TITU MAIORESCU UNIVERSITY, BUCHAREST THE FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF INFORMATION DEPARTMENT OF MODERN LANGUAGES

BASIC ENGLISH GRAMMAR FOR STUDENTS

Bucharest, 2006

Foreword Basic English Grammar for Students is a course for upper-intermediate and advanced students of English who need to study and practice using the grammar of the language. It can be used as classroom material or for selfstudy. The course is intended mainly for upper intermediate and advanced students. It concentrates on those structures which students want to use but which often cause difficulty. The course can serve both as a basis for review and as a means of practicing new material. It’s also useful for students whose knowledge of English is good but still make grammatical mistakes and who need material for reference. The course consists of 82 units, each of which concentrates on a particular point of grammar. Some areas are covered in more than one unit. In each unit there are explanations and examples. At the beginning of the book the CONTENTS pages provide a full list of units. The material will be studied during the 1st and 2nd year as follows: Units 141 in year 1, Units 42-82 in year 2. Auxiliary materials and exercises can be taken from the Longman Advanced e-course that is on the same cd with the grammar. Useful grammar exercises for consolidation can be taken from ENGLISH GRAMMAR- THEORY & PRACTICE by Constantin Paidos, Editura POLIROM.

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CONTENTS FOREWORD THE NOUN Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 What is a noun? Common & Proper Nouns Countable & Non-countable Nouns The Plural of Nouns 9 9 10 12 4

DETERMINERS Unit 5 What is a Determiner? Unit 6 Articles Unit 7 The Zero Article Unit 8 The Indefinite Article Unit 9 The Definite Article THE ADJECTIVE Unit 10 What is an adjective? Unit 11 Order of the adjectives Unit 12 Demonstrative adjectives Unit 13 Participles as adjectives THE ADVERB Unit 14 What is an adverb? Unit 15 Adverbial Clauses Unit 16 Adverbs of Degree Unit 17 Adverbs of Manner Unit 18 Adverbs of Place Unit 19 Adverbs of Time THE COMPARISON Unit 20 The Comparison Unit 21 Comparatives & Superlatives Unit 22 Irregular Comparisons Unit 23 Comparison Phrases THE VERB Unit 24 What is a verb? Unit 25 Auxiliary Verbs Unit 26 Irregular verbs
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14 15 17 18 18

18 19 19 20

20 21 22 22 23 23

23 24 25 26

27 28 29

Unit 27 Tenses of the verbs Unit 28 Present Continuous Unit 29 Present Simple Unit 30 Present Simple or Continuous? Unit 31 Past Simple Unit32 Past Continuous Unit 33 Present Perfect Simple Unit 34 Present Perfect Simple or Past Simple? Unit 35 Present Perfect Continuous Unit 36 Present Perfect Continuous or Present Perfect Simple? Unit 37 Past Perfect Simple Unit 38 Past Perfect Continuous Unit 38 Future IMPERATIVES Unit 40 When to use Imperatives? INFINITIVES Unit 41 When to use Infinitives? MODAL VERBS Unit 42 Characteristics of Modal Verbs Unit 43 Modal Ability Unit 44 Modal Necessity Unit 45 Modal Offers Unit 46 Modal Permission Unit 47 Modal Possibility Unit 48 Modal Requests Unit 49 Verbs & Prepositions Unit 50 Verb Patterns CONDITIONALS Unit 51 What is a Conditional? Unit 52 Conditional 1 Unit 53 Conditional 2 Unit 54 Conditional 1 or Conditional 2? Unit 55 Conditional 3 Unit 56 Conditional Clauses Unit 57 Miscellaneous 34 34 34 37 39 40 41 42 43 44 44 45 45 46 46 47 49 50 50 51 51 52 53 53 55 55 56 56 57 57 57 6 .

British & Australian English Unit 80 AmE & BrE Grammar #1 Unit 81 AmE & BrE Grammar #2 Unit 82 AmE & BrE Vocabulary 75 75 76 77 7 .PASSIVE VOICE Unit 58 Active vs Passive Unit 59 Passive Verbs Unit 60 Causative Form Unit 61 Passive by… Unit 62 Passive Forms Unit 63Passive Object Clauses Unit 64 Passive use PREPOSITIONS Unit 65 What are prepositions? Unit 66 Prepositions of Place Unit 67 Prepositions of Time Unit 68 Word & Phrase + Preposition QUESTIONS Unit 69 How to ask questions? Unit 70 Direct & Indirect Questions Unit 71 Negative Questions Unit 72 Question tags Unit 73 Question Words #1 Unit 74 Question Words #2 Unit 75 Subject Questions NEGATIVES Unit 76 How to make Negatives Unit 77 Negative Phrases Unit 78 Negative Words 73 74 75 66 68 68 69 70 70 72 64 64 65 66 59 60 61 61 62 62 63 ENGLISHES Unit 79 American .

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Buddha. If we want to talk about more than one book. brotherhood. we use a common noun. A proper noun is the name of a person. telephone. water. we can divide them into two different groups. We use common nouns to talk about objects or concepts: objects events feelings time concepts table. airplane. The White House 9 . teachers To make a plural noun. Mars. airplanes. A noun is the name of the thing we can see.e. we use a noun.THE NOUN Unit 1 What is a noun? When we want to talk about something. hill. Book is a singular noun. this means it refers only to one book. revolution fear. we say: prison. Asia. St Guy's Hospital. For example. teacher There are only two forms of nouns: singular and plural. Freddie Kruger When we talk about a place which does not have a name. telephones. atom. we cannot see. minute. we must use a plural noun: books. Cleopatra. hospital. We talk about concrete nouns when we refer to objects and we talk about abstract nouns when we refer to concepts which are mental rather than physical (i. The big difference between these and common nouns is that proper nouns are spelt with a capital letter. love year. The second group of nouns are called proper nouns. smell or touch them). hate. elephant lesson. we usually add -s to the end of the singular noun. London. Unit 2 Common & Proper Nouns When we talk about nouns. hear. taste. house but we talk about Wandsworth Prison. causation Note: We can divide common nouns into two further groups. a place or a title: Queen Victoria. if it has a name we use a proper noun. Australia. Here are some common nouns: book. millennium warfare.

pepper. the verb is singular or plural. spaghetti. This butter has melted. pasta. tea. The cars are in the garage. whiskey. toothpaste If the non-countable noun is the subject of a sentence. We cannot stand on the beach and count: * four sands and three waters sand and water are examples of non-countable nouns and they only have a singular form: The sand is hot. grain. and we use the plural form when we talk about more than one object (or concept). luggage. rice. sugar. this means we can count the object (or concept) they refer to. but the Queen has fifteen houses. We use the singular form when we talk about one object (or concept). hair. We can. wheat advice. salt. cola. stand in a field and count: four goats and three cows A countable noun has two forms: singular and plural. Some objects (or concepts) cannot be counted. for example. cheese. I have one house. We can say: There is one book on the table. Milk is very good for babies. When the countable noun is the subject of the sentence. Common non-countable nouns include: liquids foodst uffs miscell aneou s beer. and three books on the chair. It is important to know the difference between these two groups as there are different grammar rules for each. knowledge. These groups are known as countable and non-countable. wine butter. Most nouns are countable. milk. lemonade. water. news. research. Note: non-countable nouns are sometimes known as mass nouns. furniture. money. meat. depending on the noun (this is called subject-verb agreement): The book is on the table.Unit 3 Countable & Non-countable Nouns There are two main groups of nouns in English. we use it with a singular verb: My money is in my wallet. The water is cold. progress. 10 . juice.

an example of the whole. research. He had twenty-seven sheep on the farm. in the second we are talking about a specific wine. a cold refers to a blocked nose and lots of sneezing. When we use non-countable nouns. money. spaghetti Remember. I have a cold. we can use a number and a plural noun: There are three bananas on the table. cold is non-countable and refers to cold weather and low temperature. countable: three teas two whiskies Some nouns are countable and non-countable but with different meanings: He suffers badly from the cold. we usually use an article instead: 11 . news. hair. This is a fine wine. we often use them in expressions: three cups of tea two glasses of whiskey With some common expressions. there are a number of different ways we can do this. The spaghetti is ready now. When we talk about quantity with countable and non-countable nouns. non-countable nouns have a singular verb and do not have a plural form: He gave me some information about flights to Rome. I've got a lot of work to do. In the first example we are talking about wine in general. we can delete the container and make the noncountable noun. The news is not good. in the second example. If the number is one. please. Often when we talk about an example of a non-countable noun then we make the noun countable: I'd like some wine. In the first example.This whiskey tastes awful! Students often make mistakes with these non-countable nouns: furniture. To express quantity with a countable noun.

piece. meter. To make them plural we add -s to the end: singular plural 1 book 2 books 1 car 4 cars 1 house 8 houses Some nouns have two very different words for the singular and the plural: singular plural 1 tooth 2 teeth 1 goose 2 geese 1 foot 2 feet 1 child 2 children 1 ox 2 oxen 1 oasis 2 oases 1 axis 2 axes 1 man 2 men 1 woman 2 women 12 . kilo. loaf. To express quantity with a non-countable noun. When we talk about a non-countable noun. little and a singular form: Here is some sugar. mile. we can use an expression which shows an amount or a container: {quantity} + {amount/container} + {of} There is one box of rice in the cupboard. bottle.He has a cold. There are a few problems. tin. tube. jar. much. slice. Some other common expressions include: bar. He drank three glasses of wine. packet. I'd like a pound of cheese. we must use some. Unit 4 The Plural of Nouns Most nouns in English are regular. yard. pound. any. box. ton. * Can you give me four informations? Instead. Or we can be non-specific and talk about approximate numbers: There are some people in the office. There isn't much wine in the bottle. please. we cannot use a number and a plural form: * There are three rices in the bowl. sheet. cup.

for example: headquarters. contents. earnings. riches. for example: athletics. measles. means. audience. for example: army. Microsoft. troops These nouns take a plural verb: The contents are labeled on the jar. club. public. His savings were wiped out in the crash. A collective noun describes a group of nouns describing the same thing. crowd. class. mathematics. the BBC We use singular verb if we think of the group as a whole: Arsenal is playing well today. Politics is boring! Some words are either plural or singular. Some nouns look plural but are. committee. in fact. works (= factory/workshop. team. Arsenal. etc. politics The verb is singular here: His measles is spreading. Their headquarters is situated in central London. group. Some groups. are always plural: 13 .1 mouse 2 mice 1 medium 2 media Some nouns are the same whether they are singular or plural: singular plural 1 sheep 2 sheep 1 salmon 2 salmon 1 aircraft 2 aircraft 1 trout 2 trout Some nouns have alternative plurals: singular plural 1 penny 2 pence/pennies 1 person 2 persons/people 1 fish 2 fish/fishes Some nouns have a plural but no singular. goods. savings. there is no real difference: Their headquarters are situated in central London. gymnastics. however. singular. gang. Or plural if we are thinking of the individuals: Arsenal are a mixed bunch of players. thanks.) The verb can be either singular or plural. company. news. for example: clothes.

When we have a noun phrase of measurement.half double . and we can generally only use one determiner for a noun phrase. DETERMINERS Unit 5 What is a determiner? Determiners are words we put in front of a noun or noun phrase. possessives whose . at the beginning of the noun phrase... we always use the plural. Six feet six inches is tall for a man. 14 ..your . scissors. They tell us about the number of items we are talking about. numbers first second third.every either .which ..those demonstrative adjectives every .his.the articles my . they often restrict the use of the noun.twice . trousers We use a plural verb: Your jeans are ripped.these . When we talk about a pair of things. one-quarter two-thirds..that .what question words some . These are the classes of determiners: example see a .neither either .. we use a singular verb: Twenty kilos is the maximum weight for suitcases. for example: a pair of: glasses. For example: nou determiner n cats sleep a lot cat sleeps a lot a cat sleeps a lot the cat sleeps a lot my cats sleep a lot most cats sleep a lot some Determiners usually come before the noun.each each .an .any some .neither all .both ..The police are coming! The cattle are lowing.three times.any enough enough this . jeans..

I like drinking water. Note: The zero article means that we do not use anything. Here we are talking about one special cat: The cat with the gray and black coat is mine..three.many .a lot of . When we talk about one specific example of the group. I like the taste of malt whisky. we are making a general comment about all cats and all dogs.little . Here we are talking about one cat from many: There is a cat in the garden.. When we want to talk about all the nouns in a group. When we talk about a group of nouns in general. we use the definite article. we use the definite article. few fewer little less many more much a lot lots of several - fewest least most of few . When we talk about a sub-group of nouns. When we talk about one example of a group we use the indefinite article. I like a cup of tea before bed. we use the zero article (i. nothing): Dogs bark and cats purr.lots of Unit 6 Articles There are three articles in English: the zero article the indefinite article the definite article We use these articles with nouns. 15  a/an the .one . we use the zero article.two . the: The men from Nagasaki chew tobacco. Here we are talking about all cats: Cats like sleeping. it is useful to help to explain how we use the other articles.much .e. In this example.

we treat them like plural nouns. we use the indefinite article a or an: Can you lend me a pen please? I saw an elephant playing in the garden. The people in my town always vote Conservative. etc. When we talk about a specific example of a group. the speaker does not mind if it is red or blue or old or new. the important fact is that there is an elephant in the garden. we can use the definite or indefinite article. Also take care with words like union which are spelt with a vowel but start with a consonant sound . Note: We use a before a consonant sound and an before a vowel sound. In the first example it makes no difference which pen is lent. Both of these are possible: People in my town always vote Conservative. and it does not matter which one. the: Which pen do you want? .Compare this with: Men are often paid more than women for the same job.I want the red pen. In the second example.a union. When we use non-countable nouns. We can also use the definite article with a singular noun to mean all nouns: Bananas have a curious design. The water in this river is very polluted. 16 . This is because non-countable nouns have the idea of a large amount: Water is essential for healthy crops.an hour. we use the definite article. When we talk about one noun in general. Sometimes we can choose whether to use an article or not. I prefer the red flowers. the speaker is not concerned whether the elephant is old or young. Both of these mean the same thing. The banana has a curious design. Be careful with words like hour which are spelt with a consonant but start with a vowel sound . a bull or a cow. please. The article we use here depends on the point of view of the speaker. When we want to talk about a single example of a noun. I am impressed with the flowers in your garden. We often use the when we have adjectives or other qualifications of the noun which restrict it: Flowers make a house brighter.

Arabia London. Elephants are annoying! I saw an elephant climb into my garden this morning and then the elephant ate all my tomatoes. the speaker does not want any pen.. Sydney. prison. home. Cairo Acacia Avenue. court. Can you lend me one pound please. we use the: He was taken to court to be tried. America. market. what's the problem? The meaning of a/an is one. Pall Mall.. Tuesday midnight. Europe Monday. church. sea. in the court he met an old friend. college. noon. Unit 7 The Zero Article The zero article. When we talk about an institution. Grandfather came to dinner later by train and Grandmother managed to escape from prison to join us. Did you see two cats in the garden? . This can be mentioned previously (as above) or be obvious from the context: You look upset. In this example.No. 1995. I don't need any more. Nouns in this group include: bed.. university. Asia. the speaker firstly talks about elephants in general (zero article). hospital. Mrs Smith Winter. We use the to talk about a noun we already know about. New York. Sunset Boulevard 17 .In this example. we often introduce a new subject with a. February Easter Africa. we use the zero article. When we talk about it as a building. and then. when we talk about it again. class. Time America. we often do not use an article: I went to school but left my books at home. When we are speaking. 2000 Joe. When we use a noun with a preposition. night Cosmopolitan. midday. In general. work. but a special or specific one. school. we use the. then about an example of the genre (indefinite article) and finally about the previously mentioned example (definite article). we do not use one very much and mostly use a or an. Tokyo. years people seasons & months festivals continents days parts of day/night magazines countries cities & towns streets 1961. Britain.. We do not use one unless we want to specify exactly how many we want. I only saw one cat. town. Mother was in church and father at sea.

the Lusitania THE ADJECTIVE Unit 10 What is an Adjective? Adjectives are words we use to describe a noun. We use a or an when we talk about: jobs beliefs nationalities He is an artist and his wife is a plumber. the Mall. number 10 Heathrow. the President. the Highlands the piano. the United States of America Unit 8 The Indefinite Article . Unit 9 The Definite Article. the internal combustion engine the Queen. the Black Sea the wheel. They usually come before it: a big. tennis. Mont Blanc football. the White House. the Nile.buildings airports mountains games Buckingham Palace. We use the when we talk about: oceans. the Sheraton. red. The Daily Mirror the best. the Red Lion. the Smiths the United States. He is an American and she is a Swede. seas inventions titles rivers & canals public buildings newspapers superlatives families countries of union mountain chains instruments ships the Pacific. boring book 18 . the West Indies the Alps. He is a Buddhist and his wife is an atheist. the Matterhorn. the Natural History Museum The Independent. bar billiards Exceptions include: the Hague. the chairperson the Thames. K2. Gatwick Everest. the Suez. the bagpipes the Bismarck. the worst. We never use the indefinite article with non-countable nouns: I swam in a clean water and ate a pasta.

These are a kind of determiner. Swiss army knife a big. the shape and our opinion of the noun. it is best not to use too many adjectives. 19 . what color it is (red) and what we think of it (boring). thick sandwich Unit 12 Demonstrative Adjectives We use demonstrative adjectives to talk about specific examples of a noun. When we talk about a singular or non-countable noun. we use this if the noun is close to us (in space or time). Often we can change the order of these adjectives but we usually put the most important first. Can you see that mountain over there in the distance? I'm going on holiday this week. Here we are concerned with taste: opinion size a tasty sandwich big But if we think the most important thing about the sandwich is its size. we can say: siz opinion e a big tasty sandwich When you write. Adjectives never change their form. they usually follow this order: a g color origin material purpose e n a e red knife Swiss plastic army w We can have other types of adjectives which we put before the age. or that if the noun is far away (in space or time): Look at this picture here. at most. These are general adjectives about the size. Certainly. never more than two or. three in a phrase: the sharp. they are always the same: the ugly woman and the ugly man the ugly football team and the ugly goalkeeper the ugly dog and the ugly scenery Unit 11 Order of the Adjectives When we use more than one adjective in a phrase.The noun in this phrase is book and the adjectives tell us what size it is (big).

it describes how the subject of a sentence feels: She was interested in the program. or those if the noun is far away (in space or time): Look at all these pictures here. we also use adverbs in many other ways. a verb: She swam beautifully. we use these if the noun is close to us (in space or time). The candidate objected to the disappointing result. many people see adverbs as the group of words in English which do not fit into any other category (such as noun. or the sentence as a whole: Unfortunately it is raining so I cannot visit the zoo. I remember all those summer days when I was young. 20 .). We do this by using the -ing and -ed participles: verb -ed participle -ing participle interest interested interesting We use the -ed participle as a subject adjective. However. etc. Unit 13 Participles as Adjectives We can often make an adjective from a verb.That was a long time before I was born! When we talk about a plural noun. it describes theobject of the sentence: The program was interesting (for her). The disappointed candidate felt cheated by the result. verb. Can you see those mountains? I've been feeling quite ill these days. THE ADVERB Unit 14 What is an adverb? We use adverbs to give us more information about an adjective: The only red bike. We use the -ing participle as an object adjective.

she heard the door open. 21 . The second clause can be turned into an adverbial clause by using the present participle: She heard the door open while watching television. or where something happens: Go away! Adverbs can also make a description stronger or weaker: She is totally insane. adverbs end in -ly. Many. I hardly knew him. Laughing. Adverb order If we have more than one adverb in an adverb phrase. we make adverbs from adjectives by adding -ly to the end: He is a bad driver. he drove badly. we generally use this order: manner place time you must go quickly into the kitchen after lunch Unit 15 Adverbial Clauses We can join two clauses using a simple conjunction: She heard the door open while she was watching television. how often: I regularly go to the gym. I walked out. Using perfect forms makes the construction more formal: Standing up. but not all. she can see clearly. he introduced himself. Standing up. We can use the present participle by itself to show something happening simultaneously or just previously to the main event: Watching TV. It is a clear day. when: I've been ill lately.We can use adverbs to answer questions about how: He wrote crookedly in the diary. he introduced himself.

. She sang that song badly. he introduced himself.Having stood up. Perfect forms can also replace clauses of reason: Not knowing. Drunk. late. But these are more written than spoken. Unit 16 Adverbs of Degree We use adverbs of degree to tell us how much something happened: Is there enough wine? She can hardly sing. can't say. well 22 .. Many of these adverbs end in -ly: awkwardly. We usually put them at the end of the sentence. They describe the way or style of doing something: You can dance well. near. coldly. badly. Common irregular adverbs of manner include: high. we got lost. Unit 17 Adverbs of Manner We use adverbs of manner to tell us how something happened. We usually put them before the adjective or adverb they describe: too high extremely quickly Many of these adverbs end in -ly. though sometimes they come before the main verb: That book was written badly. desperately.

We met one year ago today. To compare nouns. They are often preposition phrases. we can change the adjective describing them by using comparative and superlative adjectives: 23 .Unit 18 Adverbs of Place We use adverbs of place to tell us where something happened. I saw him last Sunday. Do you come here often? Sometimes we can put them at the beginning of the sentence for emphasis: In the middle of the road there was a dead cat. place comes before time in the end position (see adverb order): We left there at midnight. Sometimes we can put them at the beginning for emphasis: Next week is my birthday. We usually put them at the end of the sentence: I'll telephone on Thursday. we have different ways to do it depending on the items we are comparing. Many of these adverbs do not have any special form and they are often prepositional phrases of place. THE COMPARISON Unit 20 The comparison When we compare two or more items. I saw him at the cinema. They met me here yesterday. We usually put them at the end of the sentence. Many of these adverbs do not have any special form. They met me here yesterday. We can change the form of the word or use a phrase. Unit 19 Adverbs of Time We use adverbs of time to tell us when something happened.

To compare more than two items. We often use this form in this pattern: {comparative} + {than} He is taller than me. Small words add -er and -est to make the comparative and superlative. we can change the adverb describing them by using comparative and superlative adverbs: Olga works carefully though Aleka works more carefully. Large words use the and more and most: Superlative comparative small extensive smaller more extensive 24 the smallest the most extensive . He is so tall that he has to bend to get through the door. But Olga is the prettiest of them all. But Enid works the most carefully of them all. To compare two items. He is the tallest man I have ever seen. In the company. He looks as if he is the tallest man in the room. Unit 21 Comparatives & Superlatives When we want to compare two nouns or two verbs. Aleka is prettier than Enid. we use the comparative: I am big. we use the superlative: Jupiter is the biggest planet in the solar system. She works carefully. we use the comparative and superlative forms of their adjectives or adverbs. These follow the same usage as the adjectives and adverbs they replace. To compare verbs. he is bigger. We are more efficient than you. he works more carefully.Enid is pretty though Aleka is prettier. We can also use different comparison phrases to make comparisons. Sandra works the most carefully. For example: He is as tall as me.

polite. we do not need to use a complete comparison. 25 . Unit 22 Irregular comparisons Some words make their comparative and superlative in an irregular way: adjective/adverb comparative superlative good/well bad/badly far far many/much/a lot of a little old old better worse farther further more less older elder the best the worst the farthest the furthest the most the least the oldest the eldest Note We use old .the oldest when we talk about objects or people and we use old elder . common. quiet. silly.friendlier .the friendliest friendly . That was the most disgusting meal I have ever had to eat. They dance less enthusiastically. gentle. The rest of the sentence is implied: This book is more difficult (than that book).the most friendly Other examples include: clever. noisy. funny. simple and stupid. easy.more friendly .eldest for family relationships Some words can take both forms: friendly .If the context is clear. dirty.. We often use the superlative with the present perfect: {superlative} .. happy. shallow. We can say: This book is less interesting. {present {ever} perfect} It was the most boring film I have ever seen.older . narrow.

{so} + {adjective} + {a/an} + {non-countable noun phrase} + {that} 26 . I am very tired. The weather is cold.... To show ability or inability. I feel as if I haven't slept for a week.. In positive sentences we can use as.as They are not so clever as us. They are not as clever as us. To show difference. They looked like they had been in a fight..as or so.as.. They work as slowly as I do. in negative sentences we use as. We use the following expressions when we are explaining something we have seen or noticed: {subject} + {verb} + {as} + {if/though} .Unit 23 Comparison Phrases To show similarity. we can use these phrases: {as} + {adjective/adverb} + {as} He is as tall as me. No one drives as the Italians do.. like means the same but it is very informal: Their clothes were ripped. When two people or objects are similar.. {the same}…{as} This color is the same as that color This is the same color as that. It was such bad weather that they canceled the excursion. we can use this phrase: {different} + {from} They are different from us. It looks as though it is going to snow. we can use like or as: He looks like you. we can use these phrases: {such} + {noun phrase} + {that} He is such a good player that he will play for the national team.

{too} + {adjective} + {for} + {person} + {to} + {infinitive} It was too distant for me to see. Here are some simple verbs: run. {adjective} + {for} + {person} + {to} + {infinitive} That was easy for you to say. future). we can change their tense and form to change the meaning: I work. 27 . I work. I worked. read. walk. I worked. It was difficult for me to do. present. To make some tense changes. We are too old to fight.He is so good a player that he will play for the national team. He is too good for me. {too} + {adjective} + {to} + {infinitive} This is too good to be true! He is too small to be a policeman. The weather was so bad that they canceled the excursion. I have worked. She works. He is too good for me to beat. I am working This change tells us when something happens (past. {so} + {adjective} + {that} He is so good that he will play for the national team. we use different forms of the verb: I was working. They are so bad a team that they will all be sacked. talk When we use verbs. we use a verb. THE VERB Unit 24 What is a verb? When we want to talk about what the subject of a sentence does. Verbs tell us about an action.

I worked yesterday. I must go. they have the same time reference but have different meanings: I was working yesterday. Unit 25 Auxiliary verbs There are three auxiliary verbs: be. and some are simple. Negatives are made thus: {auxiliary} + {not} + [auxiliary] + {main verb} They have not been to Hollywood yet.Some verbs are continuous or progressive. have and do. It must rain soon. We had talked for over an hour. He is not living here anymore. We put them before the main verb to make different tenses. To make questions: {auxiliary} + {} + [auxiliary] + {verb} Do you want a cup of tea? Has he been watching television? 28 . We can use one or more auxiliary verbs together. Some verbs always go with the same preposition: I succeeded in passing my driving test. we use certain patterns: I want to go. The only tenses where we do not use an auxiliary verb are the present simple and the past simple. We can also use modal verbs to tell us about how we feel about something happening: You should see a doctor. negatives and questions. Different tenses are made thus: {auxiliary} + [auxiliary] + {main verb} She has been waiting for three hours. She listened to the radio last night. When we join two verbs to make a verb phrase.

do and have as lexical verbs: I am English. Unit 26 Irregular Verbs Most verbs are regular.bereaved besought bestride bet bid bound bit bled blew broke bred brought broadcast built burnt burst bought see: can cast caught chid 29 past participle arisen awoken been borne beaten become befallen begotten begun beheld bent bereft . this is a list of the irregular verbs in English (those in bold type are common irregular verbs): infinitive arise awake be bear beat become befall beget begin behold bend bereave beseech bestride bet bid bind bite bleed blow break breed bring broadcast build burn burst buy can cast catch chide past arose awoke was bore beat became befell begot began beheld bent bereft . She did it! They have thirteen cats in their house.bereaved besought bestride bet bid bound bitten bled blown broken bred brought broadcast built burnt burst bought cast caught chid .We also use be.

clove clung come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt drunk driven dwelt eaten fallen fed felt fought found flung flown forborne forbidden forecast forgotten forgiven forsaken frozen got given gone ground grown hung .clove clung came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew dreamt drank drove dwelt ate fell fed felt fought found flung flew forbore forbade forecast forgot forgave forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung .hewed hidden hit held hurt kept knelt knit .hanged had heard hewn .hanged had heard hewed hid hit held hurt kept knelt knit 30 chosen cleft .choose cleave cling come cost creep cut deal dig do draw dream drink drive dwell eat fall feed feel fight find fling fly forbear forbid forecast forget forgive forsake freeze get give go grind grow hang have hear hew hide hit hold hurt keep kneel knit chose cleft .

lighted lost made see: may meant met misled mistook misunderstood mowed outdid outgrew overbid overcame overdid overfed overrode overran overtook paid put quit read rent rewound rid rode rang rose ran sawed said saw sought sold sent set 31 known led leant leapt learnt left lent let lain lit .know lead lean leap learn leave lend let lie light lose make may mean meet mislead mistake misunderstand mow outdo outgrow overbid overcome overdo overfeed override overrun overtake pay put quit read rend rewind rid ride ring rise run saw say see seek sell send set knew led leant leapt learnt left lent let lay lit .sawed said seen sought sold sent set .mowed outdone outgrown overbid overcome overdone overfed overridden overrun overtaken paid put quit read rent rewound rid ridden rung risen run sawn .lighted lost made meant met misled mistaken misunderstood mown .

sew shake shall shear shed shine shit shoot show shrink shut sing sink sit slay sleep slide sling slink slit smell smite sow speak speed spell spend spill spin spit split spoil spread spring stand steal stick sting stink strew stride strike string strive swear sweat sewed shook see: shall sheared shed shone shit .sheared shed shone shit .showed shrunk shut sung sunk sat slain slept slid slung slunk slit smelt smitten sown .shat shot shown .sowed spoken sped spelt spent spilt spun spat split spoilt spread sprung stood stolen stuck stung stunk strewn .shat shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slew slept slid slung slunk slit smelt smote sowed spoke sped spelt spent spilt span spat split spoilt spread sprang stood stole stuck stung stank strewed strode struck strung strove swore sweat 32 sewn .sewed shaken shorn .strewed strode struck strung striven sworn sweat .

sweep swell swim swing take teach tear tell think thrive throw thrust tread unbend unbind underbid undergo understand undertake undo unwind uphold upset wake wear weave wed weep wet will win wind withdraw withhold withstand wring write swept swelled swam swung took taught tore told thought throve threw thrust trod unbent unbound underbid underwent understood undertook undid unwound upheld upset woke wore wove wed wept wet see: will won wound withdrew withheld withstood wrung wrote swept swollen .swelled swum swung taken taught torn told thought thrived thrown thrust trodden unbent unbound underbid undergone understood undertaken undone unwound upheld upset woken worn woven wed wept wet won wound withdrawn withheld withstood wrung written 33 .

You're bleeding! It's raining. Within these categories we make other distinctions. When a verb is in the past. They're talking. Often these problems are to do with selecting the right tense. present or future. She is working in the library.g. but not always. a future verb refers to an action which will happen after now in the future and a present verb refers to something happening right now. Often. please.Unit 27 Tenses of the verbs The tense of a verb refers to the form of the verb. we can talk about verbs being past. e. Can you be quiet. it generally refers to an action which took place before now. These are the active tenses in English: Sometimes it is difficult to know exactly which tense to use. We also use other forms of the verb in grammar: these are the infinitive and the imperative. I am watching television. they also refer to a particular time. To begin with. We talk about simple or continuous (also known as progressive) and perfect forms. Likewise. We use the present continuous tense to talk about actions which are happening as we speak and actions taking place around now: 34 . Simple or Continuous? Present Perfect Continuous or Present Perfect Simple? Present Perfect Simple or Past Simple? Unit 28 Present Continuous We use the present continuous tense to talk about actions which are happening as we speak and actions taking place around now: Someone is ringing the door bell. We make the present continuous by using be and the -ing form of the verb: {subject} + {be} + {present participle} I'm working.

This is a temporary situation: I am getting divorced. Why is he in bed? . I am listening to some music right now.Someone is ringing the door bell. She is working in the library. We make the present continuous by using be and the -ing form of the verb: {subject} + {be} + {present participle} I'm working. but these days we are painting the house. Often we add a time adverb: 35 . They are running for the bus. We make the present simple by using a form of the verb be and the present participle form of the verb: {subject} + {be} + {present participle} . She is talking to her friend.He is not feeling well today. Can you be quiet. please. What's that noise? Are those cats fighting again? about things happening around now but maybe not right at the moment we speak.it is a good idea to imagine that these are plans you can write in your diary. You're bleeding! It's raining. The baby is not sleeping well these days so I can't sleep at night. we will finish this job soon... They're talking. we also use this tense to talk about fixed future plans . I am watching television. I am working now. We use the present continuous tense in three ways: when we talk about a situation that is happening right now as we speak. Are the team playing well this season? Remember that these are temporary situations: At this moment I am talking to you.

. It barks.. They go out every night. things we do regularly: I go to the cinema at least once a week. Remember that the third person singular adds -s to the end: {subject} + {present form} I work..I am going to Spain next year. We use the present form of the verb. Do the children go to bed at nine o'clock every night? talking about a situation that lasts for a long time: He draws maps for a living. Sheila is not marrying Pete till next month. He plays football at the weekend. With most verbs this is the same as the infinitive form. We do not wake up before 8 o'clock in the morning. Are they playing Arsenal next week? Unit 29 Present Simple We use the present simple to talk about our habits and routines (things we do regularly) and situations which last for a long time: I visit my mother once a month. 36 .. She works for a bank.. We use the present simple in 7 main ways: talking about habits and routines.. The Earth is round. We make the present simple by using the present form of the verb. Remember to use the final -s with the third person: {subject} + {present form} I live in Scotland. She wishes.

"We've had to cut off both your legs. 37 ." says the man." Unit 30 Present Simple or Continuous? Students sometimes confuse a simple tense with a continuous tense. The man screams a bit and gets upset but after a while the doctor calms him down. Do all mammals breathe oxygen? talking about feelings. How does it smell? giving instructions: You walk out the door and then you turn left. talking about a future timetable arrangement: She leaves tomorrow.She is not married. Metal does not float in water. We often use this with a time adverb. you do it like that! Note: we more often use the imperative in this situation. "What's the good news?" he asks the doctor. Does she work in the wool factory? talking about a situation which is permanent: Venus and Mercury are closer to the Sun than the Earth. a joke or give a commentary: This man is in a hospital bed. The doctor walks in and says. She doesn't like you. "There's some good news and some bad news." says the doctor." "Give me the bad news. It starts next Thursday. thoughts and characteristics: I believe in Father Christmas. This topic looks at the differences between the two tenses. You don't do it like this. "The man in the next bed wants to buy your shoes. to tell a dramatic story.

we do not usually use like in a continuous tense. it is about a belief.I am thinking about our holiday. understand. The simple tenses are used to talk about things which happen and finish. She does not like boring books. touch. it is an active effort: What do you think? . belong. Can you smell the roses? We can use some of the verbs listed above in continuous tenses but their meaning changes when we do. think verbs of emotions: like. hear verbs of possession: own. we are talking about a feeling we have which will last for a long time: I like football.they will stop sometime. taste. smell.We use the continuous to talk about things which are happening over a period of time. for example: verbs of mental activity: know. There are other verbs generally used only in simple tenses. 38 . desire verbs of senses: see. seem With verbs of perception we can often use can: I can hear him but I cannot see him. Simple tenses generally refer to actions which are permanent. consist. ask. we use have to mean making an active effort: I have long hair. The continuous form refers to what is happening right now. Some verbs contain in their meaning an idea of permanency. hate. tell. I am having my hair cut. In general. depend. contain. In the next example. For example. answer miscellaneous verbs: need. Do they like living in London? For this reason. I live in London. the duration of these events is not important. possess. We never use have in a continuous way to mean possession. What are you thinking? .I think you are wrong. have verbs of reporting: say. when we use the verb like. love. while continuous tenses usually talk about things which are happening for a while only . the simple form refers to a long-term mental state.

it can be one minute ago or a million years ago. I drank two cups of coffee for breakfast this morning. There is no change for the third person singular: {subject} + {past form} I worked hard. London is their home and they have no intention of leaving.I am living in London.. In the second example.. We make the past simple tense by using the past form of the verb: {subject} + {past form} . We use the past simple: when we talk about an action or event which started in the past and finished in the past. The Big Bang happened over ten thousand million years ago. With regular verbs the past is formed by adding -ed to the end of the verb. She walked to the supermarket. We use this tense a lot. the speaker was probably born in London. 39 . They laughed at the joke. to make polite requests and suggestions: I wondered if you might like to go out tonight? I hoped you would say yes.. We often use it with a past adverb. I rode to work on my bike this morning. He opened it and saw. It does not matter when the event or action happened. He walked into the room and looked around. I worked very hard last week. There was a knock on the door.. In the first example. We make the past tense of regular verbs by adding -ed to the end. or is living there for a short while only before moving somewhere Unit 31 Past Simple We often use the past simple to tell a story. the speaker perhaps has just moved to London.

We talked for some time and then the door opened and the main action happened . I was walking down the street. They were talking when. We make the past continuous by using was/were and the -ing form of the verb: {subject} + {was/were} + {present participle} I was working when you called. I picked it up and someone was screaming on the other end of the line.. The alarm clock woke me up when/while I was sleeping.. he was flying to the moon the next morning.. We use the past continuous for three situations: to provide the background for the story. to talk about a temporary and continuous action in the past: I was working at home all last week. The factory was turning out thousands of uniforms during the war. Here the past continuous tells us about an action that was interrupted. The phone was ringing when I walked into my house.Unit 32 Past Continuous It was raining when I went home. We often use these sentence patterns with the past continuous: {past continuous} + {when} + {past simple} {past simple} + {when/while} + {past continuous} I was sleeping when the alarm clock woke me up. 40 . It tells us what is happening before the main action occurs: We were all talking when the boss walked in.... we started talking before the boss came in. He was singing. In this example.. Of course he was nervous. for arrangements in the past: They were leaving on the six o'clock train. You were working when I called.. We make the past continuous by using the past form of be and the present participle: {subject} + {was/were} + {present participle} .the boss came in and got angry because we were not working...

recent events. She has found a good job and she will start work next Monday. possibly carrying on into the future: I have lived here all my life. She has gone to the dentist. if you run you can catch her. the police are looking for the assassin. an event started in the past and continues till now. The President has just been shot. strongly affecting the present: I have lost my wallet . I have seen this film. We do not use this tense with an adverb telling us when the event happened: * I have argued with my boss yesterday.She has gone out.quickly. killing 40 people. call the police.. We use the present perfect simple tense in several ways: from the past to the present.Unit 33 Present Perfect Simple The present perfect simple tense is used to talk about a past time which has very strong meaning for the present.. headline news: A train has crashed. 41 . I have found it! This last example affects the present because everyone else can stop looking. Three men have climbed Mount Everest. We make the present perfect simple by using have/has and the past participle: {subject} + {have} + {past participle} . We make the present perfect simple by using have/has and the -ed form of the verb (the past participle): {subject} + {have/has} + {past participle} I have worked hard today and now I'm tired. She has known me for five years. * I have seen you last week. Where's Jane? .

general experiences in life: I have never seen such a fantastic sight. We often use the present perfect with recently. She left five minutes ago. They have recently got divorced. Napoleon fought many battles. we can assume that the American army will continue to fight. Unit 34 Present Perfect Simple or Past Simple? The past simple is used for a completed action in the past.. in the second they went and then returned. Often we will continue with the past simple so we can specify the time when an event happened: {present perfect} + {past simple} My boss has just gone. Have you ever been to France? with actions we are expecting to happen. the present perfect has a much closer link to the present. In the second example. The American army has fought many battles. lately and just to talk about something done very recently. I have been talking to John lately. {recently/lately} I have just seen Bill.. In the first example they are not here now. They have not stopped completely yet. 42 . They have been to Paris. gone and been: They have gone to Paris. The verb go is used with two past participles. we often use this with yet: Have you seen Bill yet? He hasn't gone yet. {have/has} + {recently/just/lately} + {past participle} {have/has} + {past participle} .

We make the present perfect continuous by using have/has. to talk about an even which started in the past and is continuing now: I have been learning English for six years.. She has been doing her homework. We use the present perfect continuous in two ways.. She has been doing her homework.Unit 35 Present Perfect Continuous We use the present perfect continuous to talk about an event which started in the past and is continuing now: I have been learning English for six years... I have been working . They have been living in Paris since July. We often use the words for and since with this tense. I have been painting the house this weekend. We make the present perfect continuous by using have/has been and the present participle form of the verb: {subject} + {have/has} + {been} + {present participle} . been and the -ing form of the verb (the present participle): {subject} + {have/has} + {been} + {present participle} I have been working. 43 .I have been running. They have been living in Paris for the last eight months... to talk about an event which lasted for some time and recently finished. the effects of this event are still apparent: Why are you puffing? --.

Unit 37 Past Perfect Simple The past perfect simple is used to talk about a past time before another time in the past. when we want to provide a simple sequence of events. She had been to the dentist earlier in the day so she felt ill that night. We make the past perfect simple by using had and the -ed form of the verb (the past participle): {subject} + {had} + {past participle} I had worked hard for a long time before I completed the work. I've read War & Peace but I found the end boring. The Queen died three days after the King had died. We use the past perfect simple tense: to provide the background to an event. The Queen died of a broken heart after the King had left her. we can use the past simple or the past perfect with the past simple: The King died. The simple tense tells us the action is completed and the result can be seen. We make the past perfect simple by using had and the past participle: {subject} + {had} + {past participle} I had seen the film six times already and I didn't want to see it again. it tells us what happened before the main action: She was tired because she had been at work all day. 44 .Unit 36 Present Perfect Continuous or Present Perfect Simple? Both tenses are used for an action which finished a short while ago. She had attended many interviews before she found the right job. The Queen died three days later. to provide information about the order of events: The detective ran into the room but the evil gangsters had already gone. We did not all pass the exam though we had studied hard. the continuous that the action went on for some time. I've been reading War & Peace and I have almost finished it. We often use the tense in conjunction with the past simple.

Sometimes we use the present continuous tense to talk about the future: I am seeing her tomorrow. 45 . We make the past perfect continuous by using had. Sometimes it is difficult to choose between be going to and will: It will be fine tomorrow. tomorrow. been and the -ing form of the verb (the present participle): {subject} + {had} + {been} + {present participle} I had been working for some time before I realized my mistake. Cinderella. It is going to be fine. Unit 39 Future We have different ways to talk about the future in English. I'm sure of that! When we make predictions and promises.Unit 38 Past Perfect Continuous We use the past perfect continuous to talk about a continuous temporary event which started happening in the past before another past event: I had been learning English for six years before I went to England. Before I arrived. we use will: It will rain. They had both been living in Paris for some time when they met. When we make promises and offers for the future. When we talk about intentions or predictions based on what we can see now. you wait and see. sometimes we use shall: You shall go to the ball. she had been doing her homework. we use be going to: I am going to pass my test.

to make informal offers or invitations: Have a drink? Want a ride? to give warnings: Don't take lifts from strangers. please. To tell someone we want something very much. Go out the door and turn left. 46 .IMPERATIVES Unit 40 When to use Imperatives? We use the imperative form of the verb: to give orders: Stop! Shut the door! to give instructions: Add a pinch of salt and boil for fifteen minutes. we put please or do at the beginning: Do tell me! Please tell me! We can use the imperative as a subject of a sentence. go can be followed by the imperative without and: Go get him. To be polite. In AmE. Do try to take care! The form of the imperative is the same as the infinitive. We often follow it with and: {imperative} + {and} + {clause} Get this done and you can leave early. Some imperatives are joined by and: Come and sit here! Wait and see. we add please to the end of the sentence: Shut the door. Complain again and we will leave.

might. dare*.. will. INFINITIVES Unit 41 When to use the Infinitive? The infinitive is the base form of the verb: be. What for? To save time later. There are also modal constructions: be able to. ought to. should...... be allowed to They always come first in a verb formation. We can also join two imperatives: Be sure to do this. have. shall. must. A common question and answer expressing purpose is like this: statement: question: answer: I'm packing now. before other auxiliaries and the main verb: {modal} + [auxiliary] + {main verb} Note that modal verbs do not take a final -s for the third person singular. MODAL VERBS Unit 42 Characteristics of Modals There are not many modal verbs: can. need*.Go wait in the car. may. could. he took a second job.... would. We use the infinitive with to to express reason: {to} + {infinitive} To pay for the mortgage. walk.. We can use them with the -ing form to show continuous modality: {modal} + {be} + {-ing} 47 . Be sure and do this.. The verb which follows is always in the infinitive form: He might be. They should stay.. She could have.

They should have seen him. However..either in negative polarity or in the idiomatic "I dare say. They should be coming soon.. They should have to. both structurally and semantically it does function within the system of modality. He must be having a party. although in a limited way.. He could beat the record easily. *DARE is regarded as a marginal modal verb because of its restricted usage ." form. They might have been working hard. She might not be allowed to.. We use modal verbs to show: what we think or feel about a situation: They should not have gone. be allowed to and have [got] to after modals: {modal} + {phrase} I will be able to. 48 . possibility: He could be there. necessity: He must stop.. They should stop. ability to do something: They can't speak fluently..He might be working late. We can use be able to. We can use them with the past participle to show past modality: {modal} + {have} + {past participle} He might have been working late. They might not win. Note that we do not use these in continuous forms.. He must have gone away..

She was able to play the piano. “Need we really go now?” Unit 43 Modal Ability To show degrees of ability. I am able to hear him but I am not able to see him. But in British English. In this case. could and be able to are interchangeable.g. be able to is more formal than can.*NEED can be used as an ordinary verb. These show: ability or opportunity in the present: She can play the piano. ability in the future: He could do your job given the opportunity. be able to: I could leave. and questions and negatives are made without "do" e. I was able to leave. ability or opportunity in the past: She could play the piano. to show ability. but could means I did not leave and was/were able to means I did leave. Note that in conditional sentences also. there is no "s" with the 3rd person singular. When we talk about a real past action we use was/were able to and when we talk about a hypothetical course of action we us could.g. Both examples say I had the opportunity or ability to leave. e. we often use can or be able to with verbs of perception: I can hear him but I cannot see him. With questions: Can I open the window? 49 . we can use modal verbs. could v. I was able to swim when I was four.g. “I need a new coat”. can v. be able to: In most situations. NEED can also be used as a modal verb. could and was/were able to are interchangeable: I could swim when I was four. When we talk about a skill. I will never be able to lift that cupboard alone. “You needn't pay for my dinner”. She is able to play the piano. meaning "must have" e.

have [got] to Generally. must v. can and could are requests. patient to themself: I must stop smoking. we can use modal verbs: I will give you hand with that case. These show that calling your mother is the right thing to do. We use mustn't to say an action is forbidden .Could I open the window? Am I able to open the window? In questions. have [got] to is when the speaker uses an external force which they cannot control: doctor to patient: You've got to stop smoking.I can do it if I want to. We use needn't to show an action is optional . but ought to is perhaps a little stronger. We have not got to see the boss after all. There is no real difference between ought to and should. we needn't stay late but we can if we want to.e. We needn't stay late. 0% necessity: We don't have to pay to get in. while be able to asks about ability. You have [got] to leave straight away. Shall I give you a hand with that case? Can I give you a hand with that case? 50 . must shows what the speaker feels and it is the speaker's authority. Unit 45 Modal Offers To show degrees of offers. You should call your mother. obligation: You ought to call your mother. These have an element of being optional.I have no choice. Unit 44 Modal Necessity 100% necessity: You must leave straight away. i.

You are not allowed to leave yet. we can use modal verbs: permission: You cannot leave yet. You must not leave yet. In the first example the speaker makes a general comment about the meetings. To talk generally about something we use can. in the second example the speaker is talking about a specific group of future meetings only. but talking about a specific set of something. It may get very tense in some of these meetings. we can use modal verbs: imagining things: That would be nice. Unit 47 Modal Possibility To show degrees of possibility. needn't v. You may not leave yet. He must be in Rome by now.I can do it if I want to. giving orders: You will not leave yet.I have no choice. can is more friendly than may which is quite formal. We use mustn't to say an action is forbidden . mustn't We use needn't to show an action is optional . can v. may It can get very tense in some of these meetings. 51 . we use may. logical certainty He will be in Rome by now.We use shall as let's but the person has a chance to refuse: Shall we go to the cinema? Unit 46 Modal Permission To show degrees of permission.

please? Could you tell me the time. She could win. please? May I see you in your office. to show something the speaker thinks is unlikely or impossible or illogical: He couldn't have got lost. Unit 48 Modal Requests To show degrees of requests. please? 52 . please? Can you tell me the time. please? Could I see you in your office. It can't be raining! He wouldn't still be at work. please? could is more polite than can. but it is more direct than can or could: Would you tell me the time. suggestions in the future: We could go to the cinema. we can use will to make requests. She will win.degrees of possibility in the present and future He could be upstairs. He can't have got lost. we can use modal verbs: polite requests Can I see you in your office. would he? prediction: She might win. He may be upstairs. will is certain. could which is least sure. She may win. He might be upstairs. may is almost the same as might though perhaps might is a little less sure.

These are some of the more common patterns: {verb} + {to} + {infinitive} I managed to leave. work is a noun and to a preposition. In the first example. I object to work at night. I expect to eat bananas for breakfast.. If you do not know whether to is with the infinitive or gerund. try putting a noun after it: I object to bananas. I object to work. to is not a preposition so we do not follow it with the gerund: I expect to. This is acceptable so to is a preposition and must be followed by the gerund. we can follow it with the gerund: He coughed before beginning to speak. With most prepositions this is no problem.. 53 . work is a verb. Unit 50 Verb Patterns We use different patterns when we join two verbs. However. please? making requests: Would you mind coming with me? Would you mind if I left now? Would you rather I left now? Unit 49 Verbs + Preposition When we use a preposition. students often confuse it with the to +infinitive structure. I object to working at night. * I expect to bananas. In the following case. when we use the preposition to.Will you tell me the time. They succeeded in breaking the door down. in the second example.

say 'hello' for me. resist. begin. mean. should. leave. request. consent. the gerund refers to a general activity while the infinitive refers to a specific case. imagine. excuse. compel. I enjoy running first thing in the morning. postpone. cause. prefer. will. want. want. watch. feel like. help. must. face. try. choose. I like to ski. ought. go on. promise. have. forgive. leave off. permit. propose. encourage. make. prepare. remember. neglect. used. appear. advise. mention. need. we use the to + infinitive pattern: He was made to feel unwelcome. like. avoid. Verbs include: admit. warn. happen. tell. expect. Verbs include: advise. pretend. miss. put off. appreciate. learn. promise. instruct. mind. understand. beg. remind. keep. may. be. start. dislike. suggest. command. like. agree. force. offer. finish. involve. practice. Some verbs can take either the gerund or the infinitive. determine. can't help. help. There is very little difference between these two: I like skiing. In the passive. threaten. feel. bear. beg. trouble. oblige. deny. risk. {verb} + {gerund} I considered retiring. get. wish. Verbs include: afford. invite. see. fail. endure. delay. I made them go. forget. would. need. intend. can't stand. contemplate. ask. expect. mean. escape. give up. shall. In this group we include most (but not all) of the modal auxiliary verbs and verbs of senses. let. order. swear. enjoy. decide. hesitate. notice. Verbs include: could. prefer. hope. forbid. press. {verb} + [object] + {to} + {infinitive} I would advise you to go. arrange. manage. care. bear. {verb} + [object] + {infinitive} I could feel him watch me. attempt. hate. hate. help. hear. They were seen to enter the building after dark. resent. consider. love. intend. detest. regret. plan. prefer. persuade. ask. dare. In general. refuse. There are some important exceptions though: 54 . stop. teach. seem. trouble. might. wish. allow.If you happen to see them. I want you to leave. recommend. tempt.

we usually put a comma between the two.00. We use Conditional 2 to talk about possible but unlikely situations in the future. If you stop crying. We use Conditional 3 to talk about past situations which did not happen. When it comes first. Verbs in this category include: advise. permit. hate. The if-clause is in the present. forget. hear. love. CONDITIONALS Unit 51 What is a conditional? A conditional is a kind of sentence which uses a word such as if. regret. It talks about situations which are not real. Remember visiting my mother? = you visited her in the past and now I am asking you to remember it. forbid. There are three main types of conditional sentences: We use Conditional 1 to talk about probable situations in the future. Remember to visit my mother. can't bear. I will give you a sweet. remember. the conditional clause uses will and the infinitive: {if} + {present} | {will} + {infinitive} There are two clauses: the if-clause can come first or second. To make the first conditional we use two clauses. stop. go on. attempt. the gerund refers to what happened before the main verb and the infinitive what happened after the main verb. propose. intend. like. watch. continue. start. Remember visiting my mother? In this case. allow. prefer. try.Remember to visit my mother. 55 . see. type conditional 1 conditional 2 conditional 3 Unit 52 if clause if we leave now if we left now if we had left earlier conditional clause we will catch the train we would catch the train we would have caught the train Conditional 1 We use the first conditional to talk about situations in the future which we think will probably happen or which are perfectly reasonable and likely: If we leave at 9. = you must remember now that you will visit my mother in a while. we will catch the train. begin.

.. what would you say? If you had a million pounds.. Using the first or second conditional depends on the point of view of the speaker: a pessimist says an optimist says a pessimist says if I won. If you wrote a bestseller.. if my house is on fire. I would hurt myself. I will hurt myself. If you want to talk about something which is likely to happen. You would earn lots of money if you worked harder. Unit 53 Conditional 2 We use the second conditional to talk about possible but unlikely situations in the future and whether they will happen or not. Obviously sometimes we can use either of these types. When it comes first. say if I was. or imaginary present situations: If you met the President. many people nowadays. we usually put a comma between the two. We also use it for giving advice. the second example suggests I don't want to work too hard and this is why not. The if-clause is in the past tense. you would make lots of money. the conditional clause uses would and the infinitive: {if} + {past} | {would} + {infinitive} There are two clauses: the if-clause can come first or second. Note: We use I were instead of I was because we are actually using the subjunctive. what would you do with it? To make the second conditional we use two clauses.... if the idea is unlikely. You will lose lots of money if you keep gambling.. The first example suggests that I think I work too much and I ought to stop. If I worked too much. you will make lots of money.. use Conditional 2.. however. I would. 56 . If I work too much. if I win. Unit 54 Conditional 1 or Conditional 2? Sometimes it is difficult to know when to use the first conditional and when to use the second conditional. use Conditional 1.If you work hard. This is very common: If I were you.

If Blucher had not arrived. If it rains like this all day. The first conditional uses the present tense and the second conditional uses the past tense. If it rains like this all day..the tense does not show time but likelihood. Napoleon would have won at Waterloo. Unit 56 Conditional Clauses In the examples for the conditional. the river could flood. Real Madrid would have won the match. but both of these conditionals can talk about the present or future . the river will flood. (But Beckham did not score and Real Madrid lost. The if-clause is in the past perfect tense and the conditional clause uses would have and the past participle: {if} + {past perfect} | {would} + {have} + {past participle} There are two clauses: the if-clause can come first or second. If it rains like this all day..an optimist says if my house were on fire. the river might flood. Unit 55 Conditional 3 We use the third conditional to talk about situations in the past which cannot be changed. Unit 57 Miscellaneous When we talk about eternal truths (situations which are always true) such as scientific facts. the conditional clauses have been like this: {subject} + {will/would} + {verb} However. we usually put a comma between the two.) To make the third conditional we use two clauses. we talk about how the results might be different: If Beckham had scored. France would have been the most powerful country in Europe if Napoleon had won at Waterloo. When it comes first. we can use this pattern: {if} + {present tense} | {present tense} 57 . we can use other modal verbs in place of will and would. might means will possibly and could means will be able to.

supposing in case unless = if = if by chance = if . we could buy a new car. When we give orders. telephone me. telephone me. If you go. will has nothing to do with future meaning. When we talk about improbable future actions we can use: {if} + {should} | {modal/imperative} If the car should break down. If we had more money. I go. You ought to let me know if you should change your mind. Don't leave unless I tell you to. we use: {if} + {present tense} | {imperative} If the car breaks down. Let me know if you are in trouble. Supposing we had more money. If you wouldn't mind. I'd like to talk to you. When we talk about willingness or wishing. In these examples.. I can show you the way. When we give suggestions we can use: {if} + {modal} | {modal} If you can't get your perfect job. we can use if + will. you should telephone me. This is often used to make offers: {if} + {will/would} | {modal} If you will come with me. You ought to let me know if you are thinking of moving to London. it turns into steam. not 58 .. you should go for anything.If water reaches 100°. what would you buy? Take the umbrella in case it rains. When we offer or give advice we can use: {if} + {present continuous/present perfect} | {modal} If the car is acting up. We can also make conditionals by using words other than if.

59 . The cake was eaten by Elsa. tell him to call me. We can use happen to to suggest that something happens by chance: If you happen to see Kevin. call me straight away. The cake was eaten by Elsa. tell him to give me a tax rebate. PASSIVE VOICE Unit 58 Active vs Passive The most important information in a sentence usually comes first. We can also use it with should when there is even less chance of something happening: If you should happen to bump into the Prime Minister. passive The cake 2 . These are the two forms: active passiv e {subject} + {verb} + {object} {object} + {be} + {past participle} + {by} + {subject} There are three steps to making a passive sentence: 1 .make the subject of active sentence (Elsa) the object of the passive sentence .make the object of the active sentence (the cake). we do this by using be and the past participle: active passive Elsa ate the cake. The cake was eaten 3 . We use the passive voice to change the order of the information in a sentence: active passive Elsa ate the cake. We usually use the active voice rather than the passive. the subject of the passive sentence: active Elsa ate the cake.we introduce it with by: active passive Elsa ate the cake.We can also leave out if in informal situations: You make any more trouble (and) I'll call the police! Should the car break down.make the verb passive.

Amanda is going to be kissed by Eric. Amanda was kissed by Eric. 60 . passive {to} + {be} + {past participle} He ought to be helped. Amanda ought to have been kissed by Eric. Continuous tenses: perfect tenses: When we use auxiliary verbs.Unit 59 Passive verbs We make the passive voice by changing the positions of the subject and object and using a passive verb: active passiv e {subject} + {verb} + {object} {object} + {be} + {past participle} + {by} + {subject} To make the verb passive. Amanda had been kissed by Eric. {be} + {being} + {past participle} Amanda is being kissed by Eric. {have} + {been} + {past participle} Amanda has been kissed by Eric. {be} + {past participle} Amanda is kissed by Eric. {modal/auxiliary/be going to} + {be} + {being} + {past participle} Amanda might be being kissed by Eric. Amanda was being kissed by Eric. we use these patterns: active simple tenses: Eric kisses Amanda. we add them to the front of the structures above: {modal/auxiliary/be going to} + {be} + {past participle} Amanda could be kissed by Eric. To make the passive infinitives: active {to} + {infinitive} Someone ought to help him. {modal/auxiliary/be going to} + {have} + been} + {past participle} Amanda will have been kissed by Eric.

She is having her typewriter repaired. We make the causative form: {subject} + {have} + {object} + {past participle} I had my hair cut. Unit 61 Passive by… Sometimes it is not necessary to put the by.by someone. him.. We can use the same pattern to talk about an often bad experience: She had her house burgled. She will have her house decorated. Unit 60 Causative Form The causative form is used when we speak about a professional service which someone has done for us. Sometimes you can use get instead of be to make the sentence a little more informal: The phone box was vandalized last night. . I don't know who. This is generally used in speech rather than writing. The phone box got vandalized last night. We can also use get instead of have but this is informal. He is going to have his car resprayed. They are having their garden landscaped. 61 .. We had our money stolen.{to} + {have} + {past participle} {to} + {have} + {been} + {past participle} Someone ought to have helped He ought to have been helped. We had our car vandalized. part of the sentence in a passive voice: active passive {subject} + {verb} + {object} {object} + {verb} + [by + subject] This can happen if we do not know who the subject is: The money was stolen.

I know who broke the window (it was me) but I don't want to admit it! We can also leave out the by. Amanda was given a box of chocolates. I had my wallet stolen.asp?fIndex=113verb phrase} + [that] + {object clause} {it} + {passive verb} + [that] + {object clause} People say Churchill was a clever man. or if it is obvious: My house was painted last June. It is said that Churchill was a clever man. we can make two passives: active: passive: passive: She gave Amanda a box of chocolates. we use the causative form. He is thought to have been a genius.. When the active sentence has two objects. The cat was kidnapped. 62 . Unit 63 Passive Object Clauses When we use an object clause. A box of chocolates was given to Amanda.. part of the passive: The cat was kidnapped by someone. part of the sentence if it is not important to know who the subject is.Or we can leave it out if we do not want to say who the subject is: The window was broken. Also. Tin has been mined in Cornwall since before the Romans invaded. . When someone does a professional service for us... It is thought he was a genius. we can have a special passive structure: active passive active passive {subject} + {details. if the active sentence has an object clause. Unit 62 Passive Forms Sometimes it is not necessary to use the by. It is also used for a bad experience: I am having my car resprayed. we can make a special passive: active: passive: passive: People think he was a genius.

In other situations. Someone broke the window in my house but I don't know who it was: The window has been broken.. {object} + {passive verb} + {passive infinitive} . we may not know who did the action. A man shot the President. feel. try not to use the passive voice too much. however. manuals and weather forecasts. In this case. decide. This happens when you talk about an opinion. claim. say. People say Churchill is a clever man. We often use these patterns with reporting verbs such as: agree. Churchill is said to be a clever man. we might be talking about public opinion: Pelé is said to be the greatest footballer ever. we put the most important information in a sentence at the beginning. understand. (I could say: Someone broke the window. Generally we use it for technical documents. report. It is not important who did the action. suppose. it is the result that we wish to emphasize: The President has been shot. announce. I want to talk about Pelé. while the assassin is less so. Unit 64 Passive Use Usually. know.) Finally. arrange. {subject} + {verb} + {object} The subject is the theme of the sentence. In your writing. intend. the fact that the President is dead is very important. estimate. regret. This can happen when the object is more important than the subject. People say Churchill was a clever man.. hope. Sometimes.We can make a passive like this when the object verb is present simple or past simple: active passiv e active passiv e active {subject} + {verb phrase} + {object} + {object verb} . In this case I really do not care who says this. think and so on. say. fear. expect. The liquid should be placed in a beaker and heated to 75  63 . mention. find... consider. but again I am more concerned with the wind whistling through my house than a vandal. not football enthusiasts and their opinions. believe. think. suggestion or belief which uses a verb like: believe. we want to stress the object in the sentence.

Static prepositions are stationary. they suggest moving from one place to another: He lived in London. He's at the theater. This is because the active is easier to understand. Mobile prepositions imply movement. 64 .there are a number of exceptions though: at: the place where something happens He lives at 13 Acacia Avenue.(Note that in this grammar guide we have used the active voice instead of the passive. sitting at the back. These are common prepositions of place and their uses . Whether the preposition is static or mobile usually depends on the meaning of the verb. He moved to London. they refer to a place.) PREPOSITIONS Unit 65 What are Prepositions? Prepositions are a closed class of words. We use prepositions in many different ways. These are calledphrasal verbs: put up with hand out Unit 66 Prepositions of Place There are two types of place preposition. Prepositions of place tell us where something is or happens: on the sofa under the bed We use prepositions of time to tell us when something happens: at Christmas in July Some words are often followed by the same prepositions: listen to succeed in Some verbs take a preposition to make a new verb.

under. near. across. along. over. Other prepositions of place include: above. in front of. below. to. The boat is on the sea. onto/off: movement to the top surface of an object from another object The cat jumped off the table and onto the chair. in: something all around We sat in silence in the cinema. into/out of: movement from outside to inside a place or vice versa We walked out of the kitchen and into the dining room. I drove out of Buxton and into Aylsham. around. opposite. into. next to. We live in Aylsham. on. through. out of. Unit 67 Prepositions of Time We use these prepositions to talk about time: {in} + {year/month/season/time of day (except night)} in 1976 in March {on} + {day/date} on Monday on the 15th of July {at} + {clock time/night} at ten o'clock at midnight 65 . I climbed off the roof and onto the ladder. past. beside. towards. round. in. by. behind. He lives in Spain.We'll stop at Aylsham en route to London. on: the top surface The book is on the table.

at take part in tired of worry about intend to QUESTIONS Unit 69 How to ask questions? All questions begin with a capital letter and end with a question mark. There are two main ways of asking questions in written English: inversion and using do: statement: question: statement: question: You are Spanish.Unit 68 Word & Phrase + Preposition Some words and phrases very often take the same preposition in a sentence. Are you Spanish? You speak Spanish. {be} + {subject} .... we use inversion to make a question. This means we change the positions of the subject and the verb: statement: question: statement: question: {subject} + {be} .. This is a list of common structures: word prep afraid of apologize for arrange for bored with care for different from fond of good at insist on intention of interested in keen on look at ready for succeed in. Do you speak Spanish? If the verb in a sentence is be. Were they Spanish? 66 . They were Spanish.

. Did she break the record? Notice that do changes for the past tense and when we talk about he. We can also make questions by using a rising intonation at the end of a statement. the car or a taxi? 67 . [falling intonation] You're going? [rising intonation] Alternative questions. Should they be arriving soon? When the verb in a sentence is not be or modal or auxiliary. Do you know Simon? He likes pizza... Does she like. Does he like pizza? She broke the record. we use do to make questions... statement: question: statement: question: statement: question: statement: question: {subject} + {verb} {do} + {subject} + {infinitive} You know Simon. Did she like. These questions are the same as above and use or before the last alternative: Is she wearing blue or green? Should we take a bus. This is very common in spoken English: statement: question: You're going.. she or it in the present tense: Do you like.We also use inversion to make questions with modal and auxiliary verbs: statement: question: statement: question: statement: question: {subject} + {auxiliary/modal} + [auxiliary] + {main verb} {auxiliary/modal} + {subject} + [auxiliary] + {main verb} You can see England from here. Can you see England from here? They should be arriving soon.

.. .to express surprise: Haven't you finished yet? 68 .to ask for information: Who doesn't want some? Who hasn't got a ticket? .. Unit 71 Negative Questions We can use negative questions...to make suggestions: Why don't we have a party? Why not leave now? .. we use if: {indirect phrase} + {if} + {statement} Would you ask him if the train has arrived yet? Could you tell me if this is Athens station? We can also use question words to make indirect statements: {indirect phrase} + {question word} + {statement} I don't know what you saw in her! She can't decide where to go on holiday.. Note that even though this is a question. we can ask an indirect question: Do you know what time it is? We make an indirect question by using a phrase and then a statement.. to be more formal or polite. we do not invert the subject and verb or use an auxiliary verb: {indirect phrase} + {statement} Can you remember where you put them? Do you know how long the flight will be? When the question can be answered with yes or no.Unit 70 Direct & Indirect Questions We can ask a direct question: What time is it? Or.

.. haven't you? You're not going to leave.. aren't you? You've got five minutes to spare. aren't you? She isn't French. To ask someone to do something.. when want someone to do something or when we show surprise: You're English. we use do: {statement} + {do} + [not] + {subject} She was not here. isn't he? 69 . is she? 2. was she? It cannot be verified. for exclamations Didn't she do well! Unit 72 Questions Tags We use question tags at the end of sentences when we want check something.with a falling intonation. often this is used when we want someone to agree with what we say: He's ugly. won't we? She likes me. can it? We will win. did they? We use question tags in three ways: 1.to ask for confirmation: Didn't we stay here once before? Isn't he the famous actor? . we can use a question tag: You're a Sagittarius. doesn't she? They didn't stay.Isn't she coming? . To verify information. when we are fairly certain of a fact and want merely to check it. are you? For positive statements we use the negative particle not: {statement} + {auxiliary/modal} + [not] + {subject} If there is no auxiliary or modal.

Does she live in Rome? Where does she live? Rome.. and offers & suggestions we use shall: Let's go. we can use what: What are you going to buy? When there is a limited choice.. To make this kind of question. To show surprise in a negative way when we cannot really believe something is true we use this only in negative sentences: You're not marrying her. statement: question: question: answer: She lives in Rome. would you? Unit 73 Question Words #1 As well as inversion and using do. These look for extra information. is she? After let's. we use this pattern: {question word} + {modal/auxiliary} + {subject} + {infinitive} question word who what where when why how whose which used for people things places time reason explanation possession things example Who is your brother? What is your name? Where do you live? When are you leaving? Why did I fail? How does this work? Whose car is this? Which one is yours? Unit 74 Question Words # 2 When we ask in general. are you? She isn't still talking.You're clever. shall we? After imperatives we use will/would/can/could: Leave us for a moment. we can also use special question words to make questions. aren't you? Can you help me with my homework? 3. we use which: Which one are you going to buy? The red or the green? 70 .

. Instead of using why we can often use what.for: Why are you here? What are you here for? To be very specific...which and what can also both be followed by noun phrases to ask for specific information: {which/what} + {noun phrase} .like: What was Paris like? What will your new job be like? For more information we can use: {how} + {adjective/adverb} How big is the house? How much was the coat? How far is London? How often do you watch television? 71 . formal and informal: Who did you vote for? For whom did you vote? and What is he working on? On what is he working? We can use whom or what after a preposition. What time is it? Which doctor did you go to? Note: this last question is an extremely hilarious pun in English.. it is very formal. we can use what. we can say what kind of: What kind of car did you buy? To make a general inquiry...

What is coming? Winter is. not: {be} + {not} She is not English They were not here.. Winter is coming. Either using not or by using do not: I am not going to answer that question.. Whose father has joined the army? John's father. {question word} + {verb} . To do this we replace the subject with a question word: statement: question: statement: question: answer: Statement: question: answer: {subject} + {verb} . NEGATIVES Unit 76 How to make Negatives We make negatives in two ways.. John's father has joined the army. With other verbs. He did not telephone me in time. When the verb we are using is be we make the negative by adding the negative particle. Note: we cannot use when or where to ask questions about the subject. we make negatives by using do not or does not and the infinitive: 72 .Unit 75 Subject Questions question words ask about the object of a statement: statement: question: answer: I work in London. But we can also ask about the subject. Where do I work? In London..

I want some too. She does not live here. I have already gone. I have no money. we usually use n't instead of not: is not are not would not have not had not There are exceptions: I am not = I'm not will not = won't shall not = shan't The negative of can is can not. He lived here. In informal situations. They did not telephone.{do} + {not} + {infinitive} I do not live in London. I will not be seeing him next week. I don't want any either. Arsenal have not won a match this season. I haven't gone yet. He did not live here. I have some money. This is sometimes made into one word. I do not live here. cannot: can not = cannot = can't Sometimes we change words from positive to negative use: positive negative I have a lot of money. The do verb shows the tense and number of the main verb which is in the infinitive: positive negative I live here. She does not live in London. = = = = = isn't aren't wouldn't haven't hadn't 73 . When we use a modal or auxiliary verb. I don't have much money. we add not after the first part of the verb: {auxiliary/modal} + [auxiliary] + [auxiliary] + {infinitive} I can dance but she can not dance. She lives here.

no There are some people. There's nothing I wouldn't do for you. In this case we need to use there is to avoid a double negative: I would do anything for you.Unit 77 Negative phrases We use negative phrases to give different sentences the same meaning: He remembered and so did she. * I wouldn't do nothing for you. We can use the opposite word (an antonym) and a negative: {word} = {not} + {antonym} He failed. I wasn't early enough to see the match. There are no people.none 74 . Sometimes we must turn a phrase into a negative meaning: Is this the only way? Isn't there another way? and He was almost deaf. He didn't forget and neither did she. we use an alternative time adverbial: I couldn't leave in time to see the match. In this case. He could hardly hear. . Unit 77 Negative Words We can make negatives by using negative words: . He didn't pass.

There isn't any left. There is none left. - neither...nor Either Pete or Jeff will help. Neither Pete nor Jeff will help. - no one, nothing, nobody, nowhere There is someone in the room. There is no one in the room. Using no is stronger than saying isn't any.

ENGLISHES Unit 79 American, British & Australian English

American English (AmE) and British English (BrE) are almost the same. The biggest difference between the two is with pronunciation & accent. There are, however, a few differences in spelling, vocabulary (including differences with Australian English AuE as well) and grammar. In general, there are very few problems or misunderstandings when AmE speakers and BrE speakers talk together. Unit 80 AmE & BrE Grammar # 1

BrE sometimes uses the present perfect while AmE use the past simple: BrE: Am E: BrE: Am E: Have you eaten all those biscuits? Did you eat all those cookies? Have you ever seen the film, Casablanca? Did you ever see the movie, Casablanca?

BrE uses have got while AmE tends to use have: BrE : Am E: Have you got new training shoes? Do you have new sneakers?
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BrE : Am E: BrE : Am E:

I've got some Wellington boots you can borrow. I have some rubbers you can borrow. I haven't got time for a holiday this year. I don't have time for a vacation this year.

There are some differences in irregular verbs between AmE and BrE. Two major differences are: Br E: Am E: Br E: Am E: dive - dived - dived dive - dove - dived get - got - got get - got -gotten She dived into the pool. She dove into the pool. The baby has got a lot bigger. The baby has gotten a lot bigger.

Unit 81

AmE & BrE Grammar #2

BrE uses from...to/till/until while AmE uses from...through: BrE : Am E: The optician is open from eight till four. The optometrist is open from eight through four.

There are also a number of other differences in BrE and AmEprepositions, e.g. different to/than, at/on the weekend, ten past/after midnight. BrE can use shall for offers and suggestions while AmE uses should: BrE: Am E: Shall I call a taxi? Should I call cab?

BrE uses a lot ofquestion tags. AmE does not; instead it uses words like right and ok: BrE: Am I'll park on the verge, shall I? I'll park on the shoulder, right?
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E: BrE can use a singular or plural verb for collective nouns while AmE uses only a singular verb: BrE: Am E: The team are playing badly. The team is playing badly.

In informal speech, AmE sometimes use adverbs without the -ly ending: BrE: Am E: Autumn was really cold this year. Fall was real cold this year.

With double imperatives beginning with go, AmE sometimes drops the joining and: BrE: Am E: Go and open the door. Go open the door.

Unit 82

AmE & BrE Vocabulary

This section applies mainly to AmE and BrE. AuE is the same as BrE below unless shown otherwise. Miscellaneous words: AmE alumnus anyplace apartment attorney babycarriage bar billboard broiler call-collect can candy BrE and AuE graduate anywhere BrE: flat AuE: apartment/flat BrE: barrister, solicitor AuE: lawyer pram pub BrE: hoarding AuE: billboard grill reverse charge tin BrE: sweets
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BrE anywhere autumn barrister, solicitor biscuit caretaker chemist's condom cooker cot cotton crisps

AmE anyplace fall attorney cookie janitor drug store rubber stove crib thread potato chips

optician off-licence paraffin post pram pub push-chair railway reel reverse charge rubber rubbish rubbish school. school store someplace . 78 cupboard draughts drawing pin dummy (for a baby) estate agent external tap flat graduate grill ground floor hoarding holiday jug lift maize maths nowhere nursing home oculist. college.checkers closet cookie corn crib dishtowel drug store elevator eraser faculty fall faucet first floor flashlight garbage hobo janitor kerosene liquor store mail math mean no place optometrist pacifier pitcher potato chips private hospital railroad Realtor rest room rubber rubbers school AuE: lollies draughts cupboard biscuit BrE: maize AuE: corn cot tea-towel BrE: chemist's AuE: chemist/pharmacy lift rubber staff (university) autumn tap ground floor torch rubbish tramp caretaker BrE: paraffin AuE: kerosene BrE: off-licence AuE: bottle shop BrE: post AuE: mail maths vicious nowhere BrE: oculist. optician AuE: optometrist dummy (for a baby) jug BrE: crisps AuE: chips nursing home railway estate agent toilet condom BrE: Wellington boots AuE: gum boots school. university shop somewhere closet checkers thumbtack pacifier Realtor spigot apartment alumnus broiler first floor billboard vacation pitcher elevator corn math no place private hospital optometrist liquor store kerosene mail babycarriage bar stroller railroad spool call-collect eraser garbage trash college.

flat tyre road surface roundabout saloon car silencer sump taxi AmE hood trunk fender automobile trailer wreck intersection detour divided highway motor gearshift highway expressway freeway sidewalk gas patrolman flat pavement traffic circle sedan muffler oil pan cab . mudguard car caravan crash crossroads diversion dual carriageway engine gear-stick. Words for road & traffic AmE automobile cab detour divided highway expressway fender flat freeway gas gearshift highway hood intersection motor muffler oil pan patrolman pavement sedan shoulder sidewalk traffic circle trailer truck BrE car taxi diversion dual carriageway motorway bumper. mudguard puncture. gear-lever main road bonnet crossroads engine silencer sump policeman road surface saloon car verge pavement roundabout caravan van. In AmE fag is an offensive term for a homosexual. gear-lever main road motorway motorway pavement petrol policeman puncture.someplace spigot spool store stove stroller subway thread thumbtack trash vacation university somewhere external tap reel shop cooker BrE: push-chair AuE: pusher BrE: underground AuE: loop cotton drawing pin rubbish holiday staff (university) sweets tap tea-towel tin toilet torch tramp underground vicious Wellington boots faculty candy faucet dishtowel can rest room flashlight hobo subway mean rubbers Note: In BrE fag is an informal word for cigarette. lorry 79 BrE bonnet boot (of a car) bumper. flat tyre motorway petrol gear-stick.

purse diaper coin-purse pantyhose sneakers pants cuffs shorts undershirt vest billfold zipper 80 . purse shorts sneakers suspenders undershirt vest zipper BrE wallet purse turn-ups (on trousers) nappy trousers tights handbag underpants training shoes braces vest waistcoat zip BrE braces handbag nappy purse tights training shoes trousers turn-ups (on trousers) underpants vest waistcoat wallet zip AmE suspenders pocketbook.trunk turnpike windshield wreck boot (of a car) toll motorway windscreen crash toll motorway van. lorry verge windscreen turnpike truck shoulder windshield Words for clothes & accessories AmE billfold coin-purse cuffs diaper pants pantyhose pocketbook.

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