine that mixing is

poor, the Mixing Analysis should be used to determine solutions to improve mixing.

Guidelines

>The tank turnover time and mixing calculations are not applicable for every tank.

The following are guidelines for these calculations:

Calculation CAN Be Used On:

that operate in a fill/ draw mode

Tanks with any inlet orientation and baffling

-- Cylindrical, rectangular, or hydropillar tanks or certain tanks having

SCADA that report changes in volume (i.e., elliptical or spherical)

-- Cylindrical, rectangular, or hydropillar tanks or tanks having SCADA that

report changes in volume

inlet/outlet configuration

inlet water and tank water) -- Under any buoyancy conditions

(temperature differences between the inlet water and tank water)

Calculation CANNOT Be Used On:

-- Flow-through tanks (tanks operating with simultaneous inflow

and outflow)

-- Irregular-shaped tanks.

>Care should be taken to apply these calculations in the following cases:

-- If you do not know the configuration of the tank inlet or if you do not know if

there are any baffles inside the tank.

-- If the inlet is located near the tank wall, mixing will be reduced.

-- If the age of the water entering the tank is significantly old, the turnover

time will not approximate the total water age in the tank.

-- If the temperature difference between the water coming into the tank and the

water in the tank is significantly different. This may decrease tank mixing due to

buoyancy.

>In situations where the tank is not well mixed or when the mixing calculations

cannot be used, the tank turnover time calculations only show the average turnover

time of the tank. There may be much older "dead-zones" of water in the tank.

Provided space for up to 15 tank fill periods.

12/13/2004 MWS added Summary, Prioritization, and Analysis worksheets. Also

revised Data Input worksheet's error in turnover time calculations.

1/27/2005 MWS added calculations for rectangular tanks. Made minor modifications

to all sheets for increased functionality.

7/5/2005 MWS added tanks #2-#8. Made minor modifications to other sheets.

1/19/2006 MWS added calculations for spheriod and hydropillar tanks. Deleted

Prioritization Analysis. Added glossary.

9/12/2006 MWS fixed logic on applicability of turnover time and mixing equations

of tank spreadsheet.

9/26/2007 MWS fixed calculations for fill and draw time. Added "Helpful Hints"

and "Glossary" worksheet.

4/9/2009 MWS modified the Step 2: turnover time and mixing analysis. Added Step

3: Chlorine Residual Analysis and made modifications to mixing calcs to include

standpipes (H/D ratios greater than 1).

2/10/2010 MWS modified the Step 2 analysis so that the fill rate could be

modified by the user.

3/23/2010 MWS modified the Tank Summary to alert users to turnover times over 5

days (versus 4 days, previously). This is more in line with the operations goal of

turnover time being less than 3-5 days.

References

Grayman, W.M., Rossman, L.A., Deininger, R.A., Smith, C.A., Arnold, C.N., Smith,

J.F., and Schnipke, R. (2000). Water Quality Modeling of Distribution System

Storage Facilities, Denver, CO: American Water Works Research Foundation.

Grayman, W.M., Rossman, L.A., Deininger, R.A., Smith, C.A., Arnold, C.N., and

Smith, J.F. (September 2004). Mixing and Aging of Water in Distribution System

Storage Facilities, Journal AWWA.

Roberts, P.J.W., Tian, X., Lee, S., Sotiropoulos, F., and Duer, M. (2005).

Physical Model of Mixing in Water Storage Tanks, Denver, CO: American Water Works

Research Foundation.

Rossman, L.A. and Grayman, W.M. (August 1999) Scale-Model Studies of Mixing in

Drinking Water Storage Tanks, Journal of Environmental Engineering.

Tank Spreadsheet

3/23/2010

Instructions to Users

storage tank turnover time and mixing, and determine operational strategies to

improve turnover time and mixing.

>Enter information into the Summary worksheet about the storage tanks.

>Enter data into the Tank worksheets for the storage tanks in the distribution

system. Tank diameter, inlet diameter, and water level changes over a period of

time are required inputs. Water system SCADA data is typically used to determine

the changes in tank water levels.

>If the tank turnover time calculations (in the Tank worksheet) determine that

turnover time is high, the Turnover Time Analysis should be used to determine

operational changes to improve turnover time.

>If the tank mixing calculations (in the Tank worksheet) determine that mixing is

poor, the Mixing Analysis should be used to determine solutions to improve mixing.

Guidelines

>The tank turnover time and mixing calculations are not applicable for every tank.

The following are guidelines for these calculations:

Calculation CAN Be Used On:

that operate in a fill/ draw mode

Tanks with any inlet orientation and baffling

SCADA that report changes in volume (i.e., elliptical or spherical)

-- Cylindrical, rectangular, or hydropillar tanks or tanks having SCADA that

report changes in volume

inlet/outlet configuration

inlet water and tank water) -- Under any buoyancy conditions

(temperature differences between the inlet water and tank water)

Calculation CANNOT Be Used On:

-- Flow-through tanks (tanks operating with simultaneous inflow

and outflow)

-- Irregular-shaped tanks.

>Care should be taken to apply these calculations in the following cases:

-- If you do not know the configuration of the tank inlet or if you do not know if

there are any baffles inside the tank.

-- If the inlet is located near the tank wall, mixing will be reduced.

-- If the age of the water entering the tank is significantly old, the turnover

time will not approximate the total water age in the tank.

-- If the temperature difference between the water coming into the tank and the

water in the tank is significantly different. This may decrease tank mixing due to

buoyancy.

>In situations where the tank is not well mixed or when the mixing calculations

cannot be used, the tank turnover time calculations only show the average turnover

time of the tank. There may be much older "dead-zones" of water in the tank.

Date Modified: Modifications & By Whom:

Provided space for up to 15 tank fill periods.

revised Data Input worksheet's error in turnover time calculations.

1/27/2005 MWS added calculations for rectangular tanks. Made minor modifications

to all sheets for increased functionality.

7/5/2005 MWS added tanks #2-#8. Made minor modifications to other sheets.

1/19/2006 MWS added calculations for spheriod and hydropillar tanks. Deleted

Prioritization Analysis. Added glossary.

9/12/2006 MWS fixed logic on applicability of turnover time and mixing equations

of tank spreadsheet.

9/26/2007 MWS fixed calculations for fill and draw time. Added "Helpful Hints"

and "Glossary" worksheet.

4/9/2009 MWS modified the Step 2: turnover time and mixing analysis. Added Step

3: Chlorine Residual Analysis and made modifications to mixing calcs to include

standpipes (H/D ratios greater than 1).

2/10/2010 MWS modified the Step 2 analysis so that the fill rate could be

modified by the user.

3/23/2010 MWS modified the Tank Summary to alert users to turnover times over 5

days (versus 4 days, previously). This is more in line with the operations goal of

turnover time being less than 3-5 days.

References

Grayman, W.M., Rossman, L.A., Deininger, R.A., Smith, C.A., Arnold, C.N., Smith,

J.F., and Schnipke, R. (2000). Water Quality Modeling of Distribution System

Storage Facilities, Denver, CO: American Water Works Research Foundation.

Grayman, W.M., Rossman, L.A., Deininger, R.A., Smith, C.A., Arnold, C.N., and

Smith, J.F. (September 2004). Mixing and Aging of Water in Distribution System

Storage Facilities, Journal AWWA.

Roberts, P.J.W., Tian, X., Lee, S., Sotiropoulos, F., and Duer, M. (2005).

Physical Model of Mixing in Water Storage Tanks, Denver, CO: American Water Works

Research Foundation.

Rossman, L.A. and Grayman, W.M. (August 1999) Scale-Model Studies of Mixing in

Drinking Water Storage Tanks, Journal of Environmental Engineering.

Tank Spreadsheet

3/23/2010

Instructions to Users

storage tank turnover time and mixing, and determine operational strategies to

improve turnover time and mixing.

>Enter information into the Summary worksheet about the storage tanks.

>Enter data into the Tank worksheets for the storage tanks in the distribution

system. Tank diameter, inlet diameter, and water level changes over a period of

time are required inputs. Water system SCADA data is typically used to determine

the changes in tank water levels.

>If the tank turnover time calculations (in the Tank worksheet) determine that

turnover time is high, the Turnover Time Analysis should be used to determine

operational changes to improve turnover time.

>If the tank mixing calculations (in the Tank worksheet) determine that mixing is

poor, the Mixing Analysis should be used to determine solutions to improve mixing.

Guidelines

>The tank turnover time and mixing calculations are not applicable for every tank.

The following are guidelines for these calculations:

Calculation CAN Be Used On:

that operate in a fill/ draw mode

Tanks with any inlet orientation and baffling

SCADA that report changes in volume (i.e., elliptical or spherical)

-- Cylindrical, rectangular, or hydropillar tanks or tanks having SCADA that

report changes in volume

-- Tanks with a submerged inlet. -- Tanks with any

inlet/outlet configuration

inlet water and tank water) -- Under any buoyancy conditions

(temperature differences between the inlet water and tank water)

Calculation CANNOT Be Used On:

-- Flow-through tanks (tanks operating with simultaneous inflow

and outflow)

-- Irregular-shaped tanks.

-- If you do not know the configuration of the tank inlet or if you do not know if

there are any baffles inside the tank.

-- If the inlet is located near the tank wall, mixing will be reduced.

-- If the age of the water entering the tank is significantly old, the turnover

time will not approximate the total water age in the tank.

-- If the temperature difference between the water coming into the tank and the

water in the tank is significantly different. This may decrease tank mixing due to

buoyancy.

>In situations where the tank is not well mixed or when the mixing calculations

cannot be used, the tank turnover time calculations only show the average turnover

time of the tank. There may be much older "dead-zones" of water in the tank.

Date Modified: Modifications & By Whom:

Provided space for up to 15 tank fill periods.

revised Data Input worksheet's error in turnover time calculations.

1/27/2005 MWS added calculations for rectangular tanks. Made minor modifications

to all sheets for increased functionality.

7/5/2005 MWS added tanks #2-#8. Made minor modifications to other sheets.

1/19/2006 MWS added calculations for spheriod and hydropillar tanks. Deleted

Prioritization Analysis. Added glossary.

9/12/2006 MWS fixed logic on applicability of turnover time and mixing equations

of tank spreadsheet.

9/26/2007 MWS fixed calculations for fill and draw time. Added "Helpful Hints"

and "Glossary" worksheet.

4/9/2009 MWS modified the Step 2: turnover time and mixing analysis. Added Step

3: Chlorine Residual Analysis and made modifications to mixing calcs to include

standpipes (H/D ratios greater than 1).

2/10/2010 MWS modified the Step 2 analysis so that the fill rate could be

modified by the user.

3/23/2010 MWS modified the Tank Summary to alert users to turnover times over 5

days (versus 4 days, previously). This is more in line with the operations goal of

turnover time being less than 3-5 days.

References

Grayman, W.M., Rossman, L.A., Deininger, R.A., Smith, C.A., Arnold, C.N., Smith,

J.F., and Schnipke, R. (2000). Water Quality Modeling of Distribution System

Storage Facilities, Denver, CO: American Water Works Research Foundation.

Grayman, W.M., Rossman, L.A., Deininger, R.A., Smith, C.A., Arnold, C.N., and

Smith, J.F. (September 2004). Mixing and Aging of Water in Distribution System

Storage Facilities, Journal AWWA.

Roberts, P.J.W., Tian, X., Lee, S., Sotiropoulos, F., and Duer, M. (2005).

Physical Model of Mixing in Water Storage Tanks, Denver, CO: American Water Works

Research Foundation.

Rossman, L.A. and Grayman, W.M. (August 1999) Scale-Model Studies of Mixing in

Drinking Water Storage Tanks, Journal of Environmental Engineering.

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