TITU MAIORESCU UNIVERSITY, BUCHAREST THE FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF INFORMATION DEPARTMENT OF MODERN LANGUAGES

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR STUDENTS

Bucharest, 2006

Foreword Basic English Grammar for Students is a course for upper-intermediate and advanced students of English who need to study and practice using the grammar of the language. It can be used as classroom material or for selfstudy. The course is intended mainly for upper intermediate and advanced students. It concentrates on those structures which students want to use but which often cause difficulty. The course can serve both as a basis for review and as a means of practicing new material. It’s also useful for students whose knowledge of English is good but still make grammatical mistakes and who need material for reference. The course consists of 82 units, each of which concentrates on a particular point of grammar. Some areas are covered in more than one unit. In each unit there are explanations and examples. At the beginning of the book the CONTENTS pages provide a full list of units. The material will be studied during the 1st and 2nd year as follows: Units 141 in year 1, Units 42-82 in year 2. Auxiliary materials and exercises can be taken from the Longman Advanced e-course that is on the same cd with the grammar. Useful grammar exercises for consolidation can be taken from ENGLISH GRAMMAR- THEORY & PRACTICE by Constantin Paidos, Editura POLIROM.

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CONTENTS FOREWORD THE NOUN Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 What is a noun? Common & Proper Nouns Countable & Non-countable Nouns The Plural of Nouns 9 9 10 12 4

DETERMINERS Unit 5 What is a Determiner? Unit 6 Articles Unit 7 The Zero Article Unit 8 The Indefinite Article Unit 9 The Definite Article THE ADJECTIVE Unit 10 What is an adjective? Unit 11 Order of the adjectives Unit 12 Demonstrative adjectives Unit 13 Participles as adjectives THE ADVERB Unit 14 What is an adverb? Unit 15 Adverbial Clauses Unit 16 Adverbs of Degree Unit 17 Adverbs of Manner Unit 18 Adverbs of Place Unit 19 Adverbs of Time THE COMPARISON Unit 20 The Comparison Unit 21 Comparatives & Superlatives Unit 22 Irregular Comparisons Unit 23 Comparison Phrases THE VERB Unit 24 What is a verb? Unit 25 Auxiliary Verbs Unit 26 Irregular verbs
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14 15 17 18 18

18 19 19 20

20 21 22 22 23 23

23 24 25 26

27 28 29

Unit 27 Tenses of the verbs Unit 28 Present Continuous Unit 29 Present Simple Unit 30 Present Simple or Continuous? Unit 31 Past Simple Unit32 Past Continuous Unit 33 Present Perfect Simple Unit 34 Present Perfect Simple or Past Simple? Unit 35 Present Perfect Continuous Unit 36 Present Perfect Continuous or Present Perfect Simple? Unit 37 Past Perfect Simple Unit 38 Past Perfect Continuous Unit 38 Future IMPERATIVES Unit 40 When to use Imperatives? INFINITIVES Unit 41 When to use Infinitives? MODAL VERBS Unit 42 Characteristics of Modal Verbs Unit 43 Modal Ability Unit 44 Modal Necessity Unit 45 Modal Offers Unit 46 Modal Permission Unit 47 Modal Possibility Unit 48 Modal Requests Unit 49 Verbs & Prepositions Unit 50 Verb Patterns CONDITIONALS Unit 51 What is a Conditional? Unit 52 Conditional 1 Unit 53 Conditional 2 Unit 54 Conditional 1 or Conditional 2? Unit 55 Conditional 3 Unit 56 Conditional Clauses Unit 57 Miscellaneous 34 34 34 37 39 40 41 42 43 44 44 45 45 46 46 47 49 50 50 51 51 52 53 53 55 55 56 56 57 57 57 6 .

British & Australian English Unit 80 AmE & BrE Grammar #1 Unit 81 AmE & BrE Grammar #2 Unit 82 AmE & BrE Vocabulary 75 75 76 77 7 .PASSIVE VOICE Unit 58 Active vs Passive Unit 59 Passive Verbs Unit 60 Causative Form Unit 61 Passive by… Unit 62 Passive Forms Unit 63Passive Object Clauses Unit 64 Passive use PREPOSITIONS Unit 65 What are prepositions? Unit 66 Prepositions of Place Unit 67 Prepositions of Time Unit 68 Word & Phrase + Preposition QUESTIONS Unit 69 How to ask questions? Unit 70 Direct & Indirect Questions Unit 71 Negative Questions Unit 72 Question tags Unit 73 Question Words #1 Unit 74 Question Words #2 Unit 75 Subject Questions NEGATIVES Unit 76 How to make Negatives Unit 77 Negative Phrases Unit 78 Negative Words 73 74 75 66 68 68 69 70 70 72 64 64 65 66 59 60 61 61 62 62 63 ENGLISHES Unit 79 American .

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elephant lesson. this means it refers only to one book. house but we talk about Wandsworth Prison. telephone. We use common nouns to talk about objects or concepts: objects events feelings time concepts table. teachers To make a plural noun. airplanes. if it has a name we use a proper noun. hospital. The big difference between these and common nouns is that proper nouns are spelt with a capital letter. taste. causation Note: We can divide common nouns into two further groups. a place or a title: Queen Victoria. If we want to talk about more than one book. we use a noun. teacher There are only two forms of nouns: singular and plural.THE NOUN Unit 1 What is a noun? When we want to talk about something. hill. we use a common noun. love year. Cleopatra. Unit 2 Common & Proper Nouns When we talk about nouns. The White House 9 . Book is a singular noun. hear. airplane. Buddha. water. smell or touch them). we must use a plural noun: books. We talk about concrete nouns when we refer to objects and we talk about abstract nouns when we refer to concepts which are mental rather than physical (i. The second group of nouns are called proper nouns. Mars. atom. we can divide them into two different groups. hate. we say: prison. Australia. millennium warfare. Freddie Kruger When we talk about a place which does not have a name. A proper noun is the name of a person. Asia. London. For example.e. we cannot see. telephones. St Guy's Hospital. minute. revolution fear. brotherhood. Here are some common nouns: book. we usually add -s to the end of the singular noun. A noun is the name of the thing we can see.

The water is cold. research. toothpaste If the non-countable noun is the subject of a sentence. tea. depending on the noun (this is called subject-verb agreement): The book is on the table. furniture. this means we can count the object (or concept) they refer to. the verb is singular or plural. knowledge. This butter has melted. for example. Common non-countable nouns include: liquids foodst uffs miscell aneou s beer. stand in a field and count: four goats and three cows A countable noun has two forms: singular and plural. cheese. pasta. Note: non-countable nouns are sometimes known as mass nouns. When the countable noun is the subject of the sentence. 10 . spaghetti. wine butter. Most nouns are countable. These groups are known as countable and non-countable. whiskey. wheat advice. Some objects (or concepts) cannot be counted. The cars are in the garage. grain. and we use the plural form when we talk about more than one object (or concept). meat. we use it with a singular verb: My money is in my wallet. but the Queen has fifteen houses. sugar. pepper. Milk is very good for babies. We use the singular form when we talk about one object (or concept). I have one house. hair. cola. It is important to know the difference between these two groups as there are different grammar rules for each. salt. lemonade. water. We can say: There is one book on the table. We cannot stand on the beach and count: * four sands and three waters sand and water are examples of non-countable nouns and they only have a singular form: The sand is hot. and three books on the chair. milk. money. news. progress. juice. rice. luggage.Unit 3 Countable & Non-countable Nouns There are two main groups of nouns in English. We can.

we often use them in expressions: three cups of tea two glasses of whiskey With some common expressions. countable: three teas two whiskies Some nouns are countable and non-countable but with different meanings: He suffers badly from the cold. in the second we are talking about a specific wine. To express quantity with a countable noun. cold is non-countable and refers to cold weather and low temperature. we can delete the container and make the noncountable noun. we usually use an article instead: 11 . please. The news is not good. spaghetti Remember. non-countable nouns have a singular verb and do not have a plural form: He gave me some information about flights to Rome. In the first example. there are a number of different ways we can do this. I've got a lot of work to do. research. If the number is one. I have a cold. hair. in the second example. money. When we talk about quantity with countable and non-countable nouns. When we use non-countable nouns. In the first example we are talking about wine in general. we can use a number and a plural noun: There are three bananas on the table. a cold refers to a blocked nose and lots of sneezing. Often when we talk about an example of a non-countable noun then we make the noun countable: I'd like some wine.This whiskey tastes awful! Students often make mistakes with these non-countable nouns: furniture. an example of the whole. He had twenty-seven sheep on the farm. news. This is a fine wine. The spaghetti is ready now.

mile.He has a cold. packet. cup. There isn't much wine in the bottle. tin. please. yard. There are a few problems. box. He drank three glasses of wine. When we talk about a non-countable noun. tube. Or we can be non-specific and talk about approximate numbers: There are some people in the office. any. bottle. I'd like a pound of cheese. To express quantity with a non-countable noun. slice. Some other common expressions include: bar. * Can you give me four informations? Instead. little and a singular form: Here is some sugar. To make them plural we add -s to the end: singular plural 1 book 2 books 1 car 4 cars 1 house 8 houses Some nouns have two very different words for the singular and the plural: singular plural 1 tooth 2 teeth 1 goose 2 geese 1 foot 2 feet 1 child 2 children 1 ox 2 oxen 1 oasis 2 oases 1 axis 2 axes 1 man 2 men 1 woman 2 women 12 . kilo. loaf. we cannot use a number and a plural form: * There are three rices in the bowl. ton. we can use an expression which shows an amount or a container: {quantity} + {amount/container} + {of} There is one box of rice in the cupboard. pound. piece. sheet. Unit 4 The Plural of Nouns Most nouns in English are regular. much. jar. we must use some. meter.

crowd. measles. Microsoft. for example: clothes. for example: army. news. earnings. thanks. in fact. gang. the BBC We use singular verb if we think of the group as a whole: Arsenal is playing well today. Some nouns look plural but are. means. for example: athletics. public. etc. Some groups. there is no real difference: Their headquarters are situated in central London. Their headquarters is situated in central London. committee. team. His savings were wiped out in the crash. works (= factory/workshop. mathematics. company. however. A collective noun describes a group of nouns describing the same thing. are always plural: 13 . goods. politics The verb is singular here: His measles is spreading.) The verb can be either singular or plural. troops These nouns take a plural verb: The contents are labeled on the jar. savings. club. Or plural if we are thinking of the individuals: Arsenal are a mixed bunch of players. group. gymnastics. Arsenal. contents. Politics is boring! Some words are either plural or singular. for example: headquarters. audience. riches. class. singular.1 mouse 2 mice 1 medium 2 media Some nouns are the same whether they are singular or plural: singular plural 1 sheep 2 sheep 1 salmon 2 salmon 1 aircraft 2 aircraft 1 trout 2 trout Some nouns have alternative plurals: singular plural 1 penny 2 pence/pennies 1 person 2 persons/people 1 fish 2 fish/fishes Some nouns have a plural but no singular.

one-quarter two-thirds.the articles my .that .neither all . we use a singular verb: Twenty kilos is the maximum weight for suitcases. Six feet six inches is tall for a man. When we have a noun phrase of measurement.twice .your .half double .neither either . for example: a pair of: glasses. we always use the plural. jeans. They tell us about the number of items we are talking about.his..which .any enough enough this . numbers first second third..three times..every either .each each ..these .those demonstrative adjectives every .. and we can generally only use one determiner for a noun phrase..an . possessives whose . For example: nou determiner n cats sleep a lot cat sleeps a lot a cat sleeps a lot the cat sleeps a lot my cats sleep a lot most cats sleep a lot some Determiners usually come before the noun.any some .both .what question words some . at the beginning of the noun phrase. DETERMINERS Unit 5 What is a determiner? Determiners are words we put in front of a noun or noun phrase. trousers We use a plural verb: Your jeans are ripped.. 14 .The police are coming! The cattle are lowing.. scissors. they often restrict the use of the noun. When we talk about a pair of things. These are the classes of determiners: example see a .

few fewer little less many more much a lot lots of several - fewest least most of few . we use the zero article (i. When we talk about a group of nouns in general. 15  a/an the .e.three. When we talk about one specific example of the group.. the: The men from Nagasaki chew tobacco.little . I like the taste of malt whisky. When we talk about one example of a group we use the indefinite article.lots of Unit 6 Articles There are three articles in English: the zero article the indefinite article the definite article We use these articles with nouns.many . I like a cup of tea before bed. we use the definite article. Here we are talking about one special cat: The cat with the gray and black coat is mine. we are making a general comment about all cats and all dogs.two .. nothing): Dogs bark and cats purr. it is useful to help to explain how we use the other articles. we use the zero article.a lot of . In this example. Here we are talking about one cat from many: There is a cat in the garden. Here we are talking about all cats: Cats like sleeping. When we talk about a sub-group of nouns. When we want to talk about all the nouns in a group.one . Note: The zero article means that we do not use anything. I like drinking water. we use the definite article.much .

Sometimes we can choose whether to use an article or not. When we talk about one noun in general. please. the speaker does not mind if it is red or blue or old or new.Compare this with: Men are often paid more than women for the same job. the: Which pen do you want? .an hour.a union. This is because non-countable nouns have the idea of a large amount: Water is essential for healthy crops. Note: We use a before a consonant sound and an before a vowel sound. When we want to talk about a single example of a noun. the important fact is that there is an elephant in the garden. When we talk about a specific example of a group. the speaker is not concerned whether the elephant is old or young. The water in this river is very polluted. The banana has a curious design. I am impressed with the flowers in your garden. Also take care with words like union which are spelt with a vowel but start with a consonant sound . 16 . a bull or a cow.I want the red pen. When we use non-countable nouns. The people in my town always vote Conservative. We often use the when we have adjectives or other qualifications of the noun which restrict it: Flowers make a house brighter. Both of these mean the same thing. In the first example it makes no difference which pen is lent. I prefer the red flowers. we treat them like plural nouns. we use the indefinite article a or an: Can you lend me a pen please? I saw an elephant playing in the garden. etc. we can use the definite or indefinite article. Be careful with words like hour which are spelt with a consonant but start with a vowel sound . we use the definite article. In the second example. and it does not matter which one. We can also use the definite article with a singular noun to mean all nouns: Bananas have a curious design. Both of these are possible: People in my town always vote Conservative. The article we use here depends on the point of view of the speaker.

prison. Unit 7 The Zero Article The zero article. class. When we talk about an institution. the speaker does not want any pen.. 2000 Joe. I don't need any more.. We do not use one unless we want to specify exactly how many we want. Europe Monday. Grandfather came to dinner later by train and Grandmother managed to escape from prison to join us. Britain. we use the zero article. night Cosmopolitan. university. school. we often introduce a new subject with a. the speaker firstly talks about elephants in general (zero article). Sydney. In this example. Can you lend me one pound please. court. college. but a special or specific one. we use the. America. I only saw one cat.. Arabia London. sea. Mrs Smith Winter. This can be mentioned previously (as above) or be obvious from the context: You look upset. what's the problem? The meaning of a/an is one. Cairo Acacia Avenue. we do not use one very much and mostly use a or an. midday. when we talk about it again. Sunset Boulevard 17 . New York. When we use a noun with a preposition. hospital. noon. Asia. In general. We use the to talk about a noun we already know about. When we are speaking. work. years people seasons & months festivals continents days parts of day/night magazines countries cities & towns streets 1961. home. Tokyo. Elephants are annoying! I saw an elephant climb into my garden this morning and then the elephant ate all my tomatoes.No.. Pall Mall.In this example. then about an example of the genre (indefinite article) and finally about the previously mentioned example (definite article). February Easter Africa. we often do not use an article: I went to school but left my books at home. we use the: He was taken to court to be tried. and then. in the court he met an old friend. Did you see two cats in the garden? . Mother was in church and father at sea. When we talk about it as a building. church. Nouns in this group include: bed. 1995. market. Time America. town. Tuesday midnight.

number 10 Heathrow. We use a or an when we talk about: jobs beliefs nationalities He is an artist and his wife is a plumber. the Natural History Museum The Independent. Unit 9 The Definite Article. the chairperson the Thames. Gatwick Everest. the United States of America Unit 8 The Indefinite Article . the Mall. the worst. the President. tennis. the Highlands the piano. the Red Lion. the bagpipes the Bismarck. the Black Sea the wheel. He is an American and she is a Swede. the Smiths the United States. the Matterhorn. He is a Buddhist and his wife is an atheist. the Nile. K2. bar billiards Exceptions include: the Hague. the Suez. the Lusitania THE ADJECTIVE Unit 10 What is an Adjective? Adjectives are words we use to describe a noun. the Sheraton. the White House. seas inventions titles rivers & canals public buildings newspapers superlatives families countries of union mountain chains instruments ships the Pacific. the West Indies the Alps. boring book 18 . the internal combustion engine the Queen. red. We use the when we talk about: oceans. They usually come before it: a big. The Daily Mirror the best.buildings airports mountains games Buckingham Palace. We never use the indefinite article with non-countable nouns: I swam in a clean water and ate a pasta. Mont Blanc football.

The noun in this phrase is book and the adjectives tell us what size it is (big). never more than two or. These are a kind of determiner. Often we can change the order of these adjectives but we usually put the most important first. Adjectives never change their form. we can say: siz opinion e a big tasty sandwich When you write. three in a phrase: the sharp. These are general adjectives about the size. or that if the noun is far away (in space or time): Look at this picture here. what color it is (red) and what we think of it (boring). they are always the same: the ugly woman and the ugly man the ugly football team and the ugly goalkeeper the ugly dog and the ugly scenery Unit 11 Order of the Adjectives When we use more than one adjective in a phrase. they usually follow this order: a g color origin material purpose e n a e red knife Swiss plastic army w We can have other types of adjectives which we put before the age. When we talk about a singular or non-countable noun. at most. Certainly. Here we are concerned with taste: opinion size a tasty sandwich big But if we think the most important thing about the sandwich is its size. the shape and our opinion of the noun. it is best not to use too many adjectives. Can you see that mountain over there in the distance? I'm going on holiday this week. thick sandwich Unit 12 Demonstrative Adjectives We use demonstrative adjectives to talk about specific examples of a noun. Swiss army knife a big. we use this if the noun is close to us (in space or time). 19 .

). or those if the noun is far away (in space or time): Look at all these pictures here. We use the -ing participle as an object adjective. 20 . THE ADVERB Unit 14 What is an adverb? We use adverbs to give us more information about an adjective: The only red bike. etc. However. a verb: She swam beautifully. verb. or the sentence as a whole: Unfortunately it is raining so I cannot visit the zoo. we use these if the noun is close to us (in space or time). we also use adverbs in many other ways. Unit 13 Participles as Adjectives We can often make an adjective from a verb.That was a long time before I was born! When we talk about a plural noun. The disappointed candidate felt cheated by the result. it describes how the subject of a sentence feels: She was interested in the program. The candidate objected to the disappointing result. We do this by using the -ing and -ed participles: verb -ed participle -ing participle interest interested interesting We use the -ed participle as a subject adjective. many people see adverbs as the group of words in English which do not fit into any other category (such as noun. I remember all those summer days when I was young. Can you see those mountains? I've been feeling quite ill these days. it describes theobject of the sentence: The program was interesting (for her).

21 . when: I've been ill lately. Standing up. Using perfect forms makes the construction more formal: Standing up. he introduced himself. he introduced himself. Many. Adverb order If we have more than one adverb in an adverb phrase. she can see clearly. The second clause can be turned into an adverbial clause by using the present participle: She heard the door open while watching television. We can use the present participle by itself to show something happening simultaneously or just previously to the main event: Watching TV. how often: I regularly go to the gym.We can use adverbs to answer questions about how: He wrote crookedly in the diary. adverbs end in -ly. I hardly knew him. It is a clear day. he drove badly. but not all. she heard the door open. I walked out. or where something happens: Go away! Adverbs can also make a description stronger or weaker: She is totally insane. Laughing. we generally use this order: manner place time you must go quickly into the kitchen after lunch Unit 15 Adverbial Clauses We can join two clauses using a simple conjunction: She heard the door open while she was watching television. we make adverbs from adjectives by adding -ly to the end: He is a bad driver.

well 22 . Unit 16 Adverbs of Degree We use adverbs of degree to tell us how much something happened: Is there enough wine? She can hardly sing. Unit 17 Adverbs of Manner We use adverbs of manner to tell us how something happened. She sang that song badly. near. he introduced himself.Having stood up. badly. can't say. But these are more written than spoken. late. though sometimes they come before the main verb: That book was written badly. desperately. We usually put them before the adjective or adverb they describe: too high extremely quickly Many of these adverbs end in -ly. coldly. Common irregular adverbs of manner include: high. Perfect forms can also replace clauses of reason: Not knowing. They describe the way or style of doing something: You can dance well. Many of these adverbs end in -ly: awkwardly.. We usually put them at the end of the sentence. Drunk. we got lost..

THE COMPARISON Unit 20 The comparison When we compare two or more items. I saw him last Sunday.Unit 18 Adverbs of Place We use adverbs of place to tell us where something happened. We usually put them at the end of the sentence. Do you come here often? Sometimes we can put them at the beginning of the sentence for emphasis: In the middle of the road there was a dead cat. Many of these adverbs do not have any special form and they are often prepositional phrases of place. Unit 19 Adverbs of Time We use adverbs of time to tell us when something happened. We usually put them at the end of the sentence: I'll telephone on Thursday. place comes before time in the end position (see adverb order): We left there at midnight. To compare nouns. They met me here yesterday. Many of these adverbs do not have any special form. They met me here yesterday. we can change the adjective describing them by using comparative and superlative adjectives: 23 . We can change the form of the word or use a phrase. we have different ways to do it depending on the items we are comparing. I saw him at the cinema. Sometimes we can put them at the beginning for emphasis: Next week is my birthday. They are often preposition phrases. We met one year ago today.

Enid is pretty though Aleka is prettier. Unit 21 Comparatives & Superlatives When we want to compare two nouns or two verbs. Large words use the and more and most: Superlative comparative small extensive smaller more extensive 24 the smallest the most extensive . Small words add -er and -est to make the comparative and superlative. we use the superlative: Jupiter is the biggest planet in the solar system. To compare two items. We can also use different comparison phrases to make comparisons. In the company. Sandra works the most carefully. He looks as if he is the tallest man in the room. Aleka is prettier than Enid. These follow the same usage as the adjectives and adverbs they replace. We often use this form in this pattern: {comparative} + {than} He is taller than me. he is bigger. For example: He is as tall as me. we use the comparative and superlative forms of their adjectives or adverbs. We are more efficient than you. we use the comparative: I am big. we can change the adverb describing them by using comparative and superlative adverbs: Olga works carefully though Aleka works more carefully. he works more carefully. He is so tall that he has to bend to get through the door. To compare verbs. She works carefully. To compare more than two items. He is the tallest man I have ever seen. But Olga is the prettiest of them all. But Enid works the most carefully of them all.

Unit 22 Irregular comparisons Some words make their comparative and superlative in an irregular way: adjective/adverb comparative superlative good/well bad/badly far far many/much/a lot of a little old old better worse farther further more less older elder the best the worst the farthest the furthest the most the least the oldest the eldest Note We use old . narrow. common.more friendly . simple and stupid. That was the most disgusting meal I have ever had to eat.the friendliest friendly . easy.older .eldest for family relationships Some words can take both forms: friendly .the oldest when we talk about objects or people and we use old elder . {present {ever} perfect} It was the most boring film I have ever seen..the most friendly Other examples include: clever. The rest of the sentence is implied: This book is more difficult (than that book). dirty. 25 . gentle. They dance less enthusiastically.. quiet. silly. We often use the superlative with the present perfect: {superlative} . happy. shallow. funny. noisy. polite.If the context is clear. we do not need to use a complete comparison.friendlier . We can say: This book is less interesting.

. {so} + {adjective} + {a/an} + {non-countable noun phrase} + {that} 26 . {the same}…{as} This color is the same as that color This is the same color as that.as They are not so clever as us.. we can use like or as: He looks like you. It looks as though it is going to snow. I feel as if I haven't slept for a week. They looked like they had been in a fight. They are not as clever as us. To show ability or inability. we can use this phrase: {different} + {from} They are different from us. we can use these phrases: {such} + {noun phrase} + {that} He is such a good player that he will play for the national team..Unit 23 Comparison Phrases To show similarity.. I am very tired. in negative sentences we use as. They work as slowly as I do.. like means the same but it is very informal: Their clothes were ripped.. To show difference. we can use these phrases: {as} + {adjective/adverb} + {as} He is as tall as me. In positive sentences we can use as. No one drives as the Italians do.. We use the following expressions when we are explaining something we have seen or noticed: {subject} + {verb} + {as} + {if/though} . The weather is cold..as. It was such bad weather that they canceled the excursion.as or so. When two people or objects are similar.

She works. we use a verb. I am working This change tells us when something happens (past. I have worked. we can change their tense and form to change the meaning: I work. {adjective} + {for} + {person} + {to} + {infinitive} That was easy for you to say. talk When we use verbs. The weather was so bad that they canceled the excursion. walk. To make some tense changes. THE VERB Unit 24 What is a verb? When we want to talk about what the subject of a sentence does. {so} + {adjective} + {that} He is so good that he will play for the national team. I work.He is so good a player that he will play for the national team. They are so bad a team that they will all be sacked. We are too old to fight. Here are some simple verbs: run. I worked. we use different forms of the verb: I was working. {too} + {adjective} + {to} + {infinitive} This is too good to be true! He is too small to be a policeman. present. I worked. future). read. 27 . He is too good for me. Verbs tell us about an action. It was difficult for me to do. He is too good for me to beat. {too} + {adjective} + {for} + {person} + {to} + {infinitive} It was too distant for me to see.

I must go. When we join two verbs to make a verb phrase. Some verbs always go with the same preposition: I succeeded in passing my driving test. It must rain soon. I worked yesterday. and some are simple. We put them before the main verb to make different tenses. we use certain patterns: I want to go. He is not living here anymore. She listened to the radio last night. negatives and questions. Unit 25 Auxiliary verbs There are three auxiliary verbs: be. they have the same time reference but have different meanings: I was working yesterday. The only tenses where we do not use an auxiliary verb are the present simple and the past simple. To make questions: {auxiliary} + {} + [auxiliary] + {verb} Do you want a cup of tea? Has he been watching television? 28 . We had talked for over an hour. We can also use modal verbs to tell us about how we feel about something happening: You should see a doctor. Different tenses are made thus: {auxiliary} + [auxiliary] + {main verb} She has been waiting for three hours.Some verbs are continuous or progressive. have and do. Negatives are made thus: {auxiliary} + {not} + [auxiliary] + {main verb} They have not been to Hollywood yet. We can use one or more auxiliary verbs together.

do and have as lexical verbs: I am English. She did it! They have thirteen cats in their house.bereaved besought bestride bet bid bound bitten bled blown broken bred brought broadcast built burnt burst bought cast caught chid . Unit 26 Irregular Verbs Most verbs are regular. this is a list of the irregular verbs in English (those in bold type are common irregular verbs): infinitive arise awake be bear beat become befall beget begin behold bend bereave beseech bestride bet bid bind bite bleed blow break breed bring broadcast build burn burst buy can cast catch chide past arose awoke was bore beat became befell begot began beheld bent bereft .bereaved besought bestride bet bid bound bit bled blew broke bred brought broadcast built burnt burst bought see: can cast caught chid 29 past participle arisen awoken been borne beaten become befallen begotten begun beheld bent bereft .We also use be.

choose cleave cling come cost creep cut deal dig do draw dream drink drive dwell eat fall feed feel fight find fling fly forbear forbid forecast forget forgive forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang have hear hew hide hit hold hurt keep kneel knit chose cleft .hanged had heard hewed hid hit held hurt kept knelt knit 30 chosen cleft .clove clung came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew dreamt drank drove dwelt ate fell fed felt fought found flung flew forbore forbade forecast forgot forgave forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung .hewed hidden hit held hurt kept knelt knit .hanged had heard hewn .clove clung come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven dwelt eaten fallen fed felt fought found flung flown forborne forbidden forecast forgotten forgiven forsaken frozen got given gone ground grown hung .

lighted lost made meant met misled mistaken misunderstood mown .mowed outdone outgrown overbid overcome overdone overfed overridden overrun overtaken paid put quit read rent rewound rid ridden rung risen run sawn .know lead lean leap learn leave lend let lie light lose make may mean meet mislead mistake misunderstand mow outdo outgrow overbid overcome overdo overfeed override overrun overtake pay put quit read rend rewind rid ride ring rise run saw say see seek sell send set knew led leant leapt learnt left lent let lay lit .lighted lost made see: may meant met misled mistook misunderstood mowed outdid outgrew overbid overcame overdid overfed overrode overran overtook paid put quit read rent rewound rid rode rang rose ran sawed said saw sought sold sent set 31 known led leant leapt learnt left lent let lain lit .sawed said seen sought sold sent set .

sewed shaken shorn .sheared shed shone shit .sew shake shall shear shed shine shit shoot show shrink shut sing sink sit slay sleep slide sling slink slit smell smite sow speak speed spell spend spill spin spit split spoil spread spring stand steal stick sting stink strew stride strike string strive swear sweat sewed shook see: shall sheared shed shone shit .strewed strode struck strung striven sworn sweat .showed shrunk shut sung sunk sat slain slept slid slung slunk slit smelt smitten sown .shat shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slew slept slid slung slunk slit smelt smote sowed spoke sped spelt spent spilt span spat split spoilt spread sprang stood stole stuck stung stank strewed strode struck strung strove swore sweat 32 sewn .sowed spoken sped spelt spent spilt spun spat split spoilt spread sprung stood stolen stuck stung stunk strewn .shat shot shown .

swelled swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrived thrown thrust trodden unbent unbound underbid undergone understood undertaken undone unwound upheld upset woken worn woven wed wept wet won wound withdrawn withheld withstood wrung written 33 .sweep swell swim swing take teach tear tell think thrive throw thrust tread unbend unbind underbid undergo understand undertake undo unwind uphold upset wake wear weave wed weep wet will win wind withdraw withhold withstand wring write swept swelled swam swung took taught tore told thought throve threw thrust trod unbent unbound underbid underwent understood undertook undid unwound upheld upset woke wore wove wed wept wet see: will won wound withdrew withheld withstood wrung wrote swept swollen .

Often.g. We use the present continuous tense to talk about actions which are happening as we speak and actions taking place around now: 34 . Can you be quiet. Simple or Continuous? Present Perfect Continuous or Present Perfect Simple? Present Perfect Simple or Past Simple? Unit 28 Present Continuous We use the present continuous tense to talk about actions which are happening as we speak and actions taking place around now: Someone is ringing the door bell. You're bleeding! It's raining. e. present or future.Unit 27 Tenses of the verbs The tense of a verb refers to the form of the verb. To begin with. She is working in the library. We talk about simple or continuous (also known as progressive) and perfect forms. We also use other forms of the verb in grammar: these are the infinitive and the imperative. we can talk about verbs being past. a future verb refers to an action which will happen after now in the future and a present verb refers to something happening right now. They're talking. please. it generally refers to an action which took place before now. Often these problems are to do with selecting the right tense. but not always. Within these categories we make other distinctions. When a verb is in the past. I am watching television. they also refer to a particular time. These are the active tenses in English: Sometimes it is difficult to know exactly which tense to use. We make the present continuous by using be and the -ing form of the verb: {subject} + {be} + {present participle} I'm working. Likewise.

You're bleeding! It's raining. Are the team playing well this season? Remember that these are temporary situations: At this moment I am talking to you. I am listening to some music right now. I am working now. This is a temporary situation: I am getting divorced. we will finish this job soon. Often we add a time adverb: 35 . She is working in the library. we also use this tense to talk about fixed future plans . She is talking to her friend.. What's that noise? Are those cats fighting again? about things happening around now but maybe not right at the moment we speak. Why is he in bed? . but these days we are painting the house. I am watching television. Can you be quiet.. We make the present continuous by using be and the -ing form of the verb: {subject} + {be} + {present participle} I'm working.it is a good idea to imagine that these are plans you can write in your diary.Someone is ringing the door bell.He is not feeling well today. They're talking. please. They are running for the bus. We use the present continuous tense in three ways: when we talk about a situation that is happening right now as we speak. We make the present simple by using a form of the verb be and the present participle form of the verb: {subject} + {be} + {present participle} . The baby is not sleeping well these days so I can't sleep at night.

. They go out every night. We use the present simple in 7 main ways: talking about habits and routines. Do the children go to bed at nine o'clock every night? talking about a situation that lasts for a long time: He draws maps for a living.. We make the present simple by using the present form of the verb. Are they playing Arsenal next week? Unit 29 Present Simple We use the present simple to talk about our habits and routines (things we do regularly) and situations which last for a long time: I visit my mother once a month. We do not wake up before 8 o'clock in the morning.I am going to Spain next year. She wishes. Sheila is not marrying Pete till next month. We use the present form of the verb.. With most verbs this is the same as the infinitive form. He plays football at the weekend. She works for a bank.. It barks. Remember to use the final -s with the third person: {subject} + {present form} I live in Scotland.. Remember that the third person singular adds -s to the end: {subject} + {present form} I work. things we do regularly: I go to the cinema at least once a week.. 36 . The Earth is round.

a joke or give a commentary: This man is in a hospital bed. "We've had to cut off both your legs. thoughts and characteristics: I believe in Father Christmas." says the doctor.She is not married. Metal does not float in water. You don't do it like this. "The man in the next bed wants to buy your shoes." says the man. Does she work in the wool factory? talking about a situation which is permanent: Venus and Mercury are closer to the Sun than the Earth. talking about a future timetable arrangement: She leaves tomorrow. 37 ." Unit 30 Present Simple or Continuous? Students sometimes confuse a simple tense with a continuous tense. "What's the good news?" he asks the doctor. Do all mammals breathe oxygen? talking about feelings. She doesn't like you." "Give me the bad news. you do it like that! Note: we more often use the imperative in this situation. This topic looks at the differences between the two tenses. "There's some good news and some bad news. The doctor walks in and says. The man screams a bit and gets upset but after a while the doctor calms him down. to tell a dramatic story. How does it smell? giving instructions: You walk out the door and then you turn left. It starts next Thursday. We often use this with a time adverb.

In the next example. while continuous tenses usually talk about things which are happening for a while only . Do they like living in London? For this reason. There are other verbs generally used only in simple tenses. we do not usually use like in a continuous tense. love. The simple tenses are used to talk about things which happen and finish. We never use have in a continuous way to mean possession.they will stop sometime. hate. seem With verbs of perception we can often use can: I can hear him but I cannot see him.I am thinking about our holiday. we are talking about a feeling we have which will last for a long time: I like football. we use have to mean making an active effort: I have long hair. for example: verbs of mental activity: know. What are you thinking? . I am having my hair cut. think verbs of emotions: like. the duration of these events is not important. 38 . answer miscellaneous verbs: need. understand. touch. it is an active effort: What do you think? . have verbs of reporting: say.We use the continuous to talk about things which are happening over a period of time. depend. Simple tenses generally refer to actions which are permanent. The continuous form refers to what is happening right now. smell. taste. Some verbs contain in their meaning an idea of permanency. desire verbs of senses: see. when we use the verb like.I think you are wrong. I live in London. the simple form refers to a long-term mental state. contain. ask. consist. In general. possess. Can you smell the roses? We can use some of the verbs listed above in continuous tenses but their meaning changes when we do. it is about a belief. hear verbs of possession: own. For example. belong. She does not like boring books. tell.

There was a knock on the door.. We use this tense a lot. I drank two cups of coffee for breakfast this morning. We make the past tense of regular verbs by adding -ed to the end. London is their home and they have no intention of leaving. We use the past simple: when we talk about an action or event which started in the past and finished in the past. The Big Bang happened over ten thousand million years ago. 39 . In the second example.. He opened it and saw. or is living there for a short while only before moving somewhere Unit 31 Past Simple We often use the past simple to tell a story. He walked into the room and looked around. There is no change for the third person singular: {subject} + {past form} I worked hard. They laughed at the joke. the speaker was probably born in London.I am living in London. I rode to work on my bike this morning. With regular verbs the past is formed by adding -ed to the end of the verb. it can be one minute ago or a million years ago.. We often use it with a past adverb. It does not matter when the event or action happened. We make the past simple tense by using the past form of the verb: {subject} + {past form} . She walked to the supermarket.. In the first example. the speaker perhaps has just moved to London. to make polite requests and suggestions: I wondered if you might like to go out tonight? I hoped you would say yes. I worked very hard last week.

. We often use these sentence patterns with the past continuous: {past continuous} + {when} + {past simple} {past simple} + {when/while} + {past continuous} I was sleeping when the alarm clock woke me up. I was walking down the street. We make the past continuous by using the past form of be and the present participle: {subject} + {was/were} + {present participle} . In this example.. to talk about a temporary and continuous action in the past: I was working at home all last week. he was flying to the moon the next morning.. We make the past continuous by using was/were and the -ing form of the verb: {subject} + {was/were} + {present participle} I was working when you called. The factory was turning out thousands of uniforms during the war. we started talking before the boss came in. I picked it up and someone was screaming on the other end of the line.. Here the past continuous tells us about an action that was interrupted.. You were working when I called. 40 .the boss came in and got angry because we were not working. for arrangements in the past: They were leaving on the six o'clock train. It tells us what is happening before the main action occurs: We were all talking when the boss walked in. The phone was ringing when I walked into my house. We talked for some time and then the door opened and the main action happened ..Unit 32 Past Continuous It was raining when I went home. Of course he was nervous.. The alarm clock woke me up when/while I was sleeping. They were talking when. He was singing... We use the past continuous for three situations: to provide the background for the story..

Unit 33 Present Perfect Simple The present perfect simple tense is used to talk about a past time which has very strong meaning for the present.. The President has just been shot. We do not use this tense with an adverb telling us when the event happened: * I have argued with my boss yesterday.. We make the present perfect simple by using have/has and the past participle: {subject} + {have} + {past participle} . We use the present perfect simple tense in several ways: from the past to the present.She has gone out.quickly. killing 40 people. We make the present perfect simple by using have/has and the -ed form of the verb (the past participle): {subject} + {have/has} + {past participle} I have worked hard today and now I'm tired. I have found it! This last example affects the present because everyone else can stop looking. possibly carrying on into the future: I have lived here all my life. call the police. She has found a good job and she will start work next Monday. if you run you can catch her. 41 . Where's Jane? . She has gone to the dentist. strongly affecting the present: I have lost my wallet . recent events. an event started in the past and continues till now. Three men have climbed Mount Everest. * I have seen you last week. headline news: A train has crashed. I have seen this film. She has known me for five years. the police are looking for the assassin.

The verb go is used with two past participles. The American army has fought many battles.general experiences in life: I have never seen such a fantastic sight. Often we will continue with the past simple so we can specify the time when an event happened: {present perfect} + {past simple} My boss has just gone. the present perfect has a much closer link to the present. {have/has} + {recently/just/lately} + {past participle} {have/has} + {past participle} . {recently/lately} I have just seen Bill. Unit 34 Present Perfect Simple or Past Simple? The past simple is used for a completed action in the past. They have been to Paris. Napoleon fought many battles. They have not stopped completely yet. They have recently got divorced.. She left five minutes ago. In the first example they are not here now. Have you ever been to France? with actions we are expecting to happen. lately and just to talk about something done very recently. in the second they went and then returned. In the second example.. gone and been: They have gone to Paris. We often use the present perfect with recently. we often use this with yet: Have you seen Bill yet? He hasn't gone yet. we can assume that the American army will continue to fight. I have been talking to John lately. 42 .

They have been living in Paris for the last eight months. been and the -ing form of the verb (the present participle): {subject} + {have/has} + {been} + {present participle} I have been working. She has been doing her homework. I have been working ...Unit 35 Present Perfect Continuous We use the present perfect continuous to talk about an event which started in the past and is continuing now: I have been learning English for six years. We make the present perfect continuous by using have/has.. We often use the words for and since with this tense.. to talk about an event which lasted for some time and recently finished. They have been living in Paris since July. to talk about an even which started in the past and is continuing now: I have been learning English for six years..I have been running. the effects of this event are still apparent: Why are you puffing? --.. We use the present perfect continuous in two ways. We make the present perfect continuous by using have/has been and the present participle form of the verb: {subject} + {have/has} + {been} + {present participle} . She has been doing her homework. I have been painting the house this weekend. 43 .

The simple tense tells us the action is completed and the result can be seen. when we want to provide a simple sequence of events. The Queen died three days after the King had died. The Queen died of a broken heart after the King had left her. to provide information about the order of events: The detective ran into the room but the evil gangsters had already gone. 44 . We use the past perfect simple tense: to provide the background to an event. I've been reading War & Peace and I have almost finished it. it tells us what happened before the main action: She was tired because she had been at work all day. She had been to the dentist earlier in the day so she felt ill that night. the continuous that the action went on for some time. Unit 37 Past Perfect Simple The past perfect simple is used to talk about a past time before another time in the past. We make the past perfect simple by using had and the past participle: {subject} + {had} + {past participle} I had seen the film six times already and I didn't want to see it again. She had attended many interviews before she found the right job. We often use the tense in conjunction with the past simple. We make the past perfect simple by using had and the -ed form of the verb (the past participle): {subject} + {had} + {past participle} I had worked hard for a long time before I completed the work. The Queen died three days later.Unit 36 Present Perfect Continuous or Present Perfect Simple? Both tenses are used for an action which finished a short while ago. we can use the past simple or the past perfect with the past simple: The King died. I've read War & Peace but I found the end boring. We did not all pass the exam though we had studied hard.

Before I arrived. tomorrow. Cinderella.Unit 38 Past Perfect Continuous We use the past perfect continuous to talk about a continuous temporary event which started happening in the past before another past event: I had been learning English for six years before I went to England. Sometimes we use the present continuous tense to talk about the future: I am seeing her tomorrow. Unit 39 Future We have different ways to talk about the future in English. Sometimes it is difficult to choose between be going to and will: It will be fine tomorrow. we use will: It will rain. 45 . We make the past perfect continuous by using had. I'm sure of that! When we make predictions and promises. she had been doing her homework. When we talk about intentions or predictions based on what we can see now. They had both been living in Paris for some time when they met. When we make promises and offers for the future. It is going to be fine. you wait and see. we use be going to: I am going to pass my test. sometimes we use shall: You shall go to the ball. been and the -ing form of the verb (the present participle): {subject} + {had} + {been} + {present participle} I had been working for some time before I realized my mistake.

IMPERATIVES Unit 40 When to use Imperatives? We use the imperative form of the verb: to give orders: Stop! Shut the door! to give instructions: Add a pinch of salt and boil for fifteen minutes. we put please or do at the beginning: Do tell me! Please tell me! We can use the imperative as a subject of a sentence. to make informal offers or invitations: Have a drink? Want a ride? to give warnings: Don't take lifts from strangers. Go out the door and turn left. we add please to the end of the sentence: Shut the door. To tell someone we want something very much. In AmE. Some imperatives are joined by and: Come and sit here! Wait and see. 46 . please. Complain again and we will leave. To be polite. We often follow it with and: {imperative} + {and} + {clause} Get this done and you can leave early. Do try to take care! The form of the imperative is the same as the infinitive. go can be followed by the imperative without and: Go get him.

have. What for? To save time later.. should. might. She could have. will. would. walk. could. be allowed to They always come first in a verb formation. Be sure and do this. he took a second job... dare*.. may. We use the infinitive with to to express reason: {to} + {infinitive} To pay for the mortgage. shall. MODAL VERBS Unit 42 Characteristics of Modals There are not many modal verbs: can... We can use them with the -ing form to show continuous modality: {modal} + {be} + {-ing} 47 . must.... There are also modal constructions: be able to. before other auxiliaries and the main verb: {modal} + [auxiliary] + {main verb} Note that modal verbs do not take a final -s for the third person singular.. We can also join two imperatives: Be sure to do this... The verb which follows is always in the infinitive form: He might be. need*. A common question and answer expressing purpose is like this: statement: question: answer: I'm packing now. They should stay.Go wait in the car. INFINITIVES Unit 41 When to use the Infinitive? The infinitive is the base form of the verb: be. ought to.

. We can use them with the past participle to show past modality: {modal} + {have} + {past participle} He might have been working late. both structurally and semantically it does function within the system of modality.. be allowed to and have [got] to after modals: {modal} + {phrase} I will be able to. They should stop. She might not be allowed to.He might be working late. We can use be able to. possibility: He could be there. He must be having a party.. They might not win." form. He could beat the record easily.either in negative polarity or in the idiomatic "I dare say. although in a limited way. We use modal verbs to show: what we think or feel about a situation: They should not have gone. They might have been working hard. Note that we do not use these in continuous forms. However. He must have gone away. 48 . necessity: He must stop. They should be coming soon. *DARE is regarded as a marginal modal verb because of its restricted usage . They should have to.... They should have seen him... ability to do something: They can't speak fluently.

we often use can or be able to with verbs of perception: I can hear him but I cannot see him.g. can v. meaning "must have" e. we can use modal verbs. I was able to leave. to show ability. be able to: I could leave. e. be able to: In most situations. But in British English. These show: ability or opportunity in the present: She can play the piano. When we talk about a real past action we use was/were able to and when we talk about a hypothetical course of action we us could. I will never be able to lift that cupboard alone. could and be able to are interchangeable. could and was/were able to are interchangeable: I could swim when I was four. ability or opportunity in the past: She could play the piano. She is able to play the piano. and questions and negatives are made without "do" e. Both examples say I had the opportunity or ability to leave. there is no "s" with the 3rd person singular. I am able to hear him but I am not able to see him. “You needn't pay for my dinner”. She was able to play the piano. “I need a new coat”. but could means I did not leave and was/were able to means I did leave. Note that in conditional sentences also.g. I was able to swim when I was four.g. be able to is more formal than can. “Need we really go now?” Unit 43 Modal Ability To show degrees of ability. When we talk about a skill.*NEED can be used as an ordinary verb. ability in the future: He could do your job given the opportunity. In this case. With questions: Can I open the window? 49 . could v. NEED can also be used as a modal verb.

I can do it if I want to. These have an element of being optional. we can use modal verbs: I will give you hand with that case.Could I open the window? Am I able to open the window? In questions. can and could are requests. i. obligation: You ought to call your mother. You should call your mother. but ought to is perhaps a little stronger. have [got] to Generally. Unit 45 Modal Offers To show degrees of offers. You have [got] to leave straight away. 0% necessity: We don't have to pay to get in. must v. Shall I give you a hand with that case? Can I give you a hand with that case? 50 . There is no real difference between ought to and should. Unit 44 Modal Necessity 100% necessity: You must leave straight away. We needn't stay late. have [got] to is when the speaker uses an external force which they cannot control: doctor to patient: You've got to stop smoking. We use mustn't to say an action is forbidden . We use needn't to show an action is optional . while be able to asks about ability. patient to themself: I must stop smoking. These show that calling your mother is the right thing to do.e. we needn't stay late but we can if we want to. We have not got to see the boss after all.I have no choice. must shows what the speaker feels and it is the speaker's authority.

needn't v. mustn't We use needn't to show an action is optional . may It can get very tense in some of these meetings.We use shall as let's but the person has a chance to refuse: Shall we go to the cinema? Unit 46 Modal Permission To show degrees of permission. You may not leave yet.I can do it if I want to. You must not leave yet. You are not allowed to leave yet. we can use modal verbs: permission: You cannot leave yet. we use may. we can use modal verbs: imagining things: That would be nice. can is more friendly than may which is quite formal. giving orders: You will not leave yet. but talking about a specific set of something. can v. Unit 47 Modal Possibility To show degrees of possibility. in the second example the speaker is talking about a specific group of future meetings only. 51 . logical certainty He will be in Rome by now. To talk generally about something we use can. It may get very tense in some of these meetings. He must be in Rome by now. We use mustn't to say an action is forbidden .I have no choice. In the first example the speaker makes a general comment about the meetings.

will is certain. She will win. He may be upstairs. She could win. but it is more direct than can or could: Would you tell me the time. suggestions in the future: We could go to the cinema. He can't have got lost. She may win. could which is least sure. please? Can you tell me the time. please? 52 . He might be upstairs. please? Could I see you in your office. please? Could you tell me the time. we can use will to make requests. please? May I see you in your office. would he? prediction: She might win. to show something the speaker thinks is unlikely or impossible or illogical: He couldn't have got lost. Unit 48 Modal Requests To show degrees of requests.degrees of possibility in the present and future He could be upstairs. please? could is more polite than can. we can use modal verbs: polite requests Can I see you in your office. may is almost the same as might though perhaps might is a little less sure. It can't be raining! He wouldn't still be at work.

to is not a preposition so we do not follow it with the gerund: I expect to. This is acceptable so to is a preposition and must be followed by the gerund. 53 . work is a verb. we can follow it with the gerund: He coughed before beginning to speak. I expect to eat bananas for breakfast.. These are some of the more common patterns: {verb} + {to} + {infinitive} I managed to leave. when we use the preposition to.Will you tell me the time. In the following case. * I expect to bananas. work is a noun and to a preposition. I object to work. students often confuse it with the to +infinitive structure. However. I object to work at night. Unit 50 Verb Patterns We use different patterns when we join two verbs. In the first example. They succeeded in breaking the door down. please? making requests: Would you mind coming with me? Would you mind if I left now? Would you rather I left now? Unit 49 Verbs + Preposition When we use a preposition. in the second example. With most prepositions this is no problem. try putting a noun after it: I object to bananas. If you do not know whether to is with the infinitive or gerund. I object to working at night..

intend. prefer. seem. like. beg. pretend. should. forgive. bear. bear. expect. delay. warn. consent. face. Verbs include: could. They were seen to enter the building after dark. love. arrange. {verb} + [object] + {infinitive} I could feel him watch me. prepare. care. be. decide. beg. feel like. promise. let. shall. swear. Verbs include: afford. might. begin.If you happen to see them. tempt. Verbs include: admit. mean. resist. manage. notice. leave off. press. intend. endure. try. want. expect. plan. help. detest. ought. trouble. mention. need. There are some important exceptions though: 54 . I like to ski. command. prefer. tell. can't stand. see. suggest. practice. resent. like. leave. go on. feel. In the passive. recommend. threaten. dare. cause. have. happen. enjoy. dislike. give up. hate. oblige. allow. can't help. get. trouble. understand. would. imagine. In general. mind. request. wish. avoid. In this group we include most (but not all) of the modal auxiliary verbs and verbs of senses. watch. will. learn. There is very little difference between these two: I like skiing. want. contemplate. risk. involve. put off. wish. permit. {verb} + [object] + {to} + {infinitive} I would advise you to go. help. mean. we use the to + infinitive pattern: He was made to feel unwelcome. consider. must. persuade. I enjoy running first thing in the morning. appreciate. agree. propose. I made them go. promise. order. remind. hear. appear. the gerund refers to a general activity while the infinitive refers to a specific case. advise. forbid. fail. instruct. keep. encourage. offer. prefer. remember. postpone. ask. attempt. hesitate. ask. start. {verb} + {gerund} I considered retiring. used. miss. deny. Some verbs can take either the gerund or the infinitive. I want you to leave. forget. make. neglect. compel. escape. teach. Verbs include: advise. may. regret. determine. help. excuse. invite. say 'hello' for me. need. refuse. force. finish. hate. stop. hope. choose.

continue. When it comes first. we will catch the train. watch. The if-clause is in the present. To make the first conditional we use two clauses. regret.Remember to visit my mother.00. attempt. permit. go on. Remember to visit my mother. Remember visiting my mother? = you visited her in the past and now I am asking you to remember it. stop. Remember visiting my mother? In this case. forget. Verbs in this category include: advise. type conditional 1 conditional 2 conditional 3 Unit 52 if clause if we leave now if we left now if we had left earlier conditional clause we will catch the train we would catch the train we would have caught the train Conditional 1 We use the first conditional to talk about situations in the future which we think will probably happen or which are perfectly reasonable and likely: If we leave at 9. can't bear. intend. allow. begin. start. hate. we usually put a comma between the two. CONDITIONALS Unit 51 What is a conditional? A conditional is a kind of sentence which uses a word such as if. forbid. prefer. There are three main types of conditional sentences: We use Conditional 1 to talk about probable situations in the future. hear. = you must remember now that you will visit my mother in a while. love. like. 55 . If you stop crying. the gerund refers to what happened before the main verb and the infinitive what happened after the main verb. We use Conditional 2 to talk about possible but unlikely situations in the future. propose. remember. try. We use Conditional 3 to talk about past situations which did not happen. It talks about situations which are not real. see. the conditional clause uses will and the infinitive: {if} + {present} | {will} + {infinitive} There are two clauses: the if-clause can come first or second. I will give you a sweet.

Unit 53 Conditional 2 We use the second conditional to talk about possible but unlikely situations in the future and whether they will happen or not.. When it comes first.. I would hurt myself. We also use it for giving advice. 56 . use Conditional 2. many people nowadays. Obviously sometimes we can use either of these types. we usually put a comma between the two. say if I was.. I will hurt myself. what would you say? If you had a million pounds.. the conditional clause uses would and the infinitive: {if} + {past} | {would} + {infinitive} There are two clauses: the if-clause can come first or second. if I win.. You would earn lots of money if you worked harder.. If I worked too much. I would. You will lose lots of money if you keep gambling. If I work too much. use Conditional 1. the second example suggests I don't want to work too hard and this is why not. if my house is on fire.If you work hard. Using the first or second conditional depends on the point of view of the speaker: a pessimist says an optimist says a pessimist says if I won. This is very common: If I were you. what would you do with it? To make the second conditional we use two clauses. Unit 54 Conditional 1 or Conditional 2? Sometimes it is difficult to know when to use the first conditional and when to use the second conditional. The first example suggests that I think I work too much and I ought to stop. you would make lots of money. If you want to talk about something which is likely to happen. if the idea is unlikely.. Note: We use I were instead of I was because we are actually using the subjunctive. you will make lots of money.. The if-clause is in the past tense. or imaginary present situations: If you met the President.. however.. If you wrote a bestseller.

we can use this pattern: {if} + {present tense} | {present tense} 57 . the conditional clauses have been like this: {subject} + {will/would} + {verb} However.the tense does not show time but likelihood. but both of these conditionals can talk about the present or future .. The first conditional uses the present tense and the second conditional uses the past tense. Unit 57 Miscellaneous When we talk about eternal truths (situations which are always true) such as scientific facts. Real Madrid would have won the match. If it rains like this all day.. the river might flood. Unit 56 Conditional Clauses In the examples for the conditional. the river could flood. Napoleon would have won at Waterloo. If it rains like this all day. Unit 55 Conditional 3 We use the third conditional to talk about situations in the past which cannot be changed. the river will flood. we can use other modal verbs in place of will and would. If it rains like this all day. If Blucher had not arrived. we usually put a comma between the two. When it comes first.) To make the third conditional we use two clauses. we talk about how the results might be different: If Beckham had scored. might means will possibly and could means will be able to. (But Beckham did not score and Real Madrid lost. France would have been the most powerful country in Europe if Napoleon had won at Waterloo.an optimist says if my house were on fire. The if-clause is in the past perfect tense and the conditional clause uses would have and the past participle: {if} + {past perfect} | {would} + {have} + {past participle} There are two clauses: the if-clause can come first or second.

We can also make conditionals by using words other than if.If water reaches 100°. When we offer or give advice we can use: {if} + {present continuous/present perfect} | {modal} If the car is acting up. it turns into steam. you should go for anything. supposing in case unless = if = if by chance = if . This is often used to make offers: {if} + {will/would} | {modal} If you will come with me. telephone me.. Supposing we had more money. In these examples. When we give orders. you should telephone me. If we had more money. Don't leave unless I tell you to. I go. When we talk about willingness or wishing. we use: {if} + {present tense} | {imperative} If the car breaks down. You ought to let me know if you should change your mind. I'd like to talk to you. When we talk about improbable future actions we can use: {if} + {should} | {modal/imperative} If the car should break down. we can use if + will. will has nothing to do with future meaning. If you wouldn't mind. Let me know if you are in trouble. If you go. You ought to let me know if you are thinking of moving to London. When we give suggestions we can use: {if} + {modal} | {modal} If you can't get your perfect job. not 58 . I can show you the way. we could buy a new car. what would you buy? Take the umbrella in case it rains. telephone me..

These are the two forms: active passiv e {subject} + {verb} + {object} {object} + {be} + {past participle} + {by} + {subject} There are three steps to making a passive sentence: 1 .We can also leave out if in informal situations: You make any more trouble (and) I'll call the police! Should the car break down. The cake was eaten by Elsa. PASSIVE VOICE Unit 58 Active vs Passive The most important information in a sentence usually comes first. we do this by using be and the past participle: active passive Elsa ate the cake.make the object of the active sentence (the cake). We usually use the active voice rather than the passive. tell him to call me.we introduce it with by: active passive Elsa ate the cake. The cake was eaten by Elsa.make the verb passive. the subject of the passive sentence: active Elsa ate the cake. 59 . tell him to give me a tax rebate. passive The cake 2 . We use the passive voice to change the order of the information in a sentence: active passive Elsa ate the cake. The cake was eaten 3 . We can also use it with should when there is even less chance of something happening: If you should happen to bump into the Prime Minister. We can use happen to to suggest that something happens by chance: If you happen to see Kevin. call me straight away.make the subject of active sentence (Elsa) the object of the passive sentence .

60 . Amanda was being kissed by Eric. Amanda had been kissed by Eric. we add them to the front of the structures above: {modal/auxiliary/be going to} + {be} + {past participle} Amanda could be kissed by Eric. {be} + {being} + {past participle} Amanda is being kissed by Eric. {modal/auxiliary/be going to} + {be} + {being} + {past participle} Amanda might be being kissed by Eric. Continuous tenses: perfect tenses: When we use auxiliary verbs. Amanda is going to be kissed by Eric.Unit 59 Passive verbs We make the passive voice by changing the positions of the subject and object and using a passive verb: active passiv e {subject} + {verb} + {object} {object} + {be} + {past participle} + {by} + {subject} To make the verb passive. we use these patterns: active simple tenses: Eric kisses Amanda. passive {to} + {be} + {past participle} He ought to be helped. To make the passive infinitives: active {to} + {infinitive} Someone ought to help him. Amanda was kissed by Eric. Amanda ought to have been kissed by Eric. {have} + {been} + {past participle} Amanda has been kissed by Eric. {be} + {past participle} Amanda is kissed by Eric. {modal/auxiliary/be going to} + {have} + been} + {past participle} Amanda will have been kissed by Eric.

The phone box got vandalized last night. him. This is generally used in speech rather than writing.{to} + {have} + {past participle} {to} + {have} + {been} + {past participle} Someone ought to have helped He ought to have been helped.by someone. Sometimes you can use get instead of be to make the sentence a little more informal: The phone box was vandalized last night. We make the causative form: {subject} + {have} + {object} + {past participle} I had my hair cut. part of the sentence in a passive voice: active passive {subject} + {verb} + {object} {object} + {verb} + [by + subject] This can happen if we do not know who the subject is: The money was stolen. He is going to have his car resprayed. I don't know who. We can also use get instead of have but this is informal. . She will have her house decorated. Unit 61 Passive by… Sometimes it is not necessary to put the by.. They are having their garden landscaped.. We had our money stolen. 61 . She is having her typewriter repaired. We had our car vandalized. We can use the same pattern to talk about an often bad experience: She had her house burgled. Unit 60 Causative Form The causative form is used when we speak about a professional service which someone has done for us.

.asp?fIndex=113verb phrase} + [that] + {object clause} {it} + {passive verb} + [that] + {object clause} People say Churchill was a clever man. He is thought to have been a genius. When someone does a professional service for us. I had my wallet stolen. part of the passive: The cat was kidnapped by someone. The cat was kidnapped. It is said that Churchill was a clever man.. A box of chocolates was given to Amanda. we use the causative form. When the active sentence has two objects. . Unit 63 Passive Object Clauses When we use an object clause. Tin has been mined in Cornwall since before the Romans invaded.. It is also used for a bad experience: I am having my car resprayed.Or we can leave it out if we do not want to say who the subject is: The window was broken.. It is thought he was a genius. we can make two passives: active: passive: passive: She gave Amanda a box of chocolates. 62 . or if it is obvious: My house was painted last June. part of the sentence if it is not important to know who the subject is. we can have a special passive structure: active passive active passive {subject} + {details. Also. Unit 62 Passive Forms Sometimes it is not necessary to use the by. we can make a special passive: active: passive: passive: People think he was a genius. Amanda was given a box of chocolates. if the active sentence has an object clause.I know who broke the window (it was me) but I don't want to admit it! We can also leave out the by.

{subject} + {verb} + {object} The subject is the theme of the sentence. In other situations. decide. Someone broke the window in my house but I don't know who it was: The window has been broken. announce. {object} + {passive verb} + {passive infinitive} .. report. while the assassin is less so.) Finally. we put the most important information in a sentence at the beginning. understand. consider. but again I am more concerned with the wind whistling through my house than a vandal. This happens when you talk about an opinion. The liquid should be placed in a beaker and heated to 75  63 . We often use these patterns with reporting verbs such as: agree. know. People say Churchill was a clever man. A man shot the President. the fact that the President is dead is very important.. we might be talking about public opinion: Pelé is said to be the greatest footballer ever. find. hope. suggestion or belief which uses a verb like: believe. not football enthusiasts and their opinions. we want to stress the object in the sentence. estimate. Churchill is said to be a clever man. manuals and weather forecasts.We can make a passive like this when the object verb is present simple or past simple: active passiv e active passiv e active {subject} + {verb phrase} + {object} + {object verb} . In your writing. I want to talk about Pelé. In this case I really do not care who says this. suppose. In this case. feel. we may not know who did the action. try not to use the passive voice too much. Sometimes.. say. mention. intend. regret. Generally we use it for technical documents. claim.. think and so on. say. People say Churchill is a clever man. expect. think. (I could say: Someone broke the window. arrange. believe. however. it is the result that we wish to emphasize: The President has been shot. It is not important who did the action. This can happen when the object is more important than the subject. fear. Unit 64 Passive Use Usually.

Mobile prepositions imply movement. 64 . We use prepositions in many different ways. Static prepositions are stationary. Prepositions of place tell us where something is or happens: on the sofa under the bed We use prepositions of time to tell us when something happens: at Christmas in July Some words are often followed by the same prepositions: listen to succeed in Some verbs take a preposition to make a new verb. This is because the active is easier to understand.(Note that in this grammar guide we have used the active voice instead of the passive. they suggest moving from one place to another: He lived in London.) PREPOSITIONS Unit 65 What are Prepositions? Prepositions are a closed class of words. These are common prepositions of place and their uses . These are calledphrasal verbs: put up with hand out Unit 66 Prepositions of Place There are two types of place preposition. He moved to London.there are a number of exceptions though: at: the place where something happens He lives at 13 Acacia Avenue. Whether the preposition is static or mobile usually depends on the meaning of the verb. they refer to a place. sitting at the back. He's at the theater.

I drove out of Buxton and into Aylsham. near. past. through. out of. in: something all around We sat in silence in the cinema. Unit 67 Prepositions of Time We use these prepositions to talk about time: {in} + {year/month/season/time of day (except night)} in 1976 in March {on} + {day/date} on Monday on the 15th of July {at} + {clock time/night} at ten o'clock at midnight 65 . Other prepositions of place include: above. on. towards. by. across. next to. along. around. into. on: the top surface The book is on the table.We'll stop at Aylsham en route to London. in front of. He lives in Spain. over. to. in. into/out of: movement from outside to inside a place or vice versa We walked out of the kitchen and into the dining room. behind. beside. The boat is on the sea. I climbed off the roof and onto the ladder. round. under. below. onto/off: movement to the top surface of an object from another object The cat jumped off the table and onto the chair. We live in Aylsham. opposite.

Were they Spanish? 66 . at take part in tired of worry about intend to QUESTIONS Unit 69 How to ask questions? All questions begin with a capital letter and end with a question mark... This is a list of common structures: word prep afraid of apologize for arrange for bored with care for different from fond of good at insist on intention of interested in keen on look at ready for succeed in.. There are two main ways of asking questions in written English: inversion and using do: statement: question: statement: question: You are Spanish. Are you Spanish? You speak Spanish.Unit 68 Word & Phrase + Preposition Some words and phrases very often take the same preposition in a sentence. This means we change the positions of the subject and the verb: statement: question: statement: question: {subject} + {be} . Do you speak Spanish? If the verb in a sentence is be. They were Spanish.. {be} + {subject} . we use inversion to make a question.

. Does he like pizza? She broke the record. These questions are the same as above and use or before the last alternative: Is she wearing blue or green? Should we take a bus. Can you see England from here? They should be arriving soon.We also use inversion to make questions with modal and auxiliary verbs: statement: question: statement: question: statement: question: {subject} + {auxiliary/modal} + [auxiliary] + {main verb} {auxiliary/modal} + {subject} + [auxiliary] + {main verb} You can see England from here.. We can also make questions by using a rising intonation at the end of a statement. Did she break the record? Notice that do changes for the past tense and when we talk about he. the car or a taxi? 67 .. we use do to make questions. Should they be arriving soon? When the verb in a sentence is not be or modal or auxiliary. she or it in the present tense: Do you like. statement: question: statement: question: statement: question: statement: question: {subject} + {verb} {do} + {subject} + {infinitive} You know Simon.. Did she like. [falling intonation] You're going? [rising intonation] Alternative questions. This is very common in spoken English: statement: question: You're going. Do you know Simon? He likes pizza.. Does she like..

.to express surprise: Haven't you finished yet? 68 . we can ask an indirect question: Do you know what time it is? We make an indirect question by using a phrase and then a statement. to be more formal or polite. Note that even though this is a question. .Unit 70 Direct & Indirect Questions We can ask a direct question: What time is it? Or.....to ask for information: Who doesn't want some? Who hasn't got a ticket? ... we do not invert the subject and verb or use an auxiliary verb: {indirect phrase} + {statement} Can you remember where you put them? Do you know how long the flight will be? When the question can be answered with yes or no.to make suggestions: Why don't we have a party? Why not leave now? . we use if: {indirect phrase} + {if} + {statement} Would you ask him if the train has arrived yet? Could you tell me if this is Athens station? We can also use question words to make indirect statements: {indirect phrase} + {question word} + {statement} I don't know what you saw in her! She can't decide where to go on holiday.. Unit 71 Negative Questions We can use negative questions.

we can use a question tag: You're a Sagittarius. often this is used when we want someone to agree with what we say: He's ugly. aren't you? She isn't French. is she? 2.. was she? It cannot be verified. doesn't she? They didn't stay. To ask someone to do something.. are you? For positive statements we use the negative particle not: {statement} + {auxiliary/modal} + [not] + {subject} If there is no auxiliary or modal. when we are fairly certain of a fact and want merely to check it. for exclamations Didn't she do well! Unit 72 Questions Tags We use question tags at the end of sentences when we want check something.Isn't she coming? . when want someone to do something or when we show surprise: You're English. did they? We use question tags in three ways: 1. haven't you? You're not going to leave. won't we? She likes me. aren't you? You've got five minutes to spare..with a falling intonation.to ask for confirmation: Didn't we stay here once before? Isn't he the famous actor? . To verify information.. isn't he? 69 . we use do: {statement} + {do} + [not] + {subject} She was not here. can it? We will win.

To make this kind of question. we use which: Which one are you going to buy? The red or the green? 70 . shall we? After imperatives we use will/would/can/could: Leave us for a moment.. we can use what: What are you going to buy? When there is a limited choice.You're clever. aren't you? Can you help me with my homework? 3. and offers & suggestions we use shall: Let's go.. is she? After let's. are you? She isn't still talking. statement: question: question: answer: She lives in Rome. To show surprise in a negative way when we cannot really believe something is true we use this only in negative sentences: You're not marrying her. Does she live in Rome? Where does she live? Rome. we use this pattern: {question word} + {modal/auxiliary} + {subject} + {infinitive} question word who what where when why how whose which used for people things places time reason explanation possession things example Who is your brother? What is your name? Where do you live? When are you leaving? Why did I fail? How does this work? Whose car is this? Which one is yours? Unit 74 Question Words # 2 When we ask in general. would you? Unit 73 Question Words #1 As well as inversion and using do. we can also use special question words to make questions. These look for extra information.

for: Why are you here? What are you here for? To be very specific... What time is it? Which doctor did you go to? Note: this last question is an extremely hilarious pun in English..... Instead of using why we can often use what. we can say what kind of: What kind of car did you buy? To make a general inquiry. we can use what. formal and informal: Who did you vote for? For whom did you vote? and What is he working on? On what is he working? We can use whom or what after a preposition.like: What was Paris like? What will your new job be like? For more information we can use: {how} + {adjective/adverb} How big is the house? How much was the coat? How far is London? How often do you watch television? 71 . it is very formal.which and what can also both be followed by noun phrases to ask for specific information: {which/what} + {noun phrase} .

When the verb we are using is be we make the negative by adding the negative particle. He did not telephone me in time.Unit 75 Subject Questions question words ask about the object of a statement: statement: question: answer: I work in London. Note: we cannot use when or where to ask questions about the subject.. To do this we replace the subject with a question word: statement: question: statement: question: answer: Statement: question: answer: {subject} + {verb} . With other verbs. Either using not or by using do not: I am not going to answer that question. we make negatives by using do not or does not and the infinitive: 72 . Where do I work? In London. NEGATIVES Unit 76 How to make Negatives We make negatives in two ways. But we can also ask about the subject.. not: {be} + {not} She is not English They were not here. {question word} + {verb} . John's father has joined the army. What is coming? Winter is. Winter is coming... Whose father has joined the army? John's father.

This is sometimes made into one word. I do not live here. When we use a modal or auxiliary verb. She lives here. I will not be seeing him next week. Arsenal have not won a match this season. The do verb shows the tense and number of the main verb which is in the infinitive: positive negative I live here.{do} + {not} + {infinitive} I do not live in London. = = = = = isn't aren't wouldn't haven't hadn't 73 . I have some money. They did not telephone. He lived here. we usually use n't instead of not: is not are not would not have not had not There are exceptions: I am not = I'm not will not = won't shall not = shan't The negative of can is can not. I don't have much money. He did not live here. cannot: can not = cannot = can't Sometimes we change words from positive to negative use: positive negative I have a lot of money. I have already gone. we add not after the first part of the verb: {auxiliary/modal} + [auxiliary] + [auxiliary] + {infinitive} I can dance but she can not dance. She does not live here. In informal situations. I don't want any either. I want some too. I haven't gone yet. I have no money. She does not live in London.

Unit 77 Negative Words We can make negatives by using negative words: . I wasn't early enough to see the match.none 74 . He didn't pass. He didn't forget and neither did she.Unit 77 Negative phrases We use negative phrases to give different sentences the same meaning: He remembered and so did she. Sometimes we must turn a phrase into a negative meaning: Is this the only way? Isn't there another way? and He was almost deaf. . In this case. There's nothing I wouldn't do for you. We can use the opposite word (an antonym) and a negative: {word} = {not} + {antonym} He failed. There are no people. we use an alternative time adverbial: I couldn't leave in time to see the match. He could hardly hear. In this case we need to use there is to avoid a double negative: I would do anything for you. * I wouldn't do nothing for you.no There are some people.

There isn't any left. There is none left. - neither...nor Either Pete or Jeff will help. Neither Pete nor Jeff will help. - no one, nothing, nobody, nowhere There is someone in the room. There is no one in the room. Using no is stronger than saying isn't any.

ENGLISHES Unit 79 American, British & Australian English

American English (AmE) and British English (BrE) are almost the same. The biggest difference between the two is with pronunciation & accent. There are, however, a few differences in spelling, vocabulary (including differences with Australian English AuE as well) and grammar. In general, there are very few problems or misunderstandings when AmE speakers and BrE speakers talk together. Unit 80 AmE & BrE Grammar # 1

BrE sometimes uses the present perfect while AmE use the past simple: BrE: Am E: BrE: Am E: Have you eaten all those biscuits? Did you eat all those cookies? Have you ever seen the film, Casablanca? Did you ever see the movie, Casablanca?

BrE uses have got while AmE tends to use have: BrE : Am E: Have you got new training shoes? Do you have new sneakers?
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BrE : Am E: BrE : Am E:

I've got some Wellington boots you can borrow. I have some rubbers you can borrow. I haven't got time for a holiday this year. I don't have time for a vacation this year.

There are some differences in irregular verbs between AmE and BrE. Two major differences are: Br E: Am E: Br E: Am E: dive - dived - dived dive - dove - dived get - got - got get - got -gotten She dived into the pool. She dove into the pool. The baby has got a lot bigger. The baby has gotten a lot bigger.

Unit 81

AmE & BrE Grammar #2

BrE uses from...to/till/until while AmE uses from...through: BrE : Am E: The optician is open from eight till four. The optometrist is open from eight through four.

There are also a number of other differences in BrE and AmEprepositions, e.g. different to/than, at/on the weekend, ten past/after midnight. BrE can use shall for offers and suggestions while AmE uses should: BrE: Am E: Shall I call a taxi? Should I call cab?

BrE uses a lot ofquestion tags. AmE does not; instead it uses words like right and ok: BrE: Am I'll park on the verge, shall I? I'll park on the shoulder, right?
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E: BrE can use a singular or plural verb for collective nouns while AmE uses only a singular verb: BrE: Am E: The team are playing badly. The team is playing badly.

In informal speech, AmE sometimes use adverbs without the -ly ending: BrE: Am E: Autumn was really cold this year. Fall was real cold this year.

With double imperatives beginning with go, AmE sometimes drops the joining and: BrE: Am E: Go and open the door. Go open the door.

Unit 82

AmE & BrE Vocabulary

This section applies mainly to AmE and BrE. AuE is the same as BrE below unless shown otherwise. Miscellaneous words: AmE alumnus anyplace apartment attorney babycarriage bar billboard broiler call-collect can candy BrE and AuE graduate anywhere BrE: flat AuE: apartment/flat BrE: barrister, solicitor AuE: lawyer pram pub BrE: hoarding AuE: billboard grill reverse charge tin BrE: sweets
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BrE anywhere autumn barrister, solicitor biscuit caretaker chemist's condom cooker cot cotton crisps

AmE anyplace fall attorney cookie janitor drug store rubber stove crib thread potato chips

college. optician AuE: optometrist dummy (for a baby) jug BrE: crisps AuE: chips nursing home railway estate agent toilet condom BrE: Wellington boots AuE: gum boots school. 78 cupboard draughts drawing pin dummy (for a baby) estate agent external tap flat graduate grill ground floor hoarding holiday jug lift maize maths nowhere nursing home oculist.checkers closet cookie corn crib dishtowel drug store elevator eraser faculty fall faucet first floor flashlight garbage hobo janitor kerosene liquor store mail math mean no place optometrist pacifier pitcher potato chips private hospital railroad Realtor rest room rubber rubbers school AuE: lollies draughts cupboard biscuit BrE: maize AuE: corn cot tea-towel BrE: chemist's AuE: chemist/pharmacy lift rubber staff (university) autumn tap ground floor torch rubbish tramp caretaker BrE: paraffin AuE: kerosene BrE: off-licence AuE: bottle shop BrE: post AuE: mail maths vicious nowhere BrE: oculist. optician off-licence paraffin post pram pub push-chair railway reel reverse charge rubber rubbish rubbish school. school store someplace . university shop somewhere closet checkers thumbtack pacifier Realtor spigot apartment alumnus broiler first floor billboard vacation pitcher elevator corn math no place private hospital optometrist liquor store kerosene mail babycarriage bar stroller railroad spool call-collect eraser garbage trash college.

someplace spigot spool store stove stroller subway thread thumbtack trash vacation university somewhere external tap reel shop cooker BrE: push-chair AuE: pusher BrE: underground AuE: loop cotton drawing pin rubbish holiday staff (university) sweets tap tea-towel tin toilet torch tramp underground vicious Wellington boots faculty candy faucet dishtowel can rest room flashlight hobo subway mean rubbers Note: In BrE fag is an informal word for cigarette. Words for road & traffic AmE automobile cab detour divided highway expressway fender flat freeway gas gearshift highway hood intersection motor muffler oil pan patrolman pavement sedan shoulder sidewalk traffic circle trailer truck BrE car taxi diversion dual carriageway motorway bumper. flat tyre motorway petrol gear-stick. gear-lever main road motorway motorway pavement petrol policeman puncture. mudguard car caravan crash crossroads diversion dual carriageway engine gear-stick. lorry 79 BrE bonnet boot (of a car) bumper. In AmE fag is an offensive term for a homosexual. flat tyre road surface roundabout saloon car silencer sump taxi AmE hood trunk fender automobile trailer wreck intersection detour divided highway motor gearshift highway expressway freeway sidewalk gas patrolman flat pavement traffic circle sedan muffler oil pan cab . mudguard puncture. gear-lever main road bonnet crossroads engine silencer sump policeman road surface saloon car verge pavement roundabout caravan van.

purse diaper coin-purse pantyhose sneakers pants cuffs shorts undershirt vest billfold zipper 80 . purse shorts sneakers suspenders undershirt vest zipper BrE wallet purse turn-ups (on trousers) nappy trousers tights handbag underpants training shoes braces vest waistcoat zip BrE braces handbag nappy purse tights training shoes trousers turn-ups (on trousers) underpants vest waistcoat wallet zip AmE suspenders pocketbook.trunk turnpike windshield wreck boot (of a car) toll motorway windscreen crash toll motorway van. lorry verge windscreen turnpike truck shoulder windshield Words for clothes & accessories AmE billfold coin-purse cuffs diaper pants pantyhose pocketbook.

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