TITU MAIORESCU UNIVERSITY, BUCHAREST THE FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF INFORMATION DEPARTMENT OF MODERN LANGUAGES

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR STUDENTS

Bucharest, 2006

Foreword Basic English Grammar for Students is a course for upper-intermediate and advanced students of English who need to study and practice using the grammar of the language. It can be used as classroom material or for selfstudy. The course is intended mainly for upper intermediate and advanced students. It concentrates on those structures which students want to use but which often cause difficulty. The course can serve both as a basis for review and as a means of practicing new material. It’s also useful for students whose knowledge of English is good but still make grammatical mistakes and who need material for reference. The course consists of 82 units, each of which concentrates on a particular point of grammar. Some areas are covered in more than one unit. In each unit there are explanations and examples. At the beginning of the book the CONTENTS pages provide a full list of units. The material will be studied during the 1st and 2nd year as follows: Units 141 in year 1, Units 42-82 in year 2. Auxiliary materials and exercises can be taken from the Longman Advanced e-course that is on the same cd with the grammar. Useful grammar exercises for consolidation can be taken from ENGLISH GRAMMAR- THEORY & PRACTICE by Constantin Paidos, Editura POLIROM.

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CONTENTS FOREWORD THE NOUN Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 What is a noun? Common & Proper Nouns Countable & Non-countable Nouns The Plural of Nouns 9 9 10 12 4

DETERMINERS Unit 5 What is a Determiner? Unit 6 Articles Unit 7 The Zero Article Unit 8 The Indefinite Article Unit 9 The Definite Article THE ADJECTIVE Unit 10 What is an adjective? Unit 11 Order of the adjectives Unit 12 Demonstrative adjectives Unit 13 Participles as adjectives THE ADVERB Unit 14 What is an adverb? Unit 15 Adverbial Clauses Unit 16 Adverbs of Degree Unit 17 Adverbs of Manner Unit 18 Adverbs of Place Unit 19 Adverbs of Time THE COMPARISON Unit 20 The Comparison Unit 21 Comparatives & Superlatives Unit 22 Irregular Comparisons Unit 23 Comparison Phrases THE VERB Unit 24 What is a verb? Unit 25 Auxiliary Verbs Unit 26 Irregular verbs
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14 15 17 18 18

18 19 19 20

20 21 22 22 23 23

23 24 25 26

27 28 29

Unit 27 Tenses of the verbs Unit 28 Present Continuous Unit 29 Present Simple Unit 30 Present Simple or Continuous? Unit 31 Past Simple Unit32 Past Continuous Unit 33 Present Perfect Simple Unit 34 Present Perfect Simple or Past Simple? Unit 35 Present Perfect Continuous Unit 36 Present Perfect Continuous or Present Perfect Simple? Unit 37 Past Perfect Simple Unit 38 Past Perfect Continuous Unit 38 Future IMPERATIVES Unit 40 When to use Imperatives? INFINITIVES Unit 41 When to use Infinitives? MODAL VERBS Unit 42 Characteristics of Modal Verbs Unit 43 Modal Ability Unit 44 Modal Necessity Unit 45 Modal Offers Unit 46 Modal Permission Unit 47 Modal Possibility Unit 48 Modal Requests Unit 49 Verbs & Prepositions Unit 50 Verb Patterns CONDITIONALS Unit 51 What is a Conditional? Unit 52 Conditional 1 Unit 53 Conditional 2 Unit 54 Conditional 1 or Conditional 2? Unit 55 Conditional 3 Unit 56 Conditional Clauses Unit 57 Miscellaneous 34 34 34 37 39 40 41 42 43 44 44 45 45 46 46 47 49 50 50 51 51 52 53 53 55 55 56 56 57 57 57 6 .

PASSIVE VOICE Unit 58 Active vs Passive Unit 59 Passive Verbs Unit 60 Causative Form Unit 61 Passive by… Unit 62 Passive Forms Unit 63Passive Object Clauses Unit 64 Passive use PREPOSITIONS Unit 65 What are prepositions? Unit 66 Prepositions of Place Unit 67 Prepositions of Time Unit 68 Word & Phrase + Preposition QUESTIONS Unit 69 How to ask questions? Unit 70 Direct & Indirect Questions Unit 71 Negative Questions Unit 72 Question tags Unit 73 Question Words #1 Unit 74 Question Words #2 Unit 75 Subject Questions NEGATIVES Unit 76 How to make Negatives Unit 77 Negative Phrases Unit 78 Negative Words 73 74 75 66 68 68 69 70 70 72 64 64 65 66 59 60 61 61 62 62 63 ENGLISHES Unit 79 American .British & Australian English Unit 80 AmE & BrE Grammar #1 Unit 81 AmE & BrE Grammar #2 Unit 82 AmE & BrE Vocabulary 75 75 76 77 7 .

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We use common nouns to talk about objects or concepts: objects events feelings time concepts table. we usually add -s to the end of the singular noun. London. hear. For example. airplanes. We talk about concrete nouns when we refer to objects and we talk about abstract nouns when we refer to concepts which are mental rather than physical (i. Cleopatra.THE NOUN Unit 1 What is a noun? When we want to talk about something. we use a noun. love year. a place or a title: Queen Victoria. revolution fear. Mars. A noun is the name of the thing we can see. A proper noun is the name of a person. Buddha. house but we talk about Wandsworth Prison. airplane. Australia. St Guy's Hospital. Unit 2 Common & Proper Nouns When we talk about nouns. we must use a plural noun: books. The second group of nouns are called proper nouns. brotherhood. telephones. The White House 9 . Asia. teacher There are only two forms of nouns: singular and plural. atom. we can divide them into two different groups. hill. water. telephone. hospital. Book is a singular noun. taste. minute. teachers To make a plural noun. we use a common noun. hate. we cannot see. causation Note: We can divide common nouns into two further groups. if it has a name we use a proper noun. Freddie Kruger When we talk about a place which does not have a name. If we want to talk about more than one book. this means it refers only to one book. Here are some common nouns: book. we say: prison. millennium warfare. elephant lesson. The big difference between these and common nouns is that proper nouns are spelt with a capital letter.e. smell or touch them).

wine butter. depending on the noun (this is called subject-verb agreement): The book is on the table. spaghetti. grain. and three books on the chair. The cars are in the garage. wheat advice. luggage. 10 . news. We can. cola. We can say: There is one book on the table. Common non-countable nouns include: liquids foodst uffs miscell aneou s beer. lemonade. knowledge. These groups are known as countable and non-countable. whiskey. It is important to know the difference between these two groups as there are different grammar rules for each. When the countable noun is the subject of the sentence. rice. I have one house. milk. progress. Some objects (or concepts) cannot be counted. cheese. water. for example. Most nouns are countable. this means we can count the object (or concept) they refer to. but the Queen has fifteen houses. stand in a field and count: four goats and three cows A countable noun has two forms: singular and plural. We use the singular form when we talk about one object (or concept). pasta. Note: non-countable nouns are sometimes known as mass nouns. money. tea. pepper. This butter has melted.Unit 3 Countable & Non-countable Nouns There are two main groups of nouns in English. the verb is singular or plural. furniture. salt. We cannot stand on the beach and count: * four sands and three waters sand and water are examples of non-countable nouns and they only have a singular form: The sand is hot. meat. research. Milk is very good for babies. juice. toothpaste If the non-countable noun is the subject of a sentence. we use it with a singular verb: My money is in my wallet. sugar. The water is cold. and we use the plural form when we talk about more than one object (or concept). hair.

research. we can use a number and a plural noun: There are three bananas on the table.This whiskey tastes awful! Students often make mistakes with these non-countable nouns: furniture. In the first example we are talking about wine in general. When we use non-countable nouns. non-countable nouns have a singular verb and do not have a plural form: He gave me some information about flights to Rome. Often when we talk about an example of a non-countable noun then we make the noun countable: I'd like some wine. in the second we are talking about a specific wine. cold is non-countable and refers to cold weather and low temperature. When we talk about quantity with countable and non-countable nouns. news. a cold refers to a blocked nose and lots of sneezing. The news is not good. we usually use an article instead: 11 . we often use them in expressions: three cups of tea two glasses of whiskey With some common expressions. there are a number of different ways we can do this. in the second example. This is a fine wine. If the number is one. please. hair. an example of the whole. In the first example. we can delete the container and make the noncountable noun. I've got a lot of work to do. spaghetti Remember. I have a cold. The spaghetti is ready now. money. He had twenty-seven sheep on the farm. countable: three teas two whiskies Some nouns are countable and non-countable but with different meanings: He suffers badly from the cold. To express quantity with a countable noun.

To express quantity with a non-countable noun.He has a cold. There are a few problems. sheet. There isn't much wine in the bottle. we cannot use a number and a plural form: * There are three rices in the bowl. ton. Or we can be non-specific and talk about approximate numbers: There are some people in the office. yard. please. jar. any. kilo. packet. pound. we must use some. loaf. bottle. slice. When we talk about a non-countable noun. To make them plural we add -s to the end: singular plural 1 book 2 books 1 car 4 cars 1 house 8 houses Some nouns have two very different words for the singular and the plural: singular plural 1 tooth 2 teeth 1 goose 2 geese 1 foot 2 feet 1 child 2 children 1 ox 2 oxen 1 oasis 2 oases 1 axis 2 axes 1 man 2 men 1 woman 2 women 12 . He drank three glasses of wine. piece. box. Some other common expressions include: bar. little and a singular form: Here is some sugar. tin. we can use an expression which shows an amount or a container: {quantity} + {amount/container} + {of} There is one box of rice in the cupboard. tube. meter. cup. * Can you give me four informations? Instead. mile. much. Unit 4 The Plural of Nouns Most nouns in English are regular. I'd like a pound of cheese.

politics The verb is singular here: His measles is spreading. troops These nouns take a plural verb: The contents are labeled on the jar. class. means. riches. crowd. Microsoft. company. public. however. there is no real difference: Their headquarters are situated in central London. works (= factory/workshop. Their headquarters is situated in central London. thanks. committee. Or plural if we are thinking of the individuals: Arsenal are a mixed bunch of players. for example: army. team. gang. audience. goods. Politics is boring! Some words are either plural or singular.) The verb can be either singular or plural. measles. gymnastics. are always plural: 13 . His savings were wiped out in the crash.1 mouse 2 mice 1 medium 2 media Some nouns are the same whether they are singular or plural: singular plural 1 sheep 2 sheep 1 salmon 2 salmon 1 aircraft 2 aircraft 1 trout 2 trout Some nouns have alternative plurals: singular plural 1 penny 2 pence/pennies 1 person 2 persons/people 1 fish 2 fish/fishes Some nouns have a plural but no singular. etc. in fact. Some nouns look plural but are. earnings. club. Some groups. for example: clothes. Arsenal. the BBC We use singular verb if we think of the group as a whole: Arsenal is playing well today. group. A collective noun describes a group of nouns describing the same thing. for example: headquarters. news. for example: athletics. savings. contents. mathematics. singular.

twice . we use a singular verb: Twenty kilos is the maximum weight for suitcases. numbers first second third.which .these . 14 ..both .. Six feet six inches is tall for a man.the articles my ..each each . DETERMINERS Unit 5 What is a determiner? Determiners are words we put in front of a noun or noun phrase.your . scissors.. For example: nou determiner n cats sleep a lot cat sleeps a lot a cat sleeps a lot the cat sleeps a lot my cats sleep a lot most cats sleep a lot some Determiners usually come before the noun.. When we talk about a pair of things. possessives whose . for example: a pair of: glasses. jeans.an .neither either .any some .half double . they often restrict the use of the noun. at the beginning of the noun phrase. They tell us about the number of items we are talking about.those demonstrative adjectives every ..what question words some .three times. and we can generally only use one determiner for a noun phrase. trousers We use a plural verb: Your jeans are ripped. we always use the plural.his.any enough enough this ..every either . one-quarter two-thirds.. When we have a noun phrase of measurement.The police are coming! The cattle are lowing.that .neither all . These are the classes of determiners: example see a .

much .one . When we talk about a sub-group of nouns. When we talk about a group of nouns in general.two .e.three.little . I like drinking water. I like the taste of malt whisky.. we use the zero article (i.many .a lot of . Here we are talking about one cat from many: There is a cat in the garden. In this example. Note: The zero article means that we do not use anything. it is useful to help to explain how we use the other articles. When we talk about one example of a group we use the indefinite article. the: The men from Nagasaki chew tobacco. When we want to talk about all the nouns in a group.. nothing): Dogs bark and cats purr. we use the definite article. When we talk about one specific example of the group. we are making a general comment about all cats and all dogs. few fewer little less many more much a lot lots of several - fewest least most of few . I like a cup of tea before bed. we use the zero article. we use the definite article.lots of Unit 6 Articles There are three articles in English: the zero article the indefinite article the definite article We use these articles with nouns. 15  a/an the . Here we are talking about all cats: Cats like sleeping. Here we are talking about one special cat: The cat with the gray and black coat is mine.

I want the red pen. the speaker is not concerned whether the elephant is old or young. and it does not matter which one. This is because non-countable nouns have the idea of a large amount: Water is essential for healthy crops. we use the indefinite article a or an: Can you lend me a pen please? I saw an elephant playing in the garden. The banana has a curious design. Sometimes we can choose whether to use an article or not. Both of these are possible: People in my town always vote Conservative. When we talk about one noun in general. the speaker does not mind if it is red or blue or old or new. Both of these mean the same thing. Note: We use a before a consonant sound and an before a vowel sound. In the first example it makes no difference which pen is lent. We often use the when we have adjectives or other qualifications of the noun which restrict it: Flowers make a house brighter. etc.a union. We can also use the definite article with a singular noun to mean all nouns: Bananas have a curious design. 16 . a bull or a cow. Be careful with words like hour which are spelt with a consonant but start with a vowel sound . we can use the definite or indefinite article. When we want to talk about a single example of a noun. The water in this river is very polluted. I am impressed with the flowers in your garden. we use the definite article. In the second example. please.Compare this with: Men are often paid more than women for the same job. The article we use here depends on the point of view of the speaker. When we talk about a specific example of a group.an hour. Also take care with words like union which are spelt with a vowel but start with a consonant sound . the important fact is that there is an elephant in the garden. we treat them like plural nouns. the: Which pen do you want? . I prefer the red flowers. When we use non-countable nouns. The people in my town always vote Conservative.

the speaker does not want any pen. Nouns in this group include: bed. church. what's the problem? The meaning of a/an is one. in the court he met an old friend. college. 1995. school. In general. Asia. Did you see two cats in the garden? . town. Mrs Smith Winter. we often do not use an article: I went to school but left my books at home. then about an example of the genre (indefinite article) and finally about the previously mentioned example (definite article). the speaker firstly talks about elephants in general (zero article). When we talk about it as a building. work. 2000 Joe. In this example. university. I only saw one cat. Europe Monday. we use the. midday. America. we often introduce a new subject with a... Unit 7 The Zero Article The zero article.. Can you lend me one pound please. I don't need any more. When we use a noun with a preposition. market.In this example. we use the zero article.. sea. and then. When we talk about an institution. Grandfather came to dinner later by train and Grandmother managed to escape from prison to join us. we do not use one very much and mostly use a or an. Mother was in church and father at sea. home. Arabia London. hospital. but a special or specific one. This can be mentioned previously (as above) or be obvious from the context: You look upset. noon. We use the to talk about a noun we already know about.No. class. Time America. Tuesday midnight. court. New York. We do not use one unless we want to specify exactly how many we want. Tokyo. Cairo Acacia Avenue. Britain. February Easter Africa. prison. night Cosmopolitan. Sunset Boulevard 17 . when we talk about it again. Elephants are annoying! I saw an elephant climb into my garden this morning and then the elephant ate all my tomatoes. years people seasons & months festivals continents days parts of day/night magazines countries cities & towns streets 1961. Sydney. Pall Mall. we use the: He was taken to court to be tried. When we are speaking.

the United States of America Unit 8 The Indefinite Article . Mont Blanc football. the Highlands the piano. the Suez. the bagpipes the Bismarck. They usually come before it: a big. We use a or an when we talk about: jobs beliefs nationalities He is an artist and his wife is a plumber. red. the Red Lion. He is an American and she is a Swede. the Mall. We never use the indefinite article with non-countable nouns: I swam in a clean water and ate a pasta. the Black Sea the wheel. The Daily Mirror the best. number 10 Heathrow. the Nile. the Lusitania THE ADJECTIVE Unit 10 What is an Adjective? Adjectives are words we use to describe a noun. the West Indies the Alps.buildings airports mountains games Buckingham Palace. Unit 9 The Definite Article. boring book 18 . the Smiths the United States. the White House. He is a Buddhist and his wife is an atheist. the Sheraton. the Matterhorn. tennis. the internal combustion engine the Queen. K2. the Natural History Museum The Independent. seas inventions titles rivers & canals public buildings newspapers superlatives families countries of union mountain chains instruments ships the Pacific. the worst. We use the when we talk about: oceans. the chairperson the Thames. Gatwick Everest. bar billiards Exceptions include: the Hague. the President.

never more than two or. they usually follow this order: a g color origin material purpose e n a e red knife Swiss plastic army w We can have other types of adjectives which we put before the age. at most. Swiss army knife a big. Certainly. Often we can change the order of these adjectives but we usually put the most important first. Can you see that mountain over there in the distance? I'm going on holiday this week. three in a phrase: the sharp. 19 . they are always the same: the ugly woman and the ugly man the ugly football team and the ugly goalkeeper the ugly dog and the ugly scenery Unit 11 Order of the Adjectives When we use more than one adjective in a phrase. These are a kind of determiner. When we talk about a singular or non-countable noun. the shape and our opinion of the noun. what color it is (red) and what we think of it (boring). it is best not to use too many adjectives.The noun in this phrase is book and the adjectives tell us what size it is (big). we use this if the noun is close to us (in space or time). Adjectives never change their form. or that if the noun is far away (in space or time): Look at this picture here. Here we are concerned with taste: opinion size a tasty sandwich big But if we think the most important thing about the sandwich is its size. we can say: siz opinion e a big tasty sandwich When you write. thick sandwich Unit 12 Demonstrative Adjectives We use demonstrative adjectives to talk about specific examples of a noun. These are general adjectives about the size.

or those if the noun is far away (in space or time): Look at all these pictures here. etc. Can you see those mountains? I've been feeling quite ill these days. many people see adverbs as the group of words in English which do not fit into any other category (such as noun. We do this by using the -ing and -ed participles: verb -ed participle -ing participle interest interested interesting We use the -ed participle as a subject adjective. We use the -ing participle as an object adjective. a verb: She swam beautifully. it describes how the subject of a sentence feels: She was interested in the program. we also use adverbs in many other ways. The disappointed candidate felt cheated by the result. I remember all those summer days when I was young.). However. THE ADVERB Unit 14 What is an adverb? We use adverbs to give us more information about an adjective: The only red bike.That was a long time before I was born! When we talk about a plural noun. verb. or the sentence as a whole: Unfortunately it is raining so I cannot visit the zoo. it describes theobject of the sentence: The program was interesting (for her). 20 . The candidate objected to the disappointing result. we use these if the noun is close to us (in space or time). Unit 13 Participles as Adjectives We can often make an adjective from a verb.

Adverb order If we have more than one adverb in an adverb phrase. he drove badly. we make adverbs from adjectives by adding -ly to the end: He is a bad driver. Using perfect forms makes the construction more formal: Standing up. Many. how often: I regularly go to the gym. The second clause can be turned into an adverbial clause by using the present participle: She heard the door open while watching television. Standing up. 21 . he introduced himself. Laughing. I walked out. but not all. It is a clear day. We can use the present participle by itself to show something happening simultaneously or just previously to the main event: Watching TV. when: I've been ill lately. adverbs end in -ly. I hardly knew him.We can use adverbs to answer questions about how: He wrote crookedly in the diary. she heard the door open. he introduced himself. or where something happens: Go away! Adverbs can also make a description stronger or weaker: She is totally insane. we generally use this order: manner place time you must go quickly into the kitchen after lunch Unit 15 Adverbial Clauses We can join two clauses using a simple conjunction: She heard the door open while she was watching television. she can see clearly.

late. we got lost. Unit 16 Adverbs of Degree We use adverbs of degree to tell us how much something happened: Is there enough wine? She can hardly sing. Perfect forms can also replace clauses of reason: Not knowing. coldly. Unit 17 Adverbs of Manner We use adverbs of manner to tell us how something happened. well 22 . We usually put them before the adjective or adverb they describe: too high extremely quickly Many of these adverbs end in -ly.. Common irregular adverbs of manner include: high. can't say. They describe the way or style of doing something: You can dance well. though sometimes they come before the main verb: That book was written badly.. But these are more written than spoken. he introduced himself. She sang that song badly. We usually put them at the end of the sentence. Drunk. near. Many of these adverbs end in -ly: awkwardly. badly. desperately.Having stood up.

They are often preposition phrases. we can change the adjective describing them by using comparative and superlative adjectives: 23 . Many of these adverbs do not have any special form and they are often prepositional phrases of place. They met me here yesterday. We met one year ago today. We usually put them at the end of the sentence: I'll telephone on Thursday. To compare nouns.Unit 18 Adverbs of Place We use adverbs of place to tell us where something happened. They met me here yesterday. I saw him at the cinema. we have different ways to do it depending on the items we are comparing. We usually put them at the end of the sentence. Many of these adverbs do not have any special form. Do you come here often? Sometimes we can put them at the beginning of the sentence for emphasis: In the middle of the road there was a dead cat. Sometimes we can put them at the beginning for emphasis: Next week is my birthday. THE COMPARISON Unit 20 The comparison When we compare two or more items. I saw him last Sunday. Unit 19 Adverbs of Time We use adverbs of time to tell us when something happened. place comes before time in the end position (see adverb order): We left there at midnight. We can change the form of the word or use a phrase.

Enid is pretty though Aleka is prettier. we use the superlative: Jupiter is the biggest planet in the solar system. In the company. Sandra works the most carefully. For example: He is as tall as me. We often use this form in this pattern: {comparative} + {than} He is taller than me. we use the comparative and superlative forms of their adjectives or adverbs. These follow the same usage as the adjectives and adverbs they replace. He is so tall that he has to bend to get through the door. Unit 21 Comparatives & Superlatives When we want to compare two nouns or two verbs. To compare verbs. But Enid works the most carefully of them all. We can also use different comparison phrases to make comparisons. Large words use the and more and most: Superlative comparative small extensive smaller more extensive 24 the smallest the most extensive . we use the comparative: I am big. He looks as if he is the tallest man in the room. Small words add -er and -est to make the comparative and superlative. He is the tallest man I have ever seen. To compare more than two items. Aleka is prettier than Enid. he works more carefully. But Olga is the prettiest of them all. We are more efficient than you. we can change the adverb describing them by using comparative and superlative adverbs: Olga works carefully though Aleka works more carefully. She works carefully. he is bigger. To compare two items.

. we do not need to use a complete comparison. quiet. They dance less enthusiastically. shallow.the oldest when we talk about objects or people and we use old elder . Unit 22 Irregular comparisons Some words make their comparative and superlative in an irregular way: adjective/adverb comparative superlative good/well bad/badly far far many/much/a lot of a little old old better worse farther further more less older elder the best the worst the farthest the furthest the most the least the oldest the eldest Note We use old . silly. We often use the superlative with the present perfect: {superlative} . {present {ever} perfect} It was the most boring film I have ever seen. noisy. funny.. narrow. The rest of the sentence is implied: This book is more difficult (than that book). We can say: This book is less interesting.friendlier .the friendliest friendly . gentle.more friendly .older .If the context is clear.the most friendly Other examples include: clever. dirty. simple and stupid. happy. easy. common.eldest for family relationships Some words can take both forms: friendly . That was the most disgusting meal I have ever had to eat. 25 . polite.

When two people or objects are similar. I feel as if I haven't slept for a week. It looks as though it is going to snow. To show ability or inability. We use the following expressions when we are explaining something we have seen or noticed: {subject} + {verb} + {as} + {if/though} . we can use like or as: He looks like you. It was such bad weather that they canceled the excursion. {the same}…{as} This color is the same as that color This is the same color as that. we can use these phrases: {as} + {adjective/adverb} + {as} He is as tall as me.. we can use these phrases: {such} + {noun phrase} + {that} He is such a good player that he will play for the national team. They work as slowly as I do... They looked like they had been in a fight...as or so.. in negative sentences we use as.as. like means the same but it is very informal: Their clothes were ripped.as They are not so clever as us. {so} + {adjective} + {a/an} + {non-countable noun phrase} + {that} 26 .Unit 23 Comparison Phrases To show similarity. In positive sentences we can use as. No one drives as the Italians do.. They are not as clever as us.. we can use this phrase: {different} + {from} They are different from us. To show difference. I am very tired. The weather is cold.

I worked. We are too old to fight. Verbs tell us about an action. we use different forms of the verb: I was working. {so} + {adjective} + {that} He is so good that he will play for the national team. It was difficult for me to do. present. To make some tense changes. He is too good for me. {too} + {adjective} + {to} + {infinitive} This is too good to be true! He is too small to be a policeman. walk. He is too good for me to beat. talk When we use verbs. {adjective} + {for} + {person} + {to} + {infinitive} That was easy for you to say. I work.He is so good a player that he will play for the national team. I am working This change tells us when something happens (past. I have worked. She works. 27 . {too} + {adjective} + {for} + {person} + {to} + {infinitive} It was too distant for me to see. THE VERB Unit 24 What is a verb? When we want to talk about what the subject of a sentence does. read. future). we can change their tense and form to change the meaning: I work. They are so bad a team that they will all be sacked. Here are some simple verbs: run. we use a verb. The weather was so bad that they canceled the excursion. I worked.

Some verbs are continuous or progressive. and some are simple. negatives and questions. they have the same time reference but have different meanings: I was working yesterday. We can use one or more auxiliary verbs together. We put them before the main verb to make different tenses. It must rain soon. Unit 25 Auxiliary verbs There are three auxiliary verbs: be. We had talked for over an hour. I must go. Some verbs always go with the same preposition: I succeeded in passing my driving test. The only tenses where we do not use an auxiliary verb are the present simple and the past simple. We can also use modal verbs to tell us about how we feel about something happening: You should see a doctor. Different tenses are made thus: {auxiliary} + [auxiliary] + {main verb} She has been waiting for three hours. we use certain patterns: I want to go. have and do. She listened to the radio last night. I worked yesterday. He is not living here anymore. When we join two verbs to make a verb phrase. To make questions: {auxiliary} + {} + [auxiliary] + {verb} Do you want a cup of tea? Has he been watching television? 28 . Negatives are made thus: {auxiliary} + {not} + [auxiliary] + {main verb} They have not been to Hollywood yet.

this is a list of the irregular verbs in English (those in bold type are common irregular verbs): infinitive arise awake be bear beat become befall beget begin behold bend bereave beseech bestride bet bid bind bite bleed blow break breed bring broadcast build burn burst buy can cast catch chide past arose awoke was bore beat became befell begot began beheld bent bereft . do and have as lexical verbs: I am English. She did it! They have thirteen cats in their house. Unit 26 Irregular Verbs Most verbs are regular.We also use be.bereaved besought bestride bet bid bound bit bled blew broke bred brought broadcast built burnt burst bought see: can cast caught chid 29 past participle arisen awoken been borne beaten become befallen begotten begun beheld bent bereft .bereaved besought bestride bet bid bound bitten bled blown broken bred brought broadcast built burnt burst bought cast caught chid .

hewed hidden hit held hurt kept knelt knit .hanged had heard hewn .clove clung come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven dwelt eaten fallen fed felt fought found flung flown forborne forbidden forecast forgotten forgiven forsaken frozen got given gone ground grown hung .choose cleave cling come cost creep cut deal dig do draw dream drink drive dwell eat fall feed feel fight find fling fly forbear forbid forecast forget forgive forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang have hear hew hide hit hold hurt keep kneel knit chose cleft .clove clung came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew dreamt drank drove dwelt ate fell fed felt fought found flung flew forbore forbade forecast forgot forgave forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung .hanged had heard hewed hid hit held hurt kept knelt knit 30 chosen cleft .

lighted lost made meant met misled mistaken misunderstood mown .sawed said seen sought sold sent set .know lead lean leap learn leave lend let lie light lose make may mean meet mislead mistake misunderstand mow outdo outgrow overbid overcome overdo overfeed override overrun overtake pay put quit read rend rewind rid ride ring rise run saw say see seek sell send set knew led leant leapt learnt left lent let lay lit .lighted lost made see: may meant met misled mistook misunderstood mowed outdid outgrew overbid overcame overdid overfed overrode overran overtook paid put quit read rent rewound rid rode rang rose ran sawed said saw sought sold sent set 31 known led leant leapt learnt left lent let lain lit .mowed outdone outgrown overbid overcome overdone overfed overridden overrun overtaken paid put quit read rent rewound rid ridden rung risen run sawn .

sheared shed shone shit .sowed spoken sped spelt spent spilt spun spat split spoilt spread sprung stood stolen stuck stung stunk strewn .shat shot shown .sewed shaken shorn .showed shrunk shut sung sunk sat slain slept slid slung slunk slit smelt smitten sown .shat shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slew slept slid slung slunk slit smelt smote sowed spoke sped spelt spent spilt span spat split spoilt spread sprang stood stole stuck stung stank strewed strode struck strung strove swore sweat 32 sewn .sew shake shall shear shed shine shit shoot show shrink shut sing sink sit slay sleep slide sling slink slit smell smite sow speak speed spell spend spill spin spit split spoil spread spring stand steal stick sting stink strew stride strike string strive swear sweat sewed shook see: shall sheared shed shone shit .strewed strode struck strung striven sworn sweat .

sweep swell swim swing take teach tear tell think thrive throw thrust tread unbend unbind underbid undergo understand undertake undo unwind uphold upset wake wear weave wed weep wet will win wind withdraw withhold withstand wring write swept swelled swam swung took taught tore told thought throve threw thrust trod unbent unbound underbid underwent understood undertook undid unwound upheld upset woke wore wove wed wept wet see: will won wound withdrew withheld withstood wrung wrote swept swollen .swelled swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrived thrown thrust trodden unbent unbound underbid undergone understood undertaken undone unwound upheld upset woken worn woven wed wept wet won wound withdrawn withheld withstood wrung written 33 .

but not always. Likewise.g. please. You're bleeding! It's raining. We make the present continuous by using be and the -ing form of the verb: {subject} + {be} + {present participle} I'm working.Unit 27 Tenses of the verbs The tense of a verb refers to the form of the verb. Can you be quiet. present or future. She is working in the library. it generally refers to an action which took place before now. They're talking. We use the present continuous tense to talk about actions which are happening as we speak and actions taking place around now: 34 . Within these categories we make other distinctions. we can talk about verbs being past. We talk about simple or continuous (also known as progressive) and perfect forms. I am watching television. a future verb refers to an action which will happen after now in the future and a present verb refers to something happening right now. Simple or Continuous? Present Perfect Continuous or Present Perfect Simple? Present Perfect Simple or Past Simple? Unit 28 Present Continuous We use the present continuous tense to talk about actions which are happening as we speak and actions taking place around now: Someone is ringing the door bell. These are the active tenses in English: Sometimes it is difficult to know exactly which tense to use. When a verb is in the past. We also use other forms of the verb in grammar: these are the infinitive and the imperative. they also refer to a particular time. Often. To begin with. Often these problems are to do with selecting the right tense. e.

we also use this tense to talk about fixed future plans ..it is a good idea to imagine that these are plans you can write in your diary. please. They're talking.. Can you be quiet. we will finish this job soon. You're bleeding! It's raining.Someone is ringing the door bell. I am listening to some music right now. They are running for the bus. What's that noise? Are those cats fighting again? about things happening around now but maybe not right at the moment we speak. I am watching television. Why is he in bed? . We make the present simple by using a form of the verb be and the present participle form of the verb: {subject} + {be} + {present participle} . Are the team playing well this season? Remember that these are temporary situations: At this moment I am talking to you. I am working now. She is talking to her friend. The baby is not sleeping well these days so I can't sleep at night.He is not feeling well today. She is working in the library. Often we add a time adverb: 35 . We make the present continuous by using be and the -ing form of the verb: {subject} + {be} + {present participle} I'm working. This is a temporary situation: I am getting divorced. We use the present continuous tense in three ways: when we talk about a situation that is happening right now as we speak. but these days we are painting the house.

With most verbs this is the same as the infinitive form. We use the present simple in 7 main ways: talking about habits and routines.. She works for a bank. things we do regularly: I go to the cinema at least once a week. Sheila is not marrying Pete till next month. 36 .. The Earth is round. We use the present form of the verb. Remember that the third person singular adds -s to the end: {subject} + {present form} I work. We make the present simple by using the present form of the verb. We do not wake up before 8 o'clock in the morning.I am going to Spain next year. Do the children go to bed at nine o'clock every night? talking about a situation that lasts for a long time: He draws maps for a living. She wishes. It barks.. Remember to use the final -s with the third person: {subject} + {present form} I live in Scotland.. He plays football at the weekend.. Are they playing Arsenal next week? Unit 29 Present Simple We use the present simple to talk about our habits and routines (things we do regularly) and situations which last for a long time: I visit my mother once a month.. They go out every night.

How does it smell? giving instructions: You walk out the door and then you turn left." says the doctor." says the man. you do it like that! Note: we more often use the imperative in this situation. Do all mammals breathe oxygen? talking about feelings. We often use this with a time adverb. She doesn't like you. talking about a future timetable arrangement: She leaves tomorrow. "The man in the next bed wants to buy your shoes." "Give me the bad news. 37 . Does she work in the wool factory? talking about a situation which is permanent: Venus and Mercury are closer to the Sun than the Earth.She is not married. The man screams a bit and gets upset but after a while the doctor calms him down. Metal does not float in water. a joke or give a commentary: This man is in a hospital bed. You don't do it like this. "We've had to cut off both your legs. to tell a dramatic story. This topic looks at the differences between the two tenses. thoughts and characteristics: I believe in Father Christmas. "There's some good news and some bad news. "What's the good news?" he asks the doctor. The doctor walks in and says." Unit 30 Present Simple or Continuous? Students sometimes confuse a simple tense with a continuous tense. It starts next Thursday.

desire verbs of senses: see. answer miscellaneous verbs: need. I am having my hair cut. We never use have in a continuous way to mean possession. depend. tell. hate. the duration of these events is not important. understand. belong. it is about a belief. hear verbs of possession: own. taste. Some verbs contain in their meaning an idea of permanency. while continuous tenses usually talk about things which are happening for a while only . Simple tenses generally refer to actions which are permanent. contain. touch. love. The simple tenses are used to talk about things which happen and finish. ask. we use have to mean making an active effort: I have long hair. we are talking about a feeling we have which will last for a long time: I like football. for example: verbs of mental activity: know. seem With verbs of perception we can often use can: I can hear him but I cannot see him.I think you are wrong. the simple form refers to a long-term mental state. There are other verbs generally used only in simple tenses. She does not like boring books. Do they like living in London? For this reason. possess. we do not usually use like in a continuous tense. have verbs of reporting: say. consist. think verbs of emotions: like. Can you smell the roses? We can use some of the verbs listed above in continuous tenses but their meaning changes when we do. In general. it is an active effort: What do you think? . In the next example.We use the continuous to talk about things which are happening over a period of time.I am thinking about our holiday. What are you thinking? . For example. when we use the verb like. smell. I live in London. The continuous form refers to what is happening right now.they will stop sometime. 38 .

. He opened it and saw. In the first example. He walked into the room and looked around. it can be one minute ago or a million years ago. 39 . In the second example. With regular verbs the past is formed by adding -ed to the end of the verb. There was a knock on the door... We often use it with a past adverb. We use this tense a lot.I am living in London. We make the past tense of regular verbs by adding -ed to the end. We make the past simple tense by using the past form of the verb: {subject} + {past form} . The Big Bang happened over ten thousand million years ago. London is their home and they have no intention of leaving. There is no change for the third person singular: {subject} + {past form} I worked hard. the speaker was probably born in London. She walked to the supermarket. They laughed at the joke. to make polite requests and suggestions: I wondered if you might like to go out tonight? I hoped you would say yes. We use the past simple: when we talk about an action or event which started in the past and finished in the past. I worked very hard last week. or is living there for a short while only before moving somewhere Unit 31 Past Simple We often use the past simple to tell a story. I rode to work on my bike this morning. I drank two cups of coffee for breakfast this morning. It does not matter when the event or action happened. the speaker perhaps has just moved to London..

Of course he was nervous.the boss came in and got angry because we were not working. The alarm clock woke me up when/while I was sleeping. We often use these sentence patterns with the past continuous: {past continuous} + {when} + {past simple} {past simple} + {when/while} + {past continuous} I was sleeping when the alarm clock woke me up. to talk about a temporary and continuous action in the past: I was working at home all last week. we started talking before the boss came in. The phone was ringing when I walked into my house... Here the past continuous tells us about an action that was interrupted.. I picked it up and someone was screaming on the other end of the line.. 40 . We make the past continuous by using the past form of be and the present participle: {subject} + {was/were} + {present participle} .. We make the past continuous by using was/were and the -ing form of the verb: {subject} + {was/were} + {present participle} I was working when you called. We talked for some time and then the door opened and the main action happened . I was walking down the street. It tells us what is happening before the main action occurs: We were all talking when the boss walked in. The factory was turning out thousands of uniforms during the war. He was singing. for arrangements in the past: They were leaving on the six o'clock train.... he was flying to the moon the next morning. They were talking when. We use the past continuous for three situations: to provide the background for the story.Unit 32 Past Continuous It was raining when I went home.. You were working when I called. In this example..

We use the present perfect simple tense in several ways: from the past to the present. The President has just been shot. She has found a good job and she will start work next Monday. call the police. recent events. an event started in the past and continues till now. the police are looking for the assassin. We do not use this tense with an adverb telling us when the event happened: * I have argued with my boss yesterday.. She has gone to the dentist. headline news: A train has crashed. We make the present perfect simple by using have/has and the -ed form of the verb (the past participle): {subject} + {have/has} + {past participle} I have worked hard today and now I'm tired. * I have seen you last week. I have seen this film.Unit 33 Present Perfect Simple The present perfect simple tense is used to talk about a past time which has very strong meaning for the present. We make the present perfect simple by using have/has and the past participle: {subject} + {have} + {past participle} . Three men have climbed Mount Everest. killing 40 people. I have found it! This last example affects the present because everyone else can stop looking. Where's Jane? .She has gone out.quickly. possibly carrying on into the future: I have lived here all my life. if you run you can catch her. 41 .. She has known me for five years. strongly affecting the present: I have lost my wallet .

the present perfect has a much closer link to the present. In the first example they are not here now. The American army has fought many battles. They have been to Paris. we often use this with yet: Have you seen Bill yet? He hasn't gone yet. I have been talking to John lately. They have not stopped completely yet. In the second example. lately and just to talk about something done very recently. They have recently got divorced. Unit 34 Present Perfect Simple or Past Simple? The past simple is used for a completed action in the past. {have/has} + {recently/just/lately} + {past participle} {have/has} + {past participle} . We often use the present perfect with recently. gone and been: They have gone to Paris.general experiences in life: I have never seen such a fantastic sight. in the second they went and then returned... 42 . The verb go is used with two past participles. She left five minutes ago. {recently/lately} I have just seen Bill. Have you ever been to France? with actions we are expecting to happen. Often we will continue with the past simple so we can specify the time when an event happened: {present perfect} + {past simple} My boss has just gone. we can assume that the American army will continue to fight. Napoleon fought many battles.

Unit 35 Present Perfect Continuous We use the present perfect continuous to talk about an event which started in the past and is continuing now: I have been learning English for six years.. We make the present perfect continuous by using have/has been and the present participle form of the verb: {subject} + {have/has} + {been} + {present participle} .. We make the present perfect continuous by using have/has. to talk about an even which started in the past and is continuing now: I have been learning English for six years.. They have been living in Paris since July. 43 . to talk about an event which lasted for some time and recently finished. the effects of this event are still apparent: Why are you puffing? --... I have been painting the house this weekend. We often use the words for and since with this tense. She has been doing her homework.I have been running. She has been doing her homework.. We use the present perfect continuous in two ways. been and the -ing form of the verb (the present participle): {subject} + {have/has} + {been} + {present participle} I have been working. I have been working . They have been living in Paris for the last eight months.

we can use the past simple or the past perfect with the past simple: The King died. the continuous that the action went on for some time. I've read War & Peace but I found the end boring. The simple tense tells us the action is completed and the result can be seen. She had been to the dentist earlier in the day so she felt ill that night. to provide information about the order of events: The detective ran into the room but the evil gangsters had already gone. We use the past perfect simple tense: to provide the background to an event. Unit 37 Past Perfect Simple The past perfect simple is used to talk about a past time before another time in the past. We make the past perfect simple by using had and the past participle: {subject} + {had} + {past participle} I had seen the film six times already and I didn't want to see it again. The Queen died three days after the King had died. The Queen died of a broken heart after the King had left her. We make the past perfect simple by using had and the -ed form of the verb (the past participle): {subject} + {had} + {past participle} I had worked hard for a long time before I completed the work. when we want to provide a simple sequence of events. it tells us what happened before the main action: She was tired because she had been at work all day. We did not all pass the exam though we had studied hard. 44 . She had attended many interviews before she found the right job. The Queen died three days later. I've been reading War & Peace and I have almost finished it. We often use the tense in conjunction with the past simple.Unit 36 Present Perfect Continuous or Present Perfect Simple? Both tenses are used for an action which finished a short while ago.

It is going to be fine. They had both been living in Paris for some time when they met. we use be going to: I am going to pass my test. tomorrow. Cinderella. Before I arrived. we use will: It will rain. been and the -ing form of the verb (the present participle): {subject} + {had} + {been} + {present participle} I had been working for some time before I realized my mistake. you wait and see. 45 . she had been doing her homework. sometimes we use shall: You shall go to the ball. When we talk about intentions or predictions based on what we can see now. Unit 39 Future We have different ways to talk about the future in English. Sometimes it is difficult to choose between be going to and will: It will be fine tomorrow. I'm sure of that! When we make predictions and promises. When we make promises and offers for the future.Unit 38 Past Perfect Continuous We use the past perfect continuous to talk about a continuous temporary event which started happening in the past before another past event: I had been learning English for six years before I went to England. Sometimes we use the present continuous tense to talk about the future: I am seeing her tomorrow. We make the past perfect continuous by using had.

Complain again and we will leave. Some imperatives are joined by and: Come and sit here! Wait and see. go can be followed by the imperative without and: Go get him. 46 .IMPERATIVES Unit 40 When to use Imperatives? We use the imperative form of the verb: to give orders: Stop! Shut the door! to give instructions: Add a pinch of salt and boil for fifteen minutes. In AmE. we add please to the end of the sentence: Shut the door. we put please or do at the beginning: Do tell me! Please tell me! We can use the imperative as a subject of a sentence. Go out the door and turn left. To tell someone we want something very much. We often follow it with and: {imperative} + {and} + {clause} Get this done and you can leave early. Do try to take care! The form of the imperative is the same as the infinitive. to make informal offers or invitations: Have a drink? Want a ride? to give warnings: Don't take lifts from strangers. please. To be polite.

. must. Be sure and do this. ought to. might. shall. There are also modal constructions: be able to.. need*.. We use the infinitive with to to express reason: {to} + {infinitive} To pay for the mortgage. The verb which follows is always in the infinitive form: He might be.. be allowed to They always come first in a verb formation. will. before other auxiliaries and the main verb: {modal} + [auxiliary] + {main verb} Note that modal verbs do not take a final -s for the third person singular. She could have. INFINITIVES Unit 41 When to use the Infinitive? The infinitive is the base form of the verb: be. They should stay. he took a second job. could.... would.. have. dare*.. What for? To save time later. We can also join two imperatives: Be sure to do this. MODAL VERBS Unit 42 Characteristics of Modals There are not many modal verbs: can. should... We can use them with the -ing form to show continuous modality: {modal} + {be} + {-ing} 47 .. walk. may.Go wait in the car. A common question and answer expressing purpose is like this: statement: question: answer: I'm packing now.

... ability to do something: They can't speak fluently. They should have seen him. 48 . She might not be allowed to. although in a limited way.. both structurally and semantically it does function within the system of modality. They should be coming soon. We use modal verbs to show: what we think or feel about a situation: They should not have gone.. They should have to.He might be working late. possibility: He could be there... be allowed to and have [got] to after modals: {modal} + {phrase} I will be able to. However. He must be having a party." form. He could beat the record easily. *DARE is regarded as a marginal modal verb because of its restricted usage . necessity: He must stop. They might not win.. They might have been working hard. Note that we do not use these in continuous forms.either in negative polarity or in the idiomatic "I dare say. He must have gone away. We can use be able to. They should stop. We can use them with the past participle to show past modality: {modal} + {have} + {past participle} He might have been working late.

could and be able to are interchangeable. When we talk about a skill. to show ability. Both examples say I had the opportunity or ability to leave. can v. meaning "must have" e. there is no "s" with the 3rd person singular. could v. be able to: In most situations.g. but could means I did not leave and was/were able to means I did leave. I am able to hear him but I am not able to see him. NEED can also be used as a modal verb. I was able to swim when I was four. In this case. She is able to play the piano. I will never be able to lift that cupboard alone. e.g. But in British English.g. “You needn't pay for my dinner”. With questions: Can I open the window? 49 . I was able to leave. we often use can or be able to with verbs of perception: I can hear him but I cannot see him.*NEED can be used as an ordinary verb. be able to: I could leave. ability in the future: He could do your job given the opportunity. These show: ability or opportunity in the present: She can play the piano. we can use modal verbs. “I need a new coat”. Note that in conditional sentences also. be able to is more formal than can. She was able to play the piano. When we talk about a real past action we use was/were able to and when we talk about a hypothetical course of action we us could. ability or opportunity in the past: She could play the piano. could and was/were able to are interchangeable: I could swim when I was four. and questions and negatives are made without "do" e. “Need we really go now?” Unit 43 Modal Ability To show degrees of ability.

Unit 44 Modal Necessity 100% necessity: You must leave straight away. You should call your mother. obligation: You ought to call your mother. must v. We use mustn't to say an action is forbidden . These show that calling your mother is the right thing to do. 0% necessity: We don't have to pay to get in. have [got] to is when the speaker uses an external force which they cannot control: doctor to patient: You've got to stop smoking. These have an element of being optional. There is no real difference between ought to and should. We use needn't to show an action is optional . we can use modal verbs: I will give you hand with that case. have [got] to Generally. patient to themself: I must stop smoking. can and could are requests. We needn't stay late.Could I open the window? Am I able to open the window? In questions. but ought to is perhaps a little stronger. while be able to asks about ability. We have not got to see the boss after all.I can do it if I want to. You have [got] to leave straight away. must shows what the speaker feels and it is the speaker's authority. we needn't stay late but we can if we want to. Unit 45 Modal Offers To show degrees of offers.e. i. Shall I give you a hand with that case? Can I give you a hand with that case? 50 .I have no choice.

can v. You must not leave yet. mustn't We use needn't to show an action is optional .I can do it if I want to. in the second example the speaker is talking about a specific group of future meetings only. Unit 47 Modal Possibility To show degrees of possibility. We use mustn't to say an action is forbidden . may It can get very tense in some of these meetings. we use may.We use shall as let's but the person has a chance to refuse: Shall we go to the cinema? Unit 46 Modal Permission To show degrees of permission. 51 .I have no choice. logical certainty He will be in Rome by now. In the first example the speaker makes a general comment about the meetings. needn't v. You are not allowed to leave yet. we can use modal verbs: imagining things: That would be nice. You may not leave yet. can is more friendly than may which is quite formal. giving orders: You will not leave yet. To talk generally about something we use can. He must be in Rome by now. but talking about a specific set of something. we can use modal verbs: permission: You cannot leave yet. It may get very tense in some of these meetings.

to show something the speaker thinks is unlikely or impossible or illogical: He couldn't have got lost. may is almost the same as might though perhaps might is a little less sure.degrees of possibility in the present and future He could be upstairs. He might be upstairs. She will win. please? 52 . please? could is more polite than can. please? Could you tell me the time. She may win. but it is more direct than can or could: Would you tell me the time. please? May I see you in your office. It can't be raining! He wouldn't still be at work. suggestions in the future: We could go to the cinema. Unit 48 Modal Requests To show degrees of requests. She could win. He may be upstairs. we can use modal verbs: polite requests Can I see you in your office. we can use will to make requests. would he? prediction: She might win. He can't have got lost. please? Could I see you in your office. could which is least sure. please? Can you tell me the time. will is certain.

In the following case. we can follow it with the gerund: He coughed before beginning to speak.. in the second example. 53 . These are some of the more common patterns: {verb} + {to} + {infinitive} I managed to leave. I object to work at night. This is acceptable so to is a preposition and must be followed by the gerund.. Unit 50 Verb Patterns We use different patterns when we join two verbs. They succeeded in breaking the door down. please? making requests: Would you mind coming with me? Would you mind if I left now? Would you rather I left now? Unit 49 Verbs + Preposition When we use a preposition. However. students often confuse it with the to +infinitive structure. If you do not know whether to is with the infinitive or gerund. With most prepositions this is no problem. try putting a noun after it: I object to bananas. I object to work. I object to working at night. I expect to eat bananas for breakfast. to is not a preposition so we do not follow it with the gerund: I expect to. * I expect to bananas. work is a verb. In the first example. when we use the preposition to. work is a noun and to a preposition.Will you tell me the time.

leave off. keep. like. see. persuade. compel. need. propose. begin. hate. used. suggest. I like to ski. deny. agree. allow. advise. understand. want. oblige. determine. {verb} + [object] + {infinitive} I could feel him watch me. Verbs include: afford. hate. help. will. swear. hope. stop. forget.If you happen to see them. In general. postpone. give up. the gerund refers to a general activity while the infinitive refers to a specific case. manage. consent. seem. shall. decide. remind. trouble. may. request. beg. like. prepare. instruct. plan. can't stand. we use the to + infinitive pattern: He was made to feel unwelcome. Verbs include: advise. be. order. pretend. delay. intend. must. help. enjoy. prefer. excuse. {verb} + [object] + {to} + {infinitive} I would advise you to go. prefer. promise. need. have. wish. beg. appear. dare. can't help. arrange. wish. ask. happen. prefer. In this group we include most (but not all) of the modal auxiliary verbs and verbs of senses. tempt. start. mention. consider. feel. help. They were seen to enter the building after dark. encourage. bear. try. permit. expect. love. go on. choose. make. dislike. hesitate. invite. recommend. offer. cause. expect. There is very little difference between these two: I like skiing. put off. face. hear. I enjoy running first thing in the morning. threaten. appreciate. should. command. press. leave. In the passive. mean. force. miss. notice. ought. care. bear. ask. escape. avoid. involve. finish. feel like. fail. neglect. forgive. tell. attempt. resent. imagine. mind. Verbs include: admit. resist. teach. promise. There are some important exceptions though: 54 . contemplate. {verb} + {gerund} I considered retiring. refuse. detest. risk. watch. might. intend. say 'hello' for me. endure. would. regret. I want you to leave. want. remember. get. practice. warn. I made them go. mean. learn. Some verbs can take either the gerund or the infinitive. forbid. trouble. let. Verbs include: could.

intend. the gerund refers to what happened before the main verb and the infinitive what happened after the main verb. try. CONDITIONALS Unit 51 What is a conditional? A conditional is a kind of sentence which uses a word such as if. = you must remember now that you will visit my mother in a while. Remember to visit my mother. allow. Remember visiting my mother? = you visited her in the past and now I am asking you to remember it. stop.Remember to visit my mother. When it comes first. go on. begin. permit. remember. Verbs in this category include: advise. We use Conditional 3 to talk about past situations which did not happen. Remember visiting my mother? In this case.00. It talks about situations which are not real. the conditional clause uses will and the infinitive: {if} + {present} | {will} + {infinitive} There are two clauses: the if-clause can come first or second. type conditional 1 conditional 2 conditional 3 Unit 52 if clause if we leave now if we left now if we had left earlier conditional clause we will catch the train we would catch the train we would have caught the train Conditional 1 We use the first conditional to talk about situations in the future which we think will probably happen or which are perfectly reasonable and likely: If we leave at 9. continue. To make the first conditional we use two clauses. forbid. propose. start. prefer. The if-clause is in the present. attempt. like. see. hate. 55 . forget. hear. If you stop crying. We use Conditional 2 to talk about possible but unlikely situations in the future. There are three main types of conditional sentences: We use Conditional 1 to talk about probable situations in the future. we will catch the train. watch. I will give you a sweet. regret. can't bear. love. we usually put a comma between the two.

If you work hard.. say if I was. the second example suggests I don't want to work too hard and this is why not. I would hurt myself. Obviously sometimes we can use either of these types.. You would earn lots of money if you worked harder.. if the idea is unlikely. Note: We use I were instead of I was because we are actually using the subjunctive. I will hurt myself. If you want to talk about something which is likely to happen. This is very common: If I were you. if I win. we usually put a comma between the two. The first example suggests that I think I work too much and I ought to stop. however. We also use it for giving advice. what would you say? If you had a million pounds.. or imaginary present situations: If you met the President. Unit 53 Conditional 2 We use the second conditional to talk about possible but unlikely situations in the future and whether they will happen or not. The if-clause is in the past tense. use Conditional 2. If I worked too much. When it comes first... Using the first or second conditional depends on the point of view of the speaker: a pessimist says an optimist says a pessimist says if I won. you will make lots of money. Unit 54 Conditional 1 or Conditional 2? Sometimes it is difficult to know when to use the first conditional and when to use the second conditional. If I work too much. many people nowadays.. if my house is on fire.. use Conditional 1. 56 .. you would make lots of money. what would you do with it? To make the second conditional we use two clauses.. I would. You will lose lots of money if you keep gambling. If you wrote a bestseller. the conditional clause uses would and the infinitive: {if} + {past} | {would} + {infinitive} There are two clauses: the if-clause can come first or second.

When it comes first. Unit 55 Conditional 3 We use the third conditional to talk about situations in the past which cannot be changed. the river will flood.the tense does not show time but likelihood. (But Beckham did not score and Real Madrid lost. The first conditional uses the present tense and the second conditional uses the past tense. Unit 57 Miscellaneous When we talk about eternal truths (situations which are always true) such as scientific facts. Napoleon would have won at Waterloo. France would have been the most powerful country in Europe if Napoleon had won at Waterloo. we usually put a comma between the two. we talk about how the results might be different: If Beckham had scored. If it rains like this all day.) To make the third conditional we use two clauses.an optimist says if my house were on fire. the river might flood.. If it rains like this all day. If it rains like this all day. but both of these conditionals can talk about the present or future . might means will possibly and could means will be able to. Unit 56 Conditional Clauses In the examples for the conditional.. the river could flood. the conditional clauses have been like this: {subject} + {will/would} + {verb} However. If Blucher had not arrived. we can use other modal verbs in place of will and would. Real Madrid would have won the match. we can use this pattern: {if} + {present tense} | {present tense} 57 . The if-clause is in the past perfect tense and the conditional clause uses would have and the past participle: {if} + {past perfect} | {would} + {have} + {past participle} There are two clauses: the if-clause can come first or second.

you should go for anything.. what would you buy? Take the umbrella in case it rains. If we had more money. telephone me. supposing in case unless = if = if by chance = if . Supposing we had more money. In these examples. Let me know if you are in trouble. When we give orders. When we talk about improbable future actions we can use: {if} + {should} | {modal/imperative} If the car should break down. We can also make conditionals by using words other than if. you should telephone me. This is often used to make offers: {if} + {will/would} | {modal} If you will come with me. I can show you the way.. it turns into steam. If you wouldn't mind. When we give suggestions we can use: {if} + {modal} | {modal} If you can't get your perfect job. will has nothing to do with future meaning. not 58 . You ought to let me know if you should change your mind. If you go. I go. When we offer or give advice we can use: {if} + {present continuous/present perfect} | {modal} If the car is acting up. we could buy a new car. we use: {if} + {present tense} | {imperative} If the car breaks down. When we talk about willingness or wishing. You ought to let me know if you are thinking of moving to London. we can use if + will. I'd like to talk to you. Don't leave unless I tell you to.If water reaches 100°. telephone me.

the subject of the passive sentence: active Elsa ate the cake. PASSIVE VOICE Unit 58 Active vs Passive The most important information in a sentence usually comes first. call me straight away. The cake was eaten by Elsa. The cake was eaten by Elsa. We use the passive voice to change the order of the information in a sentence: active passive Elsa ate the cake. We can use happen to to suggest that something happens by chance: If you happen to see Kevin.make the verb passive. tell him to call me. These are the two forms: active passiv e {subject} + {verb} + {object} {object} + {be} + {past participle} + {by} + {subject} There are three steps to making a passive sentence: 1 . We usually use the active voice rather than the passive. tell him to give me a tax rebate. We can also use it with should when there is even less chance of something happening: If you should happen to bump into the Prime Minister. 59 .make the subject of active sentence (Elsa) the object of the passive sentence . we do this by using be and the past participle: active passive Elsa ate the cake.We can also leave out if in informal situations: You make any more trouble (and) I'll call the police! Should the car break down. passive The cake 2 . The cake was eaten 3 .we introduce it with by: active passive Elsa ate the cake.make the object of the active sentence (the cake).

Continuous tenses: perfect tenses: When we use auxiliary verbs. Amanda had been kissed by Eric. Amanda ought to have been kissed by Eric. we use these patterns: active simple tenses: Eric kisses Amanda. {be} + {being} + {past participle} Amanda is being kissed by Eric. passive {to} + {be} + {past participle} He ought to be helped. we add them to the front of the structures above: {modal/auxiliary/be going to} + {be} + {past participle} Amanda could be kissed by Eric. {have} + {been} + {past participle} Amanda has been kissed by Eric. {be} + {past participle} Amanda is kissed by Eric. To make the passive infinitives: active {to} + {infinitive} Someone ought to help him. {modal/auxiliary/be going to} + {have} + been} + {past participle} Amanda will have been kissed by Eric.Unit 59 Passive verbs We make the passive voice by changing the positions of the subject and object and using a passive verb: active passiv e {subject} + {verb} + {object} {object} + {be} + {past participle} + {by} + {subject} To make the verb passive. Amanda was kissed by Eric. Amanda is going to be kissed by Eric. {modal/auxiliary/be going to} + {be} + {being} + {past participle} Amanda might be being kissed by Eric. 60 . Amanda was being kissed by Eric.

She will have her house decorated.{to} + {have} + {past participle} {to} + {have} + {been} + {past participle} Someone ought to have helped He ought to have been helped.. This is generally used in speech rather than writing. We can also use get instead of have but this is informal. Sometimes you can use get instead of be to make the sentence a little more informal: The phone box was vandalized last night. part of the sentence in a passive voice: active passive {subject} + {verb} + {object} {object} + {verb} + [by + subject] This can happen if we do not know who the subject is: The money was stolen. Unit 61 Passive by… Sometimes it is not necessary to put the by. . He is going to have his car resprayed. She is having her typewriter repaired.. The phone box got vandalized last night. We make the causative form: {subject} + {have} + {object} + {past participle} I had my hair cut. 61 .by someone. They are having their garden landscaped. We can use the same pattern to talk about an often bad experience: She had her house burgled. We had our car vandalized. Unit 60 Causative Form The causative form is used when we speak about a professional service which someone has done for us. him. I don't know who. We had our money stolen.

if the active sentence has an object clause. part of the sentence if it is not important to know who the subject is. Unit 62 Passive Forms Sometimes it is not necessary to use the by.. . He is thought to have been a genius.I know who broke the window (it was me) but I don't want to admit it! We can also leave out the by.. part of the passive: The cat was kidnapped by someone. we can make a special passive: active: passive: passive: People think he was a genius.asp?fIndex=113verb phrase} + [that] + {object clause} {it} + {passive verb} + [that] + {object clause} People say Churchill was a clever man. A box of chocolates was given to Amanda. I had my wallet stolen. When the active sentence has two objects. 62 . we can have a special passive structure: active passive active passive {subject} + {details. Unit 63 Passive Object Clauses When we use an object clause.. Also.. or if it is obvious: My house was painted last June.Or we can leave it out if we do not want to say who the subject is: The window was broken. It is also used for a bad experience: I am having my car resprayed. It is said that Churchill was a clever man. Amanda was given a box of chocolates. The cat was kidnapped. we use the causative form. It is thought he was a genius. When someone does a professional service for us. Tin has been mined in Cornwall since before the Romans invaded. we can make two passives: active: passive: passive: She gave Amanda a box of chocolates.

suppose.. report.. regret. mention. the fact that the President is dead is very important. This happens when you talk about an opinion. we put the most important information in a sentence at the beginning. understand. but again I am more concerned with the wind whistling through my house than a vandal. manuals and weather forecasts. decide. In other situations. People say Churchill was a clever man. try not to use the passive voice too much. {subject} + {verb} + {object} The subject is the theme of the sentence. I want to talk about Pelé. claim. consider. feel. it is the result that we wish to emphasize: The President has been shot. It is not important who did the action. estimate. We often use these patterns with reporting verbs such as: agree. intend.. announce.. find. know. Unit 64 Passive Use Usually. believe. Someone broke the window in my house but I don't know who it was: The window has been broken. In this case I really do not care who says this. arrange.) Finally. fear. say. think. Sometimes. In your writing. A man shot the President. think and so on. hope. People say Churchill is a clever man. while the assassin is less so. In this case. Churchill is said to be a clever man. we may not know who did the action. Generally we use it for technical documents. not football enthusiasts and their opinions. however. (I could say: Someone broke the window. say. we want to stress the object in the sentence. suggestion or belief which uses a verb like: believe.We can make a passive like this when the object verb is present simple or past simple: active passiv e active passiv e active {subject} + {verb phrase} + {object} + {object verb} . This can happen when the object is more important than the subject. The liquid should be placed in a beaker and heated to 75  63 . we might be talking about public opinion: Pelé is said to be the greatest footballer ever. expect. {object} + {passive verb} + {passive infinitive} .

they suggest moving from one place to another: He lived in London. He moved to London. These are common prepositions of place and their uses . We use prepositions in many different ways. sitting at the back. Mobile prepositions imply movement. 64 .there are a number of exceptions though: at: the place where something happens He lives at 13 Acacia Avenue.(Note that in this grammar guide we have used the active voice instead of the passive. Static prepositions are stationary. Whether the preposition is static or mobile usually depends on the meaning of the verb. Prepositions of place tell us where something is or happens: on the sofa under the bed We use prepositions of time to tell us when something happens: at Christmas in July Some words are often followed by the same prepositions: listen to succeed in Some verbs take a preposition to make a new verb.) PREPOSITIONS Unit 65 What are Prepositions? Prepositions are a closed class of words. He's at the theater. This is because the active is easier to understand. These are calledphrasal verbs: put up with hand out Unit 66 Prepositions of Place There are two types of place preposition. they refer to a place.

around. We live in Aylsham.We'll stop at Aylsham en route to London. past. by. in front of. round. in. on. under. into. on: the top surface The book is on the table. Unit 67 Prepositions of Time We use these prepositions to talk about time: {in} + {year/month/season/time of day (except night)} in 1976 in March {on} + {day/date} on Monday on the 15th of July {at} + {clock time/night} at ten o'clock at midnight 65 . onto/off: movement to the top surface of an object from another object The cat jumped off the table and onto the chair. in: something all around We sat in silence in the cinema. along. across. below. near. into/out of: movement from outside to inside a place or vice versa We walked out of the kitchen and into the dining room. Other prepositions of place include: above. to. through. The boat is on the sea. He lives in Spain. behind. next to. I drove out of Buxton and into Aylsham. beside. opposite. I climbed off the roof and onto the ladder. over. towards. out of.

This means we change the positions of the subject and the verb: statement: question: statement: question: {subject} + {be} . They were Spanish.Unit 68 Word & Phrase + Preposition Some words and phrases very often take the same preposition in a sentence.. This is a list of common structures: word prep afraid of apologize for arrange for bored with care for different from fond of good at insist on intention of interested in keen on look at ready for succeed in. There are two main ways of asking questions in written English: inversion and using do: statement: question: statement: question: You are Spanish. Are you Spanish? You speak Spanish. we use inversion to make a question. Were they Spanish? 66 .... Do you speak Spanish? If the verb in a sentence is be. at take part in tired of worry about intend to QUESTIONS Unit 69 How to ask questions? All questions begin with a capital letter and end with a question mark. {be} + {subject} .

. she or it in the present tense: Do you like. These questions are the same as above and use or before the last alternative: Is she wearing blue or green? Should we take a bus.. We can also make questions by using a rising intonation at the end of a statement. Does he like pizza? She broke the record.. the car or a taxi? 67 . Should they be arriving soon? When the verb in a sentence is not be or modal or auxiliary. This is very common in spoken English: statement: question: You're going. Can you see England from here? They should be arriving soon.We also use inversion to make questions with modal and auxiliary verbs: statement: question: statement: question: statement: question: {subject} + {auxiliary/modal} + [auxiliary] + {main verb} {auxiliary/modal} + {subject} + [auxiliary] + {main verb} You can see England from here.. Do you know Simon? He likes pizza. we use do to make questions. Does she like. [falling intonation] You're going? [rising intonation] Alternative questions.. Did she break the record? Notice that do changes for the past tense and when we talk about he. Did she like. statement: question: statement: question: statement: question: statement: question: {subject} + {verb} {do} + {subject} + {infinitive} You know Simon..

. we use if: {indirect phrase} + {if} + {statement} Would you ask him if the train has arrived yet? Could you tell me if this is Athens station? We can also use question words to make indirect statements: {indirect phrase} + {question word} + {statement} I don't know what you saw in her! She can't decide where to go on holiday.Unit 70 Direct & Indirect Questions We can ask a direct question: What time is it? Or.to ask for information: Who doesn't want some? Who hasn't got a ticket? .. . we do not invert the subject and verb or use an auxiliary verb: {indirect phrase} + {statement} Can you remember where you put them? Do you know how long the flight will be? When the question can be answered with yes or no. Note that even though this is a question. to be more formal or polite. Unit 71 Negative Questions We can use negative questions...to express surprise: Haven't you finished yet? 68 .to make suggestions: Why don't we have a party? Why not leave now? ... we can ask an indirect question: Do you know what time it is? We make an indirect question by using a phrase and then a statement...

did they? We use question tags in three ways: 1. when want someone to do something or when we show surprise: You're English. haven't you? You're not going to leave. doesn't she? They didn't stay. isn't he? 69 . is she? 2. can it? We will win. we can use a question tag: You're a Sagittarius.. To ask someone to do something...to ask for confirmation: Didn't we stay here once before? Isn't he the famous actor? . aren't you? She isn't French. for exclamations Didn't she do well! Unit 72 Questions Tags We use question tags at the end of sentences when we want check something. was she? It cannot be verified. often this is used when we want someone to agree with what we say: He's ugly. won't we? She likes me. To verify information. aren't you? You've got five minutes to spare.Isn't she coming? .. we use do: {statement} + {do} + [not] + {subject} She was not here.with a falling intonation. when we are fairly certain of a fact and want merely to check it. are you? For positive statements we use the negative particle not: {statement} + {auxiliary/modal} + [not] + {subject} If there is no auxiliary or modal.

are you? She isn't still talking.. we use which: Which one are you going to buy? The red or the green? 70 . we use this pattern: {question word} + {modal/auxiliary} + {subject} + {infinitive} question word who what where when why how whose which used for people things places time reason explanation possession things example Who is your brother? What is your name? Where do you live? When are you leaving? Why did I fail? How does this work? Whose car is this? Which one is yours? Unit 74 Question Words # 2 When we ask in general. shall we? After imperatives we use will/would/can/could: Leave us for a moment. we can also use special question words to make questions. we can use what: What are you going to buy? When there is a limited choice. To show surprise in a negative way when we cannot really believe something is true we use this only in negative sentences: You're not marrying her. is she? After let's. and offers & suggestions we use shall: Let's go. statement: question: question: answer: She lives in Rome. These look for extra information. aren't you? Can you help me with my homework? 3.. To make this kind of question. Does she live in Rome? Where does she live? Rome.You're clever. would you? Unit 73 Question Words #1 As well as inversion and using do.

we can use what.. Instead of using why we can often use what.which and what can also both be followed by noun phrases to ask for specific information: {which/what} + {noun phrase} . we can say what kind of: What kind of car did you buy? To make a general inquiry.. it is very formal.for: Why are you here? What are you here for? To be very specific. What time is it? Which doctor did you go to? Note: this last question is an extremely hilarious pun in English.. formal and informal: Who did you vote for? For whom did you vote? and What is he working on? On what is he working? We can use whom or what after a preposition..like: What was Paris like? What will your new job be like? For more information we can use: {how} + {adjective/adverb} How big is the house? How much was the coat? How far is London? How often do you watch television? 71 ...

To do this we replace the subject with a question word: statement: question: statement: question: answer: Statement: question: answer: {subject} + {verb} ... we make negatives by using do not or does not and the infinitive: 72 . When the verb we are using is be we make the negative by adding the negative particle. {question word} + {verb} . NEGATIVES Unit 76 How to make Negatives We make negatives in two ways. But we can also ask about the subject. Where do I work? In London.. Note: we cannot use when or where to ask questions about the subject.Unit 75 Subject Questions question words ask about the object of a statement: statement: question: answer: I work in London. not: {be} + {not} She is not English They were not here. John's father has joined the army. Either using not or by using do not: I am not going to answer that question. Winter is coming. What is coming? Winter is.. He did not telephone me in time. Whose father has joined the army? John's father. With other verbs.

She lives here.{do} + {not} + {infinitive} I do not live in London. cannot: can not = cannot = can't Sometimes we change words from positive to negative use: positive negative I have a lot of money. I do not live here. She does not live here. I will not be seeing him next week. I have no money. I have some money. I want some too. we usually use n't instead of not: is not are not would not have not had not There are exceptions: I am not = I'm not will not = won't shall not = shan't The negative of can is can not. I don't have much money. I have already gone. He lived here. She does not live in London. I haven't gone yet. The do verb shows the tense and number of the main verb which is in the infinitive: positive negative I live here. He did not live here. They did not telephone. I don't want any either. we add not after the first part of the verb: {auxiliary/modal} + [auxiliary] + [auxiliary] + {infinitive} I can dance but she can not dance. This is sometimes made into one word. When we use a modal or auxiliary verb. = = = = = isn't aren't wouldn't haven't hadn't 73 . Arsenal have not won a match this season. In informal situations.

we use an alternative time adverbial: I couldn't leave in time to see the match. We can use the opposite word (an antonym) and a negative: {word} = {not} + {antonym} He failed. There are no people. Sometimes we must turn a phrase into a negative meaning: Is this the only way? Isn't there another way? and He was almost deaf. He didn't forget and neither did she. * I wouldn't do nothing for you. I wasn't early enough to see the match. Unit 77 Negative Words We can make negatives by using negative words: . In this case.none 74 . He could hardly hear. He didn't pass. .Unit 77 Negative phrases We use negative phrases to give different sentences the same meaning: He remembered and so did she. There's nothing I wouldn't do for you.no There are some people. In this case we need to use there is to avoid a double negative: I would do anything for you.

There isn't any left. There is none left. - neither...nor Either Pete or Jeff will help. Neither Pete nor Jeff will help. - no one, nothing, nobody, nowhere There is someone in the room. There is no one in the room. Using no is stronger than saying isn't any.

ENGLISHES Unit 79 American, British & Australian English

American English (AmE) and British English (BrE) are almost the same. The biggest difference between the two is with pronunciation & accent. There are, however, a few differences in spelling, vocabulary (including differences with Australian English AuE as well) and grammar. In general, there are very few problems or misunderstandings when AmE speakers and BrE speakers talk together. Unit 80 AmE & BrE Grammar # 1

BrE sometimes uses the present perfect while AmE use the past simple: BrE: Am E: BrE: Am E: Have you eaten all those biscuits? Did you eat all those cookies? Have you ever seen the film, Casablanca? Did you ever see the movie, Casablanca?

BrE uses have got while AmE tends to use have: BrE : Am E: Have you got new training shoes? Do you have new sneakers?
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BrE : Am E: BrE : Am E:

I've got some Wellington boots you can borrow. I have some rubbers you can borrow. I haven't got time for a holiday this year. I don't have time for a vacation this year.

There are some differences in irregular verbs between AmE and BrE. Two major differences are: Br E: Am E: Br E: Am E: dive - dived - dived dive - dove - dived get - got - got get - got -gotten She dived into the pool. She dove into the pool. The baby has got a lot bigger. The baby has gotten a lot bigger.

Unit 81

AmE & BrE Grammar #2

BrE uses from...to/till/until while AmE uses from...through: BrE : Am E: The optician is open from eight till four. The optometrist is open from eight through four.

There are also a number of other differences in BrE and AmEprepositions, e.g. different to/than, at/on the weekend, ten past/after midnight. BrE can use shall for offers and suggestions while AmE uses should: BrE: Am E: Shall I call a taxi? Should I call cab?

BrE uses a lot ofquestion tags. AmE does not; instead it uses words like right and ok: BrE: Am I'll park on the verge, shall I? I'll park on the shoulder, right?
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E: BrE can use a singular or plural verb for collective nouns while AmE uses only a singular verb: BrE: Am E: The team are playing badly. The team is playing badly.

In informal speech, AmE sometimes use adverbs without the -ly ending: BrE: Am E: Autumn was really cold this year. Fall was real cold this year.

With double imperatives beginning with go, AmE sometimes drops the joining and: BrE: Am E: Go and open the door. Go open the door.

Unit 82

AmE & BrE Vocabulary

This section applies mainly to AmE and BrE. AuE is the same as BrE below unless shown otherwise. Miscellaneous words: AmE alumnus anyplace apartment attorney babycarriage bar billboard broiler call-collect can candy BrE and AuE graduate anywhere BrE: flat AuE: apartment/flat BrE: barrister, solicitor AuE: lawyer pram pub BrE: hoarding AuE: billboard grill reverse charge tin BrE: sweets
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BrE anywhere autumn barrister, solicitor biscuit caretaker chemist's condom cooker cot cotton crisps

AmE anyplace fall attorney cookie janitor drug store rubber stove crib thread potato chips

school store someplace . university shop somewhere closet checkers thumbtack pacifier Realtor spigot apartment alumnus broiler first floor billboard vacation pitcher elevator corn math no place private hospital optometrist liquor store kerosene mail babycarriage bar stroller railroad spool call-collect eraser garbage trash college. college.checkers closet cookie corn crib dishtowel drug store elevator eraser faculty fall faucet first floor flashlight garbage hobo janitor kerosene liquor store mail math mean no place optometrist pacifier pitcher potato chips private hospital railroad Realtor rest room rubber rubbers school AuE: lollies draughts cupboard biscuit BrE: maize AuE: corn cot tea-towel BrE: chemist's AuE: chemist/pharmacy lift rubber staff (university) autumn tap ground floor torch rubbish tramp caretaker BrE: paraffin AuE: kerosene BrE: off-licence AuE: bottle shop BrE: post AuE: mail maths vicious nowhere BrE: oculist. 78 cupboard draughts drawing pin dummy (for a baby) estate agent external tap flat graduate grill ground floor hoarding holiday jug lift maize maths nowhere nursing home oculist. optician off-licence paraffin post pram pub push-chair railway reel reverse charge rubber rubbish rubbish school. optician AuE: optometrist dummy (for a baby) jug BrE: crisps AuE: chips nursing home railway estate agent toilet condom BrE: Wellington boots AuE: gum boots school.

gear-lever main road bonnet crossroads engine silencer sump policeman road surface saloon car verge pavement roundabout caravan van. lorry 79 BrE bonnet boot (of a car) bumper. flat tyre motorway petrol gear-stick. mudguard car caravan crash crossroads diversion dual carriageway engine gear-stick. flat tyre road surface roundabout saloon car silencer sump taxi AmE hood trunk fender automobile trailer wreck intersection detour divided highway motor gearshift highway expressway freeway sidewalk gas patrolman flat pavement traffic circle sedan muffler oil pan cab . gear-lever main road motorway motorway pavement petrol policeman puncture. In AmE fag is an offensive term for a homosexual. Words for road & traffic AmE automobile cab detour divided highway expressway fender flat freeway gas gearshift highway hood intersection motor muffler oil pan patrolman pavement sedan shoulder sidewalk traffic circle trailer truck BrE car taxi diversion dual carriageway motorway bumper. mudguard puncture.someplace spigot spool store stove stroller subway thread thumbtack trash vacation university somewhere external tap reel shop cooker BrE: push-chair AuE: pusher BrE: underground AuE: loop cotton drawing pin rubbish holiday staff (university) sweets tap tea-towel tin toilet torch tramp underground vicious Wellington boots faculty candy faucet dishtowel can rest room flashlight hobo subway mean rubbers Note: In BrE fag is an informal word for cigarette.

lorry verge windscreen turnpike truck shoulder windshield Words for clothes & accessories AmE billfold coin-purse cuffs diaper pants pantyhose pocketbook. purse diaper coin-purse pantyhose sneakers pants cuffs shorts undershirt vest billfold zipper 80 . purse shorts sneakers suspenders undershirt vest zipper BrE wallet purse turn-ups (on trousers) nappy trousers tights handbag underpants training shoes braces vest waistcoat zip BrE braces handbag nappy purse tights training shoes trousers turn-ups (on trousers) underpants vest waistcoat wallet zip AmE suspenders pocketbook.trunk turnpike windshield wreck boot (of a car) toll motorway windscreen crash toll motorway van.

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