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THERMODYNAMICS LAB II

LAB REPORT

THERMODYNAMICS
LAB II

SUBMITTED TO:
SIR MUHAMMAD USMAN
SUBMITTED BY:
SAAD KHALID, 2016-ME-168

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT


UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND
TECHNOLOGY, LAHORE

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THERMODYNAMICS LAB II

LAB SESSION # 03
Objective:
To Study the Basic Working Principle, Mechanism and Requirement of Power Transmission System in
Automobiles
Definition of Power Transmission System:
The mechanism that transmits the power developed by the engine of automobile to the engine to the driving
wheels is called the Transmission System (Or Power Train). A simple answer to Requirements of Power
Transmission System is that it provides means of connection and disconnection of engine with rest of power train
without shock and smoothly also a varied leverage between the engine and the drive wheels. Mechanism is
important to transfer the power in opposite direction, at varied angles and at varied lengths as well. This system
provides means to drive the driving wheels at different speeds when required bear the effect of torque reaction,
driving thrust and braking effort effectively. The main components of a Power Transmission System are:
 Clutch
 The gear box
 Propeller shaft
 Universal joints
 Differential
 Torque converter
 Rear axle
 Transfer Case
 Idler gear
 Wheel & Tires

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Figure 1: power transmission mechanism in an automobile

Clutch:
A clutch is a mechanism which enables the rotary motion of one shaft to be transmitted at will to second shaft,
whose axis is coincident with that of first. Clutch is located between engine and gear box. When the clutch is
engaged, the power flows from the engine to the rear wheels through the transmission system and the vehicle
moves. When the clutch is disengaged, the power is not transmitted to the rear wheels and the vehicle stops, while
the engine is still running. Clutch is disengaged when:
a) Starting the engine
b) Shifting the gears
c) Idling the engine
Clutch is engaged only when the vehicle is to move and is kept engaged when the vehicle is moving.
Function of a Clutch:
To permit engagement or disengagement of a gear when the vehicle is stationary and the engine is running and to
transmit the engine power to the road wheels smoothly without shock to the transmission system while setting
the wheel in motion.

The Gear Box:


A gear box is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power.
Often the term gear box refers simply to the transmission that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed and
torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device.

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Propeller Shaft and Drive Shaft:
Propeller shaft, sometimes called a carden shaft, transmits power from the gearbox to the rear axle. Normally the
shaft has a tubular section and is made in one- or two-piece construction. The two-piece arrangement is supported
at the midpoint by a rubber mounted bearing. Short drive shafts are incorporated for the transmission of power
from the final drive assembly to the road wheels in both front and rear wheel drive layouts.

Differential:
Differential is a device or an equipment that comprises of gears which are attached to the drive shaft and allows
the wheels to rotate at varied speeds. The main purpose of creating this mechanism is for driving wheels with
alike force thereby allowing them to turn at different speeds. More specifically, differential balances the power
between the left and right drive wheels at the time of cornering i.e. when inside wheels move more slowly than
the outside wheels.

Torque Converters:
Torque converter is the mechanical or hydraulic turbine used for connecting the drive plate located at the rear of
the internal combustion engine to the automatic transmission. These automotive transmission devices change the
torque speed ratio and also mechanical advantage among an input shaft and output shaft. Torque converters used
in automobiles are made up of two components - a turbine and a pump attached to an independent rotating shaft.
Torque converter as displayed in the figure is fastened to flywheel of the automobile engine and turn with the
same speed as the engine.

Universal Joints:
Universal joint is also known as cardan joint and U joint. This joint is the point of connection in a stiff rod which
enables the rod to turn in any desired direction in auto transmission system. In other words universal joint is a
joining link between two shafts that are in a changing position. These automotive transmission parts are one of
the earliest form of flexible couplings that have two shaft yokes located at 90 degrees angle to each other and a
four point cross that fasten the yokes.
ii
Idler Gear:
A gear wheel placed between two other gears to transmit motion from one
to the other. It does not alter the speed of the output, but it does alter the
direction it turns. It is used to ensure that the rotation of two gears is the
same. An idler gear is placed between two gears. The idler gear rotates in
the opposite direction as the driver gear, and the follower gear rotates in the
opposite direction of the idler, the same direction of the driver.
Wheel & Tire:
A wheel is a device that allows heavy objects to be moved easily through
rotating on an axle through its center, facilitating movement or
transportation while supporting a load (mass), or performing labor in Figure 2: working of idler gear
machine while tire is the outer part of the wheel made up with rubber and
mostly use in vehicles for smooth movement.

Reference:
https://www.slideshare.net/vipinshelke/basic-automobile-working

http://www.technologystudent.com/gears1/gears2.htm

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THERMODYNAMICS LAB II

LAB SESSION # 04
Objective
To Draw the Valve Timing Diagram of Matchless Diesel Engine

Apparatus
 Matchless diesel engine
 Measuring Tape
 Marker
 Scale

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Diagram

Fly Wheel
Cylinder block

Cam Shaft

Figure 3: Matchless Diesel Engine in Lab

Engine Description
No. of Strokes = 04
No. of Cylinders = 01
Engine Configuration = Horizontal type (Stationary)
Maximum BHP = 16 to 18 hp
Maximum Speed = 350 to 450 rpm

Procedure

 First of all, mark the position of engine valve opening and closing on flywheel
 Measure the arc length of the valve opening and closing of the inlet and outlet valves
 Measure the circumference of flywheel
 Measure the radius using circumference of flywheel
 Locate the positions of IVO, IVC, EVO and EVC.

Related Theory
Theoretically it may be assumed that the valves open and close and the spark (or injection of fuel) occurs at the
engine dead centers. However, in actual operation, the valves do not operate at dead center positions but operate
some degree on either side of the dead centers. The opening occurs earlier and the exhaust continues even at later
crank angles. The ignition is also timed to occur in advance of the completion of compression stroke.

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The timing of these events, referred in terms of crank angles from dead center positions, is represented on a valve
timing diagram. The correct timings are of fundamental importance for the efficient and successful running of the
I.C. engine.

Valve timing diagram


Valve timing diagram is the graphical representation of the exact moment, in the sequence of operation, at which
the two valves inlet and outlet valves open and close and also the firing of the fuel. It is generally expressed in
term of angle of crankshaft.

Ideal diesel engine valve timing diagram


Diesel engine is a type of
internal combustion engine in
which the ignition of the fuel
take place inside the
combustion chamber of the
engine. It is actually a
compression ignition engine
in which fuel is ignited by the
contact of the fuel with the
compressed air that has been
compressed up to the ignition
temperature of the fuel used
that is diesel. In the diesel
engine we use the fuel injector
rather than carburetor. The
function of the fuel injector is
to inject the fuel into the Figure 4: valve timing diagram for a 4 stroke diesel engine
combustion chamber at high
pressure.

Inlet valve
Due to inertia effect and the time required in attaining full opening, the inlet valve is made to open somewhat
earlier than TDC so that by the time the piston reaches TDC, the valve is fully open. For an engine running at low
speed and with throttle opening, there is vacuum in the cylinder throughout the intake strike and on the completion
of the strike the cylinder is almost filled with charge at atmospheric pressure. However, majority of I.C. engines
run at tremendous speeds. Consequently, during suction stroke the piston will reach the BDC Before the charge
could get enough time to enter the cylinder through the inlet valve passages. Moreover, there is considerable
resistance to the flow of charge through the air cleaner. Inlet and ports. This means that if the inlet valve is closed
at BDC the cylinder by each cycle would receive charge less than its capacity and the pressure inside the cylinder
would remain somewhat less than the atmosphere.
Consequently, in actual operation, inlet valve is kept open the cylinder pressure equals the atmospheric pressure.
It may app. The inlet valve is open even during compression, some of the charge may be sent back to the induction
pipe. On the contrary, the kinetic energy of the air fuel mixture (or air) produces the ramming effect which enables
more charge to enter the cylinder. Theoretically it may be possible to induce charge more than volume capacity

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of the combustion space. The greater charge sucked in by opening the inlet valve before TDC and closing it 40-
450 after BDC increases the potential output of the engine.

Exhaust valve
The scavenging period (period available for discharge of burnt gases) is increased by opening the exhaust valve
in advance i.e. before BDC and closing
it with delay, i.e. after TDC Earlier
opening makes it possible for the
exhaust gases to leave by virtue of their
pressure being higher than the
atmosphere. During late closure, the
kinetic energy of fresh charge is utilized
to assist in the maximum exhausting
cylinder. Thus scavenging is being
obtained is being obtained at the cost of
power from the expansion stroke. All
the same a greater portion of the burnt
gases is exhausted and this reduces
among of the work to be done by the
piston on the return stroke.
The Valve timing diagrams for four -
Figure 5: valve timing diagram
stroke diesel engine are shown in
Figure. The values of the angular positions
quoted are only average one and considerable difference exists with different engines. Further the timings area
function of the engine speed. When the engine is to run faster, the inlet valve is made to close. The exhaust valve
opens earlier and the ignition (injection) is Occur earlier.
It may be seen that for some part of the cycle near TDC both the valves are open and this period is called overlap.
Supercharger:
The method of increasing the air capacity of an engine is
known as Supercharger. The device used to increase the
air density. Supercharger is merely a blower or a
compressor that provides a denser charge to the engine.
For ground installations, it is used to produce a gain in
the power output of the engine.
For aircraft installations, in addition to produce a gain in
the power output at sea level, it also enables the engine
to maintain a higher power output as altitude is
increased. Supercharging in SI engine is employed only Figure 6: super charger
in aircraft and racing car engines. Apart from increasing the
volumetric efficiency of the engine, supercharging results in an increase in the intake temperature of the engine.

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This reduces the ignition delay and increases the flame speed. Both these effects result in a greater tendency to
knock or pre-ignite. For this reason, the supercharged petrol engines employ lower compression ratios.
In case of CI engines, supercharging does not result in any combustion problem, rather it improves combustion.
Increase of pressure and temperature of the inducted air reduces ignition delay, and hence the rate of pressure rise
results in a better, quieter and smoother combustion.
In Mechanical Supercharger blower is driven by the engine crankshaft. The blower is usually a positive
displacement type that runs at the engine speed. This allows quick response to the throttle change.

Turbocharger
A turbocharger, or colloquially turbo, is a turbine-driven
forced induction device that increases an internal
combustion engine's efficiency and power output by
forcing extra air into the combustion chamber. This
improvement over a naturally aspirated engine's power
output is due to the fact that the compressor can force
more air and proportionately more fuel into the
combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure (and for
that matter, ram air intakes alone).
The blower/compressor and the turbine are mounted on
the same shaft. The compressor is run by the turbine, and
the turbine, in turn, is run by the exhaust gases.
Compared with a mechanically driven supercharger, Figure 7: A turbocharger
turbochargers tend to be more efficient, but less
responsive.
Turbochargers are commonly used on truck, car, train, aircraft, and construction equipment engines. They are
most often used with Otto cycle and Diesel cycle internal combustion engines. They have also been found useful
in automotive fuel cells.
Observations
Circumference of flywheel = 480 cm
Since C=2πr
480
Radius of flywheel = r = = 76.40 cm

For sector: S = r θ (cm)

No. of obs. Position of Arc length S Crank angle θ Crank angle θ


valves (cm) (radian) (degree)
1 I.V.O-I.D.C 40 0.5235 30
2 O.D.C-I.V.C 62 0.8115 46.5
3 E.V.O-O.D.C 24 0.3141 18
4 I.D.C-E.V.C 68 0.8901 51

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Results and Conclusion


 Our main motive is to extract more power during power stroke and we know, in IC engines basically more
the air you get into the combustion chamber the more fuel you burn and greater power can be extracted.
 The valves open and close and the spark (or injection of fuel) occurs at the engine dead centers. However,
in actual operation, the valves do not operate at dead center positions but operate some degree on either
side of the dead centers. This is accomplished in order to make good intake, good exhaust and engine
more efficient.

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THERMODYNAMICS LAB II
LAB SESSION # 05
Objective
To draw the Heat Balance Sheet of Ruston Diesel Engine

Apparatus
 Ruston Diesel Engine
 Tachometer
 Stop watch

Consumable:
 Diesel Fuel

Engine Description
No. of Strokes = 4
No. of Cylinders = 4
Engine Configuration = Stationary
Length of Engine Cylinder = L = 12 cm
Bore = D = 8 cm

Procedure
1. Manually start the engine by rotating the shaft
2. Check the air and water circuits are running
3. Check the engine speed with tachometer
4. Note the Time taken for 50 ml of diesel consumption, Manometer readings, in cm of water, Temperatures
at different locations.

Related Theory
Only a part of the energy supplied to the engine is transformed into useful work whereas the rest is either wasted
or utilized for heating purposes. The main part of the unutilized heat goes to exhaust gases and to the cooling
system.
It is expected that the heat balance results of CI engine must differ from that of petrol engine due to much higher
compression and expansion ratios in the former. The higher compression ratio results in lower exhaust gas
temperature and also lower flame temperature that in turn causes lower heat loss to the cylinder walls in CI
engines. The utilization of the fuel’s heat energy is also higher in CI engines because of its higher compression
ratio. Actual value of heat utilization is dependent upon a number of factors like compression ratio, engine load,
fuel injection quantity, timing etc. In order to draw a heat balance chart for an engine, tests should be conducted
to give the following information.
(i) Energy supplied to an engine which is known from the heating value of the fuel consumed.
(ii) Heat converted to useful work.
(iii) Heat carried away by cooling water.

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(iv) Heat carried away by exhaust gases.
(v) Heat unaccounted for (radiation etc.)

Observations
N N V I Time ṁf Tim ṁw Coolin ṁa Exhaust Gases H.S B.P Hea Hea Unacc
o. (rp ( ( for ×10- e for ×10- g water ×10-2 Temperature (οF) (K (KW t t ounted
4 2
of m) V A 50m 2.25 outlet (kg/s) W) ) Los loss losses
O ) ) L (kg/ L (kg/ temper T1 T2 T3 Tav ses es (KW)
bs fuel s) wate s) ature g in in
. (s) r (οC) (οC coo exh
(s) ) ling aust
wat (K
er W)
(K
W)
90 16 20 22 24 10 23.5 1.6 1.2
1 13 73 5.33 51.2 4.4 29 1.74 2.60 18.07
0 0 0 0 0 4.4 6 6 3
12
95 22 26 24 26 26.4 2.2 1.6
2 18 65 5.98 51.2 4.4 32 1.83 2.9 4.95 17.66
0 0 0 0 0 3 2 0
6
10 29 32 36 32 15 33.1 4.0 2.2
3 21 51.97 7.5 51.2 4.4 42 1.93 7.61 19.23
00 0 0 0 0 6.3 5 7 4
19
10 44 36 37 40 47.7 14.8 4.6 1.4
4 27 35.9 10.8 51.2 4.4 45 2.03 1.4 26.79
50 0 0 0 0 4 5 2 8
8

Graph

60
Heat Balance against rpm
50

40
Heat Rate (KW)

30

20

10

0
H.S B.P Heat Losses in Heat losses in Unaccounted
cooling water exhaust losses

900 rpm 950 rpm 1000 rpm 1050 rpm

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THERMODYNAMICS LAB II
LAB SESSION # 06
Objective
Draw the characteristics curves of Tangy air compressor.
Apparatus
1. Tangy air compressor
2. Weight and hangers
3. Phase electric motor
4. Belt and pully
5. Manometer
6. Tachometer
7. Frictional brake absorption dynamometer

Diagram

Figure 8: tangy air compressor

Engine Specifications
1. Number of stages =01
2. Number of cylinder =01
3. Engine configuration =vertical type
4. Compressor type= reciprocating type
5. Maximum pressure = 200psi
6. Maximum speed =800rpm
7. Bore = 3.36in
8. Stroke =4in

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Procedure
1. Before starting the compressor, check the control valve, it should be fully closed.
2. Start the compressor using 3 phase electric motor that drives the compressor with the help of belt and
pulley mechanism.
3. Initially store the air in compressor delivery tank at required pressure 80psi.
4. Now slightly open the control valve to set the required pressure for next readings.

5. While the compressor is running start adding weights and then observe the spring balance reading.
6. Determine the engine speed with the help of tachometer.
7. For air discharge, note the pressure difference across the manometer.

RELATED THEORY

Compressor:
Compressor is a device used to increase pressure of a gas by reducing its volume is called as compressor. Mostly
air is used in compressor as a gas which is called air compressor.
Compressor take low pressure gas in them and exits high pressure gas. The work required for pressurizing is done
by some primary mover such as engine or an electric motor.
Types of compressor:
1. On the basis of working operation
2. On the basis of number of stages
3. On the basis of capacity
4. On the basis of highest pressure developed
On the Basis of Working Operation:
There are two types of compressor.
1. Positive displacement compressor
2. Dynamic compressor

Positive displacement compressor:


Positive displacement compressor work by forcing air into a chamber whose volume is decreased to compress the
air.
They are of two types:
1. Reciprocating compressor
2. Rotary compressor
Reciprocating compressor:
 Which use piston cylinder arrangement and displacement of piston causes decrease in volume and hence
increase in pressure. It is limited mass flow rate and vibration problems.

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 It can be single acting and double acting.
Rotary compressor:
This type of positive displacement compressor uses a rotary part whose boundary compress the fluid.
They are of three types:
1. Lobe type compressor
2. Screw type compressors
3. Vane blowers

1-Lobe type compressor:


Such compressor uses rotating lobes that rotate with the help of some primary mover such as a motor or engine.
Fluid is compress between the walls of rotating lobes. The lobes are displaced by 90 degrees. Thus, if one of the
lobes is in horizontal positions, the other at that particular instant will be in vertical position. Thus, the air gets
trapped in between these lobes and as they rotate they get compressed and delivered to the delivery lines.

2-Screw type compressor:


Screws are used to compress the air. Screw compressor as well as transmit the fluid from inlet to outlet. The screw
compressor is efficient in low air pressure requirements. Two screws rotate intermeshing with each other, thus
trapping air between the screws and the compressor casing, forming pockets which progressively travel and gets
squeezed and delivering it at a higher pressure which opens the delivery valve. The compressed air delivery is
continuous and quite in operation than a reciprocating compressor.

3-Vane type compressor:


The operating principle for a vane compressor is the same as for many compressed air expansion motors. The
vanes are usually manufactured of special cast alloys and most vane compressors are oil lubricated. A rotor with
radial, movable blade-shaped vanes is eccentrically mounted in a stator housing. When it rotates, the vanes are
pressed against the stator walls by centrifugal force. Air is drawn in when the distance between the rotor and
stator increases. The air is captured in the different compressor pockets, which decrease in volume with rotation.
The air is discharged when the vanes pass the outlet port.

Dynamic Compressor:
There is no confined volume in such compressor. They may be of two types.
1. Axial flow compressors.
2. Centrifugal flow compressor.

1-Axial flow compressor:


They are arrays of fan like vanes to compress the working fluid progressively. In such compressors flow is axial.
They give high flow rate. They are used where there is a requirement for a high flow rate or a compact design.
2-Cenrifugal compressors:
Centrifugal flow compressor uses a rotating disk or impeller in a shaped hosing to force gas to rim of impeller,
increasing velocity of gas. They give high velocity or impact. Advantages are high efficiencies approaching two
stage reciprocating compressors, does not require special foundation, can reach pressure up to 1200psi and
designed to give lubricant free air.
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Disadvantages are high initial cost, complicated monitoring and control systems and specialized maintenance
consideration.

2-On the Basis of Number of Stages:

Compressors may also be classified on the basis of number of stages. Generally, the number of stages depends
upon the maximum delivery pressure. Compressors can be single stage or multistage. Normally maximum
compression ratio of 5 is realized in single stage compressors. For compression ratio more than 5 the multi stage
compressors are used. Typical values of maximum delivery pressures generally available from different types of
compressors are
 Single stage compressor, for delivery pressure up to 5 bars
 Two stage compressors, for delivery pressure between 5 and 35 bars
 Three stage compressors, for delivery pressure between 35 and 85 bars
 Four stage compressors, for delivery pressure more than 85 bar

3-On the Basis of Capacity:

Compressors can also be classified depending upon the capacity of compressors or air delivered per unit time.
Typical values of capacity for different compressors are given as.
 Low capacity compressors, having air delivery capacity of 0.15m3/s or less.
 Medium capacity compressors, having air delivery capacity between 0.15 and 5m3/s or less.
 High capacity compressors, having air delivery capacity more than 5m3/s.

Observations

1-Discharge:
Area of venturimeter = A = 0.146 in2
Coefficient of discharge = Cd =0.96
Discharge= Q= A × Cd ×√2𝑔∆ℎ
Where,∆ℎ= pressure difference across manometer

2-Brake Power:
Torque =T= W×R
Where,
W= load
R= 12in=0.3048m
2×𝜋×𝑁×𝑇
BP= Brake power=
60

3-Indicated Power:
𝑛−1
𝑛 𝑃2 𝑛
IP= × 𝑃1 × 𝑉̇ × [ − 1]
𝑛−1 𝑃1

Where,
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n= polytropic index=1.3
P1=air inlet pressure to compressor
P1= 14.696psi
𝑉̇ =Effective swept volume per unit time
𝑉×N
𝑉̇ =
60

Where
V = V1 – V4
V1= Vc + Vs
Where,
Vc =2.08cc=3.41×10-5m3
𝜋
Vs = × 𝑑2 × 𝐿
4
1
𝑃2𝑛
V4 = × 𝑉3
𝑃1

4-Isothermal Indicated Power:


𝑃2
I.I.P = 𝑃1 𝑉̇ ln( )
𝑃1

N Voltage Current P2 ∆h Load Torque Brake Indicated Isothermal Motor Flow


ηmech ηiso ηvol ηoverall
No. W T power power indicated Input rate
of power Power
obs (10-4)
(%) (%) (%) (%)
(rpm) (Volts) (Ampere) (psi) (in) (lbs.) (N-m) (watt) (watt) (watt) (watt) (m3/s)

1 580 418 3.4 50 1.3 10 13.55 822.9 741.22 641.42 2461.5 2.07 90.07 86.53 99.4 30.1

2 583 418 3.2 25 1.8 4 5.4 329.6 298.96 281.01 2316.8 3.51 90.7 93.9 99.8 12.9

3 588 418 3 10 3.4 4 5.4 332.5 -197.08 -205.96 2171.99 3.34 59.27 - - 9.07

4 595 418 3.4 5 3.9 8.5 11.52 717.7 -431.33 -487.22 2461.5 3.585 60.09 - - 17.5

5-Mechanical Efficiency:
𝐼.𝑃
ηmech =
𝐵.𝑃

6-Isothermal power:
𝐼.𝐼.𝑃
ηiso =
𝐼.𝑃

7-Volumetric Efficiency:
1
𝑉𝑐 𝑃 𝑛
ηvol = 1 − [( 2) − 1]
𝑉𝑆 𝑃1

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8-Overall Efficiency:
𝐼.𝑃
ηoverall =
𝑀𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑝𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑤𝑟

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