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PRONOUN (KATA GANTI)

SUBJECT COMPLEMENT POSSESIVE POSSESIVE REFLEXIVE


PRONOUNS PRONOUNS ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS PRONOUN
I Me My Mine Myself
We Us Our Ours Ourselves
You You You Your Yourself/Yourselves
They Them Their Theirs Themselves
He Him His His Himself
She Her Her Hers Herself
It It Its Its Itself

1. SUBJECT PRONOUN
Subject pronoun atau kata ganti subjek merupakan kata ganti (pronoun) yang ada pada posisi
subjek dalam kalimat atau setelah Verb be.
Subject pronoun juga digunakan setelah kata than, as, dan that.
Contoh :
 I am going to the supermarket.
 You are free to choose.
 It was she who called you (after verb be).
 You and I will always be a best friend.
 We students are going to have a party.
 It is he whom the committee has named.
 If the weather is good, anna and I will go to the beach.

2. OBJECT PRONOUN / COMPLEMENT PRONOUN


Object pronoun atau kata ganti objek adalah kata ganti yang berada pada posisi objek pada
suatu kalimat. Untuk “you” dan “it” sama tidak ada perubahan, tetapi yang lain berbeda.
Contoh :
 They call us on the telephone.
 The teacher gave him a homework.
 John told her the truth.
 Let us go to the beach.
 It is him, to whom you speak. (him sebagai objek)
 The policeman was looking for him. (after preposition)
 to us, it seems like a good bargain. (after preposition)
 prita is going to market with him. (after preposition)
INGAT!!!
Walaupun preposisi kadang dalam beberapa part of speech seperti conjunction, tetapi perlu di
perhatikan juga penggunaan nya karena akan berbeda penggunaan nya jika berada di berbeda
konteks.

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Contoh :
 Juwita will make a presentation after us. (preposisi diikuti dengan complement pronoun)
 Juwita will make a presentation after he. finishes his speech (“after” berfungsi sebagai
conjunction, lalu “he” merupakan subject pronoun karena “he finishes his speech”
merupakan clause)

3. POSSESIVE ADJECTIVE
Kata ganti kepunyaan mengindikasikan “kepunyaan”. Possesive adjective berbeda dengan
possessive pronoun. Possessive pronoun menggantikan kata benda.
Contoh :
 Tina is eating her lunch.
 That is not my pen.
 The cat has injured its food.
 The boy broke his leg when he plays football.
 My food is cold.
Penggunaan bentuk –Ing yang di modifikasi dengan verb. (diikuti objective pronoun)
Contoh :
 We can count on her helping us.
 He regretted their misunderstanding him.

4. POSSESIVE PRONOUN
Possessive pronoun berfungsi menggantikan kata benda (noun). Untuk “his” dan “its”
penulisannya tidak berubah.
Note : mine = my + noun ; ex: my book
Yours = your + noun ; ex: your pen
Hers = her + nou ; ex: her bag
Contoh :
 This is my pen. This is mine.
 Your teacher is the same as his teacher. Yours is the same as his.
 Her dress is yellow and my dress is black. Hers is yellow and mine is black.
 I forget my homework. I forgot mine.

5. REFLEXIVE PRONOUN
Kata ganti ini biasanya mengikuti verb dan mengindikasikan bahwa subjek tersebut sama-sama
memberi dan menerima kejadian tersebut. Untuk penggunaannya “self” digunakan untuk
singular sedangkan “selves” untuk plural.
Contoh :
 Teddy buys him a new car. (him=orang lain)
 Teddy buys himself a new car. (himself=teddy)
Contoh :
 I washed myself.
 She sent a letter to herself.
 We hurt ourselves playing football.

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 I myself believe that this activity is good. (“I” dan “myself” menegaskan bahwa dia benar-
benar yakin)
 He himself set out to break the long distance flying record. (“he” dan “himself” menegaskan
bahwa dia benar-benar yakin)

INGAT!!!
By + reflexive pronoun bisa juga berarti “alone”
Ex: john washed the dishes by himself = john washed the dishes alone

Addition: RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS


Contoh : my sister and I visit each other about twice a month. (to express mutual acts)

CONTOH SOAL DAN JAWABAN


1. I go to school with … everyday. B. Her (object pronoun)
A. He C. I
B. Him (object pronoun) D. Us
C. His E. We
D. She
E. Hers 6. She hurts …
A. Himself
2. I always meet … here every Friday. B. Herself (reflexive pronoun)
A. She C. Myself
B. Her (object pronoun) D. Ourself
C. Herself E. Yourselves
D. He
E. Himself 7. … are going to have camping next
weekend.
3. Aren’t … a nice group? A. We (subject pronoun)
A. We (subject pronoun) B. I
B. Us C. He
C. Our D. She
D. Its E. It
E. Her
8. The dog bites … on her leg.
4. … book is stolen by that thief. And … is too A. Her (object pronoun)
A. Your, yours B. Him
B. I, mine C. Us
C. Your, mine (possessive) D. It
D. Our, ours E. You
E. My, mine
9. Everyone has to do … own research.
5. Her fiancee gave … a nice ring. A. Their (possessive)
A. Him B. His

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C. Her
D. Me
E. Ours

10. It is just about you and …


A. Me (object pronoun)
B. I
C. You
D. She
E. He

LATIHAN SOAL-SOAL
1. Now that their children are grown up, Mr. and Mrs. Grayson live ...
A. their selves
B. by theirselves
C. themselves
D. by themselves

2. Promoting ... goods and services, the company salesman also bid an opportunity to earn some
profit.
A. They
B. Their
C. Its
D. It

3. People usually add vegetables toward the end of the cooking to keep _____crisp
A. Their
B. Themselves
C. Them
D. Theirs

4. People are terrified if they make a stand for____individully, they will not be accepted.
A. Them
B. Theirs
C. Their
D. Themselves

5. Weather forecasters monitor barometric pressures and record they on charts as isobars
A B C D

6. From the 1 850s until after the turn of the century, many of America’s super-rich families made
A B C
Newport his favorite summer resort.
D

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7. The Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft were the first vehicles of humankind to venture beyond the
A B
limits of ours solar system.
C D

8. The Earth’s crust is composed of 15 plates which float on the partially molten layer below they.
A B C D

9. When Pierre L`Enfant designed the national capital in 1791, her envisioned a broad boulevard
A B C
linking the White House and the Capitol.
D

10. Though aluminum is more common than iron, it is extremely difficult to break their hold on
A B C
other atoms.
D

11. Happy people are grateful for life, no matter what test and hardships it may put him thorough.
A B C D

12. The best way for children to learn science is to perform experiments himself .
A B C D

13. Herman gathered material for him novels, including Moby, during his years at sea.
A B C D

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TENSES

(Tenses adalah perubahan bentuk kata kerja dalam kalimat yang berhubungan
dengan waktu atau saat kejadian).
BENTUK TENSES KARAKTERISTIK VERB SIFAT ADVERB OF TIME
Simple Verb murni (Bare infinitive) General
Continuous Be (Am/is/are/was/were) + Verb-ing Spesifik
Perfect Have/has/had + Verb3(Past Participle) Biasanya tidak/belum
menentukan Adverb of Time
Perfect Continuous Have/has/had + Been+ Verb-ing

PRESENT PAST FUTURE


SIMPLE (+) S + V1(s/es) (+) S + V2 (+) S + will + V1
(-) S + do/does + not + V1 (-) S + did + not + V1 (-) S + will + not + V1
(?) do/does + S + V1 + ? (?) did + S + V1 + ? (?) will + S + V1 + ?

CONTINOUS (+) S + am/is/are +V-ing (+) S + was/were + V-ing (+) S + will + be + V-ing
(-) S + am/is/are + not + V-Ing (-) S + was/were + not + V-ing (-) S + will + not + be + V-ing
(?) am/is/are + S + V-Ing + ? (?) was/were + S + V-ing + ? (?) will + S + be + V-ing + ?

PERFECT (+) S + have/has + V3 (+) S + had + V3 (+) S + will + have + V3


(-) S + have/has + not + V3 (-) S + had+ not + V3 (-) S + will + not + have + V3
(?) have/has + S + V3 + ? (?) had + S + V3 + ? (?) will + S + have + V3 + ?

PERFECT (+) S + have/has + been + V-ing (+) S + had + been + V-ing (+) S + will + have + been + V-Ing
CONTINOUS (-) S + have/has + not + been + V-Ing (-) S + had + not + been + V-ing (-) S + will + not + have + been + V-Ing
(?) have/has + S + been + V-ing + ? (?) had + S + been + V-ing + ? (?) will + S + have + been + V-ing + ?

ADVERB OF TIME & ADVERB OF FREQUENCY


PRESENT PAST FUTURE
Every/each, in the morning, at night, always, Yesterday, ago, last, by
Next, later, to go/to come,
SIMPLE never, seldom, rarely, usually, often, once in a then, at that moment,
tomorrow, the day after
(General) while/every now and then, sometimes, once upon a time, etc.
tomorrow.
frequently, nowadays, habitually, etc.
Menunjukkan jam atau
Today, right now/at this moment, this
CONTINOUS didukung oleh situasi
week/this month/this year, when, while,this
(Spesifik) lain (spesifik), when, Menunjukkan jam atau
afternoon, this evening, right now, etc.
while didukung oleh situasi lain
in the past/in the last, recently/lately, just, so (spesifik mis : at this time
PERFECT
far, up to now, never, since, for, already, yet. tomorrow), by (menjelang),
Since, for, already, yet, by then (saat itu).
PERFECT all day, all night, all the months, the whole day,
before, after, by the
CONTINOUS for an hour now, ever since, when, etc.
time, when.

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PRESENT
1. SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
a. Menyatakan kejadian yang menjadi kebiasaan
Contoh : I go to the library every Friday morning.
He plays guitar every Saturday night.
b. Fakta yang sudah diketahui secara umum
Contoh : The sun sets in the west.
Fire makes hot temperature.
c. Jadwal fasilitas umum (bandara, pelabuhan, kelas, universitas, pesawat, bus) dengan kata
kerja khusus (open, close, start, begin, arrive, go, come).
Contoh : Our class starts from 9.00 pm.
The festival begins at 5 pm.

2. PRESENT CONTIOUS TENSE


a. Kejadian yang sedang berlangsung
Contoh : I am reading JK Rowling’s book now.
I am running at jogging track STAN now.
b. Kejadian yang sedang berlangsung dalam periode waktu yang lama meskipu tidak sedang
dilakukan pada saat dikatakan.
Contoh : The police is finishing investigation this month.
c. Pernyataan yang mengindikasikan perubahan (getting/being)
Contoh : The temperature is getting warmer.
She is being arrogant.

3. PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


a. Kejadian yang (telah) selesai yang hasilnya masih terasa atau terlihat dan kejadian yang
berulang-ulang.
Contoh : I have painted the wall. It’s still wet.
I have searched all of the places three times today.
b. Menyatakan penegasan: positive dengan “already” berarti sudah, negative dengan “yet”
belum, baru saja terjadi dengan “just”.
Contoh : (+) I have already read JK Rowling’s book.
(-) I have not read JK Rowling’s book yet.
(?) Puri has just read the article.
c. Menyatakan dari tempat tertentu (been to)
Contoh : “where have you been?”, “ I have been to library”.

4. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINOUS TENSE


Identic dengan Present continuous dengan periode yang lebih lama, untuk kejadian yang telah
dan masih berlangsung
Contoh : It has been raining since last two week.
We have been waiting the bus for 3 hours.

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PAST
1. SIMPLE PAST TENSE
Kejadian yang telah lalu, identik dengan Present Perfect tapi keterangan waktunya diketahui
(general).
Contoh : I watched Justin Bieber concert at sentul last night.
I went to the hospital for check up.

2. PAST CONTINOUS TENSE


a. Kejadian yang sedang berlangsung di masa lalu dengan waktu yang spesifik dengan
menunjukkan jam atau situasi lain.
Contoh : I was cooking at the kitchen when Doni arrived.
Siti was driving a car while the accident happened.
b. Menyatakan sesuatu yang tidak jadi dilakukan.
Contoh : I was going to have dinner with Nagita, but it was raining.
We were going to buy a gift at Kemang, but we had class.

3. PAST PERFECT TENSE


Kejadian di masa lalu yang selesai di masa lalu. Umumnya tidak berdiri sendiri, dan digunakan
untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang telah selesai ketika kejadian ini terjadi di masa lampau,
dengan bantuan klausa atau memakai kata penghubung “before, after, dan when”.
Contoh : I had been finished sweeping my room when the bell rang.
Toni had arrived at the office before he remembered that he left his wallet.

4. PAST PERFECT CONTINOUS TENSE


Digunakan untuk menyatakan suatu kejadian yang sudah berlangsung beberapa lama dan masih
berlangsung ketika kejadian lain terjadi di masa lampau. Tidak bisa berdiri sendiri dan dilengkapi
Simple Past dengan penghubung “when, before, dan after”. Past perfect continuous tense
menekankan ke durasi.
Contoh : After I had been reading the book for 2 hours, you came.
Before you came, I had been reading the book for 2 hours.

Before + S + V2, S + had + been + V-ing


After + S + had + been + V-ing, S + V2

FUTURE
1. SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE
a. Rencana dengan waktu yang general
Contoh : I will leave for paris tomorrow.
b. Ancaman
Contoh : I will fire him if he keeps coming late.
c. Janji/keputusan
Contoh : I will be on the time, so I will not get fired.
d. Penolakan (negative)

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Contoh : I will not do everything my boss says.

2. FUTURE CONTINOUS TENSE


a. Rencana akan datang dengan waktu yang spesifik.
Contoh : I will be doing my homework there tomorrow at 7 am.
b. Untuk rencana : dalam menyatakan prediksi kejadian yang akan datang, future perfect dan
future perfect continuous digunakan.
Contoh : Liza will be working from 10 am to 5 pm.
Kalimat wacana ini menjadi patokan untuk memprediksikan kapan liza akan sudah atau akan
sedang bekerja yang didukung kejadian yang lain. Misalnya:
 Future perfect
Memprediksi kejadian akan datang yang akan sudah berlangsung.
Liza will have worked around 5.30 pm when you call her.
(Liza akan sudah bekerja sekitar jam 5.30 sore saat anda menelponnya)
 Future perfect continuous
Memprediksikan kejadian yang akan sudah dimulai dan masih sedang berlangsung.
Liza will have been working by the time you call her around 1 pm.
(Liza akan sedang bekerja saat kamu menelonnya sekitar jam 1 pagi)

Future Certainty
Dalam menyatakan suatu kejadian yang akan datang, ada empat pola yang digunakan. Untuk
lebih memahaminya, maka perhatikan uraian dibawah ini
A: “do you know ann is in town?”
 POLA I
Untuk menyatakan rencana yang belum pasti (50%)
Contoh :
B: “Really? I do not know. I will probably see her later”.
 POLA II
Mengindikasikan rencana yang agak pasti (75%) yang menggunakan ungkapan “be going to”
Contoh :
B: “I know. I am going to see her next week”.
 POLA III
Melaksanakan rencananya yang didukung dengan waktu implementasi yang sudah
mendekati. Pola III ini diwakili oleh Present Continous yang menekankan bahwa rencana
tersebut sudah pasti (90%). Dalam hal ini “stative verb” bisa berwujud V-Ing.
Contoh :
B : “ I know. I am seeing her tonight”.
 POLA IV
Dalam pola ini, rencana akan berlangsung dalam hitungan menit dan detik dengan
menggunakan ungkapan “be about to/be to”
Contoh :
B : “I am on my way to Ann’s. I am about to/ I am to see her in 10 minutes.

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CONTOH SOAL
1. All students of STAN semester 6 … 6. The parcels … by the courier now.
scientific research at this moment. A. Are being delivery
A. Is writing B. Are being delivering
B. Are writing (“at this moment”) C. Are being delivered (“now”, passive)
C. Was writing D. Is being delivered
D. Were writing E. Is being delivering
E. Writes
7. My cat … by the vet just now.
2. By the time you get back, we ____ care of A. Were taking care
everything. B. Were taken care
A. Will take C. Has been taken care (“just now”)
B. Would take D. Took care
C. Had taken E. Takes care
D. Will have taken (“by___get back”)
E. Took 8. Your new car … by the courier yesterday.
A. Was delivered (“yesterday”, single)
3. Three days ago Peter … a scientific B. Were delivering
calculator on the table in the class. C. Delivered
A. Finds D. Had been delivering
B. Find E. Had been delivered
C. Found (“3 days ago”)
D. Was found 9. Yesterday Anthony … her books, because
E. Were found his bag … empty.
A. Borrow, was
4. Professor … all of his students to pantry to B. Borrowed, was (“yesterday”)
teach how to use that machine at this C. Borrow, is
present. D. Borrowed, is
A. Bring E. Borrow, were
B. Is bringing (“at this present”)
C. Are bring 10. Mr. postman … the letter yesterday at 6
D. Brings pm.
E. Brought A. Was delivering (“yesterday at”)
B. Had delivered
5. She … by the committee to come to C. Delivers
seminar next April. D. Delivered
A. Was invite E. Is delivering
B. Invited
C. Invites
D. Is invited (simple present)
E. Is inviting

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LATIHAN SOAL-SOAL
1. I started school mhen I was five years old. I 6. The “for sale“ sign isn’t there now, but it …
… a student for seventeen years now. as recently as last week, so the car must
A. am have just been sold.
B. am being A. was there
C. have been B. did be there
D. am to be C. just there
D. would be there
2. Because the river ….. steadiliy since
Sunday, the residents of the area have 7. … dinner tonight with Mr. Capello, and I’d
been advised to prepare for flood like to invite you to come along.
conditions. A. We’ve just
A. rose B. We’re having
B. had risen C. We have
C. is rising D. We would have
D. has been rising
8. Michael’s report … discussed when I called
3. The best diamonds are transparent and Prof. Smith this afternoon.
colorless, but they actually …… in color A. been
from clear to black. B. being
A. range C. have been
B. are ranging D. was being
C. ranged
D. have been ranging 9. After Michael failed the first math test, he
thought he ____the course.
4. In the view of STAN lecturers’ union, it is A. will
essential that dicilpline ……….. maintaned B. is going to
in the classroom. C. failed
A. is D. was going to
B. was
C. be 10. Tony is going return to Aceh as soon as he
D. is to be ____ is university diploma’s degree.
A. gets
5. Ditto …… Indonesian before he came to B. will get
Jakarta to study in the International C. would get
student program. D. got
A. has never visited
B. never visited 11. Efi was shocked as though …
C. would never visited A. She saw a ghost
D. had never visited B. She has seen a ghost
C. She had seen a ghost
D. She was seeing a ghost

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12. The Titanic … four days when a huge 17. The children ... by the time their parents
iceberg was suddenly spotted. got home
A. sailed A. Sleep
B. was sailing B. Was sleeping
C. has sailed C. Has already slept
D. had been sailing D. Had already slept

13. The customer had … the shoes before six 18. Since there are many complaints about the
o‟clock in the evening. new products, the company ... the
A. delivers products now.
B. deliver A. Is recalling
C. delivered B. recalled
D. delivering C. Recalls
D. Has recalled
14. As soon as the midfielder ... teh ball, the
striker will shoot it to the goal. 19. Not … from South Africa, although most of
A. Passes the world‘s supply does originate there.
B. Passed A. every gold comes
C. Will pass B. all gold come
D. Has passed C. all gold comes
D. every gold come
15. By the time you get back, we ... care of
eveerything 20. Until recently, milk_____a luxury; people
A. Will take used it to feed babies.
B. Will be taking A. was
C. Will have taken B. were
D. Will have been taking C. is
D. are
16. While traveling to Mexico, the newlyweds
... the site of the Aztec. 21. Fish was an integral part of the diet, and
A. Has visited people_____it at almost every meal.
B. Has visited A. Are use to eating
C. Visited B. Used to
D. Visiting C. are used to eat
D. used to eating

22. Unlike most Europeans, many Americans ________ bacon and eggs for breakfast every day.
A. used to eating
B. are used to eat
C. are used to eating
D. used to eat

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23. I have spent three weeks in Germany last July.
A B C D

24. A Milky Way object that erupted in the constellation Scorpius has provides information to
A B
astronomers since July.
C D

25. The effort to determine the exact numerical value of pi has now reach 2.16 billion decimal digits.
A B C D

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