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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1Background

In this time period, the development of science and technology is more


advanced. Among them is the development of transport in the urban world. But
along with the progress turns out to various problems that may arise unforeseen.
Rampant problem today is the problem of traffic congestion has been devastating
for the use of the highway. The problem of traffic congestion transport is often the
case in urban areas in Indonesia. It happened because the concentration of
vehicles accumulate many urban. So it is not surprising that urban areas often
occur because of the traffic congestion. Currently in urban traffic congestion is
getting worse. As time goes by congestion conditions that occur in urban areas are
not getting better, but getting worse. It happened because the number of vehicles
continues to increase and is not offset by the expansion of the highway area.
Especially in urban areas found many street vendors hawking wares on the
roadside which of course it will increase the volume of highway congestion. Due
to their selling alongside the road, it will be many motorists stopped to buy goods
to street vendors. So that it would interfere with the smooth traffic. Besides the
five-foot sword roadside selling can also interfere with the pedestrians. There are
many losses that will be incurred when there is congestion on the highway. One
of them is the fuel that must be wasted on the highway. Vehicle that runs slowly
going to spend a lot of wasted fuel. In addition to the loss of fuel wasted there will
also be a loss of time. The time wasted on the road will reduce the level of human
productivity, and the impact will disrupt economic activity in a country.
1.2 Problem Formulation Traffic congestion is a serious problem that must be
addressed immediately. The problem that will be studied in this paper are:

1.2.1. What are the causes of traffic congestion in urban transportation?

1.2.2. What are the negative impacts of traffic congestion?

1.2.3. How to solve the problem of traffic congestion in urban transportation?

1.3 Objectives and Benefits

1.3.1 Objectives This paper aims to determine the causes of traffic congestion in
urban transportation and how to overcome them.

1.3.2 Benefits of this paper is to add insight and knowledge about the
transportation problems of traffic congestion that occurs in urban areas. This
paper is also useful to broaden knowledge about the cause and how to cope with
the existing traffic congestion in urban areas.
CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Definition of Congestion

KBBI (Big Indonesian Dictionary) the definition of congestion is not


able to work properly, choked, fiber, stalled and not smooth. In addition, Hoeve
(1990) also said that "Congestion is a problem arising from growth and
population density" so that the flow of vehicles moving very slowly. The
problem of congestion will arise in a city of more than 2 million inhabitants,
such as Jakarta, Medan, Bandung, and Jogyakarta. Loss happens almost every
time this does make the traffic in the capital feels so uncomfortable for the road
users. Congestion is the situation or the condition of the halt or even the
cessation of traffic caused by the number of vehicles exceeding the capacity of
the road. Congestion occurs mostly in big cities, especially those that do not have
good or adequate public transport or unbalanced road demand with population
density. It can be said if the traffic jam is the atmosphere of accumulation of
existing vehicles on the highway caused by road capacity that is not
commensurate with the number of vehicles available. Figures from the number
of vehicles that continue to grow and the capacity of the road that remains
causing the buildup of the number of vehicles on the road

2.2 Definition of traffic

The traffic as disclosed in the http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lalu_lintas,


said that understanding the traffic in Law No. 22 of 2009 is defined as the
movement of vehicles and peoplein the road traffic, was space is a road traffic
infrastructure that is intended for motion moving vehicles, people, and or goods
in the form of street and support facilities. In this case, the link between the
space vehicle and the road traffic is an entity whose existence is always side by
side. In this case the government has a goal to achieve traffic and road transport
are safe, secure, fast, smooth, orderly and organized, comfortable and efficient
through traffic management and traffic engineering. The procedure in road traffic
is regulated by laws and regulations concerning traffic direction, priorities using
the roads, traffic lanes, and traffic flow control at the intersection. In this
connection the actual role of government in regulating the traffic is optimal.
However, because of the growing number of road users over time, is certainly a
liability for the government to continue to contribute to provide a good traffic.

2.3 Definition of Transportation

Transportation is removing the human or goods from one place to another


by using a vehicle driven by a man. Transport used to enable people to perform
daily activities. In developed countries, they typically use the subway and taxis.
Residents there have rarely personal vehicles because they mostly use public
transport as their transportation. Transportation is divided into 3 namely,
land,sea,and air.

2.4 Definition of Urban

According to urban Cristaller is a region that has the function of


organizing the delivery of services to the local environment. City is not defined
as a service center. In this view, one can say if the urban area is the service
provider for the areas around it. If it is pulled towards the problems of traffic
congestion there. You could say the urban density occurs because cities provide
implementation services for the areas around it. Congestion that occurs in urban
areas is the result of stacking of vehicles around urban areas which hold
activities in urban areas.
CHAPTER III

DISCUSSION

In this discussion section will discuss the causes of traffic congestion existing
transportation urban region. Urban areas often traffic congestion, so it needs to know
the cause why it could happen. In addition, investigating on how to cope with traffic
congestion transport also needs to be done to find a solution to the traffic congestion
that occurs transportation in urban areas.

3.1 Traffic Congestion Problems

The problem of traffic congestion is already a problem that often occurs


in urban areas. In fact it has become a serious problem of urban region. Because
of congestion always provide significant losses for the country. The problem of
traffic congestion is always difficult for the government in handling. All
government policies have done but in fact can not overcome congestion. This is
because awareness for motorists who are still not aware of the use of the road as
a means of transportation. In addition, the provision of public transport should be
able to reduce the amount of transport traffic congestion in highway
transportation is also very necessary. But again, because the public transportation
is still far from sufficient to make the vehicle more users choose to use private
vehicles. Of course this will obviously make the road will be jammed again.

3.2 Occurrence Causes Traffic Congestion Transport

Traffic congestion is a common problem in urban areas. Many factors that


cause why the traffic congestion transport can occur. The factors that cause traffic
congestion include: 1. The presence of the number of vehicles that exceed the
capacity of the road. This is often a problem in urban areas. Traffic jams occur
because in the city as a center of economic activities. So it is not surprising that
the capacity of the existing roads in the city could not accommodate all the
existing vehicles. So that congestion can not be avoided. 2. The presence of street
vendors hawking wares on the roadside. One of the factors that cause a transport
of traffic congestion is the presence of street vendors who sell dipinggri highway.
Usually they take the sidewalk as a place to sell. In addition to already causing
traffic jams, street vendors also havetaken the rights of pedestrians. So that
pedestrians no longer get past the sidewalk, but walking through the streets. That
would endanger the safety of the pedestrians. Why is the presence of street
vendors could lead to traffic congestion. This can happen because a lot of
highway users who stopped alongside a road to buy goods to street vendors. In
addition, users who purchase goods in the street hawkers usually memakirkan
vehicle on the side of the highway so it could cause a traffic jam. 3. The
occurrence of traffic accidents. Traffic accidents can also cause traffic congestion
transport. Because when there is an accident would normally be many road users
who slowed their vehicle so that it would lead to traffic congestion. 4. The
presence of vehicles parked haphazardly on the roadside. This is certainly often
leads to traffic jams. In urban areas the bias often found in vehicles parked
haphazardly. This can happen due to lack of parking places for vehicles in urban
areas. Vehicles parked on the side of the road is certainly going to take a portion
of the road where it will trigger traffic jams occur transportation. 5. Shift of
people from using public transport to private transport. The transition of people
using public transport to private transport has given the world a new problem for
traffic. Why it happens, there are many factors that cause people prefer to use
private transportation. Among them is because the use of private vehicles is felt
more quickly and cheaply. Private vehicles are also much easier to reach the
destination. However, when everyone is trying to switch to using private
transport. No one if existing roads become congested at this time met by private
vehicles. Many factors other than the five factors (components) above which may
cause traffic congestion, for instance: erroneous application of the policies and
laws of the road freight traffic, where the mall (mall entrance) on the edge of the
highway so out of the vehicle, the and public transport traffic ngetem
akanmengganggu smoothness, lack of number of traffic control officers,
demonstrations, riots, and the weather (heavy rain and flooding).

3.3 Negative Impacts on Urban Traffic Congestion

One of the problems that exist in the urban traffic congestion is a problem.
The problem of urban traffic congestion has made a loss for the operation of the
economy of a country. Not infrequently these congestion problems has always
been a difficult issue in a state government to make policy regarding traffic. There
are several kinds of impact or the impact of traffic congestion transport, such as:
1. Wastage of fuel. It thus may happen because the vehicle runs quietly will take a
lot of time and energy. 2. The streets are jammed too easily cause air pollution,
because at low speeds higher energy consumption, and the engine is not operating
at optimum conditions. 3. Will disrupt economic activity, such as freight activity.
4. Emergency kendaraa interfere. Such as: Ambulance and Fire Department at the
time of the crisis. There is still a lot of harm caused by the presence of transport
this traffic jam. In fact, the economy of a country could be paralyzed because of
the traffic congestion problem.

3.4 Efforts to Tackle Traffic Congestion Transportation


Actually

There are many ways that can be done to address the problem of traffic
congestion. Among them is a policy decision made by the government. But the
policy has been issued by the government often by the use of the highway. Every
effort is made actually to reduce the volume of existing vehicles on the highway.
But what power due to the number of vehicles per day are not diminishing the
problem of traffic congestion makes it increasingly difficult to overcome. Here
are some solutions that can be used to address the problem of traffic congestion:
1. Provision of adequate public transortasi. This is done to attract the use of roads
in order to switch from private vehicles kekendaraan public.

2. The use of one-way path. The use of one-way lane on the highway is needed to
address the problem of traffic congestion. Because if used as a one-way road
allows vehicles to run more cleanly.

3. Restrictions on private vehicle ownership. This has become necessary because


the cause of congestion is the presence of many private vehicles were piled up in
the streets. This is due to the ease with which people obtain personal vehicle. If
the ownership of aprivate vehicle can be done, then it will be able to reduce the
number of transport traffic congestion on the highway.

4. Unequivocal prohibition of street vendors who sell on the roadside and illegal
parking that often hamper the pace vehicle.

5. Mass reproduce adequate vehicle fleet. For example, as the busway in Jakarta.
Or maybe the subway. This is necessary so that the road users want to use public
transportation.

6. by increasing the capacity of the road, for example: widening roads, adding
traffic lanes if possible, reduce conflict at the junction turn right to limit the
current.

7. Restrictions on private vehicles, this policy is not popular, but if congestion


gets worse then it should be done better management of extreme traffic as
follows:

 restricted the use of private vehicles towards a certain area will be limited
traffic, the other form is the application of high parking rates in the region,
the system is managed in Singapore, London and Stockholm.
 Restrictions private vehicle ownership through increased cost of
ownership, fuel tax, motor vehicle tax, import duties are high.
 Restrictions of certain traffic entering certain areas or roads by applying a
3-in-1 region, or other forms of restrictions bike motot incoming toll, and
restrictions on private cars entering the busway lane.
8. Applying different working hours, although this appears to be merely move
the rush hour but this solution can contribute to reducing traffic congestion.
Here the evidence the government's efforts to tackle congestion that I
managed to get:
 Samarinda-The project of Mahakam Bridge IV or commonly called the
Twin Mahakam Bridge currently affects the congestion. Especially on
Jalan Slamet Riyadi, on the way to Samarinda Seberang. Long congestion
will continue to haunt during unfinished bridge work.The most contagious
traffic jams occurred at 16.00 to 18.00 WITA which is the time the
residents come home from work. From this media watch, yesterday's
traffic jam happened quite severe. Because the impact of traffic jams until
the front of the Islamic Center Mosque. If adjusting the length of the
jamming speedometer panel that occurs reaches 1.2 kilometers.
Peak occurred at 16.30 to 17.30 WITA which is a solid time-dense people
come home from work. To avoid longer congestion, the police closed the
turning point in front of Darunni'mah Mosque and only opened the turning
point in front of the archery field only.Congestion slowly began to
decrease at around 18:00 pm, although there is still a long queue of
vehicles in the area of road movement. But the rider can still walk even
with only a very slow vehicle speed.
The traffic jam caused by the vehicle's path is moved to the opposite lane
for a while, because the commonly used starting lane will be closed to
allow the heavy equipment to move around the road. So the movement of
the path makes the vehicle piled up when going into the Mahakam Bridge.
This makes the road more and more stuck.Many complaints from
residents related to this congestion, in addition to taking time will return
home, congestion that occurs also makes the fatigue worse. Especially for
residents whose homes are located in Samarinda Seberang and Loa Janan
Ilir. "Wow very bad stuck, I broke through the jam for 1 hour, because the
car. The more severe the stuck here, "said Iqbal who lives on Jalan Hasan
Basri, Samarinda Seberang.
He must pass the path to get home from work at Jalan Ir H Juanda,
Samarinda Ulu. So he can only hope that the physical work of the bridge
can be quickly sorted and the road can be used normally. "How else, this
is the only way to get home. Hopefully soon finish wrote, "he said.
 Ungaran - Police Kasatlantas Semarang, AKP Gusman Fitra, said to parse
congestion on Line Bawen-Semarang, it imposes two conditionally
system. Namely the open-close system and a system of three-one or three
lanes for riders and one lane for concreting project. The main line
connecting Semarang-Solo is prone to jam the next few months, because
the elevation of the road project is still ongoing. Today most live one-lane
path toward Bawen, due to start concreted back. Police also opened two
additional traffic posts along the concreted road. That is around the
entrance and around the landfill Blondo Apac Inti. "The team at the
command post to monitor traffic conditions and adjust the system run. If
the system is already in place, there is a team that went to the vehicle to
speed up the pace," he said on Tuesday (9/4). Congestion observed from
the front of the mosque complex Apac Inti, since the project started
concreting around the site. Then around the entrance ramp Blondo landfill,
the junction Gembol be an alternative pathway Ambarawa-Bawen and in
Simpang Bawen that brings flow of Semarang and Solo. From the
observation of this day, dense traffic flow in both directions, a truck broke
down in the middle of the road, thereby increasing the density. Traffic
Volunteers Bawen Chairman, Jacob Praise, said vehicle from Semarang
direction should not be turned directly toward Ambarawa, but must rotate
to the next turn point. Density in Simpang Bawen occurred in the morning
and afternoon. "If the vehicle from Semarang immediately turn, will add a
standstill, so continue to rotate forward a little bit," he saidThis congestion
is the impact of a national road works along the 22.5 kilometer elevation
of Bawen to Semarang.
CHAPTER IV

COCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

4.1 Conclusion

Transportation traffic congestion is a problem that is becoming more and


more complex in urban areas. The problem occurs because the number of
vehicles circulating on the road is increasing every year, in this case the number
of vehicles increases not matched by the capacity of the road that can
accommodate all existing vehicles. Many ways have been done by the
government to address the problem of traffic congestion. Diantanya is to issue a
policy limiting personal vehicle. But this is also not able to solve the problem of
traffic congestion. Seeing that congestion is getting worse from year to year, it is
a serious problem that must be solved all of society, and not only the
responsibility of government. With taxes on gains from motor vehicles, should
the development of roads in accordance with the growth of the vehicle. Separti
widening roads, repairing roads, fixing traffic signs and traffic light repair
damaged. The place is also supposed to stop in for a safe and comfortable so that
people waiting for public transport at the right place. The congestion problem
should be conscious of all elements of the community that if this trend continues,
then the various losses that will be caused new problems for society in the future.
Therefore, in order to overcome this bottleneck problem, then all parties in the
community, ranging from transport users, providers, and government must work
together to solve this problem with a clear conscience. Not enough of one party
alone, but all of which have the common goal of realizing a good transportation
system. All must begin to realize that the entire solution was going to be
tangible, if all people do start from ourselves, ranging from small things, and
starting from this moment. Thus, a good transportation system that will be a
carrying capacity for the nation to compete in the world arena.
4.2 Advice

Means a transport safe and smooth is an ideal condition that is desired by


many people. Current condition of the transportation problems of traffic
congestion is increasingly complex. Efforts to address the problem of traffic
congestion transport is needed to be done so that the problems can be resolved
kemcetan traffic. Awareness to jointly use transportation facilities safely and
smoothly into the main thing that needs to be done. Thereby creating a means of
transport that can be achieved safely and smoothly. As for how that should be
done to address the city government kmacetan traffic caused by the behavior of
road users themselves. For example, Providing knowledge to the public about the
importance of obeying traffic laws and policies for the sake of convenience and
safety are also avoiding congestion, Giving priority to mass transit or public
transportation in order to reduce the density of vehicles on the road, but with
attention to the convenience of personal transportation, and public kepeda
appealed to Semarang mutual ill serobot in using the vehicle on the highway.